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RichardMeissner
Paradigms and
Theories Influencing
Policies in the
South African and
International Water
Sectors
, A Framework for Policy Analysis
ParadigmsandTheoriesIn
uencingPoliciesinthe
SouthAfricanandInternationalWaterSectors
RichardMeissner
ParadigmsandTheories
uencingPoliciesinthe
SouthAfricanand
InternationalWaterSectors
,AFrameworkforPolicyAnalysis
RichardMeissner
CouncilforScienti
candIndustrial
Research(CSIR)
IwouldliketothankMariusClaassenforinvolvingmeintheWaterSustainability
FlagshipprojectandforencouragingmetodevelopPULSE
.Theframework
wouldnothavebeenpossiblewithoutanumberof
eldtripsundertakenforthe
project.KarenNortje,ElliotMoyo,NikkiFunke,WinileMasangane,Cebile
Ntombela,andShannaNienaberplayedvaryingrolesinorganisingthe
eldtripsto
theGreaterSekhukhuneDistrictMunicipality.The
eldtripstothewastewater
agreedtoreadthePULSE
frameworkandencouragedmetodevelopthetheoryof
waterresearch.RudraSilfromtheUniversityofPennsylvaniaalsogavevaluable
inputsintotheuseoftheconcept
analyticeclecticism
.Hewaswillingtolookat
ChristianStein,andahostofotherstaffresearchersfortheirparticipationand
commentsduringthepresentation.IwouldalsoliketothankChadHarrisand
CatherineBothafromtheDepartmentofPhilosophyattheUniversityof
JohannesburgforarrangingaseminarwhereIpresentedtheframeworkandcase
studiestoagroupofphilosophersandotherexpertsinthe
eldofwaterresource
governanceandmanagement.Presentatthisseminar,amongstothers,were:Rafael
Winkler,HennieL
tter,VeliMitova,BasilFickandJaneAnderson.Tothese
philosophersmyheartfeltthanks.
IwouldalsoliketoexpressmygratitudetoFritzSchmuhlfromSpringerwho
encouragedandguidedmethroughouttheproductionandpublicationprocess.
WithoutsuchdedicationasFritz
s,abooklikethiswouldremainapipedream.
IwouldfurthermoreliketoexpressmygratitudetomyfriendJeroenWarnerwho,
andbeersinOsnabr
ck,alsocommentedontheframework.Jeroen
encouragedmetotaketheresearchfurtherandgavesomegoodpointerson
strategiesIcouldusetoimprovethetextandthinking.Lastbutnotleast,Iwould
liketothankthetwoanonymousreviewersfortheirvaluablecomments.Their
suggestionsonhowtomakethebookmorereadableaddedimmensevaluetothe
manuscriptandtheargumentationcontainedherein.Althoughnumerousindivid-
ualswereinvolvedinmakingsuggestionsandreadingvariouspartsofthebook,I
bearfullresponsibilityforanyerrors.
2016RichardMeissner
viAcknowledgements
1WaterResearchinSouthAfrica
.............................
1.1Introduction
..........................................
1.2TheMythsWeRelyon
.................................
1.3ScienceasConstantCritique
.............................
1.3.1AcidMineDrainage
..............................
1.3.2IntegratedWaterResourcesManagement
..............
1.3.3TransboundaryRiverCooperation
....................
2.3.3TheNWRS2ThroughtheLensofAnalytic
Eclecticism
.....................................
2.3.4TheoriesforPractice
..............................
2.3.5Discussion
......................................
2.4TheUNDP
sWaterandOceanGovernanceFocusArea
........
2.4.1Introduction
.....................................
2.4.2ParadigmAssessmentoftheFocusArea
...............
2.4.3TheUNDP
sWebcontentThroughtheLensof
AnalyticEclecticism
..............................
2.4.4TheoryforPractice:SocialConstructivism
.............
2.4.5Discussion
......................................
References
................................................
3ActiveSubstantiation:ATheoryofWaterResearch
.............
3.1Introduction
..........................................
3.2ActiveSubstantiation
...................................
3.3TheActive
Loom
.....................................
3.4WateronMars
........................................
3.5AirFranceFlight447
...................................
3.6AttheBehestofActiveSubstantiation
......................
3.7Conclusion
...........................................
References
................................................
4PULSE
:AFrameworkforAnalysis
..........................
4.1Introduction
..........................................
4.2TheRationaleforPULSE
...............................
4.3PULSE
sCharacteristics
................................
4.3.1Component#1:ResearchParadigmAssessment
.........
6AdvancingDifferentIdeas
..................................
6.1Introduction
..........................................
6.2ConstantCritiqueasaTravellingCompanion
................
Appendix1:MyResearchJourney
.............................
Appendix2:TheoriesforPractice
..............................
References
................................................
......................................................
Chapter1
WaterResearchinSouthAfrica
1.1Introduction
Inthisintroductorychapter,Iwilltalkaboutthenatureofwaterresearchinthe
SouthAfricancontext.Inshort,researchscientistsstudywaterresourcemanage-
explainthisfurther.Weber(
)arguesthatInternationalRelationstheorycontain
myths.Aready-madeargumenttodiscountwhatIamabouttosaywouldbeto
mythsandhowwetakethemforgrantedinwaterresearchissimilartowhatis
happeninginInternationalRelationstheory.
Itistruethatwateroriginatesinthenaturalenvironmenthumansinhabit.Butby
statingthatitistheonlysourceofwateristodivorceitfromthewaysandmeans
Sloganspertainingtointegratedwaterresourcemanagementincludethefol-
ImplementingIWRMattheriverbasinlevel
isanessentialelementto
managingwaterresourcesmoresustainably
,leadingtolong-termsocial,economic
andenvironmentalbene
(emphasisadded)(Matsuura,Nodate:Foreword).
TheGWPde
nesintegratedwaterresourcemanagementas:
aprocesswhich
promotesthecoordinateddevelopmentandmanagementofwater,landandrelated
resources,
inordertomaximisetheresultanteconomicandsocialwelfareinan
equitablemannerwithoutcompromisingthesustainabilityofvitalecosystems
(emphasisadded)(GWP
1.3ScienceasConstantCritique
Havingintroducedthetextinsuchacriticalfashion,Iwouldliketonotethatthisis
notanotherbookonintegratedwaterresourcemanagement,transboundaryriver
cooperation,andstrategicadaptivemanagementorbene
tsharing.Thisbook
wouldhavebeenwrittenevenifthesepracticesandtheorieshadnotbeenthe
Thisstudyisaboutscience,ormorespeci
callythephilosophyofthesocial
sciences,inwaterresearch.Thestudyisprimarilyaboutresearchparadigmsand
theories.Whenthinkingandwritingaboutresearchparadigmsandtheories,Iagree
withKurkiandWight(
2013
)thatscienceisnotthedogmaticinsistenceonthe
certaintyofitsclaims.Scienceisacommitmenttoconstantcritique(Kurkiand
)ortobemorespeci
scienceisaboutcritiquingopenlypublished
ultimatein(social)scienti
cendeavour.Totakethisargumentofthedifference
Lookingattheabove-mentionedargument,acounterargumentcouldbeput
well,andthisdimensioncannotbedivorcedfromhumandecisionmakingpro-
cessesandprocedures.Theexampleofacidminedrainageandwhatexpertsare
sayingaboutthesolutionsandthe
challenge(whoshouldpayforthetreatment)
bringsintofocushowhumansperceivetheworldandwhatshouldbedoneabout
problemsaffectingthenaturalenvironmentandultimatelythehumancondition.
Whatisobservableaboutthediscussionofthetechnicalremedies,andthechal-
lengeofwhoisresponsibleforcarryingthecost,isthewayinwhichpeopleview
theseseeminglyseparateissues.
Expertsareproposingatechnicalsolutiontobothmatters.Inearly2014,
Odendaal(
)reportedthattheConstitutionalCourtruledthattheresponsibility
ofacidminedrainageistheonusofthelandowners(i.e.miningcompanies)even
whenthelandnolongerbelongstothem.So,theproblemofwhotakesrespon-
sibilityforpaymentwassolvedthroughlegalmeans.Buthowwillthisaffectthe
overarchingissueofacidminedrainageanditsenvironmentalconsequences?Are
thetechnicalsolutionsandtheConstitutionalCourtrulingthepanaceaforacidmine
drainage?Whatotheractorsandfactorscouldhelp
ndsolutionsorthwartame-
liorationoftheproblem?
Theanswertothesequestionsarethattechnicalsolutionsandassigning
Statedverybasically,neorealismisasystemictheoryofInternationalRelationsthatrestsonthe
basicassumptionsthatstatesarethemostimportantroleplayersinworldpoliticsandthatthereisa
socialconstructivism
(Claassen
).Nevertheless,andaccordingtoSwatuk
Simplyput,socialconstructivismisanotherInternationalRelationstheorythatemphasisesthe
importanceofthenormsandtheidentitiesofinternationalactorsinworldaffairs(Ruggie
Rationalchoiceisanotherin
uentialtheoryinthedisciplineofInternationalRelationsandbuilds
onthefundamentalaspectsofthemoderneconomy.Thetheorynotesthattheactoriscentralto
politicalprocessesandmorespeci
callyactorsthatareutilitymaximisers.Assuch,decisionsby
actors,individualorcollective,arebasedoncost-bene
tanalyses(Coicaud
).Accordingto
Isacoff(
:26)
[rationalchoicetheory
s]aurahasbeenquiteprominentinthesoftposi-
tivismofstructuralrealism.Mostofrealism
scorepropositions
inparticular,thatactorsare
unitaryandrational
arederivedfrompositivism,generallyspeaking.
1.3ScienceasConstantCritique9
landmanagementapproachesinthatdevelopedanddevelopingcountries,South
Africaincluded,startedimplementing
aconsensualandcommunicativeapproach
indepoliticisingresourcemanagementbyintegratingdifferentinterestgroups
throughaparticipatoryapproach,inadditiontointegrationoflandandwater
management
(Saravananetal.
:4).
Governmentsandinternationalorganisations,liketheGlobalWaterPartnership,
(establishedtoimplementintegratedwaterresourcesmanagementandtoinvolveall
stakeholdersintheprocess)startedoperationalisingintegratedwaterresources
management.TheGlobalWaterPartnershipdevelopeda
toolbox
toimplementthe
processoutlinedinFig.
).Statesandinternationalorganisations
startedformulatingintegratedwaterresourcesmanagementpolicies,programmes
Fig.1.1
Anastuteobservercommentedonresearchers
viewsofintegratedwaterre-
sourcesmanagementinthefollowingway.Duringaconversationonhowinte-
Programme[UNDP]givesampleevidenceofthis).Forneoliberalinstitutionalism,
treatymechanismsintransboundaryriverbasinscanreducethepotentialforcon-
ictamongbasinstates.Thisreductionisachievedbystrengtheningcollaboration
andmakingstatesaccountableforchangesintheirportionsoftheriverbasins
1.5CriticalSolidarity
Itisbyrecognisingotherresearchparadigmsandtheoriesaslegitimate
knowledgegeneratorsandinformagencythatwaterresearcherswillbeableto
discovernewinquiringpaths.Thisdoesnotonlyapplytoresearchscientiststhat
adheretopositivism,buttoscientiststhatputforwardanyotherresearchparadigm
astheonlymeansofgeneratingknowledgeandinformingagency.LaterIwill
arguethatadisdainforresearchparadigmsandtheoriesareunproductive.
