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PROPAGANDA AND A Historical Encyclopedia, 1500 to the Present PROPAGANDA AND A Historical Encyclopedia, 1500 to the Present Nicholas J.Cull David Culbert David Welch Santa Barbara,CaliforniaDenver,ColoradoOxford,England Copyright 2003 by Nicholas J.Cull,David Culbert,and David Welch or Philip M.Taylor Stephen Badsey Lecturer in History Department of War Studies Royal Military Academy Sandhurst,UK David Birmingham Professor Emeritus of History University of Kent at Canterbury,UK Livia Bornigia Lecturer in Communications University of St.Thomas Houston,TX,United States Susan Carruthers Associate Professor of History Rutgers University Newark,NJ,United States Steven Casey Lecturer in International History London School of Economics,UK Professor of Communication Ben-Gurion University of the Negev,Israel Department of Government University of Manchester,UK Dina Iordanova Reader in the History of Film Department of History of Art University of Leicester,UK Samantha Jones Humanities Programme University of Leicester,UK Mark Kristmanson Centre for American Studies University of Leicester,UK Fred Krome Adjunct Professor of Judaic Studies University of Cincinnati Cincinnati,OH,United States Barak Kushner Assistant Professor of Eastern Asian Studies Davidson College Davidson,NC,United States Professor of History Preface, Nicholas J.Cull,David Culbert,and David Welch Introduction:Propaganda in Historical Perspective, David Welch,xv PROPAGANDA AND MASS PERSUASION A Historical Encyclopedia,1500 to the Present Abolitionism/Antislavery Movement,1 Abortion,3 ADL (Anti-Defamation League of Bnai Brith),5 Advertising,5 Africa,7 Disinformation,104 Drugs,106 Eisenstein,Sergei (18981948), Elections,109 Elections (Britain),110 Elections (Israel),112 Elections (United States),113 Oates,Titus (16491705),275 Okhrana,275 Olympics (1896),276 Opinion Polls,278 Orwell,George (19031950),279 Ottoman Empire/Turkey,280 WI (Office of War Information), acic/Oceania,285 ine,Thomas (17371809),287 eace and Antiwar Movements (15001945),289 eace and Antiwar Movements (1945),291 ern,Juan Domingo (18951974) and Eva Duarte (19191952),294 Philippines,294 Photography,297 The Plow That Broke the Plains (1936),299 Index,457 About the Editors,479 This book is designed to provide an accessible survey of the history of propaganda from 1500 to the present.After a historical intro- duction by David Welch outlining the devel- opment of propaganda,the encyclopedia presents more than 250 entries.These in- clude geographic entries examining a coun- try such as Britain or Portugal orwhere the propaganda history is either less clearly delineated along national lines or the scholar- ship to date in English is more limiteda re- ion such as Scandinavia or Latin America. have tried to be as geographically com- prehensive as possible.Case-study entries present events or movements,from aboli- tionism to Zionism.Technique entries deal tors.The editors are grateful not only to the colleagues and friends who have submitted entries for this volume but also to those who used their specialized knowledge to check entries written by others.Special mention should be made of Dr.Mark Cornwall,Prof. Donald Denoon,Dr.Selim Deringel,Leen The following quotation serves as a good starting point:Propaganda is a much ma- ligned and often misunderstood word.The man with the greatest knowledge of souls.I cannot convince a single person of the neces- Although the scale on which propaganda is practiced has increased dramatically in the guably for the rst time) in order to dissemi- nate officially approved themes. Despite major tensions,Britains wartime consensus generally held up under the exi- gencies of war.One explanation for this was the skillful use by the government of propa- ganda and censorship.After the war,how- er,a deep mistrust developed on the part of ordinary citizens,who realized that condi- tions at the front had been deliberately ob- scured by patriotic slogans and atrocity propagandaconsisting of obscene stereo- types of the enemy and their dastardly deeds. The populace also felt cheated that its sacri- ces had not resulted in the promised homes and a land t for heroes.Propaganda was as- sociated with lies and falsehood.Even politi- cians were sensitive to these criticisms;as a esult,the Ministry of Information was im- mediately disbanded.The British govern- ment regarded propaganda as politically dan- gerous and even morally unacceptable in (emphapsis added).The Nazis,on the other hand,regarded propaganda not merely as an instrument for reaching the party elite but as a means of persuading and indoctrinating all Germans. If the two world wars demonstrated the power of propaganda,the post-1945 period witnessed the widespread utilization of the lessons drawn from the wartime experience within the overall context of the communi- cations revolution.Political scientists and so- ciologists theorized about the nature of man limited and subordinate one.More often propaganda is concerned with sharpening and focusing existing trends and beliefs.A second basic misconception is the belief that propaganda consists only of lies and false- hood.In fact,it operates on several levels of truthfrom the outright lie to the half-truth to the truth taken out of context.(Officials in the British Ministry of Information during orld War II referred to this as the whole truth,nothing but the truthand as near as possible the truth!) Many writers on the subject see propaganda as essentially appeas- ing the irrational instincts of manand this is true to a certain extentbut because our ttitudes and behavior are also the product of rational decisions,propaganda must appeal to the rational elements in human nature as ell.The preoccupation with the former ig- occasion of the Dunkirkand Falkland spirit;it has been asked to consider who governs Britain;it has been assured that the rate of ination can be reduced at a stroke; and it has been guaranteed that taxes will not be raised under this governmentand that the BBC and CNN to continue to broadcast from Belgrade,he hoped to fragment West- ern opinion with nightly stories of innocent civilians killed by NATO air strikes.Since the most effective propaganda is that which can be veried,NATO was placed on the defen- sive in the propaganda war by having to con- rm the accuracy of Serbian claims.Although NATOs military strategy was ultimately vin- dicated,the Balkan wars of the 1990s rein- forced the centrality of propaganda to war. The use of propaganda by both sides in the sential for political purposes than military and economic power,and has always been closely associated with them.The art of per- suasion has always been a necessary part of the equipment of a political leader(Carr 1946,132). David Welch References:Carr,E.H. The Twenty YearsCrisis, 19191939:An Introduction to the Study of International Relations. New York:Harper & Row,1946;Lasswell,Harold. Propaganda echnique in the World War. New York:Knopf, 1927;Welch,David. The Third Reich:Politics and Propaganda. 2d ed.New York:Routledge, Introductionxxi PROPAGANDA AND A Historical Encyclopedia,1500 to the Present Abolitionism/Antislavery Movement The international campaign against slavery produced such eloquent leaders as William ilberforce in Britain and Frederick Doug- lass in the United States,as well as endur- ingly powerful works of art with a political with antislavery issues overlapping with the problem of human trafficking associated with illegal migration. Nicholas J.Cull Britain (Eighteenth Century);Civil War (United States);Garrison,William Lloyd; Lincoln,Abraham; Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass...;Uncle Toms Cabin; States Azevedo,Celia M. United States and Brazil:A Comparative Perspective. New York:Garland,1995;Davis,David Brion. The Problem of Slavery in Western Culture. New ork:Oxford University Press,1988;Jeffrey, Julie Roy. The Great Silent Army of Abolitionism: Ordinary Women in the Antislavery Movement. Chapel Hill:University of North Carolina Press,1998;Oldeld,J.R. opular Politics and British Anti-Slavery:The Mobilisation of Public Opinion against the Slave Trade,17871807. Manchester:Manchester University Press, 1995;Quarles,Benjamin. Black Abolitionists. New York:Oxford University Press,1969; Thomas,Hugh. The Slave Trade:The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade,14401870. Picador,1997. Abortion Abortion remains a major issue in political propaganda in the United States today. to lifeÓzealots have defended the idea of mur- dering doctors who do abortions.Abortion clinics,once found in most large American Freedom of/from Choice Planned Parenthood poster,depicting Supreme Court justices,by Robbie Conal.(Henry Diltz/Corbis) just become pregnant and does not know what to do. David Culbert Elections (United States);Friedan, appearance of advertisementslarge print, pictures,and even some colorreected a substantial shift in intention:the main pur- pose of advertising was now to persuade the purchaser to buy goods and services rather than simply to provide information. In the 1880s brand names were rst used as a means of distinguishing products that more or less identical.Brand-name ad- tising tried to persuade the public to asso- ciate a particular brand with quality and other desirable attributes.Slogans and catch- phrases became ubiquitous.Perhaps the most amous early example of an advertising slo- gan that created a popular awareness of a product was Good Morning! Have you used earsSoap?The slogan became part of eryday language in Britain and served to number of patriotic propaganda campaigns, the most famous being the Freedom Train exhibition,which traveled throughout the sub-Saharan Africa during the Renaissance. After accepting Africans as profoundly other, it was only a short step to accepting their en- slavement to provide the labor force for the conquest of the New World.One of the earli- est examples of African propaganda is the anti- slavery autobiography written by former slave Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano or Gustavas Vassa,the African...Written by Him- self, which waspublished in London in 1789. ment of a Pan-African movement.Key spokespersons included the Jamaican-born activist Marcus Garvey (18871940),who ttempted to link people of African descent in the New World and the Old through his Universal Negro Improvement Association. Later in the century such leaders included the great African American intellectual E.B.Du Bois (18681963),who em- braced Pan-Africanism late in life,following his disillusionment with the prospects for re- form in the United States.Other inuential anticolonial writers included Frantz Fanon Africa played a role in events leading up to World War II.When Benito Mussolini (18831945) attempted to conquer Ab- and secessionist violence ared,with Congo and Nigeria suffering acutely. By the late 1960s many of the newly inde- pendent countries had slipped into military one-party dictatorships,which leaned even more heavily on the cult of personality and Africa9 control of the media.The most notorious ex- amples of African dictatorship included Idi Amin (1925) in Uganda and Emperor Bokassa (19211996) in the Central African Republic.The dictators presented themselves as clients of the world powers.In Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo) oseph Mobutu (19301997) worked closely Beginning in 1989 the government of De Klerk (1936) accepted the in- vitable and embraced reform.Nelson Man- dela,released from jail in 1990,became pres- ident following multiracial elections in 1994; he did much to foster what he called the rainbow nation.Thabo Mbeki,who suc- ceeded him in 1999,proved less adept.Man- delas South Africa demonstrated consider- able skill in addressing the heritage of apartheid through the operation of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (1996 1998),chaired by Tutu,which defused oppo- sition propaganda by revealing the atrocities committed under apartheid without resort- ing to reprisals or divisive trials. In the 1980s and 1990s international bod- ies such as the World Health Organization (WHO) sought to use modern mass commu- nications in Africa to prevent the spread of AIDS,among other causes;foreign-based broadcasters such as the Voice of America and the BBC have also played a part in AIDS edu- cation.Western media coverage of African ents has tended to focus on disasters rather than daily occurrences and more recent suc- cess stories such as that of Eritrea,thereby estern nations. Nicholas J.Cull Abolitionism/Antislavery Movement; Anglo-Boer War;Arab World;British Empire; Caribbean;China;Garvey,Marcus;Portugal; Radio (International);United Nations Davidson,Basil. Modern Africa:A Social and Political History. London:Longman, 1994;Diawara,Manthia. African Cinema:Politics and Culture. Bloomington:Indiana University Press,1992;Hachten,William A.,and Anthony C.Giffard. The Press and Apartheid: Repression and Propaganda in South Africa. Madison:University of Wisconsin Press,1984; Morris,Kate. British Techniques of Public Relations and Propaganda for Mobilizing East and Central Africa during World War II. Lewiston,NY: Edwin Mellen,2000;Thomson,Oliver. Easily Led:A History of Propaganda. Stroud,UK:Sutton, 1999;Ungar,Sanford. Africa:The People and the olitics of an Emerging Continent. New York: Simon and Schuster,1989. breaks of disease.But by the wars end (May 1902) the British were actually turning peo- ple away from the camps.Boer propaganda exploited both the British burning of farm- steads and the countless deaths from disease in the concentration camps,as revealed through a British newspaper campaign chiey conducted by Emily Hobhouse (18601926). By extension,the German governments de- midst.Medieval legends told of Jews sacriÞc- ing Christian infants as part of their religion and blamed them for spreading the plague by poisoning wells.Christian Europe relied on ws to Þll the necessary (but taboo) role of lending money for proÞt,but this merely opened a further avenue for racial hatred. The stereotype of the greedy Jewish money- lender was used to justify the periodic expul- sion of Jewish communities across EuropeÑ especially when the king was indebted to the As non-Christians,Jews became a major (counterpropaganda) is the Anti-Defamation League of Bnai Brith (ADL). Nicholas J.Cull ADL;Herzl,Theodor;Holocaust Denial; JAccuse;Jud Sss; Labor/Antilabor; Kampf;Protocols of the Elders of Zion; orld War II (Germany);Zionism Cohn,Norman. ant for Genocide: The Myth of the Jewish World-Conspiracy and the London:Eyre and Spottiswoode,1967;Morais,Vamberto. A Short History of Anti-Semitism. New York:Norton, Arab World Opposition to imperialism and Israel have been the two central themes of modern propaganda in the Arab world.The region has seen the birth of Arab nationalism along with the development of the cult of the leader,the manipulation of Islamic princi- ples,and ultimately terrorism.As totalitarian or semitotalitarian regimes,most govern- mental actions in the Arab world have a prop- had urged his followers to wage holy war against non-Arab Ottoman rule.Wahhabism emains the core of Saudi ideology. Egypts initial involvement with Arab pol- itics was motivated by the need to guarantee support for other Arab states,particularly Syria and Palestine,but by 1937 Egyptian delegates at a Pan-Arab conference in Syria had expressed serious concern over the cre- tion of an Israeli state,affirming that it ould have constituted a great threat both to Egypt and its neighboring countries.The next year Egypts primary position in the Middle East was conrmed when 2,500 peo- ple came to Cairo for the World Inter-Par- liamentary Congress of Arab and Muslim Countries for the Defense of Palestine.Addi- tionally,in 1944 Egypt established the League of Sovereign States,which remained in Cairo until the Camp David peace accord with Israel in 1979 and Egypts expulsion from the league. By 1954 Nasser had undisputed control of Egypt and had gained considerable interna- tional prestige as the father of Arab national- ism.In his Philosophy of the Revolution admitted that the notion of a unied Arab consciousness developed as a result of the alestinian dilemma and imperialism.Oppo- sition to the Baghdad Pact of 1955,the Suez Crisis of 1956,and the nationalization of the Suez Canal also motivated the Egyptian Nasser aided other friendly Arab countries in developing their own broadcasting poten- tial through professional courses and the es- tablishment of the Institute for Radio Train- ing(1957),which was later done for television.Starting in 1953,the Egyptian Radio Corporation also sent trained techni- cians to Saudi Arabia,Libya,Kuwait,and and continued guerrilla warfare,thereby hoping to gain Western attention.Extremist oups within the Palestinian movement con- centrated on international terrorism as a form of propaganda that would nally propel the Palestinian cause into the spotlight;these oups included the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine,founded by George Habash (1925) and the Popular Democra- tic Front for the Liberation of Palestine, founded by Nayef Hawatmeh (1937). Some of the best-known terrorist attacks in- cluded the kidnapping and death of eleven Is- objective since the rst terrorist acts of the early 1970s.However,this part of the accord as never implemented.Israel was unwilling to renounce the conquered lands of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.The failure to create a Palestinian homeland had far-reaching con- sequences.Because of its intrinsic weakness based on its history,geographic location,and population demographics,Lebanon became and distribute news from the foreign press. Despite Husseins totalitarian regime,Iraqs elationship with the United States did not through sheer size.To catch the public eye they could be placed in conspicuous sites along the banks of rivers,at the ends of broad of Renaissance Italian states and the early modern monarchies of Western Europe saw art and architecture as a means to bolster their rule.Art communicated the self-con- dence of the rising nations of the seven- ing the party,the state,or workers.Only po- litical posters remained a vibrant and modern The Cold War had major implications for enemy had ravaged the churches of God in the Eastern provinces,circumcised Christian men,violated women,and carried out the most unspeakable torture before killing them. UrbanÕs sermon succeeded in mobilizing pop- ular enthusiasm for the PeopleÕs Crusade. erful representations of martyrdom can be found in the sixteenth-century en- Book of Martyrs (1556) by John (1516Ð1587),which depicted Catholic This atrocious imageÑthe execution of a Chinese farmer by a Communist soldierÑwas circulated by the U.S.government erseas in the 1950s.(National Archives) the enemy appear savage,barbaric,and inhu- mane.All the belligerents in World War I employed atrocity propaganda,and as a result stereotypes emerged that had been largely developed in the period leading up to the outbreak of war.The Germans referred to the British as the perdious Albionand pro- vided accounts of the Allied use of dum-dum throughout the Nations during the Great War. London:G.Allen and Unwin,1928;Read, Atrocity Propaganda,191418. New Haven,CT:Yale University Press,1941; past to justify an Australian foreign policy of isolationism and pandering to Republican, antimonarchist sentiments. through incapacity.When Sir Keiths report ite depictions of the emperor stressed his virtue as a Christian knight.Habsburg propa- ganda reached its apogee during the rule of Maximilians grandson Charles V (1500 1558).Painters such as Titian (c.1488 1576) portrayed Charles V as a Roman em- peror,while the house of Habsburg adopted Hercules as a mascot,reproducing that image on their currency.Emperor Rudolf II (15521612) combined his patronage of the arts and sciences (from his court in Prague) with an attempt to extend Catholicism.In Hungary his policies led to a revolt.The story in its own right.Austrian rule in Hun- gary continued to inspire resistance;well- known examples include the satirical writing of Count Istvan Szechenyi (17911860).In 1867 Vienna agreed to an (compro- mise),with Hungary accepting its half of the dual Austro-Hungarian crown. liberal and democratic state and tried to pro- mote this new identity through the educa- tional system,a national ag and anthem,and so forth.Although Czechoslovakia had the most liberal press in the region,the state was 1989 opposition rallies had reached such a scale that the regime had no alternative but to negotiate and share power.In the so- Most of the Balkan countriesAlbania,Bul- garia,Greece,Romania,and the nations that made up the former Yugoslaviawere part of the Ottoman Empire.The region has ex- perienced great religious diversity,including: Orthodox,Catholic,and Protestant Chris- tianity;Islam;and the pagan Manichean heresy of the Bogomils in Bosnia.National identity developed through resistance to the Ottomans in the eighteenth century and past pre-Ottoman glory of their respective nations and typically claimed a territory for their nation that covered most of the penin- sula.Such claims became a basic premise of almost all national mythologies in the region and fueled ongoing territorial disputes.Vari- ous Balkan movements favored some form of federation of Balkan nationalities.Advocates included members of the Croat-led Illyrian movement,which began in the early nine- teenth century,and Stefan Stambolov (1854 1895),prime minister of Bulgaria from 1887 Around the turn of the century nationalist propagandists turned their attention from the aning Ottomans to Europes Great Powers, accompanied resistance.Yugoslav publica- Borba,Hammer and Sickle,Ko- (which also included members of the Praxis oup) behind the notorious 1986 Memoran- dum of the Serbian Academy of Sciences, which provided a blueprint for Serbian na- tionalism.Serbian and other nationalisms lled the gap left by the failing creed of com- unism.This provided a welcome opportu- nity for ambitious and ruthless officials,such as the Serb Slobodan Milosevic (1941) and the Croat Franjo Tudjman (19221999). After 1987,with nationalism rising,the Yu- goslav split became inevitable. 1997 and bombing the RTS-Belgrade station in 1999.The post-Communist power vac- uum of the 1990s saw a revival of promonar- hist tendencies in Albania,Romania,and Serbia.In Bulgaria in July 2001 former ild-monarch Simeon II (1937),who had funded and guided by the Foreign Of- ce.During the buildup leading up to and throughout World War II BBC external ser- Chisholm,Anne,and Michael Davie ylor. Beaverbrook:A Life. London:Hutchinson, 1992;Taylor,A.J.P. Beaverbrook:A Biography. New York:Simon and Schuster,1972. Civil War,United States;Film (Feature); NAACP;United States Cripps,Thomas. Slow Fade to Black: The Negro in American Film,19001942. New ork:Oxford University Press,1977;Schickel, Richard. Griffith:An American Life. New ork:Simon and Schuster,1984. BIS (British Information Services) This British overseas information agency, entually housed within the Foreign Office, is best known for its campaigns in the United States.BIS was founded in 1941 as part of a consolidation of the various British informa- tion offices working in the United States to combat American neutrality.The word ser- vicewas borrowed from the existing British Press Service (BPS),which was founded in New York the previous year.The word ser- vicehad been selected by British ambassador Lord Lothian (18821940) as an alternative to the terms propaganda(taboo since orld War I) and relations,which Lothian felt had been debased by both commerce and .S.government overuse. BIS played an important role in smoothing Anglo-American relations during the war ears and thereafter.Branches in other loca- tions followed,and BIS offices became an im- portant mechanism of overt British propa- British Prime Minister Tony Blair addresses the United Nations.(United Nations) the deployment of IFOR (Implementation orce),a NATO-based military force with a mounted by the various belligerent camps. The ability of a small country like Bosnia to in- uence Western opinion and the consequent demonizing of the Serbs were also matters of concern to some observers.International re- porting of the crisis and war nevertheless con- rmed that national contexts and agendas fre- quently predominated over facts. The resolution of the conict came in the summer of 1995 when U.S.aircraft (acting under the North Atlantic Treaty Organiza- tion,or NATO) carried out attacks against Bosnian Serb forces.The Bosnian Serb re- sponse was to take UN ground troops hostagea vivid propaganda image broadcast around the worldand to overrun some of the Bosnian safe areas,including Srebenica.In the autumn of 1995 American-trained Croat forces,supported by U.S.bombing raids as part of Operation Deliberate Force,inicted a decisive defeat against the Bosnian Serbs. This resulted in a compromise peace in No- ember,known as the Dayton Accords,and the deployment of IFOR (consisting of Amer- ican,British,and French troops) to police a cease-re agreement according to which Bosnia remained essentially intact.NATO commentators pointed out that IFOR com- bined a good information organization with considerable armed force and the mandate to use itall of which UNPROFOR lacked. This appeared to support the common West- ern military position that propaganda di- ected at a potential enemy was only effective when backed by force or the threat of force. The lasting effect of the war in propaganda terms was to establish a frame of reference for most Westerners in which the Serbs were osovo Crisis and War Badsey,Stephen,ed. International Security. London:Frank Cass, 2000;Combelles Siegel,Pascale. the surface of camp life.Given the scarcity of food,its rationing and deployment as a re- ard loomed large in the incentive structure; prisonersaccess to mail was similarly con- trolled as a further inducement to comply. Manipulation of the social environment and oup dynamics was accompanied by rote ideological instruction,which included lec- tures on Marxist and Maoist precepts and the insistence that prisoners engage in self-criti- cism,rst by repeatedly rewriting their life stories with a new class consciousness and then by publicly recanting their old alle- iances.Under such coercive conditions, high levels of collaboration were only to be expected.Whereas those who clung to brain- ashing as an explanation imagined that the Chinese had successfully instilled Communist beliefs in the prisoners,behaviorists stressed that the vast majority of POWs merely went alongwith their captors to the extent neces- sary to survive camp life,without shifting their convictions toward Communism.In act,most American prisoners resisted ideo- logical instruction;this was so apparent to their captors that the Chinese abandoned for- mal trainingmonths before the end of the As for the twenty-one prisoners who re- fused repatriationseemingly the epitome of the brainwashed POWmost were less conrmed Communists than men who,hav- ing engaged in more serious acts of collabo- ration,feared being court-martialed upon same.Instead of fading,the Parliament devel- oped procedurally into an ever more effec- tive institution for limiting royal power and for developing consensus among what could increasingly be called the political class.En- gland emerged from the Middle Ages as a parliamentary monarchy.This divergence from the systems of government of most of the Continent was made nal and irreversible in the seventeenth century by Parliaments call for the execution of Charles I (16001649) and the deposition of James II (16331701),the last two English kings who sought to go the Continental way. arliamentary monarchy led to a charac- practical people interested in politics,with the objective of coming up with a workable consensus for the time being.The characteris- tic elements of British political oratorythe throwaway line,self-deprecation,under- statement,the use of a chairperson to whom the speaker defers,concentration on practical Britain.The employment of professional per- suaders to assist office seekers also developed early.Governments and politiciansin or out of office either as individuals or collective oups,such as political partieshave em- ployed propagandists since the reign of Eliza- unique institutional framework for it,to act as the integrator for democracy,in the ords of John Reith (18891971),the rst director general of the BBC.The application to lm of the concepts and rules for control- ling the theater through the creation of the British Board of Film Censorship proved less effective in the end.Political messages re- layed through British lms were indeed effec- tively controlled;foreign lms with strongly contrarian messages were kept off the public screens or allowed to appear only with the strongest of those messages removed or toned down.British lm production was also ept alive through various forms of nancial support in the face of the overwhelming strength of Hollywood.In terms of negative propaganda,the exclusion of messages liable to undermine fundamental elements of the dominant ideology has made British cinema screens among the most tightly controlled in Europe.However,the proportion of British feature lms to American could not be main- tained at a sufficiently high ratio to achieve the positive propaganda potential that British politicians also saw in lm.The application to the medium of lm of the three core tech- niques of the British approach to political persuasion (ultimately reinforced by state funding) did produce the documentary genre,which represents the principal British contribution to the art of the moving image and propaganda. It was no accident that Britain emerged from the world wars as a pioneer of external propaganda,psychological warfare,and cul- tural diplomacy.Britain regarded persuasion as the central factor in the working of the state for three hundred years and thus had a pool of expertise to draw on when needed. Propaganda with factsremains the charac- teristic British approach to external propa- e/Feminism;World War I;World War II (Britain) Anglo,Sydney. Spectacle,Pageantry and Early Tudor Policy. Oxford:Oxford University Press,1969;Downie,J.A. Robert Harley and the Press:Propaganda and Public Opinion in the Age of Swift and Defoe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,1979;Harris, London Crowds in the Reign of Charles II: Propaganda and Politics from the Restoration to the Exclusion Crisis. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,1987;Koss,Stephen R.The Rise and Fall of the Political Press in Britain.In Propaganda,Politics and Film,19181945. Nicholas Pronay and D.W.Spring.London: Macmillan,1982. Britain (Eighteenth Century) The eighteenth century represented the formative period in the development of the press and political propaganda in Britain and its American colonies,which also saw the use tial of press propaganda.While in office (17101714) he developed a complex organ- ization that produced and distributed favor- able material and hampered the opposition press.When Robert Walpole (16761745) took office,he adopted some of Harleys techniques in reaction to the success of the 1774),Christopher Wyvills (17401822) orkshire Association (17791785),and the antislavery campaign (17831791).Harry (H.T.) Dickinson has argued that while the exploitation of the power of the press and the skilful dissemination of propaganda were copied from earlier campaigns against the Court,the country opposition sought only electoral endorsement of its policies, whereas the radicals wanted the people, en those without the vote,to exert a pow- erful inuence over Parliament.The same Britons:Forging the Nation,17071837. London:Yale University Press,1992; Dickinson,H.T. Liberty and Property :Political Ideology in Eighteenth-Century Britain. eidenfeld and Nicolson,1977;. olitics of the People in Eighteenth-Century Britain. London:Macmillan,1994;Holmes,Geoffrey, and Daniel Szechi. The Age of Oligarchy:Pre- Industrial Britain,17221783. Longman,1993;Plumb,J.H. Eighteenth Century,17141815. Harmondsworth,UK:Penguin,1950. British Broadcasting Corporation British Empire A.Henty (18321902) or journals such BoysOwn Paper Boys Friend (18951927) presented stories of imperial adventure and propagated the had chaired the official committee that col- lected the evidence,wrote an introduction to the report urging readers to believe its con- tents.His involvement heightened the re- ports impact,especially in the United States, where Bryce had served as a much-respected British ambassador until 1913.After the war none of the stories contained in the report could be substantiated.The report was seen as just another British attempt to trick the United States into joining the war. Nicholas J.Cull Atrocity Propaganda;Britain;Fakes; orld War I onsonby,Arthur. alsehood in War- ime:Containing an Assortment of Lies Circulated throughout the Nations during the Great War. Sudbury UK:Bloomeld,1991;Sanders, Michael,and Philip M.Taylor. British Propaganda during the First World War. Macmillan,1982. Bulgaria57 The high period of Canadian propaganda,be- inning with World War II and ending with the October Crisis in 1970,is a narrative of whiteness.As with Robert Rauschenbergs all-white paintings of the early 1950s,one might say that the only image was the shadow cast by the spectator.Despite its light shadings,Canadian propaganda was no less notable.Indeed,if propagandas efficacy is often inversely proportional to its stri- orld War I had a profound impact on the development of Canadian propaganda and public attitudes toward government informa- tion generally.Domestic propaganda sought to neutralize the true horrors of the western front in order to maintain public support for the war.Not surprisingly,recruitment posters and press accounts emphasized cama- raderie and glory rather than casualties and battleeld conditions.Mounting recruitment difficulties eventually culminated in a full- scale conscription crisis that opened a wide for an imaginary American journalist whom he planned to make the source of his photo- raphs from the front.Although his sub- terfuge was later exposed,the name stuck and he changed his own name accordingly. Capa photographed combat and civilian suf- fering in Spain beginning in 1935.Using a As in Latin America,the ideas of the French Revolution had a major impact.In 1791 Toussaint LOuverture (17441803),a former slave,led a rebellion on the island of Haiti.His name (the Opening) derived from a battleeld exploit involving the open- ing of a breach in enemy lines.By 1801 he had conquered the neighboring colony of Santo Domingo,but in 1802 Napoleons forces suppressed his rebellion and impris- oned him in France,where he died.Haiti, however,remained independent.Toussaint Ouverture became an enduring symbol of liberty and black leadership.Celebrations of his life include poems by William Words- th (17701850) in England and Alphonse de Lamartine (17901869) in France,as well as a biography and play by the Trinidadian so- cialist writer C.L.R.James (19011989). After guring in the movement against slavery (which was abolished in the British Empire in 1833),the region was the scene of anticolonial activities,especially in the Span- ish Caribbean.Among the leaders was Jos writer Graham Greene (19041991).When apa Doc died in 1971,rule passed to Baby Decision Making. Boulder,CO:Westview,1993; example shows a welcoming committee aiting the arrival of Nixon,who is to give a speech.The caption reads:ÒOh here he comes now.