Researchparadigmsandtheoriesplayimportantrolesinthenaturalandsocial
sciences.Notonlyarethesecognitionswindowsonacomplexworld,theyarealso
causativeelementsinhowknowledgeisgeneratedandagencyin
Becauseresearchparadigmsandtheoriesgivevaluableperspectivesofthereal
world,theyarevariablescloselytiedtothepolicyprocess.
Howcouldwaterresearchersbene
tfromcriticalsolidarity?Thestatementthat
sympathyandempathyisnotenoughforcriticalsolidarityimpliesthatsympathy
andempathyaregoodfoundationsforacriticalsolidarityattitude.Inthisregard,
sympathyshouldbeseenasthe
ofsupportingorapprovalofanidea,acauseor
particularparadigmand/ortheory.Thisaf
nityboilsdowntoacommitmenttothe
theoriesandtheparticipatoryparadigm).Byrecognisingthelegitimacyofall
theresearchparadigms,itispossibletoarguethatnotoneresearchparadigmis
BiswasAK(2004)Integratedwaterresourcesmanagement:areassessment:awaterforum
contribution.WaterInt29(2):248
KolverL(2014)Praiseandcriticism.MiningWeekly20(14),April18
KotterJP(1995)Leadingchange:whytransformationseffortsfail.HarvardBusRev73(2):59
OsianderA(2001)Sovereignty,internationalrelations,andtheWestphalianmyth.IntOrg55
OxfordAdvancedLearnersDictionary(2013)Oxforddictionaries:Languagematters.Accessedat
.Accessedon2June2014
Pahl-WostlC,JeffreyP,IsendahlN,BrugnachM(2011)Maturingthenewwatermanagement
paradigm:progressingfromaspirationtopractice.WaterResourManage25(3):837
SturmD(1996
1998)Reviewessay:movingtowardspoliticalreconciliation:TheroleofChristian
churcheswhenthepowersfall:reconciliationinthehealingofnationsbyWalterWink.JLaw
Relig13(1):239
SwatukLA(2005)PoliticalchallengestoimplementingIWRMinSouthernAfrica.PhysChem
EarthPartsA/B/C30(11):872
TaylorC(1985)Philosophyandthehumansciences.CambridgeUniversityPress,Cambridge
TeschkeB(2003)Themythof1648:class,geopolitics,andthemakingofmoderninternational
relations.Verso,LondonandNewYork
ThomasR,HardyC(2011)Reframingresistancetoorganizationalchange.ScandJManag27
TurtonAR(1997)ThehydropoliticsofSouthernAfrica:thecaseoftheZambeziRiverBasinasan
areaofpotentialco-operationbasedonallan
sconceptof
virtualwater
,M.A.Thesis,
Chapter2
WaterGovernanceandManagement
andClimateChange
2.1Introduction
Inthischapter,Iwillpresentthreecasestudiestoindicatehowresearchonwater
governanceandmanagementaswellasclimatechangeisin
uencedbytheutili-
sationofresearchparadigmsandtheories.Ialsoindicatehowresearchparadigms
andtheoriesin
uencepolicyrecommendations.The
rstcaseisaninvestigationof
climatechangeadaptationstrategiesinAustraliaandSouthAfrica,withparticular
referencetoSouthEastQueenslandandSouthAfricanlocalgovernmentstructures
(i.e.municipalities).Climatechangeisindirectlyrelatedtowatergovernanceand
management,butasalientissuewhenconductingstrategicwaterresourcesplan-
ning.ThesecondcasestudydealswiththeDepartmentofWaterandSanitation
NationalWaterResourceStrategy,SecondEdition
.Thelastcasestudyinvestigates
theUnitedNationsDevelopmentProgramme
sWaterandOceanGovernancefocus
area.Thepurposeofpresentingthecasesis,furthermore,togiveanoverviewofthe
challengesrelatedtoresearchinthesedomains.Attheendofthechapter,Iwill
showhowmyalternativeapproach,toresearchinthewaterdomain,willaddress
theseconcerns.Iendwithaconclusion,whereinIintroducethefollowingchapter
basedonthechallengesIuncoveredduringtheanalyses.
2.2ClimateAdaptationStrategiesinAustralia
andSouthAfrica
Althoughnotdirectlylinkedtoresearchonwaterresources,theissueofclimate
changehastheabilitytoin
uenceglobalwatergovernanceprocessesandhasthe
opportunitytolinknationalwaterpoliciesandstrategieswithglobalpolicies
(Scholz
).Itisforthesein
uencingandlinkagereasonsthatIincludeclimate
changeadaptationstrategiesasacasestudy.AccordingtotheIntergovernmental
SpringerInternationalPublishingAG2017
R.Meissner,
ParadigmsandTheoriesIn
uencingPoliciesintheSouthAfrican
andInternationalWaterSectors
,DOI10.1007/978-3-319-48547-8_2
PanelonClimateChange(IPCC)(
),inbiophysicalterms,climatechangeis
thechange,overtime,intheaveragesandvariabilityofsurfacetemperature,pre-
cipitation,andwindandrelatedtransformationsorchangesintheEarth
satmo-
sphere,oceans,waterresources,snow,ices,land,ecosystemsaswellasliving
organisms(plantsandanimals).Thisde
nitionputsexclusiveattentiononthe
2.2.1ClimateChangeAssessmentandAdaptation
Theassessmentofclimatechangeinvolvestherisksandvulnerabilitiesfacedby
societyandcommunitiesinlightofthepotentialeffectsofclimatechange.Itis
importanttoassessvulnerabilities,sinceitisanattempttode
nethescaleofathreat.
Withavulnerabilityassessment,theresearchscientistandpolicymakercanalso
2.2.2.1KnowledgeGenerationandAgency
representstheparadigmassessmentoftheguide.
Thediagramindicates
thatthedominantresearchparadigmusedtogenerateknowledgeis:positivism.
40
100
140
160
Research Object
Theory of Truth
Organising ques
Unit of Analysis
Prime empirical focus
Locus of Agency
Hegemony (researcher's in
on

cal

cipatory
Fig.2.1
climatechangehasbecomesynonymouswiththescienti
necessaryskillsandknowledgeregardingclimatechange,shouldbecreatedand
sustained,inordertomaximisethebene
tforcitizens.
2.2.3ParadigmAssessmentofClimateChange
VulnerabilityinSouthEastQueensland
111
Ontology (1, 22, 43, 64, 85)
Research Object (3, 24, 45, 66, 87)



Fig.2.2
ResearchparadigmassessmentoftheSouthEastQueenslandreport
sexecutive
2.2ClimateAdaptationStrategiesinAustraliaandSouthAfrica31
environment;theydon
twaitforlegislationtotellthemwhattodo.Thescientists
bringtheirvoicetobearonplanningpractices.Heretheysaythat:
theanalysis
ofthecurrentplanningschemesillustratesthatadjustmentswillneedtobemadein
ordertoimproveplanningpractices
ifacombinationofresearchparadigmsmightbemoresuitable.Thehumanelement
iscentralinthisrelationshipbecauseclimatechangescientistsarebutoneofmany
stakeholdersintheclimatedebateanddiscourse;
individualsarealso
however,notholdtheobjectiverealityofhuman-inducedclimatechangeatheart.
Theyarefreefromthisscienti
cobjectivity(Heshusius
1994
;Lincolnetal.
whichcouldputtheobjectivescientistatoddswiththepractitionerwithno
jectivetruth
onthesubjectmatter.
Insuchanevent,scientistsusuallyfallbackontheirrationalscienceinan
attempttoconvincethepractitioneroftherealitiesofanthropogenicclimatechange.
Thiscreatesapowerrelationship,wherein
uencestartstoplayasigni
cantrolein
2.2.5TheoryforPractice:SocialLearningandPolicy
Whatisfurthermoretelling,isthatbothreportsrely,tovaryingextents,onasingle
thatadaptivemanagementisastructuredapproachrespondingtouncertainty
associatedwithcomplexsystemsmanagement.Whenapplyingadaptivemanage-
ment,actionsareadjustedinresponsetofeedbacktowardsmanagementobjectives.
Italsoentailsrespondingtochangesinthecontextitisbeingimplemented.These
changescanbeanticipatedornot(Eberhardetal.
).Toreiterate,adaptive
managementischaracterisedbystructuralism,basedondemocraticandcollabo-
rativeidealsandfocussesonecosystemsorissuesrelatedtoecosystems.Froman
adaptivemanagementperspectiveitisalsopossibletoanticipatechangesina
Inthisregard,adaptivemanagementisdepictedasacyclethatstartswith
assessment,movesontoplanningandthenimplementation,monitoring,evaluation
andlastlyadjustment.Assessmentcouldentailestimationsofthelikelihoodand
severityofrisksandthegaugingofexposuretohazardsandassociatedvulnera-
bilities.Regardingplanning,prioritiesneedtobeidenti
ed,followedbythefor-
mulationofresponsestrategies.Suchinitiativesneedtobeimplementedandcould
entailcommunicationofresponsesandproposalstostakeholders.Monitoringand
evaluationrequiresdatathatisrelevanttoexpectedimpactsandinterventionsanda
comparativeanalysisofeventsbeforeandaftertheimplementationofinterventions.
Adjustmenttakesplacebasedontheoutcomesofmonitoringandevaluationwitha
Table2.1
Adaptivemanagement
sontologicalandepistemologicalstructure
ConceptsActorsIndependent
variables
Dependent
variable
Causal
mechanism
cials
Co-learning
SystemsRealisation
thatclimate
changeisa
realthreatto
thebiosphere
andhuman
uncertaintyintothreetypologies:unpredictability,structuraluncertaintyandvalue
uncertainty.Iwillonlyconsiderunpredictability.ForthePanel(2007:1),sourcesof
unpredictabilityare:
Projectionsofhumanbehaviournoteasilyamenabletopre-
diction(e.g.evolutionofpoliticalsystems)
[c]haoticcomponentsofcomplex
systems.
AswehaveseeninthetwoadaptationreportsfromAustraliaandSouth
Africa,theuncertaintyismitigatedbyabelievethatthepolicieshumansdevelop,
andputinplacenow,willhaveapositivein
uencetodealwithclimatechangein
future.TheAustralianreportwasexplicitabouttheeffectsofclimatechangeon
certainsystems.Thisalsotranslatesintoabeliefthatclimatechangeisreal,andits
impactsarenotthestuffof
science
ction
.Thesebeliefsarethemainunder-
standingscontainedinbothreports.Inthisregard,Iwillarguethatthereportsbase
thisbeliefonscienti
cresearchalreadyconducted,inotherwords,empiricalevi-
dence,andthepronouncementsofexperts,especiallytheIntergovernmentalPanel
onClimateChange.Putdifferently,theempiricisminherentinthereportscon-
structsthescientists
beliefs.Thereis,therefore,aHumeanunderstandingofcause
andeffectaroundclimatechange,adaptingtoit,mitigatingitandputtingspeci
policiesorpolicyrecommendationsinplacetoadvanceclimatechangeadaptation
andmitigation.Theconvictionshighlightwhythespeci
cpolicyrecommenda-
tions,throughthetheoryofadaptivemanagement,isabsolutelynecessary.So,
climatechangeisunpleasantbecausehumansarenotabsolutelycertainaboutits
impactsonsocietyandthenaturalenvironment.Thisuncertaintylinksdirectlyto
thehumancondition,inthattheconstantimprovementofthehumancondition
mightbeinjeopardy.Itisalsouncertainty,asalreadyindicated,thatmakesit
unpleasantbecauseofitsgeographicalspreadandthedifferent(perceived)impacts
onvariousregionsacrosstheworldandwithincountries.