ÓNixon is seen climbing out of the sewerÑa clear reference to NixonÕs pref- erence for the smear or below-the-belt tac- tics in his quest to expose Democrats as crypto-Communists in the early 1950s. Nixon was so offended by his cartoon image that he forbade delivery of the paper to his A political cartoon entitled "Peace Creeps," put out by the American Nazi Party,Arlington,Virginia,1962.Those protesting the atomic bomb are shown as stereotypical peacenik hippies,Jews,and black protesters:"Sit-ins Yes!! Fall-out No!!" (Courtesy of David Culbert) longer the case.Many cartoonists today make it clear that traditional drawing skills are no hard-and-fast requirement for the cartoonist. The politicians of every country continue to landed in Cuba and commenced a guerrilla ebellion against Batista,an action that cap- tured the popular imagination.In 1959 BatistaÕs government fell and Castro estab- lished himself as premier. Soon after seizing power,Castro began a program of agricultural reform that brought him into direct conßict with U.S.corporate plantation owners.Castro also used anti- Latin America,and his chairmanship (since 1979) of the Non-Aligned Movement.Cas- tros activities remained of major concern to the United States and served as a justication for U.S.counterpropaganda and military in- tervention in the region (as it had in the Do- minican Republic in 1965).In 1983 the United States launched a major propaganda initiative against Castro in the form of a radio station staffed by Cuban exiles (administered USIA).It challenged Castros claim to the heritage of the Cuban struggle for independ- ence by adopting the name Radio Mart.A television equivalent followed in 1990,al- though the effect of both was limited by jam- ming.In the 1990s issues in the propaganda S. w Germany the justication for tight censorship Burgfrieden truce) and the fear that newspapers might publish sensitive military information.There as little to support this fear,for the only wire service in Germany was the officialWolff elegraph Bureau (WTB),which,at the out- break of war,became the German newspa- pers sole source of official war news,with all sensitive material rst being cleared by the German Foreign Office. In Britain,under the Defence of the Realm Act (DORA),such a severe system of censor- ship was created that it continues to have im- Century. Basingstoke,UK:Macmillan,2000; Levy,Leonard. Emergence of a Free Press. New ork:Oxford University Press,1985; Pratkanis,Anthony,and Elliot Aronson. Age of Propaganda:The Everyday Use and Abuse of New York:W.H.Freeman,1991; elch,David. Germany,Propaganda and Total New Brunswick,NJ:Rutgers University Press,2000. Central Intelligence Agency Latin America Propaganda is central to the operation of the Chinese system of government.Aspects of propagandain particular the formalization of imagery and languagecan be traced back to the earliest period of Chinese history,but propaganda has been most effective in the most notable was the reformer Liang Qichao Shibao, published from 1904 to 1939,served as a forum for debates on con- stitutional reform in China,which inßuenced the newly emerging urban middle class,par- ticularly in major cities such as Shanghai. Much of the vocabulary of modernity was also popularized through publications by Liang,paving the way for the introduction of ideological thought (national- lic) as a means of instilling wider respect for the Nationalist nation-building project.The other major propaganda exercise under Chi- ang was the anti-Communist campaign.After Chiang turned against the Chinese Commu- nists,who had been part of a united front with the Nationalists until 1927,the official press and media were encouraged to portray the small areas under Communist control in the 1930s as hotbeds of lawlessness and even sexual degeneracy (property in common, wives in commonwas a common gloss on the Communists at the time) in order to in- still fear in the population at large.Commu- nists were almost always referred to in offi- cial sources as bandits.This language was wiftly toned down after 1937,when a sec- ond united front was established against the apanese. The Japanese invasion of Chinese terri- tory,starting with the occupation of the northeast (Manchuria) in 1931,created a new language and imagery of resistance, which became increasingly powerful throughout the 1930s and the war years. Manchurian exiles from the Japanese occupa- tion used their positions on well-known peri- odicals such as eekly)which may have reached 1.5 mil- lion readersto write about atrocities in oc- cupied Manchuria,helping to stimulate an urban protest movement against Chiang Kai- sheks policy of appeasement of the Japanese. The imagery of resistance permeated popular ction of the period as well;in one 1933 best-seller all the characters joined the anti- apanese resistance.In Manchuria itself, meanwhile,Japanese-sponsored propaganda exercisessuch as new schoolbooks and the Concordia Association,a pressure group cre- ted to stimulate Sino-Japanese cooperation in the occupied zonecountered the argu- ments of anti-Japanese nationalism. During the Sino-Japanese War,writers and artists used their powers graphically to portray the nature of the Japanese invasion. Newspaper reporters such as Fan Changjiang (19091970) and Lu Yi (1911) reported from the front lines for the rst time in his- tory.Their reports,an important element in the stimulation of nationalist sentiment in China,used a combination of realistic report- ing and standardized imagery to portray aliant Chinese ghters combating vicious apanese invaders.Cartoonists also con- tributed to this imagery;the stark images of eng Zikai (18981975) remain among the best-known cartoons from the war period. Mao Zedong was the guiding spirit behind past.A partial exception was the campaign to inspire patriotism following the 1989 stu- dent-worker protests in Chinese cities,which esulted in the killings of protestors in Tiananmen Square in Beijing.In the 1990s propaganda took on new tasks,in particular the creation of a brand of nationalism based on traditional Chinese culture and on recent history not directly related to the Commu- nist Party,such as the war against Japan.One of the goals behind the nationalist campaign as to encourage reunication with Taiwan, which remains one of the last unfullled goals of the Communist Party.While propa- ganda remains a constant in Chinese everyday life thanks to the powerful control the state continues to exercise over the media,pub- lishing,and education,censorship has less- ened.The appearance of new media,such as ylor,Philip M. Munitions of the Mind.A History of Propaganda from the Ancient World to the Present Day. Manchester,UK:Manchester University Press,1995. Churchill,Winston (18741965) British Conservative politician and prime minister from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955,Winston Churchill holds an anomalous position in the history of propa- ganda.Although in some ways he was the consummate propagandist,Churchill dis- missed the importance of propaganda in modern war and politics,preferring deeds. Churchill (18491895),Winston seemed ted for politics from an early age.After a se- ies of adventures during war service as a cor- espondent in South Africa,he entered Parlia- ment in 1900.He left the Conservative Party to join the Liberals and quickly rose to promi- nence.During World War I he was First Lord of the Admiralty.During this period he learned the trick of holding back bad news until he had a piece of good news to counter- act it.This approach to news management served him well during World War II. During the General Strike of 1926 it was Churchill (then chancellor of the Exchequer) who directed government propaganda.He took over the BBC to give the government a monopoly on broadcast news and edited a special newspaper called British poster from 1940 featuring wartime prime minister and skilled propagandist Winston Churchill (Hulton-Deutsch without victory there can be no survival. Roosevelt eventually obtained Churchills olved the agency in all manner of propa- ganda activity.At its most basic,the CIA sub- sidized the propaganda of anti-Communists. This was used effectively in the Italian elec- Saunders,Frances Stonor. Who Paid the Piper? The CIA and the Cultural Cold War. London:Granta,1999;Soley,Lawrence C. Radio Warfare:OSS and CIA Subversive Propaganda. New York:Praeger,1989. Civil Defense ear of technological and military develop- ments have prompted civil and emergency planning boards to use propaganda to edu- cate the public.Civil defense propaganda was a particularly signicant part of the British governments output during World War II, also guring in Cold War propaganda on both sides of the Atlantic.Civil defense prop- aganda has been used to draw populations closer to their government by emphasizing shared risks and responsibilities. In World War I German air raids over London resulted in mass panic,stampedes for shelter,and even assaults on uniformed Royal Air Corps officers for failing to prevent the bombing.The impact was sufficient in 1924 for the British government to create a subcommittee of the Committee of Imperial Defense to look into the question of Air Raid Precautions (ARP).The newsreel footage of the blitzkrieg of Spanish towns in the 1930s during the Spanish Civil War revealed the vulnerability of European cities to such at- tacks.Based on the pessimistic predictions of the Ministry of Health and the Air Staff,a plan was developed in the 1930s to ensure that lines of communication and supply chan- nels remained open,as well as to give the government the authority to control the civilian population by force if,as was pre- dicted,mass panic should ensue. Shortly after Hitlers invasion of Austria in what precautions could be taken in the aimed their propaganda at both black and lib- eral white communities.This dual strategy had two aims:encouraging blacks to undertake di- ect action and gaining white sympathy, which,in turn,would exert pressure for polit- ical reform.The power of speech was the A poster showing Black Panther leaders Bobby Seale and Huey P.Newton,the latter heavily armed in a theatrical touch.(Library of Congress) o years later images of peaceful protesters being brutally clubbed by white police ap- peared as headline news on Bloody Sunday. providing a time span,it signied that fu- ture issues would follow.Second,it was re- porting current domestic news.Previously the printing of domestic news in England had been strictly prohibited.There was a wide- spread belief among government officials that too much informationa liberty of dis- coursewould demystify and undermine its authority. Newsbooks had existed much earlier in England,but they only printed news pertain- ing to continental Europe.However,with the Scottish and Irish rebellions (1639 and 1641, espectively) and the subsequent political turmoil,the mechanisms of governmental censorship broke down.Printing was closely controlled by the Court of High Commis- sion,the Star Chamber,and the Stationers Company in conjunction with the king and the archbishop of Canterbury.But in 1640 the Long Parliament impeached Archbishop illiam Laud (15731645) and imprisoned him in the Tower of London in 1641.Later that same year the Long Parliament abolished the Star Chamber and the Court of High Commission and rescinded the privileges of the Stationers Company.The printers of London took advantage of the uncertain po- litical situation to print and sell as much as they dared.The result was an explosion of quickly composed and cheaply printed news- still continued.Additional decrees to con- trol printing were to follow in 1647 and 1649,which imposed a forty-shilling fine on anyone carrying or mailing seditious books pictures,and most lm companies sent crews to the Iberian peninsula.During the rst eks of the conict the government was too usy preparing counterattacks to care about propaganda.The only organization able to lm and distribute movies was the Anarchist ederation,which emphasized popular partic- ipation and voluntary enlistment of the rather than a justication for aid to the Span- ish republic.In the longer term the Spanish conict resulted in previously unknown forms of ideological communication,the rad- Hope,Arkansas,and developed his interper- sonal skills at an early age.After graduating Official presidential portrait of Bill Clinton (Library of Congress) sixteenth centuryparticularly the large silver coin,the thalerwith enough space to permit the depiction of successful events. In Puritan England coins commemorated the beheading of Charles I (16001649),the legend appearing in English.When Charles countries in the years following World War II.The American journalist Walter Lippmann (18991974) popularized the term Cold arwhen he used it as the title of a 1947 book.Just when the Cold War began and ended remains open to question,but what is clear is that the heyday of that conict was the decade following the cessation of combat in 1945.If,after 1955,there was an occa- sional hiccupas in the early years of the ennedy administrationduring the early 1960s there was never a direct confrontation the truthto sell an ideological point of view to their citizens and to the world at large.The appeal was meantas is the wont of propa- gandato stir,to legitimize,to mobilize.De- spite new frames of reference,in the nal analysis Cold War propaganda harked back to traditional concepts on all sides,resulting in estern strategists keen to preserve a status quo that left British and American inuence predominant across the region.To that end, edly put Western policymakers on the defen- sive,U.S.and British diplomats stuck rigidly to policies of studied neutrality with regard to the Arab-Israeli conict,with Britain in par- ticular only too happy to score propaganda points in the Arab world through strongly orded condemnations of Israeli raids across the Jordanian and Egyptian borders. Another serious concern for Western pro- pagandists was the development of a strong neutralist trend in the Middle East,which posed more of a danger to Western than So- essential compatibility of Western and Is- lamic ideals and values.Communism was consistently denounced as a godless creed and the persecution of Muslim minorities University of Edinburgh Press,1998;Engels, Friedrich,and Karl