Bethatasitmay,adaptivemanagementshowsastrikingresemblancewiththe
stepscontainedinthetheoryofthepublicpolicyprocessanditspositivism.The
publicpolicyprocessinvolvesproblemidenti
changemanagement.Democraticprinciples,suchasstakeholderengagementand
communication,areanothercharacteristicofadaptivemanagement,alsosomething
embodiedinthepublicpolicyprocess.Inbothadaptivemanagementandthepublic
policyprocess,thesecommunicationandengagementareassumedtoleadtomore
effectivepolicyformulationandimplementation,asopposedtoacommandand
Thetheoryofsociallearningandpolicyparadigmshasthefollowing
assumptions.
a.Importantfactorsin
uencingpolicyataspeci
cperiodarepastpolicyand
associatedpractices.
b.Previouspolicyin
uenceslearningfornewpolicies.
c.Pastpolicyismorein
uentialonpresentpolicythansocialandeconomic
conditions.
d.Practitioners
interestsandidealsareshapedbypolicylegaciesorthemean-
ingfulreactionstoprecedingpolicies(Sacks
;Hall
1993
e.Expertsinacertain
eldpushforpolicychange.
f.Theseexpertseitherworkforthestateorgovernmentdepartmentsorgive
governmentadvice.
2.2.6Discussion
Itisnowpossibletointegrateadaptivemanagementwiththeelementsofthesocial
learningandpolicyparadigmstheory.Adaptivemanagementisanewversionof
theoriginaltheoryofpolicyformulationandimplementationasoutlinedbyHarold
Laswell.Lasswellmadehiscontributiontothepolicysciencesinthe1950sandinto
the1970s.Hisworkonthepolicysciencesischaracterisedby
analyticdifferen-
andthedevelopmentof
frameworkstoensurelogicalcomprehensiveness
(AscherandHirschfelder-Ascher
:23).ForLaswell,politicalpsychology
conceptsandcausalmechanismsthataredirectlyrelatedtoecology.Thisishow
resilience,andlatersustainabledevelopment,mayhavefoundtheirwayinto
adaptivemanagementtheory.Becauseofecology
spositivistinclinations,the
someoftheseelements,allthatisneededtoshiftthefocusawayfrompolicy
pers
andbringinclimatechangeandotherenvironmentalaspects.
Inmyopinion,itis
thereforenotamatterofadaptivemanagement
sfailure,butratherthedifferencesin
thescientists
andpractitioners
perspectivesthatare,inturn,in
uencedbythe
contextsinwhichbothpartieswork.Thetheoryofsociallearningandpolicy
paradigmsteachesusthatpractitioners
interestsandidealsareshapedbypast
policylegaciesortheoutcomesofpreviouspolicies(Sacks
;Hall
Inthecontextofusingpositivismtoswaythepractitioner,dotheexpertsplaya
moreimportantroleinsociallearningthanthepractitioner(Hall
)?Toacertain
extent,yes,butnotinadominantwaybecausetheimplementationofgovernment
policyisnotastraightforwardandrationalprocessbasedonstrictcost-bene
analyses.Inmyexperienceasaformerpublicof
cial,thereareamyriadofother
factorsatplay,suchasthestandingofthepractitionerintheorganisation,herorhis
practitionerscanbekeycausalfactorsinthesuccessorfailureintheuptakeof
climatechangeimpacts.Theburningoffossilfuelshasreachedunprecedented
levelsinmodernhumanhistory,particularlyinthenorthernhemisphere.Thishas
createdrisksforallcountries,andnotjustforthoseburningthemost.Inthisregard,
theories,theyareunlikelytoprovidethenecessaryunderstandingforpractitioners.
Complexchallengesdemandtheintegrationofdiverseexpertiseandingenuity
(MeissnerandJacobs2014).Thisdiversityincludesavarietyofresearchparadigms
andtheories.IwillanalysetheSouthAfricanDepartmentofWaterandSanitation
(DWS)NationalWaterResourceStrategy,secondedition(NWRS2)(DWA
tounderstandwhichresearchparadigm(s)andtheoryortheoriesin
uencedits
development.IwillanalysetheStrategyusingthePULSE
frameworkforanalysis
beforeendingwithadiscussionandconclusion.
2.3.2ParadigmAssessmentoftheNWRS2
Inthissection,IpresenttheNWRS2
sparadigmassessment.Itconsistsoftwo
parts;the
y (1, 22,
Researc
Knowledge Genera
Agency
222222202218141015023222323222322946665194344
Postposi
vism/Construc
1014412002234202410000011739
41100000680501010100001622
cipatory
10000000172353200000002223
222222
2323


Fig.2.3
ParadigmassessmentscoreoftheNationalWaterResourceStrategy,secondedition
2.3SouthAfrica
sNationalWaterResource
positivist
avourinthatthepracticeofsustainabledevelopmentwillbringaboutthe
coordinatedthroughthe[WRC]areconductedbyuniversities,sciencecouncils,
organsofstate,theprivatesector,waterutilitiesandotheragenciessuchasthe
[CouncilforScienti
candIndustrialResearch].Anumberofwaterroleplayers
makesigni
cantandindependentinput,suchasEskom,Sasol,miningandagri-
culturalcompanies.Hence,theconsolidationofcollectiveintelligence,enablingthe
developmentofacomprehensiveinventoryofallwater-relatedresearchnationally,
isofstrategicpriority
(DWA
:94).Policydevelopmentisin
uencedbya
attentiononstructuresofrule,liketheNationalWaterAct(No.36of1998)(RSA
1998),constitutionalrightsof
accesstosuf
cientwater
andtheWaterServiceAct
(No.108of1997)(RSA
)aswellastheSouthernAfricanDevelopment
Community
s(SADC)RevisedProtocolonSharedWaterCourses(DWA
Theideationalentrepreneursmentionedabovealsogivecredencetothispositivist
unitofanalysis.TheprimeempiricalfocusoftheStrategyisonthesupplyoforder
andwelfaremaximisation(HobsonandSeabrooke
).Goodgovernanceisput
forwardtoensurethatunsustainablewatermanagementdoesnotleadtorisksto
employment,theenvironment,humanhealthandpoliticalstability.Oneofthemost
importantprioritiesintheStrategyisthemanagementofwaterforthegenerationof
electricity(DWA
),deemedastrategiceconomicprioritybythemajorityof
peopleinthecountry.Thelocusofagencyistop-down(HobsonandSeabrooke
),andrelatestothenatureofthegovernmentdepartmentthatproducedthe
Strategyand
whogovernsandwhobene
assumption.Regardingthis,the
DWA(
:1)statesthattheNWRS2focusesparticularly,
butnotexclusive
theroleoftheState,speci
callytheDepartmentofWaterand[Sanitation](aswater
sectorleader)
ControlofthewaterresourcesinSouthAfricainvokesthehydraulicmission,or
themobilisationofmorewaterthroughengineering(Reisner
1993
).Thehydraulic
mission
srationaleistoestablishconditionswherewatersupplyfacilitates
socio-economicdevelopmentandpoliticalstability(TurtonandMeissner
Thehydraulicmissionisatypeof
thatbecomespartofthe
discourse
leadingtothecreationofadominantbeliefsystem
(Turton2000
citedTurtonandMeissner
:39).Itisnotonlyfeatsofengineeringthatplaysa
roleinthehydraulicmissionbutalsopoliticalconsiderations,andespeciallythe
interactionamongdifferentactorswithintheambitofhydraulicengineeringpro-
grammes(MeissnerandTurton
).Thisinteractionisthelikelyreasonforthe
emphasisofanideologywithinthehydraulicmission
sdiscourse.
ThepromotionofthehydraulicmissionisquiteevidentintheNWRS2,and
althoughitemphasisesthatthecountry
movebeyond
traditionalengineering
solutions
ofinfrastructuredevelopment
itcallsfor
amultitudeofstrategies,
including[WCWDM]
,furtherutilisationofgroundwater,desalination,water
re-use,rainwaterharvestingandtreatedacidminedrainage.
TheWCWDM(water
conservationanddemandmanagement)stanceisprioritisedandislikelytolead
tothepostponementofwaterengineeringinfrastructure,themitigationofclimate
change,thesupportingofeconomicgrowthandenoughwaterforequitableallo-
cation.TheWCWDMapproachrestsonapositivistresearchparadigmunder-
scoringactivitieslikewaterresourcemanagement,distributionmanagement,and
fallwithinthepositivistparadigmbecausesocialawarenessandeducationaremore
likelytobeimplementedsuccessfullythroughsocialscienti
cresearchratherthan
positivistheavynaturalscienti
cdisciplines.
2.3.3TheNWRS2ThroughtheLensofAnalytic
ThepositivismoftheNWRS2showsresearchparadigmaticlimitation.Thatisnotto
saythatweunderstandlessaboutwaterresourcesinSouthAfricaandtherelationship
materialelements.Theemphasisoneconomicdevelopmentandenergygeneration,
aspriorities,speaktothematerialdomain,whilethedominantanddevelopmental
stateisinreferencetothestructuralrealm.Thoseagentsandideationalaspectsthat
arementioned,suchassciencebackingthevariousaspectsoftheNWRS2andthe
scientistswhoseworkhadbeenreferenced,are,asfarasIamconcerned,also
structuralistandmaterial.Ashley(
:235)notesthat:structuralism
aimsto
constructtheobjectiverelations
thatstructurepracticeandrepresentationsof
practice,includingprimaryknowledgeofthefamiliarworld.
Hefollowsthisby
anotherargumentwhenhesaysthat:
Whatconcernsstructuralistsingeneralisnot
practice
pers
butthelogicalconditionsthataccountforthesigni
canceand
cationofpracticewithinacommunity.
Becausethedevelopersofthe
NWRS2referencednaturalsciencestudies,indicatesthesigni
cationofnatural
scienti
cpracticeintheSouthAfricanwatersector.
ShouldwediscardtheparadigmaticwaysinwhichtheNWRS2isconstructed?
andthemorelikelytheresultofundesiredoutcomes(Mercer
).Saiddiffer-
ently,andonanontologicallevel,rationalactorsexistpriortoexternalsocial
contexts(Wallin
).Whatthismeansisthatrationalchoicetheoryisthe
paradigmaticpositivisttoolofanalysis
:394)underpinningthe
strategicchoicescontainedintheNWRS2(Table
Havingdiscussedrationalchoicetheory
sbasicassumptions,howdoesthe
theory,containedintheNWRS2,understandtheproblemtheNWRS2isattempting
toameliorate?Basedontheanalysisdonesofar,Iamoftheopinionthatthe
rationalchoicetheorywouldnotconsiderSouthAfrica
swaterproblemsasmessy.