Marx. Manifesto. London:Verso,1998;McLellan, David. Karl Marx:His Life and Thought. Macmillan,1973;Raddatz,Fritz J. Karl Marx:A olitical Biography. London:Weidenfeld and Nicolson,1979. Counterinsurgency Counterinsurgency is a term applied to strategiesmilitary,political,and psycho- logicalemployed to quell violent chal- lenges to authority over a particular terri- CPI (Committee on Public Information) A U.S.government propaganda agency oper- ting both at home and abroad,CPI was founded in April 1917 to promote the national effort during World War I.Under the direc- tion of George Creel (18761953)it is war correspondentcaused a scandal in London.Russells criticisms led the denounce the government of Lord Aberdeen (17841879),playing a part in its fall and also encouraging a climate of reform after the war. This and other demonstrations of the power of the pressincluding descriptions of the main British hospital at Scutari,near Constantino- ple,by Thomas Chenery (18261868),also of forced subsequent governments to take the media and war reporting seriously. Florence Nightingale (18201910) also used the press to exaggerate her own role in med- ical reform at Scutari.At the prompting of Prince Albert (18191861),the British gov- ernment responded by sending court photog- rapher Roger Fenton (18191868) to the Crimea in 1855 as the worlds rst accredited ar photographer. Russells account of the charge of the British light cavalry brigade at the Battle of Balaclava in 1854 inspired Alfred,Lord Ten- yson (18091892) to write his poem Charge of the Light Brigade. While appalled at the losses in the charge,Tennyson,like Rus- sell,stressed the heroism and sense of duty of the men.His poem became a cornerstone of Caribbean Cultural Propaganda Cultural propaganda is a long-term process One of the most interesting and bold ex- periments in cultural propaganda was the pol- icy of reeducationadopted by the Allies in different forms after the war.It represented a political experiment unique in modern his- tory.The rationale behind Britains policy of eeducation in the period 19451955 was to hange the political behavior and social out- look of the German people through a funda- mental restructuring of the various media.In practice this control extended beyond the press,radio,and lm to include the entire ed- David,Jacques-Louis (17481825) A French neoclassical painter active during the French Revolution,who later became court painter to Napoleon,David was born in Paris and trained in Italy.He gained fame based on a series of historical paintingsin- The Oath of the Horatii minor government office in 1695 and adopt- ing the name Defoe. Defoes poem The True BornEnglish- man(1701) attracted royal attention for its ttack on prejudice against the kings foreign birth.However,his irony inThe Shortest y with the Dissenters(1702),which called for the suppression of dissent,was mis- trated Western newspapers around the world and that a relatively high number of these se- act,invariably the United States denounces them as forgeries,allowing Moscow to claim Events included the 1989 invasion of Panama to remove dictator,drug supplier,and former .S.ally Manuel Noriega (1940) from power.Pressure groups engaged in propa- ganda for drug-law reform at the end of the century included a lobby on both sides of the Atlantic to legalize marijuana for medicinal use.Recurrent problems in government an- tidrug campaigns include the refusal to dis- Egypt Arab World Eisenstein,Sergei (18981948) oliticians have to air sound bitesto en- sure themselves limited coverage on tele- vision news,and television commercials ac- count for a major portion of campaign development of constituency parties to pro- vide volunteers. illiam Ewart Gladstone (18091898), the politician behind the reforms of 1872 and 1883,was also the great pioneer of political campaigning.After losing office as prime minister,Gladstone rebuilt his political for- tunes by campaigning for the seat of Midloth- ian,near Edinburgh,Scotland.The Midloth- American-style whistle-stop speeches.Glad- stone fought on a broad platform of nation- ally relevant (Liberal) ideologies rather that local issues tied to an individual candidate. The Conservative Party eventually matched this approach,and elections in Britain came to be fought in national party terms.Candi- dates offered up individual election state- ments and pledges.The rst party with a for- mal manifesto was the Labour Party in the became favorite campaign photo opportu- nities,and particularly effective or contro- sial posters could be cross-reported as news stories in their own right.Key exam- ples of the controversy genre included a Conservative poster in 1997 showing Tony Blair with demonic eyes and Labour posters in 2001 showing the Conservative leader as ing to increasing demand,have offered their professional services in managing political campaigns,thereby exposing the parties to professional communicators for the rst time,including consultants,advisers,copy- writers,public relations professionals,adver- tisers,and their respective staffs.Third,the adoption of certain components of U.S.elec- toral style raises hopes for a stable and pow- erful leadership. Recent campaigns have rapidly adopted a new style of electoral politics that can be haracterized by at least ve main features: 1.Telepolitics:Vigorous propaganda campaigns conducted through the broadcast media,particularly television,including extensive conventions become projects for professional producers,who freely mix entertainment and political speeches. 5.ÒPollsiÞcationÓ:The political weakness that Þrst opened campaign headquarters to outside experts also spurs candidates to commission polls to analyze every move they make. oliticians and the media are trapped in a kind of vicious circle that beneÞts the poll industry:the more polls,the more Þndings;the more Þndings,the more differences among them;the more differences,the greater the uncertainty;and so on. The new electoral propaganda style is likely to shape the quality of the political leadership,for it promotes a process of nega- tive selection that encourages mediocre can- didates possessing manipulative skills but lacking vision and leadership qualities.The mediocrity that is taking control of democ- racyÑthe demediocracy Ñis perhaps more bearable in an established Western democ- racy but may prove disastrous for a younger one that still faces problems of survival. Elections (United States);Israel Caspi,Dan.ÒWhen Americanization ails? From Democracy to Demediocracy in Israel.Ó During the 1952 presidential campaign Democratic candidate Adlai Stevenson was photographed with his legs crossed,revealing a most-visible hole in the sole of his shoe. Small sterling silver lapel pins of the shoe sole became symbols of StevensonÕs campaign.(Courtesy of David Culbert) the fear of democracy that characterized the many lawyers who wrote the Constitution. There were no political parties before 1828, which helps explain how different campaign- ing techniques were in a preindustrial soci- .S.Supreme Court intervened in a decision that left supporters of Democratic candidate in the German Rhineland during the revo- lutions of 18481849,fleeing to London when the revolutions collapsed.Engels sup- ported Marx both financially and intellectu- ally,and following Marxs death in 1883 he arranged for the posthumous publication of his friends remaining works.Engels was ac- tive in the formation of the Second Interna- Nicholas J.Cull TheCommunist Manifesto; International; The Internationale;Marx,Karl;Russia Carver,Terrell. Friedrich Engels:His Life and Thought. London:Macmillan,1989; McLellan,David. Friedrich Engels. New York: iking,1977. Environmentalism A belief in the need to conserve the natural environment,environmentalism developed from localized intellectual routes in the nine- teenth century to become a movement of global signicance by the end of the twenti- actor Iron Eyes Cody (1907Ð1999) weeping the sight of litter and pollution,bearing the slogan ÒKeep America Beautiful.ÓThe envi- onmental movement developed in tandem with the antinuclear movement.The best known radical environmental group,Green- peace,emerged in 1971 to protest against .S.government nuclear tests off Alaska. Many European countries developed ÒGreenÓparties.The most successful of these is probably the Germany Green Party (founded in 1979);by the end of the century GermanyÕs Greens had become the nationÕs third party.In 1998 they became part of a Environmentalist John Muir,c.1902.(Library of Congress) acic/Oceania;Peace and Antiwar Movements (1945);Scandinavia; Spring x,Stephen. Legacy:The American Conservation Movement. Boston:Little,Brown,1981;Hays,Samuel P. Beauty,Health and Permanence:Environmental olitics in the United States,19551985. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 1987;ONeill,Michael. Green Parties and olitical Change in Contemporary Europe:New olitics,Old Predicaments. London:Ashgate, 1997;Pearce,Fred. Green Warriors:The People and the Politics behind the Environmental Revolution. London:Bodley Head,1991;Wall, Derek. Green History:A Reader in Environmental Literature,Philosophy andPolitics. Routledge,1994. Exhibitions and Worlds Fairs Ever since the huge success of the 1851 Great Exhibition in London,the idea of ex- hibitions and worlds fairs to promote trade, industry,art,and knowledge has become an industry in itself.In 1928 an international convention established the Bureau of Inter- national Expositions to organize and control exhibitions and fairs.Exhibitions and worlds irs have always been about far more than the simple promotion of knowledge and trade.They have been used to celebrate his- torical events,which usually meant that the host country took the opportunity to stress its national culture and achievements.They have also been used to underscore a nations superiority over its rivals,thereby,strictly speaking,violating the original spirit behind The inspiration for the Great Exhibition as Prince Albert (18191861).The prince consort was very much a man of his time,and his idea for a celebration of the industry of ÒdegenerateÓIndians.A similar spirit per- aded the famous 1904 Louisiana Purchase International Exposition,held in St.Louis, where there were numerous Òanthropological exhibits.Ó(The St.Louis Fair committee also brought the Olympics to the city.) The British imperial fairs also contained specially uilt villages designed to display the customs and culture of the various subject peoples. eople in Bolivia inspect John Glenn's Mercury space capsule,exhibited in 1962 as part of its Cold War information program the U.S.Information Agency.(National Archives) (1905),Brussels (1910),and Ghent (1913). The French revealed themselves to be even more infatuated by the concept.After a hugely successful fair in 1867,Paris hosted exhibitions in 1878,1889,and 1900.The 1889 centenary of the Revolution proved to be a particularly spectacular affair,with the stport,CT:Greenwood,1990; Rydell,Robert W. All the Worlds a Fair:Visions of Empire at the American International Expositions, Chicago:University of Chicago Press,1984;Rydell,Robert W.,John E. Findling,and Kimberly D.Pelle. air America: lds Fairs in the United States. DC:Smithsonian Institution Press,2000. Exhibitions and Worlds Fairs121 Fakes Throughout history propagandists have re- sorted to the use of fake texts or visual mem- orabilia to elicit an emotional response from the intended audience.Usually fake propa- ganda is employed to create or reinforce ex- it,and sent copies to the United States, where it was published in the New York Times on the anniversary of the sinking.This at- tracted so much attention that the British de- cided to further exploit anti-German feeling and producing propaganda medals in Nazi Germany. David Welch Anti-Semitism;Atrocity Propaganda; Latin America;Oates,Titus; Radio propaganda also gured in war.Ar- gentina established Radio Nacional IslasMalv- inas on the facilities of the Falkland Islands Broadcasting Station (FIBS).The station broadcast a mixture of morale-boosting pro- rams for the occupying troops and news in English for the Falkland Islanders mounted by the old staff.A television service (with plenty of soccer coverage) followed.Meanwhile the British sought to address enemy troops through a clandestine short-wave radio sta- tion called Radio Atlntico del Sur(Radio South Atlantic),based on Ascension Island. Listenership was limited since few Argen- tinean soldiers had short-wave radios.The Ar- on Radio Liberty,where Miss Liberty,the Buenos Aires Belleroundly denounced Mar- orld War II the Giornale dItalia heavy propaganda.As the war progressed, ascist propaganda became more pervasive in newspapers such as IlResto del Carlino,La Voce dItalia,Il Secolo, and others. Mussolini created a mass Fascist culture through the use of photographs,symbols,and posters.Pictures of Il Duce launching gran- diose public projects such as the Battaglia del Grano(Battle of the Grain),or followed by an army of blackshirts,symbol of Fascist virility,were widespread.Il Duce also fa- ed monumental architecture,attempting to build a new Rome out of marble and con- trial,and artistic interests,its appointees all loyal members of the Fascist Party. occupy space on the program with the news- eel.The history of the documentary,then,is oftenthough by no means alwaysthat of a poor country cousin. Robert Flaherty (18841954) in the United States and Dziga Vertov (18961951) ject,where exposing the racism of whites is just one of several controversial issues. David Culbert Capra,Frank;Film (Nazi Germany): Film (Newsreels);Grierson,John;Indonesia; The Plow That Broke the Plains; Riefenstahl,Leni; iumph of the Will; Why We Fight Barnouw,Erik. Documentary. New York:Oxford,1992;Cumings,Bruce. ar and Television. New York:Verso,1992; Nichols,Bill. Representing Reality:Issues and Concepts in Documentary. Bloomington:Indiana University Press,1991;Toplin,Robert Brent, Ken Burnss The Civil War:Historians Respond. New York:Oxford,1996. Film (Feature) 1941,each of the major studios agreed to Leni Riefenstahl,in an elevator used for Þlming crowd scenes from above,at a Nazi Party rally in Nuremberg,1934.(Courtesy of David Culbert) Das alte recht (The Old Right,1934), which justied the states hereditary farm law; (I for You ou for Me,1934),which emphasized the importance of blood and soil; Der Herrscher (The Ruler,1937),which provided analogies with Hitlers teachings and called for strong leadership; Sensationsprozess Casilla sational Trial of Casilla,1939),a work of anti-American propaganda designed to idicule the American way of life;and (Homecoming,1941),which pre- sented the sad fate of German nationals living abroad.Goebbels chose to keep prestigious lm propaganda at its maximum level of ef- fectiveness by spacing out the lmsexcept, that is,for newsreels (Deutsche Wochen- schau),which depended on their ability to capture the immediacy of events.Full-length documentaries such as Leni Riefenstahls Tri- umph des Willens (Triumph of the Will,1935) Olympia (1938) were all the more effec- tive for their comparative rarity. This strategy illustrates Goebbelss desire to mix entertainment with propaganda.He encouraged the production of feature lms that reected the ambience of National So- cialism instead of loudly proclaiming its ide- ology.The results of such a were a monopolistic system of control and organiza- tion that stressed prots,increased audience ttendance,and resulted in an extremely high standard of technical prociency.In the nal analysis,however,it contributed little stylisti- cally to the history of the cinema. David Welch Germany;Goebbels,Joseph;Hitler, Riefenstahl,Leni;RMVP; iumph of the Will; orld War II (Germany) Leiser,E. Secker and Warburg,1974;Welch,David. Propaganda and the German Cinema,193345. London:I.B.Tauris,2002. Film (Newsreels) Newsreels consisted of a diverse selection of news stories contained on a single reel of lm.They were generally shown in movie theaters either weekly or semiweekly be- tween 1908 and the late 1970s.Newsreels silent until the late 1920s,with any message beyond purely pictorial information being relayed through titles.With the arrival of sound in the late 1920s,they assumed their most familiar form,consisting of back- ound music and an authoritative,unseen commentator.In the era before television, they were a powerful medium for the com- unication (and suppression) of news in moving images,and their impact on millions of viewers was considerable. News stories had been a staple of moving pictures since their inception in the mid- the newsreels were most often content to be purveyors of moving pictures of what had al- eady been read as news in other media. Their most insidious effect was support of the status quo.Commentators critical of the newsreels in the 1930s generally accused them of a right-wing bias,and only Para- mount Newsin the United States and Britain did not shy away from controversy and a less supine attitude toward prevailing orthodoxies.The regular excuse of the newsreels was that they were an entertain- ment medium.There was pressure by ex- hibitors,who wanted nothing controversial added to the overall movie package;given the small portion of that program occupied the newsreels,they were in no position to protest. Direct government intervention in news- eel content rst occurred with the arrival of orld War I.Officialdom gradually recog- nized the growing popularity and power of the movies;in mid-1917 the French created an of- cial newsreel entitled Annales de la Guerre, closely followed by the British,who took over an existing newsreel to create the War Office Britain;Canada;Civil War,Spanish; ascism,Italian;Latin America;Mussolini, Benito;Reeducation;RMVP;World War I; orld War II (Britain);World War II (Germany);World War II (Russia);World War II (United States) Fielding,Raymond. The American Newsreel,19111967. Norman:University of Oklahoma Press,1972;. ime,19351951. New York:Oxford University Press,1978;Reeves,Nicholas. er of Film Propaganda:Myth or Reality? London:Cassell,1999. Flagg,James Montgomery Flagg,the American artist who in 1917 cre- ted the famous Uncle Sam poster (I want ou for U.S.Army),was born in New York. By World War I he had become a popular magazine illustrator,working for such publi- cations as Harpers Weekly and had gained a reputation as a man-about- town.His personal life was colorful and often scandalous.He also illustrated books of comic poems and produced satirical portraits of the famous faces of his day.With the entry of the United States into World War I in 1917,Flagg accepted work from the gover- nor of New York and joined the Division of Pictorial Publicity,a New Yorkbased volun- tary group of artists assembled by illustrator Charles Dana Gibson (18671944) to create posters for the federal government.Flagg crown.Even Marguerite of Navarre (1492 1549),the kings independent-minded sister, as attacked for daring to question clerical dogma.A satirical play staged at the College de Navarre depicted her as preaching heresy and tormenting all those who would not heed her.Francis and his heirs failed to re- solve the religious conict,and the war of ordsoften became one of bloody mayhem as well. The 1560s,1570s,and 1580s were charac- terized by Catholic-Protestant civil war,in- cluding assassinations and massacres.Both sides appealed to the crowd through propa- ganda.Franois Hotmans (15241590) Francogallia argued that France had been en- slaved by popery,while Louis Dorlanss Advertisement of the English Catholics to the French Catholics arms to the Catholic League.In 1589 Henry IV (15531610) ascended the throne as a Protestant.His struggle with the league, which controlled Paris and a number of other cities,went on for years,propaganda playing a central role on both sides.Paris printers ell paid to produce material that ex- tolled Catholicism while excoriating Protes- tantism and King Henry.An example was an Since only members of the Third Estate were elected,the opposition began circulating guides for writing cahiers de dolances The Third Republics propaganda sought to minimize the defeat of 1871,romanticize the French empire,and to call for la revanche. As reparation for its treatment of the Com- une,the state built the basilica of Sacre Coeur in Paris,which bears the inscription Gallia Paenitens(France Penitent) on the domed ceiling.Populist General George credited by a government-inspired whisper- ing campaign.In the press La Citoyenne advocated womens rights,and Confdration Gnral du Travail advocated trade unionism by threatening violent strikes. husbands wife,childrens mother,server of physical needs of husband,children,home, and never as person dening herself by her omen seeking professional careers to act on their desires.Friedan,who divorced in 1969, has been featured recently in Modern Maturity, house organ for millions of American re- tirees.Today,she publicly claims to have found fulllment in the success of her chil- dren and grandchildren. David Culbert Abortion;Womens Movement:Second- e/Feminism from the Royal Navy College at Greenwich, where it had lain in state,down the Thames to St.Pauls Cathedral.A huge crowd gathered to witness the funeral procession and lled the cathedral to capacity.The whole cere- mony served to emphasize Britains naval might and its unity with God.When the eatest British soldier of the Napoleonic died,the capital witnessed similar scenes.The Duke of Wellington (17691852) as accorded a full state funeral in 1852.He lay in state at the Royal Hospital,Chelsea, where so many people led past his coffin that two mourners were accidentally crushed to death.Once again the funeral was used to stress Britains martial prowess and bene- cence.Former prime minister William Glad- stone (18091898) lay in state in Westmin- ster Hall before being buried at Westminster Abbey.Each occasion was carefully used to promote a particular image of Britain.Given the renewed interest in ceremony and ritual Gandhi,Mohandas K.(18691948) This Indian nationalist leader,more com- monly known by the title Mahatma (great soul) Gandhi,was born in Kathiawar,India. Gandhi trained as a lawyer in London and practiced law in Bombay.In 1893 he moved to South Africa and spent the next two decades ghting racial discrimination.In 1914 he re- turned to India and joined the struggle for home rule.Realizing that violent resistance ould lead to further violence,he resorted to aptitude for journalism and by the age of separate destinies.The rival African Ameri- The Messenger began a Garvey must go!campaign.The Black Star shipping line ultimately proved his undoing.Its nances sloppy and left Garvey open to allega- tions of corruption.In 1925 he was sent to jail in Georgia for mail fraud.In 1927 his sen- tence was commuted to exile.He died in ob- scurity in Britain in 1940. Garveys achievement as a propagandist as considerable.He developed both the message of black pride and the media to carry that message to his audience.His teach- ings were part of the background to the black literary renaissance of the 1920s and reap- peared in the anticolonial movements of Africa and the Caribbean in the 1950s and in the American black power movement of the 1960s. Nicholas J.Cull Caribbean;Civil Rights Movement; Malcolm X;United States Cronon,Edmund D. Black Moses:The Story of Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association. Madison:University of isconsin Press,1955;Stein,Judith. The World politics was not a feature of the Germanic form of kingship,which was a limited monarchy.Propaganda had the dual role of proclaiming the great power of the emperor and obtaining allegiance to the feudal system the local level. From the mid-fourteenth to the mid-sev- litical gures (although rarely the Emperor). Propaganda and persuasion continued to be rather than developing a dialogue or consen- sus.The bureaucratization and militarization of public life and an imperialist foreign policy, which stirred peoples emotions at home, bound nationalism and militarism with the monarchist authoritarian state. ith Bismarcks resignation in 1890, Kaiser Wilhelm II (18591941) presented (peoples Kaiser); idealized portraits of a statuesque Wilhelm obscured his insecurity and complex person- ality,masking his stunted body and withered arm from the public.The new policy of im- perialism adopted by Wilhelm II represented a nal attempt to overcome internal divisions through foreign policy successes.The kaisers motto remained: as a task;to be- of the new Propaganda Ministry was to coor- dinate the political will of the nation with the aims of the Nazi state.To this end he quickly The official Nazi Party membership lapel pin:National- Sozialistische-D.A.P (National Socialist German Workers' ty).(Courtesy of David Culbert) GDR received Western television and radio, and in the 1960s the authorities waged an un- successful campaign to counter West Ger- man broadcasts. In the FRG the Allied occupation laid the basis for the resurrection of a strong press, freed from the threat of political oppression and abuse.It also had the effect of suppressing all other forms of discourse and concentrating the media in the hands of such giants as Axel Springer (19121985),who personied press power in the FDR.He was granted a license to launch a new radio-program magazine, (Listen),in 1946.He founded the Hamburger Abendblatt two years later,and in June 1952 Bild Zeitung. lowing year he bought Die Welt from the British,who had established it as the mouth- piece of their military government in Ger- many.Springer also established a number of magazines and moved into commercial broad- casting.The right-wing political stance that the Springer media empire adopted beginning in the late 1950s led to an ongoing feud with the countrys intelligentsia.In West Germany the Allies were concerned that broadcasting should be decentralized.In 1954 the Arbeitsgemein- schaft der ffentlich-rechtlichen Rund- funkanstalten der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (ARD;Working Group of the Public Broad- casting Corporations of the Federal Republic of Germany) was formed;consisting of eleven ional public broadcasting organizations,its mandate was to create national radio and tele- vision programs while drawing on the re- sources of regional stations.When the FRG gained full sovereignty in 1955,the federal states were granted full autonomy in broad- casting.The two foreign-language radio or- ganizations operating under federal law are Deutsche Welle (DW;Voice of Germany;lit- erally,German [Air] Wave) and Deutschland- funk (DL;Radio Germany).Both stations en- oseph Goebbels,German minister of propaganda,attends a demonstration in 1934.(Illustrated London News Picture Library) with the political situation,with a prepon- derance of pure propaganda in the rst years of the war.Nevertheless he consistently aimed to keep the people content,which gave his approach to propaganda an undeni- able modern touch.An agitator against bol- shevism,democracy,and liberalism and a preacher of hate,Goebbels did not merely threaten people or make them obey his mes- sage;he also calculated the effects of enter- tainment sanitized of any forbidden or sub- sive qualities.His loyalty to Hitler was nally rewarded when the dictator declared him his successor as chancellor (with Admiral )testament.A few hours after Hitler commit- ted suicide,Goebbels and his wife poisoned their six children before following the exam- ple of their leader. propaganda.British propaganda therefore equired delicate handling.Wellington House pared the population of Afghanistan for a planned U.S.air and land war by dropping food containers and radios that could only pick up one signal.The U.S.-run radio sta- tion,which did not formally identify itself, simply referred to itself as Afghan FM.Sand- in Greece include regulations outlawing at- tacks against the church and a law forbidding unwarranted publicity for terrorists.Ter- ist-group operations in Greece include the small left-wing November 17th move- ment,whose propaganda by actionin- cluded the assassination of a British military ttach in 2000.In the 1990s the Macedonia 1988;Wiener,Malcolm H.ÒPicasso and the Cuban Missile Crisis.Ó Gulf War (1991) This war against Iraq for the liberation of million.Hill and Knowltons tactics in- cluded a staple of propaganda:the atrocity story.On 10 October 1990 a distraught aiti teenager identified only as Nayirah told a hearing of the U.S.Congressional Caucus on Human Rights that invading Iraqi soldiers had stolen incubators from a mater- nity hospital in Kuwait and had left babies to die on the floor.The report subsequently became a fixture in Western human rights stories and was included in President Bushs denunciations of Saddam.Nayirah had not witnessed the events but was simply the daughter of the Kuwaiti ambassador to the United States.Once the war had begun,in- novations in American propaganda included the extensive use of images of the environ- mental damage allegedly caused by Sad- dams tacticssuch as his use of crude oil as an anti-invasion measurein Kuwait;in an environmentally sensitive era,television pictures of oil-soaked cormorants and hemical fires in Kuwait had a marked im- pact on European (particularly German) opinion.Analysis after the campaign re- ealed that the pictures of seabirds,while genuine,predated the particular crime they used to illustrate. Iraqi propaganda began with Saddam Hus- seins efforts to intimidate his enemieswho massing in Operation Desert Shield pledging the mother of all battles.Radio Baghdad broadcasts by a female announcer tions on how to surrender,and sixty thou- sand Iraqi troops did so,greatly accelerating the progress of the Western campaign.The experience boosted U.S.condence in the power of psychological warfare. The restrictions of the UN resolution and the fragility of the coalition meant that the Bush administration had to limit its campaign in Iraq.The war ended with the liberation of ait.The United States also appreciated the value of the clean warimage to bolster domestic and international support.Analysts have noted that the United States ended the ar at precisely the moment that the world saw the effect of its bombs on the Iraqi armys acuation route,the Basra Road,which was subsequently dubbed the Highway of Death. Saddam remained in office and proceeded to consolidate his dictatorship by attacking the urdish opposition in the north.The coali- tion had held for the duration of the conict, ut many in the Islamic world were not con- vinced of the wider benevolence of American involvement in the region.The spectacle of American troops operating from Saudi Ara- bia,a land holy to Muslims,enraged a number of religious extremists,including Osama bin Laden (1957),whose actions would pre- cipitate the next major Western intervention in the region ten years later.The media as- pects of the war represented a high point of the postCold War Western domination of the global media.In subsequent campaigns the United States had to contend with alter- raduate student in California dented the Blair administrations reputation for skillful spin. Media reporting of the war and the wars psychological dimension are of particular concern to the student of propaganda.In both areas,the Gulf War of 2003 can claim a number of rsts.Clearly this was a war of killed by American friendly re,covered the invasion from inside Baghdad. The print media did a good job of covering the war,even if at some distance from fast- moving events.Technology served the cause of print graphics.Aerial topography,brilliant raphic design,and the use of color allowed New York Times to run daily full-page maps showing precisely what was happening,even .S.and British forces have intensied the use of psychological operations,known as psy-ops.The United States engaged in a comprehensive airwaves campaign to soften its enemy and soothe its population at home. Spearheading the electronic propaganda campaign were converted C-130 cargo planes transmitting a mixture of Arabic and stern music,along with announcements to the troops and citizens of Iraq,urging them to lay down their weapons.These planes were the coalitions weapons of mass persuasion.The radio transmissions were The promotion of public health has become a staple subject of propaganda for governmen- tal and nongovernmental organizations around the world.Government-sponsored health campaigns rst appeared during orld War I,although at this early stage they rarely coordinated.Most of the bel- ligerent states worried about the spread of enereal disease and launched campaigns to of the danger of unprotected sex.In orld War II health campaigns gured more prominently in official propaganda.The time emergency meant that citizens had to be physically t in order to ght,work in industry,cope with air raids,and endure hardship caused by food and other shortages. In Britain during World War II adequate food supplies were recognized as a key factor in the maintenance of morale.The British government mobilized a number of min- istries to explain official policy and to stress the importance of good health for the suc- cessful conclusion of the war effort.The Ministry of Food was one of the largest spenders on publicity,issuing a constant ow propaganda,although this was largely in sup- port of its sinister racial and eugenics cam- paigns.In July 1933 the Law for the Preven- tion of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring permitted the compulsory sterilization of people suffering from a number of allegedly hereditary illnesses.Less well known is the orlds most aggressive antitobacco health campaign,launched by the Nazi government in the 1930s.Nazi policies included bans on smoking in public places,increased tobacco taxes,advertising bans,and research into eous mentality of many Americans of the 1890s.When staff artist Frederic Remington helped introduce to a wider audience the pantheon of Zionist heroessuch as Herzl and Max Nordau (18491923)who formed the mainstay of Zionist imagery until the end of World War I.After his death in 1904, Herzls imagery took on epic proportions in both print and visual formats.Various por- traits of him continued to circulate during subsequent Zionist congresses,and his life as presented as the quintessential journey from assimilation to Zionism. Frederic Krome Anti-Semitism;Israel;JAccuse; Berkowitz,Michael. The Jewish Self- Image in the West. New York:New York University Press,2000;Kornberg,Jacques. Theodor Herzl:From Assimilation to Zionism. Bloomington:Indiana University Press,1993. Robertson,Ritchie,and Edward Timms. Theodor Herzl and the Origins of Zionism. Edinburgh:Edinburgh University Press,1997. Hitler,Adolf (18891945) Dictator of Nazi Germany and arguably the statements that became hostages to fortune, as was the case in July 1940,when he an- nounced that the war had been won,or in July 1941,when he proclaimed the defeat of the USSR.As early victories gave way to a stalemate on the steppes of the USSR,and the noose of Allied air power tightened around GermanyÕs neck,Hitler and Joseph Goebbels (1897Ð1945),his propaganda min- ister,attempted to use propaganda to rally the German public for a total war.At this point Nazi Germany paid the price for its Òleadership principle.