Thereasonformakingthisargumentisthatthevolumeofwaterinthecountry
territoryisthefoundationonwhichrationalcalculationscouldbemade.Where
socialaspectslikegender,equityandequalityplayarole,theprescriptionsfrom
internationalnormsandstandardsgiveguidance(seetheUNDPcaseformore
informationonthesenormsandstandards).Inotherwords,calculationscanbe
madewithoutthecomplexitythatsocialaspectsbringtothetable.Predictionsare,
therefore,availablebasedonalargenumberofequilibriawithouthypothesising
howgender,equityand/orequalitywillaffectthepossibleoutcomeofthepre-
diction.Havingsaidthat,andbecausetheinherentemotionalorpsychological
elementsofthesesocialphenomenaareignored,thestrategycanbebasedonthe
rationalchoicestoincreasethecountry
swaterresourcesthroughdesalination
technologiesandWCWDM.Theonlyunpleasantnesstotheproblemwouldbe,in
myopinion,tochangepolicies,plansandprogrammestoarriveatthevision
containedinthestrategy.Thismeansthatthenecessarychangeinstructureswillbe
cienttobringaboutthedesiredchangeenvisionedintheNWRS2.The
cause-effectrelationshipisthereforeHumeanwithachangeinpolicies,plansand
programmesproducingthedesiredoutcomestoincreaseSouthAfrica
swater
resources.Withthislinearcauseandeffectrelationship,basedonrationalchoice
theory,inmind,wecanaskwhybasetheNWRS2onrationalchoicetheoryrather
thananyothertheoriesthatcouldexplainhowtheNWRS2mightbeimplemented
inthemostef
Table2.2
Rationalchoicetheory
sontologicalandepistemologicalstructures
ConceptsActorsIndependent
Causalmechanism
Goodsor
Toolof
Calculatingindividuals
Calculating(publicand
private)collectivitiesstaffed
bycalculatingindividualsthat
theStrategyisalsoin
uencedbyonetypeofideationalentrepreneur;thepositivist
assumptions,expectations,selectiveperceptions,sense-makingandimaginationsof
leadership(AlvessonandSpicer
).Leadershipexistsonlyasaperceptionand
notaviablescienti
cconstruction(Calder
:202citedinAlvessonandSpicer
)thatscientistscanmeasureandpredict.Becauseofleadership
sconstruc-
tivist,thetheorynotesthatleadershipvariesfrompersontopersonandcontextto
context.Leadershipisoftenincoherentandcomplex.Becauseoftheconcept
differentmeanings,itisdif
culttosayexactlywhatleadershipis.Leadershipisa
constructthatisanambiguousandcontradictoryphenomenon.Thedifferent
governancediscourse.Thisisevidentwhereintegratedwaterresourcesmanage-
mentiscombinedwiththedevelopmentalstate.Thedevelopmentalstateplaysa
centralroleinmanagingwaterresourcesthat,inturn,playacriticalroleinequitable
socialandeconomicdevelopment(VanKoppenandSchreiner
).Itisasifthe
authorsoftheNWRS2wereincludingintegratedwaterresourcesmanagementasa
managementpracticetoalignitwithglobalpractices,despitethecriticismlevelled
againstintegratedwaterresourcesmanagement(e.g.Merrey
;Claassen
VanKoppenandSchreiner
).Itisthereforenotonlyprominentscientiststhat
havepower,theconceptstheydevelopcanalsoin
uencepolicy.Thisin
doesnotonlycomefromwithintheSouthAfricanwatersectorbutalsothe
internationalwatergovernancedomain.Thecaseofdevelopmentalwaterman-
agement(e.g.VanKoppenandSchreiner
),integratedwaterresourcesman-
agementandvirtualwaterareprimeexamplesofconceptsthatresidewithinthe
internationalwaterdiscourse.
Sinceagentialpowergivesactorstheabilitytoin
uencetheirenvironmentand
eachother(Hobson
),theNWRS2indicatesameasureofagential
power.Thisisduetothestructuralistandmaterialargumentsonwhichthe
Strategy
sknowledgegenerationandagencyisbased.ThroughtheNWRS2,
however,theDWSembedsitselfintoacertainstructuralandmaterialdomain;
positivismandtheknowledgeproducedbynaturalscientists.TheNWRS2is
boundedtothesestructuresandcannotbeseparatedfromthemandothermaterial
aspects(e.g.costbene
tanalysis).TheNWRS2exhibitshighdespoticpower
),thatcouldpotentiallyin
uencegovernment
sgoverning
capacitytoimplementtheStrategy.ItcanbesaidthattheNWRS2,andby
extensiontheDWS,hasnoorlowre
exiveagentialpower(Hobson
2004a
).HowcanDWSenhanceitsre
exiveagentialpower?According
tothetheory,anactorcanin
uenceitsgoverningcapacitypositivelyifitwidensits
ontologicalcomplexityoftheseissuesisdownplayed.Itisgoodthatthewatercycle
ismentionedtobringaboutanadvancedunderstandingofthecountry
swater
leverstoachieveorgainsomething(AlvessonandSpicer
).Aninterestgroup
usingaspeci
cmeaningofleadershipmightdosotoincreaseitsstandingin
society.Individualscouldalsousethemeaningstoventtheirfrustrationtoa
situationorattheextrememaskideologicalcommitmentssuchascontemptfora
IdecidedtoanalysetheUNDP
sWaterandOceanGovernancefocusarea
becausethecontentofthewebsitesisinlinewithanumberofgovernancethemes
foundintheSouthAfricanwaterdiscourse.Forinstance,thegendercomponent
foundhasbeenatopicintheSouthAfricanwaterdiscourseforsometime(e.g.
SchreinerandVanKoppen
;RustandHanise
2009
)andisalludedtointhe
NWRS2.In2014,SouthAfricaalsohostedaconferencethatdiscussedthematter
ofgender,wateranddevelopment(Karar
).Thesamecanalsobesaidforother
topics,liketransboundarywaterresourcesmanagement.SouthAfricanresearchers
havebeenavidinvestigatorsoftransboundarywatergovernanceandpolitics(e.g.
KistinandAshton
;Turton
;JacobsandNienaber
;Meissnerand
Jacobs2014;MeissnerandRamasar
).ThethemesfoundontheUNDP
WaterandOceanGovernancewebsiteisthereforerelevanttotheSouthand
SouthernAfricancontext,notonlyfromathematicpointofview,butalsofroma
scienti
cperspective.SouthAfricanscientistshaveengagedwiththesetopicsfora
numberofyears(Meissner
)withapoolofknowledgethatwillstandtherest
ofthisstudyingoodstead.
2.4.2ParadigmAssessmentoftheFocusArea
Inthissection,IwilldiscusstheresultsoftheparadigmassessmentoftheWaterand
OceanGovernancefocusarea
swebcontent.Theportionconsistsoftwoparts;the
gy (1,
onAgency
1113149111074791212121412121310887710137216
22001000500021252020111621
Interpre
00022400800010114534122230
2120101071010110010100613
00010000121222221010001516
121212
1212


Fig.2.4
ParadigmassessmentoftheUNDP
swaterandoceangovernancefocusarea
2.4TheUNDP
sWaterandOceanGovernanceFocusArea61
andfacts.Regardingthis,theUNDP(
)notesthatcompetitionfor
waterresources
isgrowingatarapidratebecauseof
ever-increasingand
ictingdemandsfromagriculture,industry,andurbanwatersupplyandenergy
production.
StatementslikethesedonotonlyshowthattheUNDPperceiveswater
Ascholarthatappearstohaveanin
uenceonthewaytheUNDPgenerates
knowledge,especiallyaroundtheissueoftransboundarywaterresources,isAnders
gerskog.ForJ
gerskog(
arrangement(HobsonandSeabrooke
),withstructuresatthetopandagentsat
thebottom.WhatisalsoimportanttonoteisthatJ
gerskog
)ontologyis
structuralist,whichneatly
tsthepositivistparadigm(HobsonandSeabrooke
2.4.2.2Agency
Fromtheparadigmassessment(Fig.
)weseethatpositivismalsoscoredthe
empiricalfocusistosupplyorderandwelfaremaximisation(Hobsonand
Seabrooke
)throughdialoguewithpeoplefromdifferentspheresofsociety.It
Watergovernanceisde
nedbythepolitical,social,economicandadministrativesystemsthatare
inplace,andwhichdirectlyorindirectlyaffecttheuse,developmentandmanagementofwater
Warner(
)statesthatmulti-stakeholderplatformshavebeenadoptedasalogicalcompanion
tointegratedwaterresourcemanagement,sinceintegratedwaterresourcemanagementisdif
tomodelandneedsadifferentdecompartmentalisedinstitutionalarrangement.Alsoofinterestis
thattheuptakeofmulti-stakeholderplatformsgoesbacktotheUnitedNationsConferenceon
EnvironmentandDevelopment(UNCED)WorldSummitinRiodeJaneiroin1992,wherecalls
weremadefordialogueandco-managementofcommonpoolresources(Warner
)suchas
technicalstudies:torevealspecialproblems(GubaandLincoln
;Lincolnetal.
).Sincethesearetechnicalstudies,itisnotentirelyimpossiblethattheyrelya
priorassumptionsabouttheimportanceofcertainactors(e.g.hegemonicpoliticians)
andstructures(e.g.cooperativearrangementsintransboundaryrivers),arethe
foundationsonwhichknowledgeisgeneratedandagencyaffected.Theproblem
withthisarrangementofknowledgeandagencyisthat,afterawhile,theassump-
tionsareconsideredlaw-likeprinciplesbyotherresearchersandpractitioners.That
said,theassumptionsarenotcriticallyquestionedorproblematizedandbecome
dogma.The
permanent
characterofthewebsitedoesnothelpeither,infosteringa
dogmaticcharacteraroundthefocusareasassumptionsandstatements.TheUNDP
alsoendorsestheservicesof,andalignitsthinking,withscientiststhatupholda
positivistparadigm.Itisnotlikelythattheywillquestiontheirownresearchpara-
digmsandtheoriesandconsequentlytheirbeliefsaboutwatermanagementinvar-
ioussituations.Thisresultinanincreaseinthesophisticationofargumentswithin
thepositiviststructureofknowledgegenerationthat,inturn,in
uencesstructures
constitutingagent-boundresearch.Becauseofthis,theUNDPandSIWIwork
towardstheestablishmentofseeminglyappropriatestructures(e.g.regimes,treaties
andgoodgovernanceprinciples)inabidtoin
uenceactors
behaviour.Lookingat
generateknowledge(e.g.integratedwaterresourcesmanagement,sustainable
developmentandmulti-stakeholderplatforms).Forthistohappen,itmightbe
necessarytoaskwhatalternativetheoriesareouttherethatcouldhighlightthe
abilliardtableonwhichactorsclashandpusheachotheroutofthewaywhen
Sincethepoliticiansarethemostin
uentialinatransboundaryriverbasin,their
representedgearisshownasthelargest.Thesizeofthepoliticians
gearispro-
portionaltotheirrolebecausetheyallocatevaluesinthesystemwithimmense
Table2.3
Neoliberalinstitutionalismandthehegemonicpoliticians
sontologicalandepistemologicalstructures
ConceptsActorsIndependent
IntercedingvariablesDependent
Causalmechanism
Politicsasthe
allocationof
valuesin
thestate-system,in
uencingtheroleandpowerofpoliticians.Atheorythatwill
assistindeepeningourunderstandingisconstructivismthatemphasisestheroleand
importanceofsocialnorms.
2.4.4TheoryforPractice:SocialConstructivism
Toillustrateanalternativeagenda,Iwilluseanalternativetheoryfromaresearch
paradigmotherthanpositivismasanexamplethatcouldenrichexplanationsofreal
worldproblemsaroundwatergovernanceintheUNDP
sfocusarea.Thetheoryis
socialconstructivism.Iwillillustratehowthistheorycangivearicherexplanation
tothecontentofthefocusarea
swebsite.Iwill,therefore,furtheranalysethe
contentusingsocialconstructivism.Socialconstructivismcanbeseenasamiddle
groundexplanationofworldpolitics(Adler
;Weber
).Constructivist
socialtheoryrestsonthreeprinciples.The
rstisthat
peopleacttowardobjects,
includingotheractors,basedonthemeaningsthattheobjectshaveforthem
1999
socialconstructivismthereisashiftinfocusfromabsoluterationalpowerand
Wenowknowthatpositivismisthedominantparadigm.TheUNDPandits
partnersalsousepositivismtoconstituteandinformtheiragency.Mostofthetime
thepositivistontologyofrealityisinformedbymaterialstructuralism(e.g.mea-
suringprogresstowardstheMDGsisacaseinpoint).Itisthisdependencyon
positivismorthescienti
anditspartnerstoadvocatethistypeofcausality(Kurki
)wherethenumberof
peoplelivingwithoutwaterare,forinstance,takenasthefoundationofcausal
analysesandnotthecausalstoriesofthecircumstancesunderwhichtheyare
withoutwater.
AccordingtotheUNDP,thenegativein
uenceofclimatechangemanifestsin
competitionoverwaterresourcesandanincreasingdemandontheresource.Inthis
way,theUNDPconstructsaglobalwatergovernancestructurethatisinherently
ictualandanarchic,
whichisworsenedbyglobalclimatechange.Toexplain
Anarchymeanstheabsenceofacentralauthorityoverstatesintheinternationalsystem(Viotti
andKauppi
782WaterGovernanceandManagementandClimateChange
theconstitutiveeffectstructurescanhaveonactors),informtheUNDP
sand
sidentitiesandinterests.ItisinterestingtonotethatJ
gerskog(
)moved
fromastructuralconstructivistapproachintheearly2000stoastructuralist
neoliberalandneorealistapproachwheninteractingandinformingtheUNDPand
AllenJA(2001)TheMiddleEastwaterquestion:hydropoliticsandtheglobaleconomy.I.B.
Tauris,London
FinnemoreM(1996)Constructingnormsofhumanitarianintervention.In:KatzensteinPJ(ed)The
cultureofnationalsecurity:normsandidentityinworldpolitics.ColumbiaUniversityPress,
NewYork
FinnemoreM,KathrynS(1998)Internationalnormdynamicsandpoliticalchange.International
organization52(4):887
FunkeN,ShannaN,HenwoodR(2011)Scientistsaslobbyists?Howsciencecanmakeitsvoice
heardintheSouthAfricanpolicy
makingarena.JPublicAff11(4):287
FunkeN(2014)PublicpolicymakinginSouthAfrica:theoryandpractice.Lecturepresentedat
gerskogA(2003)Whystatescooperateoversharedwater:thewaternegotiationsintheJordan
Riverbasin.DepartmentofWaterandEnvironmentalStudies,Link
pingUniversity,
gerskogA(2013)Transboundarywatermanagement
whyitisimportantandwhyitneedsto
bedeveloped.StockholmInternationalWaterInstituteandtheUnitedNationsDevelopment
ProgrammeSharedWatersPartnership,Stockholm.Accessedat:
http://www.watergovernance.
.Accessed2July2014
JarraudM,SteinerA(2007)Foreword.In:SolomonS,QinD,ManningM,MarquisM,AverytK,
TignorMMB,MillerHL,ChenZ(eds)Climatechange2007:Thephysicalsciencebasis
contributionofworkinggroupItothefourthassessmentreportoftheIntergovernmentalPanel
onclimatechange.CambridgeUniversityPress,Cambridge
JohnJ,OosthuizenR,LeRouxA,MurambadoroM,EngelbrechtF,MeissnerR,MamboJ,
MoyoE,NdaranaT(2015)CityofTshwanevulnerabilityassessmenttoclimatechange.
ReportNumber:CSIR/NRE/GC/ER/2015/0048/B,CouncilforScienti
candIndustrial
MeissnerR(2004a)Thetransnationalroleandinvolvementofinterestgroupsinwaterpolitics:a
comparativeanalysisofselectedSouthernAfricacasestudies.D.Phil.Dissertation,Facultyof
OstromE(2009)Ageneralframeworkforanalyzingsustainabilityofsocial-ecologicalsystems.
Science325:419
OxfordAdvancedLearner
sDictionary(OALD)(2013),HornbyA.S(ed.)8
EditionOxford:
OxfordUniversityPress,Oxford
concepts,andmanagementinstitutions.GeneraltechnicalreportPNW-GTR-654,U.S.
DepartmentofAgriculture,ForestServices,Portland,OR
StockholmInternationalWaterInstitute(SIWI)(2012)Whysharedwatersmatter.Stockholm
InternationalWaterInstitute,Stockholm
StoneA(1994)Whatisasupranationalconstitution?anessayininternationalrelationstheory.
RevPolitics56(3):441
Stuart-HillSI,SchulzeRE(2010)DoesSouthAfrica
swaterlawandpolicyallowforclimate
changeadaptation?ClimateandDevelopment,2(2):128
TheWorldJusticeProject(2014)Dr.AndersJ
gerskog.Availableat:
.Accessed23July2014
UnitedNationsDevelopmentProgramme(UNDP)andtheStockholmInternationalWaterInstitute
(SIWI)(2014b)Sharedwaterspartnership.UnitedNationsDevelopmentProgrammeandthe
StockholmInternationalWaterInstitute,NewYorkandStockholm.Availableat:
.Accessed22July2014
VanKoppenB,SchreinerB(2014)Movingbeyondintegratedwaterresourcemanagement:
developmentalwatermanagementinSouthAfrica.IntJWaterResourDevahead-of-print:1
ViottiPR,KauppiMV(1999)Internationalrelationstheory:realism,pluralism,globalism,and
beyond.AllynandBacon,Boston,MA
WallinC(2014)Re-conceptualizingthepursuitofnationalinterestsinworldpolitics
augmentingtherealistconceptofnationalintereststoincludeconstructivisttheorieson
identity.MAthesisinpoliticalscience,SwedishNationalDefenceCollege,Stockholm
Chapter3
ActiveSubstantiation:ATheory
ofWaterResearch
3.1Introduction
Inthischapter,IwillpresentatheoryofwaterresearchinSouthAfricabasedonthe
threecasestudiespresentedinthepreviouschapter.Inthistheory,calledactive
substantiation,Iwillexploresomeofthereasonswhythethreecasestudiesshow
suchastrongbiastowardspositivismonwhichtheybaseknowledgegeneration
andagency.Iarguethatcognitiveprocessesarepartandparceloftheconstitutive
reasonsforthebiastowardsacertainresearchparadigm.Iorganisethechapterby
rstoutliningactivesubstantiationandwhythebiastowardscertainresearch
paradigmsare
.Iwillthenoutlinecognitiveprocesses,startingwiththe
analogyofthebrainasaloom.Thisisfollowedbytwocasestudies;thelink
thatisconsistentwithexistingbeliefsorexpectations
(MarksandFraley
:20),
aswellastheperceptionswehaveofothers,ourenvironmentandtherelationships
wehavewithothersandourenvironment.Theconceptcangiveusaclearerpicture
astowhycertainresearchparadigmsandtheoriesaredominantwhileothersare
thecorrectoroptimalsolutionmightnotbechosen,eitheraccidentlyordeliber-
ately.Anotherdimensionthatcouldbeignoredisthecreationofopportunities.
Sincethe
problem
dominatesourattention,wecouldactivelysuppressthecre-
ationofopportunities.Thiscouldenslaveusintermsofchoicesregarding
opportunitiesandproblems.
3.3TheActive
Whywouldweseeinformationthatdoesnotcon
rmourbeliefs,expectationsand
perceptionsasthreatening?Onereasoncouldbeego-relatedinthatwecould
perceiveourselvesaspartofthe
in-group
TheexampleofMarsbringsintofocusthescienti
onboardperished.Itcametolightthat
ight447
ewthroughathunderstorm
acrosstheAtlanticOceanpriortotheaccident.Whiletravellingthroughthestorm,
theaircraftstartedsendingfaultmessagestoAirFranceHeadquartersinParis.
Themessagesaredesignedformaintenancewhentheaircraftundergoesroutine
inspectionandmaintenancebytechnicians.Themessagesshowedthat,withina
periodoffourminutes,theAirbussuffered24criticalfaults.The
rstmessage
indicatedthattheautopilotoftheaircrafthaddisengaged.Thepilothadtotake
3.6AttheBehestofActiveSubstantiation
Ifthebasicwisdomof
waterislife
differentthingsorbeinnovativebecausetheknowledgestructuregivesthem
comfort.Towidendiscoveryofthingswould,inpart,entailquestioningthe
knowledgestructure.Itisafteralltheknowledgestructurethattellsuswhatis
acceptableand/orunacceptabletotalkaboutandtodiscover.Poweriswieldedin
thiswayandthefutureofthetypeofknowledgethatisproducediscontrolled.
Scientistsacceptknowledgestructuresbecauseitgivesthemaneatframeworkfor
doingscience.Itsimpli
esandguideworkprocessestoaddressday-to-dayprob-
practicalproblemsthroughtop-downmeansorthenaturalistapproach.Thecon-
formitytothewaterresearchagendaisprogressivebecausethemoreresearchers
conform,themoretheygivecredencetothewaterresearchcommunityand
legitimiseitstrajectorydowntheseeminglycorrectpath.
3.7Conclusion
Ibelievethatifweareseriousaboutprogressingtosolveproblemsinthewater
sector,wewillneedtostartviewingthewayinwhichweconductresearchdif-
ferently.Wedonotmerelyhavetoinvokeadifferentresearchparadigmortheory.
Wehavetofundamentallystartinvestigatingthehiddenmeaningsofthepro-
nouncementswemakeandhowwetalkaboutthediscourse.Atinkeringwith
governanceandpoliticalstructureswilltakeusfurtherbackfromthegoalswewant
toachieve.Criticaltheories,withtheiremancipatoryagenda,areinadditionnot
enough.Neitheristheparticipatoryparadigm.Weneedtostartlookingbehindthe
adeofthediscourses,theirhiddenmeaningsandbegintouncoverthemundane
basicsofthemeaningofthingswhenwetalkaboutwater.Wealsoneedtostart
questioningtheso-calledsages,for,asgatekeepers,theycanplayanactiveor
subliminalpartinthepromotionofactivesubstantiation.Ourfocusneedstoinclude
thesmallandinsigni
cantaspectsofourrelationshipwitheachother,ourenvi-
ronment,andwater.Thiswilltaketime.Whilescientists
ndcomfortinactive
substantiation,resistancetonewideaswillremain.Itisonlythroughtheerosive
EmoryUniversityHealthSciencesCenter(EUHSC)(2006)Emorystudylightsupthepolitical
brain.ScienceDaily,31January2006.Accessedat:
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/
.Accessed17April2014
Chapter4
:AFrameworkforAnalysis
4.1Introduction
InthischapterIpresentandjustifythePULSE
frameworkforanalysisasan
alternativewayofanalysingandconductingresearchonwaterresourcegovernance
andmanagementandrelatedmatterspertainingtotheseissues,likeclimatechange.