ÓHitlerÑas though be- lieving his own propagandaÑassumed per- sonal command of numerous military opera- tions and refused to acknowledge that victory had deserted him.No amount of propaganda could prevent the destruction of HitlerÕs Germany in 1945. Nicholas J.Cull Anti-Semitism;Austrian Empire;The Big Lie;Civil Defense;Fascism,Italian;Germany; Goebbels,Joseph;Health;Holocaust Denial; Lord Haw-Haw; Pola traiture;Portugal;Propaganda,DeÞnitions of;Psychological Warfare;RMVP;Rumor; orld War II (Germany) Domarus,Max. Hitler:Speeches and Proclamations 1932Ð1945. 4 vols.Wauconda,IL: Bolchazy-Carducci,1990Ð;Kershaw,Ian. Hitler Myth:Image and Reality in the Third Reich. Oxford:Oxford University Press,1987;Welch, David. The Third Reich:Politics and Propaganda. ed.New York:Routledge,2002. German Chancellor Adolf Hitler receives the ovation of the Reichstag in Berlin in March 1938 after announcing the "peaceful" acquisition of Austria.(National Archives) what they believe to be the prime event that discredited Nazism,namely,the Holocaust. Holocaust deniers cast themselves as revi- sionists,thereby attempting to lay claim to historical legitimacy by arguing that they are merely trying to examine the otherside of the issue in order to uncover the true facts. books publication in 1997,Irving depicted himself as a free-speech martyr,the victim of a Jewish conspiracy.Irving later sued Ameri- can historian Deborah Lipstadt (1947) for libel in a British court after she had branded him a Holocaust denier.Irving,who repre- sented himself during the trial (January April 2000),lost his suit and was assessed a schossen,/ marschierÕn im Geist in unsem Reihen mit.Ó(Raise the ßag! Close ranks! / The SA marches calmly with purposeful tread./ Comrades killed by the Red Front and reactionaries / march with us in spirit.) David Culbert Goebbels,Joseph;Music Baird,Jay W. Die for Germany: Heroes in the Nazi Pantheon. Indiana University Press,1990;Murdoch, Brian. Fighting Songs and Warring Words:Popular ics of Two World Wars. London:Routledge, 1990;Welch,David. Propaganda and the German Cinema,1933Ð1945. London:I.B.Tauris,2001. Hungary ustrian Empire Hussein,Saddam (1937Ð) Saddam Hussein was born in 1937 in Tikrit, near Baghdad.In the 1950s he became in- olved in the BaÕath Party,which combined socialism and Iraqi and Arab nationalism in a potent blend.Like European fascists of the early 1920s,its leaders preached that vio- lence could be a creative force.Saddam took part in two unsuccessful coups (1959 and 1964) before playing a key role in the revolu- tion of 1968.During the 1970s he came to dominate the revolutionary government in Iraq,emerging as president in 1979. Propaganda was at the heart of SaddamÕs BaÕath Party regime.He controlled the media and nurtured the sort of personality Iraqi 25-dinar note bearing the likeness of Saddam Hussein.The notes were overprinted for use as occupation currency when Iraq controlled Kuwait after the invasion,August 1991.(Courtesy of David Culbert) Hoping to use Kuwaiti oil revenues to speed his postwar reconstruction,in 1990 he invaded Kuwait.He remained in power long after the victorious Western forces in the Gulf ar of January and February 1991 forced him to leave that country.During this armed con- ict Saddam pursued a number of propaganda strategies.He addressed himself to the people of the Arab world as a truer representative of the peoples aspirations than their ruling elites and sought the approval of the region by launching missile attacks against Israel.In his approach to the West Saddam sought to ex- Scandinavia Ignatius of Loyola,Saint The founder of the Jesuit Order and pioneer of systematic propaganda,Iigo Lopez de Recalde was born in Loyola,northern Spain,to a wealthy family.He began his reli- ious activity in 1522,after a war wound cut short a promising military career.Ig- natius of Loyolas core idea was to apply military discipline and structure to religious enterprise.In 1534 he and his associate Francis Xavier (15061552) founded the disgruntledemployee of the company, launched the rst newspaper,the Bengal printing and composing machines were to- tally outdated and worn out.This made it which chose to be an Islamic country,and India,which sought to remain secularthus edrawing the political map of South Asia. Like the country,the provinces of Punjab and Bengal were divided,leading to bloody riots tion of newsprint and the release of public advertisements.In the absence of adequate democratic and constitutional safeguards to protect their interests,journalists have been compelled either to work under a self-im- posed censorship or to engage in political propaganda that suits the government.Ef- forts are now being made to enhance the scope of media freedom in Pakistan. Newsprint quotas were abolished in 2000 and a customs duty on newsprint was re- duced.In 2001 the government presented a model freedom of information act for wider public debate. Interestingly,in the case of television in India,the involvement of the private sector has become significant since the mid-1990s. Until then the government had maintained total control over this media institution. The party in power has always used tele- vision to influence and alter the terms of political debate.For instance,it has been argued that the soap-opera serialization of Ramayana on national television from anuary 1987 to September 1990 helped the Hindu right propagate and assert its po- litical agenda,which centered on the issue of the reconstruction of the Ram temple in odhya.On the other hand,radio,which as introduced to the subcontinent in 1921 as an experiment and was made into a state monopoly in 1930,remained an important arm of state propaganda machinery until the mid-1990s.Legislation was passed to make both radio and television au- tonomous.In the case of Pakistan,the elec- tronic media is virtually owned by the gov- ernment.This has given rise to the criticism that this segment of media pres- ents an unrealistically positive and sanitized sion of reality.The mutual banning of media broadcasts by Pakistan and India has thirds of its population resides on a handful of these islands,including Java and Bali.The ast majority of Indonesias inhabitants are Muslim.Propaganda has gured centrally in each religions efforts to capture the hearts tures sexual freedom,a subject that found wide interest in American mass-circulation magazines of the 1930s. A Balinese Family 1942) illustrates Meads approach.In the ords of an anonymous reviewer,this lm is a study of a Balinese family showing the way in which father and mother treat the three oungest childre There are scenes showing the father giving the baby his breast. the other hand,argued successfully that in- telligence work was not solely concerned with propaganda.Rather,its function was to compile periodic summaries,based on a wide sampling of diplomatic sources,for policymakers on the political situation in foreign countries.In World War II this real- tured the growth of trades unions across Eu- ope,as well as Social Democratic parties,es- pecially in Germany (led by August Bebel, 18401913),and Russia (led by Georgi Plekhanov,18571918).The movement lost momentum at the outbreak of World War I in 1914,with the international working-class movement collapsing in the face of rampant nationalism.Following the Russian Revolu- tion of 1917,the Bolsheviks,led by Vladimir Lenin (18701924),claimed the leadership of the world socialist movement and estab- lished the Third International (the Commu- nist International,or Comintern) in 1919. This became a major channel of Communist propaganda in the interwar years.The mod- erate European Social Democratic parties re- sponded by reviving the Socialist Interna- tional,which merged with a second alternative grouping (the Vienna Interna- tional of 1921) in 1923.In 1938 the follow- ers of Leon Trotsky (18791940) established the militant Fourth International,which later broke into splinter groups. The Comintern ceased operation in 1943 as Stalin,seeking cooperation with the Allied powers,pulled back from a global socialist Nicholas J.Cull Comintern;Engels,Friedrich;The Internationale;Lenin,Vladimir Ilyich;Marx, Karl;Russia;Stalin,Joseph;Trotsky,Leon Braunthal,Julius. International. 3 vols.London:Nelson,1966, 1967,1980;Joll,James. International,18891914. London:Routledge, 1974;Katz,Henryk. Emancipation of Labour:A History of the First International. Greenwood,1992. The Internationale(18711888) The rousing anthem of the international So- cialist movement and one of the best-known propaganda songs since La Marseillaise.The ords appeared as a poem written in June 1871 by the French Communard Eugne Pot- tier (18161887) following the bloody defeat of the Paris Commune.The tune was com- posed in 1888 by a Lille wood-carver named Pierre Degeyter (18481932).The song brother Adophe (18581917) contested its authorship,which gave rise to an eighteen- ear lawsuit that was decided in Pierres The song rapidly became popular in France,which hosted the Second Interna- tional (1889) soon after its composition.In 1910 the International Socialist Congress in anthem.In January 1913 Lenin (18701924) wrote an admiring article in Pravda the twenty-fth anniversary of Pottiers death,calling him one of the greatest propa- gandists in song.From 1917 to 1943 it into frequently visited websites.Some inter- national radio stations,including the Voice of Campaign poster featuring the late Ayatollah Khomeini and Ali Khamenei.(BAHAR/IMAX/CORBIS SYGMA) too pro-German for Allied tastes,and when British and Russian forces occupied Iran he abdicated in favor of his son,Muhammad Reza Shah Pahlavi (19181980). The career of the second Muhammad Reza Shah was intimately bound up with the U.S. presence in the region.At the end of World ar II Iran became the scene of Western-So- men and women to engage in a struggle that included the use of human wavetactics on the battleeld.Iranian propaganda stressed the duty (and virtue) of self-sacrice.The arwhich included a prolonged radio propaganda duelended in a stalemate in 1988.Meanwhile,Iran became a major sponsor of propaganda through direct ac- tion,that is,terrorism.Irans international propaganda is generally expressed in terms out the world.The approach adopted was to of Ireland made extensive use of propa- gandaespecially censorshipto shape the development of the country. As with so much Irish history,the story of propaganda in Ireland is inextricably linked to England.Ireland entered the sixteenth century with English power concentrated around Dublin.With the arrival of the Refor- mation,Catholic Ireland seemed like an ideo- logical threat to the Protestant English Hyde (18601949),author of the tract Necessity for De-anglicising the Irish People (1892).Associated Gaelic League propaganda included the newspaper that emphasized the Protestant view of his- tory.The annual marches by branches of the Orange Order were an eloquent form of propaganda in which one communitys ver- sion of the past was remembered and that communitys power demonstrated in the po- tent ritual of marching through minority neighborhoods to the beat of an enormous drum.In 1967 Protestant power was sud- denly called into question by a Catholic civil ights movement,which drew inspiration from the contemporaneous achievements of African Americans.The movement used marches and rallies to focus world attention on basic grievances.Its success provoked a vi- olent backlash from parts of the Unionist community.The crisis escalated beyond the control of the provincial government.In Au- gust 1969 the rst British troops arrived in Ulster,ostensibly to protect the Catholic mi- nority.As the British army attempted to con- tain Catholic anger,they too were drawn into a cycle of violence. By the early 1970s the situation in North- ern Ireland had produced a perverse stale- mate.Paramilitary groups based in each com- unitythe Provisional Irish Republican Army and Irish National Liberation Army rep- esenting the Catholic/Nationalist;the Ulster Defence Association and Ulster Volunteer orce representing the Protestant/Unionist employing actors to dub their remarks. Thatchers successor,John Major (1943), lifted the ban in 1994.The British govern- ment was also an active player in the Irish propaganda war,circulating its own version of events internationally and within the do- mestic media of Britain. In the 1990s the entrenched positions of actions in Northern Ireland began to soften. The years 19941995 brought hope in the form of an IRA cease-re.Britains Northern Ireland Office began a new propaganda cam- paign bearing the slogan Rat on a Rat, which utilized television appeals for informa- tion on terrorism.On Good Friday 1998 the parties to the conict agreed to seek a new and mutually acceptable form of government for the province centered on a Northern Irish assembly.The Northern Ireland Executive convened in late 1999,and it seemed that Irish politics had entered a new era.Symbolic points remained moot,with intense debate er such issues as which ags would y and what the name of the police force ought to be.However,the executive stalled over the issue of arms decommissioning,and rule ypes of Propaganda in Israel rg Sociological propaganda to cultivate national identity. Routine and emergency propaganda. Election propaganda. Sociological propaganda to reinforce national identity among Diaspora Jews. Agitprop to encourage immigration to Propaganda to promote consensus and econciliation with the State among its minorities. Initiative and reactive propaganda toward enemy states and others. time propaganda aimed at Arab states. eace propaganda toward Western states. of the new states extended armed conict with its neighbors,entailing a struggle for le- itimization of its very right to exist among the family of nations,especially those of its wn region.To a great extent,domestic and foreign propaganda were considered part of the State of Israels battle for survival. Fluctuations in the severity of the conict which Hebrew teachers help Jews all over the world rediscover their national identity. Furthermore,Israel is assisted in no small measure by the activities of Jewish lobbies throughout the world,such as the American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC), which helps Israel explain its positions to the .S.administration.Other bodies develop support for the Israeli governments policies and seek to build a national consensus.A ell-oiled government public relations ma- hine has expanded over the years. In Israel,as in other countries,the govern- ment initiates periodic information cam- immediately be credited to intensied prop- aganda efforts. One well-known reection of this cyclical process was discerned in the mid-1970s.In esponse to a sense of increasing diplomatic distress over international criticism of Israels control of territories conquered in the Six- Day War,the government decided to concen- trate propaganda efforts in a special official body,the Information Ministry,entrusted to Brig.