Theframeworkismyalternativetocurrentwaterresearch.Inthe
rstpartofthe
chapter,IoutlinetherationaleforPULSE
,whichisbasedonthedominantbias
researchscientistshavetowardsthepositivistresearchparadigm.Ithengointo
scharacteristicsandwhattheframeworkisabletoanalyse.Underthe
characteristics,Ipresenttheframework
scomponents;theresearchparadigm
valuetoresearchendeavoursandtoassistinthecreationofopportunities,insteadof
focusingonproblemsolutiononly.PULSE
llsaparticularresearchparadigmand
theoryniche.Itassistspractitionersindeepeningtheirunderstandingofrealworld
challenges.PULSE
istheabbreviationforPeopleUnderstandingandLivingina
SustainedEnvironment.Thecubedenotesthreeforces:thinking,shaping,and
change.Individualsthink,shapeandcausetransformations.Thenaturalenviron-
mentshapesandaffectschanges,in
uencinghumansocietyandthewaywelivein
theenvironment(BergerandLuckmann
;Giddens
;Meissner
KooimanandBavinck
;Gillings
).ThepurposeofPULSE
isnotto
makepointpredictionsorimposecontrolonresearchendeavoursandtheagency
emanatingfromsuchactivities.Theframework
spurposeisrathertoassistprac-
titionersinunderstandingphenomena,situations,issues,andrelations.PULSE
alsohelpstoexplainenvironmentalimpactsonhumanactionsinthefaceofchange,
ambiguity,uncertainty,paradox,andcontradiction.
4.3PULSE
sCharacteristics
hasthefollowingcharacteristics.Firstly,itisnotdevoidoftheoryordenies
theexistenceoftheory.Theoryhasaroleinpracticeandbyacknowledgingthis
relationship,PULSE
enrichestheoryandpractice.IattemptedtowritePULSE
suchawaythatitisnottooabstractandladenwithdif
cultconceptsthatpracti-
tionerswillhavetroubleinunderstanding.Iftheproductistoocumbersome,itwill
struggletotranslatetheoryintopractice(Hoffmann
).Furthermore,PULSE
doesnottakeanexclusivepositiviststance.Theproductwillmissalotifitdoes,and
wemightbetoosurprisedbysurprisingeventsthatwasnotforeseen.PULSE
emphasisestheroleofvariousresearchparadigmsandtheories.Bydoingthis,it
propagatestheuseofforecasting(Hoffmann
)insteadofprediction.
isabletoanalysepractices,plans,projects,andprogrammesonare-
(Morgan
).Justlookforthosefamiliarde
nitionsorconceptualisationsthat
describestructuresandthepoliticalbehaviourofactors.Inwatergovernanceand
politics,theconcepts
pivotalstate
(e.g.AshtonandTurton
;Sebastianand
2014
)and
hydro-hegemony
(e.g.Turton
;ZeitounandWarner
Zeitoun
),are,forinstance,employedtodescribeinter-staterelationsin
transboundaryriverbasins.Theseconceptsarederivedfromtherealistand
neo-realistconcept
hegemon
.Nevertheless,practitionerswillnotalwaysfollowa
epistemologyandthatthereisanepistemologicalsupremecourtthatcanbe
Table4.1
Paradigmassessmentindex
Knowledgegeneration
Table4.1
Knowledgegeneration
Table4.1
Knowledgegeneration
Table4.1
Knowledgegeneration
Table4.1
Knowledgegeneration
Table4.1
Table4.1
Table4.1
Table4.1
Fig.4.1
Anexampleof
ofatextusingthe
numberingsysteminthe
researchparadigmassessmentindex.Thenumbersinthe
redcircles
correspondswiththosein
analysedcasestudies.Thisisnottosaythatscientistswithapositivistbackground
arewrong.Theproblematiqueliesthereinthatapredominantlypositivistepiste-
mologycanhavedireconsequencesnotonlyforthenaturalenvironmentbutalso
forthesocietiesitsustains.Thetimeandenergyspentonapositivistagenda,orany
analyticeclecticismincludetheextractionandintegrationoffactors,causalnarra-
tives,assumptionsand
Similarlytothecomplexityargumentoutlinedabove,transdisciplinaritycould
alsobeadvancedasanalternativetoanalyticeclecticism.Analyticeclecticismand
transdisciplinarityisnotthesame.Transdisciplinaritydealswiththebreakingdown
ofdisciplinarysilosinandbetweenthenaturalandsocialsciences.Thereisa
recognitionthattransdisciplinarityshouldbethewaytodoresearchatanumberof
paradigms.Thisbringsaboutthe
promiseofricherexplanations
(Siland
Katzenstein
:3)anddeeperunderstandings.Forinstance,materialresources,
likeinfrastructureandmoney,matterandareanimportantingredientinsocial
relations.Evenso,materialresourcescomeaboutthroughsocialprocessesand
theseinvolvesocietalactorsandprinciplesthatsocialisetheseactors.Formalcauses
haveadifferentin
uenceindifferentcausalcontexts(Kurki
).Saiddifferently,
analyticeclecticismfacilitatesthequantumleapfromsingularexplanationsofreal
worldproblemstofullerclari
cation,alternativesandsolutionstosuchproblems.
Whereresearchparadigmshaveblindspotstheyhave,atthesametime,useful
insightsintoissues,challengesandopportunities.Therearethereforeconnections
thinkingandlies
.IraqidefectorstotheWesthadtoldEuropeanintelligence
agenciesthattheIraqigovernmentwasdevelopingbiologicalandchemical
weapons.Thiswasnotthecase(Rudin
2013
).Activesubstantiationhasaneffecton
thewaywemakedecisions.Afteradecisionhadbeenreachedpeoplepreferthe
informationsupportingthedecisionoverthatoftheinformationdiscountingit
4.3.3Component#3:TheoriesforPractice
Foranalyticeclecticismtoprogressinameaningfulmanneroneneedsarepertoire
oftheories(seeTable
andAppendix2)becauseeclecticstudiesutilisevarious
theoriestoanalyseproblemsofimportance(Cornut
).Asalreadystated,not
onesingletheorycanexplaineverythingoranevent(Aron
;AlbertandBuzan
;MearsheimerandWalt
),complexityincluded.Alternativeapproaches
andtraditionsareneededtoconstructacollectiveunderstandingofevents(Hayes
andJames
).ThelateOstrom(
:15181)propagatedthe
seriousstudy
ofcomplex,multivariable,nonlinear,cross-scale,andchangingsystems,
insteadof
relyingon
simple,predictivemodelsofsocial-ecologicalsystems
anddeduce
universalsolutions,panaceas,toproblemsofoveruseordestructionofresources.
TotakeupOstrom
)call,apluralityoftheories,andnotjustafeworatbest
onetheory,isneededtoconstructacollectiveunderstanding.Belowisalistof
Table4.2
Therepertoireoftheories
Agentialpower
Ambiguitytheoryof
Complexitytheory
Culturaltheoryof
InternationalRelations
Everydayinternational
politicaleconomy
Hydro-socialcontract
Interactivegovernance
theory(Governability)
Interestgroupcorporatism
Interestgrouppluralism
Neo-liberalism(Liberal
Neo-realism(Realism)
Normativecommensalism
PoliticalecologyorGreenpolitics
encouragingdialogueacrossapproaches,somethingfromwhichwehavesome-
thingtolearn.
Theygofurthertosaythat:
webelieveprogressinthe
elddependsprimarilyon
developingandusingtheoryinsophisticatedways
(MearsheimerandWalt
So,itisnotonlyaboutthepresentationofarepertoireoftheories,butalsoabout
theutilisationoftheoriesinthewatersectorthatneedstobetakenintoaccountby
researchers.Inmyopinion,byusinganalyticeclecticismwillbeagoodstarting
pointinthesophisticateduseoftherepertoireoftheories.HereIwouldliketo
4.4OperationalisingAnalyticEclecticism
andtheRepertoireofTheories
Iwouldliketothankoneoftheanonymousreviewersfortheideascontainedinthisparagraph.
1224PULSE
:AFrameworkforAnalysis
isagrand,problemsolvingtheorythatexplainsinter-statebehaviourandproposes
solutionstoamelioratearmedcon
evidence
(Waldner
:146).Saiddifferently,causalmechanismscaneither
enhanceordenunciatehypotheses
credibilityevenifthehypotheseshadbeen
formulatedfollowinganimpeccableresearchdesign.Inthisway,causalmecha-
nismsprovide
inferentialgoodnessviatheory,notviaresearchdesign;theythus
expandourrepertoireformakingvalidinferences
(Waldner
:146).To
investigatecausalmechanismsitwillbenecessarytoengagewithotherresearch
paradigmsandtherepertoireoftheoriestoascertainwhichelementsmayinteractin
thepractitioner
sinterest.
Afterthis,identifytheconnectionsandcomplementaritiesacrosssubstantive
argumentsthatweredevelopedinthetheoryortheoriesputforward(Sil
Thislinksbacktothehypothesesinherentinthetheory.Itisimportanttoalso
investigatethecomplementarities.Complementarities,astwoormorethingsthat
embroiledinourviewsofreality(theory).ThiswasnotlosttoEinstein(citedin
Uhlenbrook
:3581)whenhesaidthat:
Theimportantthingisnottostop
questioning.
Intermsoftheproblemitself,askwhatisunpleasantabouttheproblem.What
arepotentialsourcesofconfusion?Whyistheproblemdif
culttodealwith?These
Whatthelogicofquestionsalsodoesisthatitassistsintheselectionofcertain
theoriesandexcludingothersthatarecontainedintherepertoireoftheories.Itall
dependsonthecontext.Ifanexplanationfromatheoryissuccessfulinaspeci
interrogativecontext,thetheoryorexplanationofthetheorywillbeincluded,if
unsuccessfulitwillberejected.Thisiscalledthepragmaticsofexplanationsandin
thisrealmtheoriesarechosenorexcludeddependingonthequestionaskedaswell
asthecontextinwhichtheinquirytakesplace(Cornut
Cornut(
:10)explainshowonecangoaboutresolvingtheproblemof
identifyingthecontext:
Whenanexplanationanswersaquestiondifferentfromthequestionasked,itisnotcon-
textuallyrelevant.Thisiscommon,sinceaquestionmaytakeaverydifferentmeaning
dependingonthecontext.Preciselybecausetheintendedcontextisnotalwaysclear,itis
necessarytospecifythe
contrastspace
ofaquestion
4.5Conclusion
Toconclude,pastingthelistofresearchparadigms
CreswellJW(2007)Qualitativeinquiryandresearchdesign:choosingamong
veapproaches.
Sage,ThousandOaks,CA
DuPlessisA(2000)Chartingthecourseofthewaterdiscoursethroughthefogofinternational
relationstheory.In:SolomonH,TurtonA(eds)Waterwars:enduringmythorimpending
reality.TheAfricanCentrefortheConstructiveResolutionofDisputes,Durban
EisnerEW(1990)Themeaningofalternativeparadigmsforpractice.In:GubaEG(ed)The
alternativeparadigmdialog.SagePublications,NewburyPark,CA
FrankeU,WeberR(2011)AtthePapinihotel
onpragmatisminthestudyofinternational
relations.EurJIntRelat.doi:
FreyD(1981)Theeffectofnegativefeedbackaboutoneselfandcostofinformationon
preferencesforinformationaboutthesourceofthisfeedback.JExpSocPsychol17:42
KilgoreDW(2001)Criticalandpostmodernperspectivesinlearning.In:MerriamS(ed)Thenew
updateofeducationtheory:newdirectionsinadultandcontinuingeducation.Jossey-Bass,San
KooimanJ,BavinckM(2005)Thegovernanceperspective.In:KooimanJ,BavinckM,JentoftS,
PullinR(eds)Fishforlife:interactivegovernancefor
sheries.AmsterdamUniversityPress,
KoslowskiB,OkagakiL,LorenzC,UmbachD(1989)Whencovariationisnotenough:theroleof
PollardS,DuToitD(2008)Integratedwaterresourcemanagementincomplexsystems:howthe
catchmentmanagementstrategiesseektoachievesustainabilityandequityinwaterresources
inSouthAfrica.WaterSA34(6):671
PollardS,BiggsH,DuToitD(2014)Asystematicframeworkforcontext-baseddecisionmaking
innaturalresourcemanagement:re
ectionsonanintegrativeassessmentofwaterand
livelihoodsecurityoutcomesfollowingpolicyreforminSouthAfrica.EcolSoc19(2):63
RenggerN(2015)Pluralismininternationalrelationstheory:threequestions.IntStudPerspect
RobertsonI(2012)Singaporeairlines
ight006
Cautiontothewind.Cine
ix,Montreal,Canada
Chapter5
ParadigmsandTheories:PopularLabels
andTheirDelimitation
5.1Introduction
Thede
nitionofparadigmsandtheoriesisthesubjectofthispenultimatechapter.
Istartthischapterbyoutliningthede
nitionofparadigmsandtheoriesandhow
thesede
nitionsareusedbyscientistsinthewaterresearchsector.Inthesecond
partofthechapter,Ioutlinetheimportanceofparadigmsandtheories.Ifocuson
theimportanceofthesecognitiveprocessesinInternationalRelations.Idothis
becausethisisthe
eldofstudyIammostfamiliarwith.Thissectionisfollowedby
adiscussionontheimportanceofcausalityandwhyweneedtotakecausalitymore
seriouslyinwaterresearch.Linkedtothevalueofparadigms,theoriesand
causality,Ithentackletheissueofthedisdainresearchscientistshavetowards
paradigmsandtheories.Iconcludethechapterattheend.
5.2ParadigmsandTheories
Theword
paradigm
wasintroducedtotheEnglishlanguageinthelate15th
centurythroughLateLatinfromtheGreekword
paradeknunai
meaningto
sidebyside.
Inthissense,theword
paradigm
isaworldviewthatunderliesthe
2013
outcome(s).Thosemechanisms
thatareoftenunobservablearesupposedto
ectwhatisactuallyhappeningintherealworld.
Tosummarise,theoriesconsist
ofstatementsthatactuallyre
ecthowtheworldworks.Assuch,theories
involveentitiesandprocessesthatexistintherealworld.Accordingly,the
assumptionsthatunderpinthetheorymustaccuratelyre
orreasonably
approximate
particularaspectsof
life
(MearsheimerandWalt
:432).So,
theoriesarenotthemonsterunderthebedthatwillcomeoutwhenit
sdarkandeat
thescientistorresearcherwhilesheorheisblissfullydreamingaboutthatnext
scienti
cbreakthrough.Theoriesaremerelyrepresentationsofrealitysothat
humanscanmakesenseofthecomplexworldaroundthem.
Bethatasitmay,theconcept
theory
aresometimesconfused
withoneanother.Khan(
2002
)notesthat
theconfusionsarefairlyelementary,
butremainedunacknowledged.
intheworldofresearch(Pearse
cognitiveabilitiesbecausethecognitionhadalreadybeendonebyothersandthey
aremerelyimpartingtheadvice.Thisishow(past)experienceworkstoassistin
creatingopportunities,solveproblemsortodeepenourunderstandingofreality.
Howwegenerateknowledgewillhaveabearingonthewayinwhichwesolve
problemsandcreateopportunities.Researchparadigmsandtheoriesarepartofthis
knowledgegenerationprocessthatispartandparcelofpoliciesandpractices.This
meansthatresearchparadigmsandtheoriesarethebricksandmortarofpoliciesand
practices.Itisnotalwayspossibletodoanexperimenttosolveaproblem.Cognition,
withoutthescienti
Byrecognisingotherresearchparadigmsandintegratingthosewithknown
paradigmscanhaveprofoundconsequencesforthepolicyprocess.Byconsidering
otherresearchparadigmsencourageustolookatthesourcesofpractitioners
Throughpositivism,forinstance,weviewactioninastructured,linearandcauseand
effectmanner.Actionisseeminglywellthoughtthrough,goaldirectedandsystemic
driven.Shouldapersonwanttoactrationally,heorshemusthavespeci
cgoals.The
Integratingotherresearchparadigmsalsohasconsequencesforresearchprod-
ucts.Asalreadymentioned,positivismissupposedtoproducedependablepre-
scriptionsforaction.Bringingotherresearchparadigmsinistoincreasethequality
ofpractitioners
deliberations.Research
spurpose,from,forinstance,aninter-
materialorsubstance,sincethesepropertiescanenableorconstrainhowmaterial
causal,intentionsandreasonsarealsocausal
inthesensethattheysignifya
contributorycausethat
forthesakeofwhich
somethingisdone
209).Itispossiblethatintentionsandreasonsarethewell-springofeveryday
actions(i.e.actionswedoonadailybases)aswellaspolicyactions,beitinthe
publicorprivatesectors.
Bybroadeningthetypesofcausescouldhelpusunderstandthevarious
assumptionscontainedintheoriesinamorenuancedmanner.Inotherwords,where
restrictivesincenotallinformationaroundissuesareconsideredimportant.We,
therefore,havetobroadenourconceptualisationoftheory,especiallyintermsof
theory
spurpose.Theoriescanstiremotions,stimulatingasocialconsciencefor
socialupheaval.Theoriescanalsobesourcesofcontroversyandscornandtheycan
benewsourcesofthinkingonhowtheworldworks(Lemert
Ontologyisthestudyofexistenceorbeing(Sparkes
)orthestudyofthegeneralproperties
ofthings(ViottiandKauppi
problemsaffectindividuals
lives.Theoryisseenasaluxury,awastedeffortand
oftentimesdownrightmisleading(Rosenau
2003
).Thislatteraspectisduetothe
competingtheoriesthatareinherentinscienti
cdisciplines.Internationalrelations
isnoexception,withcompetingtheoriesexplainingtheactors,theirbehaviourand
politicalrelationshipswithinworldaffairs.Theorieslikeneorealism,neoliberal
institutionalismandsocialconstructivismareallcompetingforattentionanda
robustcorrelations,ifnotconstantconjunctions.Thelatterarerareinthesocialsciences,
andnon-existentininternationalrelations
Regularitytheoriesoffernoinsightintohow
Whatismore,suchphenomenaare
beyondtheanalyticalreachofmainstream
[politicalsciences],andassuchhold
peoplehaveputforwardatsomepointoranother.Theoriescanbesubliminalacts
)andhavedifferentpurposes.Iwilllistanumberofpurposesto
indicatetowhatextenttheoriesandpracticelinkwithoneanother.Theoriesoutline
thequestionsweaskofopportunitiesandproblems.Withtheoriesweanticipate
answerssincetheoriesarerepositoriesofpreviousinvestigations.Theyimproveour
understandingofsituationsandactorrelationshipsandmakeforimprovedobser-
vationandultimatelyenhanceddecision-making(Morgan
;Hoffmann
Rueschemeyer
).Theorieshelptojustifyactionsandtheshapingofresponses
toproblemsaswellasjustifyingparticularactionstoproblems(Lebow
Opportunities,problems,anticipation,pastexperience,knowledge,relations,
observationanddecision-makingarethestuffofthepolicyprocess,whichulti-
matelyboilsdowntotheimprovementofthehumancondition.Theory
sroleisnot
toanchorpoliciesintimelesstruths;theyprovidepractitionerswiththede
andtermstheyneedtounderstandthepotentialandtheviabilityforpositivechange
insociety(Morgenthau
;Lebow
2008
).Thisimpliesthatthepolicyprocessin
complexcausationandespeciallynonlineartransformations
stackthedeck
againstprediction
:10).FollowingEisner(
)andLebow(
theyexisted
couldnotexplainthemostinterestingsocialoutcomes,sincetheseare
preciselytheoutcomesaboutwhichactorshavethemostincentivetolearnandadapttheir
regularitieswouldbe
;theywouldbetheoutcomeofprocessesthatare
embeddedinhistoryandhaveashorthalf-life.Theywoulddecayquicklybecauseofthe
memories,creativesearchingandlearningby[individuals].Ironically,the
socialsciencecontributetothisdecay.
5.6Conclusion
ThiswasoneofWeber
)conclusionstoo.Hesaidthatlawsinthesocial
sciencesareshort-livedbecausetheyeitherdisappearorchangeashumansadaptto
theenvironmentandtheirgoalsandstrategiesevolve.Thisis
inpartbecause
peoplecometounderstandtheseregularitiesandtakethemintoaccountintheir
deliberationsandstrategies
:6).Inaddition,popularandscholarly
conceptionsofoccurrenceschangeovertime(Ferguson
).Asrealitychanges
BlaikieP,Brook
KerlingerFN(1986)Foundationofbehaviouralresearch,3rdedn.Holt,Rienhart&Winston,
NewYork
KhanHA(2002)Onparadigms,theoriesandmodels.DiscussionPaper,UniversityofDenver
KlotzA(1995)Normsreconstitutinginterests:globalracialequalityandU.S.sanctionagainst
SouthAfrica.IntOrg49(3):451
KohK(2013)Theory-to-research-to-theorystrategy:aresearch-basedexpansionofradicalchange
theory.LibrInfSciRes35:33
KolverL(2012)Acidminedrainageissuereachingcriticalstage
WRC.EngineeringNews,21
September2012.Accessedat:
.Accessed29May2014
KuhnTS(1962)Thestructureofscienti
crevolutions.UniversityofChicagoPress,Chicago
MeissnerR,FunkeN(2014)ThepoliticsofestablishingcatchmentmanagementagenciesinSouth
Africa:thecaseoftheBreede-OverbergCatchmentManagementAgency.In:HuitemaD,
MeijerinkS(eds)Thepoliticsofriverbasinorganisations:coalitions,institutionaldesign
choicesandconsequences.EdwardElgarPublishing,Cheltenham
MeissnerR,FunkeN,NienaberS,NtombelaC(2014)ThestatusquoofresearchonSouth
swaterresourcesmanagementinstitutions.WaterSA39(5):721
MeissnerR,FunkeN,NortjeK(2016)Thepoliticsofestablishingcatchmentmanagement
agenciesinSouthAfrica:thecaseoftheBreede-OverbergCatchmentManagementAgency.
EcolSoc21(3):26.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5751/ES-08417-210326
MorganPM(2003)Nationalandinternationalsecurity:theorythen,theorynow.AsianJPolitSci
MorgenthauHJ(1958)Thedeclineofdemocraticpolitics.Chicago:UniversityofChicagoPress
OxfordAdvancedLearnersDictionary(2013)Oxforddictionaries:languagematters.Accessedat:
.Accessed2June2014
Pahl-WostlC,JeffreyP,IsendahlN,BrugnachM(2011)Maturingthenewwatermanagement
paradigm:progressingfromaspirationtopractice.WaterResourManag25(3):837
PearseH(1983)Brother,canyouspareaparadigm?Thetheorybeneaththepractice.StudArt
Educ24(3):158
WaltSM(1998)Internationalrelations:oneworldmanytheories.ForeignPolicy110:29
Chapter6
AdvancingDifferentIdeas
6.1Introduction
Inthisconcludingchapter,Iwillre
ectonthecontentoftheprecedingtext.The
purposeofthischapteristobrie
yconsiderwhatIsaidbeforewhileatthesame
timehighlightingsomeoftheissuesraised.Aftersummarising,Iwillmakesome
concludingremarksaboutthecentralityofresearchparadigmsandtheoriesinwater
researchinSouthAfricaandingeneral.Ibelievethatthedebatearoundtheroleand
implicationsofresearchparadigmsandtheoriesisapertinent,albeitanabsolutely
overlooked,one.
6.2ConstantCritiqueasaTravellingCompanion
IbelievethatwaterresearchinSouthAfricaisatajunctionontheroadtoprogress.
Considerapproachingfour-wayintersection.Waterresearchiscomingalongand
hasanumberofchoices;gostraight,turnleftorright,ormakeaU-turnandgo
back.ManyresearcherswilladvisenottomaketheU-turnsincethiswillimplya
regressionandnotaprogressing,ortheywilladvisegoingforward.Other
researchersmightsaythatweneedtomakesomechangesafterre
ectingwherewe
camefrom(i.e.turnleftorright).Others,still,mightsaythatweneedtoprogress
andgoforward.
Inthespiritofthisbook,Iwouldliketosaythatbygoingbackmightnotbea
analysis.Whentheseperspectivesareputthroughananalyticaltoolsuchas
uenceonhow
secondyearstudentstudyinginternationalrelations.Ourlecturer,ProfessorMaxi
Schoeman,hadgivenusour
rstinsightintointernationalrelationstheorythe
previoussemester.Itwasabasiccourseininternationalrelationstheorycovering
themajortheoriesofthetime:(neo)-realism,(neo)-liberalinstitutionalism,capi-
talism,Marxism,globalismandthelike.Formanystudentsitwasadif
cultcourse,
meincluded,maybebecauseitwastooabstractforourliking.Thisdidnotgo
unnoticedonProfessorSchoeman.Heradvicewasplainandsimple:justlearnthe
theorybecausethatiswhatthecourseinpoliticalstudiesisprescribing.Looking
internationalrelations.Thesubjectmatterwasalsointerestingsinceitdidnotcover
theconventionalsubjectslikewarandinternationalorganisationsliketheUnited
Nations.WhatIstartedtothinkaboutiswhywouldstatescooperateorgotowar
withoneanotheroverarenewableresourcelikewater,unlikeanon-renewable
resourcesuchasoil.
OverthenextfewyearsIwouldreadmoreaboutthetopicandhowitrelatesto
internationalrelations.WhatIdidnotrealiseatthetimewasthatallthesestudies
focusedexclusivelyonthestateastheprimaryactorintransboundaryandnational
waterpolitics.Imustconfessthatitdidnotbothermeatthetime,sinceIwastaught
complexitythinking.WhatIalsolearnedduringtheresearchisthatitisnotonly
statesthatareinvolvedinwaterpolitics.Non-stateentities,suchasenvironmental
interestgroups,canalsobepoliticalactorsinwaterpoliticsespeciallywhenit
comestotheimplementationofwaterresourceprojectssuchasdamsandirrigation
schemes.AcaseinpointistheinvolvementofGreenpeaceintheircampaign
againstBotswana
sSouthernOkavangoIntegratedWaterDevelopmentProject
(SOIWDP)inthemid-1990s.TheplanwastodivertwaterfromtheOkavango
DeltatosupplyDeBeers
diamondminesinnorthernBotswana.Afterperceived
pressurethegovernmentbackeddownonitsplansforsupplyingminingoperations
fromtheOkavangoDelta(Neme1997;Meissner
).Therewasmoretowater
politicsthanmereinterstaterelations,the
nancingofwaterprojects,thesupplyof
potablewatertoeconomicnodesandurbancentres,theprotectionoftheenvi-
ronmentandpeopleasrationalactorsthatalwaysmakecost-bene
tsanalysesinthe
faceofuncertainty.Emotionsandindividuallivelihoodsalsoplayedtheirpartin
politicsandparticularlywaterpolitics.
Iwasintriguedbythephenomenonofnon-stateactorsinwaterpolitics.Istarted
readinguponthesubjectandsoonfoundthattherewasasurfeitofnon-state
activity,particularlyinriverbasinswherewaterresourcemanagementprojects,
particularlylargedams,areconstructedorconsidered.Internationalriverbasins
werenoexception.Forinstance,whentheNamibiagovernmentdecidedtoutilise
waterfromtheOkavangoRiverinthelate1990stosupplywatertoitsdrynorthern
regions,itgotstiffoppositionfrominterestgroupsinBotswanaandelsewherein
theworld(Meissner
1998b
).Isoonrealisedthatinternationalrelationsandthe
phenomenonofinterestgroupswereinterconnected.Thisrealisationledmetoenrol
themoreIstartedenjoyingthesubject.ThiswasmaybebecauseIwasnowamore
maturestudentandcouldlinktherealwiththeabstractmorereadily.Ienjoyeditso
muchthatIendedbydiscussingninetheoriesinmythesis(realism,liberalplu-
ralism,interestgrouppluralism,interestgroupcorporatism,modernity,the
experts.OnSeptember11,2001,Iwasconductinganinterviewwithanengineer
fromanengineeringconsultancyintheWestbank,ashortdistancefromYasser
scompound.IhadtravelledfromTelAvivtoJerusalemthatmorningby
bus,andthenfromJerusalemtoRamallahbytaxi.I
nishedtheinterviewandmy
hostphonedthetaxitotakemebacktothebusstationinJerusalem.Onarriving
backinJerusalemInoticedmorethantheusualnumberofsoldiersatthebus
station.ItwasaTuesdayandtheJewishweekendwasstillthreedaysaway,sothe
soldierscouldnothavebeengoingonweekendleave.Iboardedthebusandshortly
afterleavingJerusalemagentleman,sittingtwoseatsinfrontofme,gotacallon
hismobile.HeansweredandspokeinEnglishwithanAmericanaccent.
Irememberhimsayingtothepersonontheotherend:
Thisistheonewehave
beenwaitingfor.
Thenheasked:
WasthePentagonalsohit?
OnarrivalinTel
AvivtheimagesoftheburningWorldTradeCentredominatedthetelevision
screensincafesandeatouts.IapproachedthegentlemanIheardtalkingonhis
mobileandaskedwhathadhappened.Hetoldmeabouttheterroristattackson
NewYorkandWashington,D.C.Hewasvisiblyshakenbytheevent,andIoffered
myhelp.Hesaidthathewasshockedbutallright;hewasanAmericangovernment
cialworkingforthePentagon,oneofthetargetsoftheattackandhefearedthat
someofhiscolleaguesmighthaveperishedintheattack.Overthenextfewdaysas
theeventsunfoldeditbecamecleartomethatnon-stateactorsarenotonlyinvolved
intransboundaryriverbasins,butcanbemajorandoftendeviantordelinquent
players(Geldenhuys
)ontheinternationalstage.Myformersupervisor,Prof.
Geldenhuys(
:ix)summarisestheeventsandtheroleplayedbynon-state
actorsasfollows:
ThekamikazeattacksonNewYorkandWashingtonhavetakenterrorismtoan
unprecedentedlevelofdeathanddevastation.Thedestructivepoweratthedisposalofa
DeadSea.TravellingfromAmmansouthintovalley,youenterthelowestterrestrial
Fig.6.1
ThebananaplantationintheDeadSeavalleyIphotographedafewdaysafterthe
terroristattacksonNewYorkandWashingtonD.C.
1646AdvancingDifferentIdeas
andsurnameoriginallycomesfrom.IsaidGermany.MyfatherwasaGermanthat
immigratedtoSouthAfricaintheearly1960s.TheArabgentlemansaidtothetaxi
driverthathelikestheGermanpeopleverymuch,especiallyAdolfHitler.Iasked
why.HisreplywasthatitisbecausehemurderedtheJews!Iwasstunnedandonly
thenrealisedhowdeepthehatredforoneanothercanbeinthatpartoftheworld.
MyresearchtriptotheMiddleEastwascertainlythemostmemorableone.
Fig.6.2
Themakeshiftfreshwatervendor
sbusinessontheshoresoftheDeadSea
Appendix1:MyResearchJourney165
werelookingforstaffwithexperienceinresearchtohelpfostertheDirectorate.The
roleoftheDirectoratewastoconductresearchandpolicyanalysisonbehalfofthe
DepartmentandattimestheGautengProvincialGovernment.Afterstaf
ngthe
Directorate,westartedconductingresearchmainlyonthesocio-economiccondi-
tionsofGauteng
scitizensintheso-calledtoptwentytownships.Wewouldalso
fromtime-to-timedoresearchandanalysisfortheGautrain,whichwasatthattime
stillunderconstruction.Iwasadeputydirectorandheadedasub-directorate.For
almostthreeyearsIgainedexperienceintheinnerworkingsofagovernmententity.
Iexperiencedtheday-to-daychallengesandopportunitiesgovernmentof
Fig.6.3
TheDeadSea
shore,theArabgentlemanis
seenwalkingawaytowards
theparkedmotorvehicles
1666AdvancingDifferentIdeas
Iappliedforapositionatalarge
nancialinstitutiongotthejobandstagnated
further.Onthe
rstdayIwassupposedtostartworking,mybosswasquite
surprisedthatitwasactuallymy
rstday.Theydidnotexpectme,althoughIhad
beenincontactwiththemjusttwoweekspriortomejoiningtheteam.Ihadno
Appendix2:TheoriesforPractice
resistancethatdriveschange(Hobsonand
Oneofthereasonswhyactorsreject
legitimacyisbecauseitclasheswiththe
sidentitythatiscreatedwithin
broaderpublicsthrougheverydayactions.
Identitiesarenotonlycreatedand
maintainedtheyarealsoreshapedand
discardedandbyunderstandingthese
formofverbaltaunts,subversivestories,
rumour(HeywoodandSeabrooke2007)
1826AdvancingDifferentIdeas
AgnewC,AndersonE(1992)Waterresourcesinthearidrealm.Routledge,London
CarrascoG(1991)Democracy
sinterestingroups:Interestgroupcorporatismanddemocratic
theory.Master
sthesis.SimonFraserUniversity,Ottawa
CilliersP(2000)Whatcanwelearnfromatheoryofcomplexity?Emergence2(1):23
KakuM(2014)M-theory:themotherofallsuperstrings.NewYork.Accessedat:
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Acidminedrainage,
Activesubstantiation,
Adaptivemanagement,
Seealso
strategicadaptivemanagement
Agentialpower,
AirbusA330,
AirFrance
ight447,
Ambiguitytheoryofleadership,
Analyticeclecticism,
BarakObama,
Beliefsystem,
BrundtlandCommission,
Catchmentmanagementagencies,
Causalmechanisms,
Humancondition,
Hydro-socialcontracttheory,
Integratedwaterresourcesmanagement,
Interestgroup,
Interestgroupcorporatism,
Interestgrouppluralism,
Internationalagentialpower,
Internationalorganisation,
Internationalrelations,
Researchcommunity,

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