(res.) Aharon Yariv (19201994),a for- mer intelligence chief in the Israeli Defense orce (IDF) responsible for political contacts with Egypt.The ministry disappeared once that governments term of office ended.Sim- ilarly,in 2001 Zippi Livni (1958),one of the ministers without portfolio in Ariel Masked by other themes,Verdis operas in- amed the hearts of their listeners,trans- forming each performance into a celebration of patriotism. Three prominent nationalistic leaders and propagandists emerged during this period. Giuseppe Mazzini (18051872),a member and fame of public institutions and authori- ties,or of the offices and agents of the law. In 1912 Italy became the rst country to all who professed Marxist ideas or were ac- tive in Communist parties.But the church alone was not enough to ensure the partys success.Part of the latters appeal was that, following an initial reassessment of political life during the postwar period,the Italian middle class,the aristocrats,and the industri- alists all felt that their interests converged in this Catholic party.Meanwhile,as the Cold ar intensied,Britain and the United States ecognized the Democrazia Cristiana as the only party that could protect the country against Communism. The United States played an active role in postwar Italian politics,bankrolling the Democrazia Cristiana and conducting much propaganda for the free-enterprise system under the auspices of the Marshall Plan.The election of April 1948 became one of the rst prime minister to resolve the conict of in- JAccuse (I Accuse)(1898) the Meiji Restoration,Japan witnessed erce ideological struggles.On one side stood the imperial supporters who argued that the em- peror should once again head Japanese soci- ernment mobilized the entire country for ar with Russia in the Russo-Japanese War The Japanese government now realized it had to inßuence both domestic and foreign opinion in order to remain in control.Japan- ese press authorities issued strict orders gov- erning foreign coverage and began sending newspaper reporters over to China.These eporters linked up with military platoons and sent stories back to the censors.Film companies were permitted to send over au- thorized crews,and their resulting efforts brought about mass support for the war. Throughout World War I Japanese media analysts and government bureaus continued to research British and German propaganda An English-language Guide to Manchoukuo, published the South Manchuria Railway Company,1934.The book ttempted to justify Japanese aggression in Manchuria,now under Japanese control with Emperor Pu Yi as titular leader. (Courtesy of David Culbert) opinion.Prior to surrender,emperor wor- ship and a belief in Japans imperial mission in Asia had been a core focus of an increas- ingly nationalistic educational system devel- oped under state-controlled media.A belief that democratization involved the molding of minds mandated the study and measurement of public opinion. On the cultural front,the United States sought to remold Japan,in part by gaining the cooperation of the six major domestic lm studios (much as the OWI had worked with Hollywood during the war).As in the print media generally,the United States dis- couraged active discussion of the Japanese past,including the atrocities committed on the Chinese mainland and throughout Asia. More important,unlike Germany,in Japan lame for the war was placed squarely on the shoulders of the Japanese military establish- ment;until recently few citizens have proac- tively researched civilian responsibility.U.S. authorities also routinely repressed imagesof damage caused by the dropping of the atomic bomb.In part to promote a new sense of openness,scenes reecting the new Japan, such as images of couples kissing in public, now permitted by the lm authorities. As the Cold War hit East Asia,the United States slowed its ideological reconstruction of Japan and turned its attention to the rapid development of the Japanese economy.Ex- tensive media operations appear to have been implemented in Japan,where U.S.officials ennedy,John F.(19171963) Thirty-fth U.S.president and arguably the ment projects overseas;the expansion of the American space program,with the declared objective of placing a man on the moon within the decade;and high-proÞle military actions.The last proved the weakest. ennedyÕs support for the invasion of Cuba the Bay of Pigs in 1961 was a public rela- tions disaster,and his policy of providing aid The United States Information Agency prepares giant pictures of Kennedy for export at the time of his inauguration in 1961. (National Archives) Castro,Fidel;Cold War; Counterinsurgency;Elections;Funerals;Latin America;Murrow,Edward R.;Nixon, Richard; Silent Spring; United States;USIA; Martin Luther King Jr.delivers his "I Have a Dream" speech from the Lincoln Memorial during the March on Washington, August 1963.(Flip Schulke/CORBIS ) Civil Rights Movement;Gandhi, Mohandas K.;Malcolm X;NAACP;United States Cook,Robin. Independent dealt brutally with prodemocracy demon- strators,massacring hundreds of individuals in Kwangju in 1980.Despite some liberaliza- tion and reform,the regime continued to be marked by considerable corruption.Both Chun and his successor,Roh Tae-woo (1932),were la ter jailed for corruption. South Koreas international propaganda gam- bits have included the hosting of the 1988 Seoul Summer Olympics,as well as various cultural ventures sponsored by the privately nal resources,cementing their respective al- liance blocs,and appealing for support among emerging Third World nationalist the conict in Korea had shifted the focus of the Cold War from Europe to Asia.Attempt- ing to gain the upper hand in this new the- ter,both the United States and the USSR hoped to rally support in countries like India, Indonesia,and Indochina.One of the most important forums for doing so was the United Nations.At the start of the Korean States,which were exacerbated by the con- tinuing separatist tendencies among the other states and regions of the former Federal Re- public of Yugoslavia.(Serbia and Montenegro both continued to refer to themselves as Yu- goslavia in 1999,but Montenegro distanced itself from Serbia during the crisis.) By 1999 the United States had concluded that Milose- vic himself must relinquish power in order a manner that had not been previously seen. It was also argued that a combination of in- formal media and institutional controls meant that the days of the independent tele- vision or newspaper war correspondent were over. Milosevic fell from power a year after the ar and went on trial for war crimes at The Hague,which he used as a platform for dis- playing his deance.The reasons behind Milosevics acceptance of KFOR in 1999 re- main obscure,and the relative importance of the propaganda campaign on both sides is still being debated.Concern about possible ght- ing led the KFOR to use a media poolfor the rst twenty-four hours following its entry into Kosovothe rst use of such a pool since the 1991 Gulf War.Modeled on IFOR,which grew out of the Bosnian crisis and war,KFOR also possessed similar infor- mation capabilities and plans. Balkans;Blair,Tony;Bosnian Crisis and Labor propaganda techniques have included posters,banners,and a succession of memo- rable songs,but on the whole they must be considered a failure.Workers and their or- ganizations have never really received even- handed treatment from the media organs of Antilabor forces (such as the Nazis) gener- ally succeeded because they had the resources necessary to sell and implement their ideas and to eradicate any program that organized labor might wish to promote.This was done in Britain during the General Strike of 1926 as well as under the Thatcher government. Harlan Davidson,1999;Slomp,Hans. Relations in Europe:A History of Issues and Developments. New York:Greenwood,1990. Laden,Osama bin (1957Ð) An Islamic militant and exponent of terror as a means of political communication,Osama bin Laden was born into a wealthy Saudi fam- ily that had made its fortune in the construc- Navy SEALs hold an Osama Bin Laden propaganda poster found in an Al Qaeda classroom,14 January 2002.(Reuters Sudan was the base for a number of Is- lamic militant organizations with which bin Laden became associated,including the In- ternational Muslim Brotherhood and Al Qaeda (The Base),which began as a nancial From its colonial period,through liberation struggles and revolutions,to the Cold War, Latin America has been both a battleground for propaganda and has itself spawned some masters of the art.European contact with the Americas following the voyage of Columbus sparked one of the great surges of propa- ganda as writers,in addition to the church and state,sought to digest and disseminate news of the discoveryand exploit it to suit their own ends.Enthusiasts for the colonial project,such as the Englishman Walter Raleigh (15521618),sought to spur con- quest of the region with tales of the fabulous ealth of El Dorado.Raleighs inability to deliver the promise of his propaganda led to his execution.The conquest of the Americas led to the production of maps,with vast thes of territory claimed for a particular European power.The terminology adopted carried powerful meanings:New World its political models and developed the equiva- lent of propaganda-driven dictatorships.The ion produced a succession of fascist-style leaders,each with their own radio style,feel- ing for their people,taste in uniforms,and censorship requirements.Examples include The 1980s saw a renewal of the Cold War in Central America and the Caribbean.The y theaters of this Cold War struggle were a of Columbus) Mench won the Nobel Peace Prize.In 1999 the book attracted criticism for having altered key facts in Menchs life. The region remained the site of large-scale eligious propaganda,this time on behalf of Christian evangelical denominations.In Cen- tral America the tradition of the seemed alive and well in the form of media- savvy drug barons,who regularly appeal to anti-Communism,patriotism,and regional pride.The drug cartels have proved masters of propaganda by bestowing lavish giftsa sports stadium here or a new school there. The wider South American media has come under the control of a small number of media conglomerates.The most powerful of these is the Brazilian Globo conglomerate, established by Roberto Marinho (1904 1998).The media played a major role in the ise of Fernando Collor (1949),the first elected president of Brazil since 1960.In 1989 Collor ran a highly sophisticated TV campaign for the presidency,attacking cer- tain exploitative civil servants he dubbed Maharajas.With the Globo conglomerate on his side,he rapidly became an unstop- pable force.However,the combination of media criticism of his corruption and the ire of the newly aggrieved Globo conglom- erate brought about his resignation in 1992 under threat of impeachment.Globos as- sault on Collor included attacks in the countrys most popular medium,the soap Nicholas J.Cull Castro,Fidel;CIA;Falklands/Malvinas Mexico;Pern,Juan Domingo,and Eva Duarte;Spain Alisky,Marvin. Latin American Media: Guidance and Censorship. Ames:Iowa State University Press,1981;Cull,N.J.Faked Boundaries:Latin America,Nazi Mapsand ants.German yers dropped behind advanc- ing Allied lines emphasized preexisting preju- dices or class divisions.One yer,printed in ed and black,is entitled:Rich Mans War oor Mans Fight.A sorrowful-looking ounded G.I.,his arm in a splint,is con- trasted (in the background) with a stereotyp- ical anti-Semitic caricature showing an obese usinessman,cigar in hand,who looks con- tentedly at a safe decorated with a victory wreath.The message on the reverse is not subtle:While you are ghting and ing in the scorching heat of Italy thousands of miles away from your family,the war prof- iteers and war slackers back home are safe and sound.Americans dropped some seven ful government official.In 1887 his elder brother was executed for plotting the assassi- nation of Tsar Alexander III (1845Ð1894). Lenin was immediately expelled from Kazan University and sent into exile within Russia. While in exile he read the works of Karl Marx (1818Ð1883).He went on to work as a lawyer for the poor in Samara,on the Volga, An official portrait of Lenin from the postrevolutionary period.(Courtesy of Bernard O'Callaghan) Lenin suffered his rst stroke in May 1922,following which he was never again able to resume an active role in government or his party.He suffered a second stroke in March 1923.Lenin died in Gorkii on 21 Jan- uary 1924.Following his death,Lenin be- Jr.;Memorials and Monuments;Nast,Thomas; United States Donald,David Herbert. New York:Simon and Schuster,1995. McPherson,James M. Battle Cry of Freedom:The Civil War Era. New York:Oxford University Press,1988;Wills,Garry. London Can Take It This was one of the most potent pieces of documentary Þlm propaganda produced in Britain during World War II.Directed by Humphrey Jennings (1906Ð1950) and Harry tt (1906Ð1987) for the Ministry of Infor- mation (MoI),itshowed daily life in London during the German Blitz.The Þlm was speciÞcally aimed at the neutral United States;to this end,it was scripted and nar- rated by Quentin Reynolds (1902Ð1965),an American journalist who was covering the CollierÕs Weekly. Although Reynolds identiÞed himself as a Òneutral reporter,Óhe ent on to extol the virtues of Londoners in a most unneutral way.The MoI arranged for the Þlm to be distributed in the United States ner Brothers.It was screened without an indication that it represented anything other than the views of Reynolds.Such Þlms, Long was a master propagandist,second only to Roosevelt as the most gifted Ameri- can radio personality of his generation.His catchy theme song Every Man a King claimed that everyone could be a million- aire.Longs autobiography of the same title (1933) was distributed widely and proved to be an effective piece of self-promotion.He started his own newspaper, American Progress, and insisted that every state employee sub- scribe to it.Long was deemed newsworthy enough to receive numerous invitations to speak on NBC-Red,the most prestigious British media.Later in the war he stressed the Christian Peace Movement,Radio Cale- donia (aimed at Scotland),and WorkerÕs Challenge.Other ÒtraitorÓbroadcasters in- cluded John Amery (1912Ð1945;son of ait of Martin Luther,sixteenth-century German theologian and instigator of the Protestant Reformation. (Library of Congress) Malaysia A controversial gure in the struggle for lack liberation in America who became larger in death than he had been in life,Mal- colm X was born Malcolm Little in Michi- gan,the son of a preacher who was active in the Garvey movement.Having lost both his parents at a young age,he moved rst to Boston and then to New York.Here he led a life of crime,eventually being sent to prison for burglary in 1946.There he fell under the and his black nationalist religious movement, Nation of Islam (NOI).Behind prison walls he quickly emerged as a powerful orator. Upon his release,he took the name Malcolm X (the NOI believed that names could be used as propaganda,so members rejected their slave names).Malcolm rose quickly through the ranks.He helped establish the movements rst nationally distributed news- paper, Muhammad Speaks, and became well lack Americans to advance.In death he be- came a martyr and an undisputed icon for angry young men.Many activists have associ- ted themselves with his name and cited him as an inspiration,including Huey Newton (19421989) and Bobby Seale (1937),who formed the Black Panthers in 1966.His auto- biography,dictated to journalist Alex Haley (19211992),became a cult text,and his speeches were published widely.In the 1980s, as mainstream politics seemed to leave black America behind,he reemerged as an icon of country was in the grips of a horrendous amine.After being sidelined by his col- leagues,Mao relaunched himself in the mid- 1960s by reaching out Þrst to the army and then to ChinaÕs youth with an anthology of his writings, Quotations from Chairman Mao. 1966 he unleashed the Cultural Revolution, which was marked by successive waves of vi- olence and propaganda until 1969.By the time of his death in 1976,his signiÞcance as a propagandist was being felt far beyond China.Other movements in Asia,Africa,and Latin America (with and without formal Chinese aid) have sought to adapt his model of guerrilla warfare. Nicholas J.Cull China;Korean War;Latin America; Quotations from Chairman Mao; Terr orism airbank,John K.,and Edwin O. Reischauer. China:Tradition and Transformation. Boston:Houghton Mifflin,1989;Schram, Stuart. The Thought of Mao Tse-tung. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 1989;Snow,Edgar. Red Star over China. Gollancz,1937. A marching song of the French Revolution and later the national anthem of France,this is arguably the most potent use made of a song for propaganda purposes.Both its ords and music were composed on 25Ð26 whose musical skill he admired,to write the people it was beneting in order to chan- nel attitudes,mentalities,and expectations in the direction of mass production for mass- consumption prosperity.Italians were told that the United States was a land of full shelves and shops crammed to the rafters, thanks to increased productivity and good ages,and that its prosperity might be emu- lated elsewhere by those willing to work to- The operating principles arrived at in Italy spelled out more clearly than else- the basis of a free economy can a strong,dem- and the overall results.As early as February 1949 a high-level official in the Paris head- quarters noted:The European worker lis- tens listlessly while we tell him we are saving Europe,unconvinced that it is his Europe we are saving. An opinion poll carried out by the Eco- nomic Cooperation Administration (ECA) in mid-1950 had interviewed almost two thou- sand people,including citizens from France, Norway,Denmark,Holland,Austria,and Italy.On average,approximately 80 percent of those interviewed knew about the Mar- shall Plan,and 75 percent approved of it.Be- tween 25 and 40 percent of those inter- viewed understood its functioning.But,as the official sponsors of the poll commented, it was among the minorities not on the the motives behind American action,just as Communist propaganda had prompted them to do. The greatest challenge to American action in Europe from summer 1950 onward was the battle against the effects of the Korean War.It is impossible to overestimate the impact throughout Europe of this decisive moment marking the escalation of the Cold War.The ean War brought in its wake a qualitative hange,an unprecedented intensication in the ideological and psychological commit- ment to the anti-Communist crusade.For its part the left-wing opposition insistedwith some successthat the entire episode con- rmed its prediction that the purpose of NATO was to drag Europe into Americas Henceforth problems of military secu- ity would override economic reconstruction in terms of U.S.priorities in Europe.The mil- itarization effort,coinciding with the prospect of general rearmament,cost the promoters of productivity and prosperity dearly. Throughout the ECA it was assumed that the strains of rearmament could lead to in- ternal security crisesin France and Italy,or best skeptical neutralism already evident in a number of other countries.However,ECA men on the ground had already decided that much too great a segment of the European populationsurrounding the question of to local scriptwriters and directors being re- cruited to fabricate the lm propaganda ma- terial based on schemes furnished by the sponsor,which they would then translate into the symbolic,visual,and spoken lan- guage of the Italian audience.In this way the curity and prosperity of Western Europe, and at a time of widespread despair it greatly vived the Old Worlds faith in its own po- tential for renewal. The Marshall Plan ended prematurely in December 1951,giving way to the Mutual Security Program.But the underlying effec- tiveness of its energizing impulses soon be- came clear.In Italy government,industry, Karl Marx.The full beard was a virtual trademark. (Illustrated London News Group) arfed by the arrest of Julius (19171953) nationalist claims that Allied propaganda was esponsible for the collapse of the German Empire in 1918.Convinced of the essential ole of propaganda in any movement intent on gaining power,Hitler saw propaganda as a The Renaissance,with its revival of inter- allen Soldiers:Reshaping the Memory of the World Wars. Oxford:Oxford University Press,1990. Mexico From buttressing the empire of the Aztecs to present-day struggles for social justice,prop- aganda issues have been at the core of Mexi- can history.Aztec architecture and ritual orld with recourse to censorship in the name of public morality.By the eighteenth century this censorship had become overtly political and was directed at oppositional pasquines, as described at the time as dishonoring the .S.ag) led U.S.president Woodrow Wil- son to seize the port of Vera Cruz.A further .S.intervention followed in 1916. The continuing revolutionary struggle of the poorest Mexicansrst against Daz, then Huerta,and nally against the liberal Constitutionalistsresulted in a barrage of slogans,cartoons,and songs about the rebel leaders of the period,such as the charismatic peasant generals Emiliano Zapata (ca.1879 1919) and PanchoVilla (ca.18771923). illa had a keen sense of the media and went so far as to sign a lm deal with Hollywoods Mutual Film Company.He obliged its direc- tor,Raoul Walsh (18871980),by staging ac- tion when and where the light was best.He allegedly also executed a few federal troops for the cameras,but the studio cut these scenes for reasons of taste.In the nal version of the lm,which was called The Life of Gen- eral Villa (1914),Walsh himself played Villa as a youth. During World War I the combatants vied for Mexican opinion.German propaganda, trading on resentment against U.S.interven- tions,was particularly intense.Wireless broadcasting played an important role.Presi- dent Venustiano Carranza (18591920) al- lowed German agents to rig up large trans- mitters and receivers atop Mexico Citys Chapultepec Heights,which were used to send and receive war and propaganda mes- ent on the air from Mexico City.It grew into the most inuential commercial station in Latin America,and during the 1950s its oung owner,Emilio Azcrraga Milmo (19301997),became the regions rst great television mogul.In January 1938 President Lzaro Cardenas (18951970) launched the Departamento Autnomo de Prensa y Publi- cidad (DAPP),very similar to European min- istries of information.The DAPP controlled all federal ministry briengs.It attempted (and failed) to increase government owner- ship and direction of the media and later adopted a more pragmatic course.From 1940 the new president,Manuel Avila Camacho es- the province of Chiapas captured the atten- tion of the Mexican and world media.The ebels called themselves the Ejrcito Zapatista de Liberacin Nacional (EZLN),or Zapatista National Liberation Army,thereby claiming the mantle of the revolutionary hero Emiliano Zapata.Having seized a string of major towns in Chiapas,they proved adept at presenting themselves to the broadcast media.Their masked,eloquent,non-Indian leader Subco- mandante Marcosbegan by reading a Decla- ration of the Lacadn Jungleto the TV cam- eras,claiming that the rebellions national goal was the establishment of a democratic socialist government.Over a hundred thou- sand supporters rallied in Mexico City.In the months that followed,the Zapatistas provided an articulate challenge to the slick publicity machine of the PRI,thereby hastening the fall of President Carlos Salinas de Gortari (1948).Marcos and the Zapatistas had proved that the propaganda mechanisms of the international media could work for the eak as well as the strong. Nicholas J.Cull Art;Latin America;Olympics;Religion; Spain;Zimmermann Telegram Britton,John A. Revolution and Ideology:The Image of the Mexican Revolution in the United States. Lexington:University Press of entucky,1995;Carrasco,Davd. Sacrice:Violence from the Aztec Capital to the Modern Americas. Boston:Beacon,1999; Carrasco,Davd,ed. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures. New York:Oxford (1943),one of the most notorious pieces of feature lm propaganda ever released in the United States.Like Casablanca (1942),it was directed by Michael Curtiz (18861962). Unlike the latter,it was a docudrama,pur- porting to provide an accurate account of So- R.;Orwell,George;Reith,Lord John;World ar II (Britain) Aldgate,Anthony,and Jeffrey Richards. Britain Can Take It:The British Cinema and the Second World War. Edinburgh:Edinburgh University Press,1994;Cole,Robert. Britain and the War of Words in Neutral Europe, London:Macmillan,1990; MacLaine,Ian. Ministry of Morale:Home Front Morale and the Ministry of Information in World War London:Unwin,1979. The spirit of a nations armed forces or its population has long been recognized as a cen- ample,invested a great deal of its resources in creating short-wave propaganda aimed at the United States.Little of this propaganda ad- sely affected morale because the Japanese ailed to devise messages that were meaningful the United States Information Agency (USIA),Murrow was born in North Carolina and raised in the Pacic Northwest.His un- he provided both melody and text,is univer- sally considered the national anthem of the Protestant Reformation.The success of Composing for the Films book written on the subject,suggest that in Þlm music the endless recycling of musical clichŽs is all that is requiredÑwhich is to say that another gibe continues to have currency: ÒIn Hollywood,everyone knows his business, and music.Ó David Culbert Horst Wessel Lied;ÒThe InternationaleÓ; ÒLa MarseillaiseÓ;Peace and Antiwar Movements (1945Ð) Adorno,Theodor,and Eisler, Hanns. Composing for the Films. Athlone,1994;Reed,W.L.,and M.J.Bristow, eds. National Anthems of the World. 8th ed.New ork:Cassell,1993;Sonneck,Oscar. Report on ÒThe Star-Spangled Banner,ÓÒHail Columbia,Ó ÒAmerica,Óand ÒYankee Doodle.Ó (1909).Reprint. New York:Dover,1972. Mussolini,Benito (1883Ð1945) The Italian Fascist leader,Mussolini was born near Forli in northeastern Italy.His fa- ther,a blacksmith,was an active Socialist and MussoliniÕs early forays in the Þeld of propa- ganda were also left-wing.In 1913 he be- came editor of the Socialist newspaper (Forward!).World War I saw his dra- matic conversion to nationalism,with Mus- solini supporting ItalyÕs entry into the war on the Allied side.In 1914 he founded his wn daily paper, (People of Italy),to advance this cause.Beginning in 1915,he drew a substantial subsidy from the Benito Mussolini,in a characteristic braggadocio pose. (Illustrated London News Group) successor to the Roman Empire brought forth randiose public works and even overseas military adventures,such as the conquest of Abyssinia in 19351936,which resulted in the expulsion of Italy from the League of Na- tions.As an international pariah,Mussolini NAACP (National Association Colored People) The most signicant and enduring African American civil rights organization,the Na- tional Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) began its work during the Progressive Era as a response to a ise in antiblack violence,specically two ynchings in Springeld,Illinois,in 1908. White and black activists,led by a white oman,Mary White Ovington (18651951) convened at a conference in New York City in 1909 and formed the NAACP.When the organization started operations in 1910,its y propagandist was the African American sociologist W.E.B.Du Bois (18681963), Crisis. At rst Du Bois was the only black board member. Crisis wiftly built up a circulation of a hundred thousand.Early campaigns included picket- The Birth of a Nation and a silent march through New York to protest the brutal race riot in East St.Louis in 1917.In 1920 the organization appointed Crusade Against Lynching,19091950. Philadelphia:Temple University Press,1980. Napoleon (17691821) Napoleon had the advantage of inheriting the lessons of the French Revolution,which used The other media were not neglected.Rev- olutionary festivals were suppressed and new ones substituted,such as Napoleons birth- day,the anniversary of the battle of Jena (Oc- tober 1806),the coupof 18 Brumaire (No- ember 1799),the coronation of Napoleon as emperor (December 1804),or the victory usterlitz (December 1805).Other special festivals were staged to celebrate such events as the marriage of Napoleon to Marie-Louise (March 1810) or the birth of an heir,the king of Rome (1811).These periodic or special festivals combined parades,band music,po- entual escape from slavery.His eloquence as a writer gave the lie to the Southern claim that an African American was intellectually inferior,suited only to perform manual labor.Subsequent volumes of his autobiogra- phy dealt with his work in the abolitionist movement.He also served as a diplomat for the U.S.government. Nicholas J.Cull Abolitionism/Antislavery Movement; Civil War,United States; Uncle TomÕs Cabin Douglass,Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass. London:Penguin, 1982;McFeely,William S. Frederick Douglass. New York:Norton,1991. Nast,Thomas (1840Ð1902) Nast,a German-born illustrator and cartoon- ist who transformed American visual commu- nication,invented the elephant as an emblem for the Republican Party,popularized the donkey as an emblem for the Democratic and established modern representations of both Uncle Sam (lean visage,sporting a goatee) and Santa Claus (rotund,with full beard).Nast arrived in the United States in 1846.He began work on Frank LeslieÕs Illus- trated Newspaper and in 1859 moved to HarperÕs eekly, where he worked for nearly thirty ears.He covered the war in Italy in 1860 (for New York Illustrated News and other papers) Frederick Douglass.(Perry-Castaneda Library) NastÕs Weekly, ut it failed after only thirteen is- sues.Nast died in 1902 while serving as a diplomat in Ecuador. Nicholas J.Cull Cartoons;Civil War,United States; Lincoln,Abraham;Uncle Sam Hess,Stephen,and Sandy Northrop. Drawn and Quartered:The History of American olitical Cartoons. Montgomery,AL:Elliott and Clark,1996;Keller,Morton. The Art and Politics New York:Oxford University Press,1975. Neo-Militia Groups Militia groups have existed in the United States since the founding of the colonies. ÒNeo-militiasÓis a term used to describe the armed military groups that have been form- ing in recent years.These ÒnewÓÕmilitia oups often refer to themselves as Òunorgan- ized militia.ÓThey do not approve of modern Thomas Nast,in a formal portrait late in life.(Library of Congress) Dominion:Right-wing Movements and Political er in the Unites States. New York:Guilford Press,1995;Hoffman,David.The Web of cap to denote liberty and used the image of a circular fence to represent historical restric- tions on the power of kings in the region. The upsurge of national feeling growing out of opposition to Spanish rule led to the political union of the northern provinces under the Pacication of Ghent (1576) and Union of Utrecht (1579),by which they ef- fectively declared independence from Spain as the United Provinces.In 1580 William Apologie plaining his actions in terms of principles of liberty and denouncing Spanish atrocities at home and abroad.The document,actually written by Williams chaplain,was published in French,Dutch,English,German,and Latin and was aimed at a wide European au- dience.It thus foreshadowed the interna- tional propaganda of the modern age.Spain did not acknowledge the independence of the United Provinces until the Treaty of West- phalia (1648),which ended the Thirty Years The remaining Spanish lands (modern Belgium) passed to Austrian rule in 1714. The United Provinces remained a hotbed of propagandist writing and art,shaping the public image of the state and its rulers.En- (and French-speaking) government;the year 1898 saw a major victory,as Flemish transla- tions of laws were nally declared as valid as those in French.State propaganda gambits in- cluded the staging of and participation in airs,a tradition that lived on into the twenti- in the Congo basin in West Africa;propa- the novel Heart of Darkness (1898) by Polish- born novelist Joseph Conrad (18571924). Despite their status of neutrality,in 1914 the German army invaded the Low Countries and occupied them for the duration of World ar I,much of which was fought on Belgian soil.German occupation propaganda in Bel- ium followed a strategy called duced anti-America (and arguably anti-Se- mitic) material into his Tin-Tin story The Shooting Star. Belgian resistance included the symbolic interested in serving their communities printing classied advertisements and news.But news was a scarce commodity in trol of the press.Member newspapers regu- larly complained that press telegrams are su- pervised with paternal care in high places. Gradually commercial imperatives and a newspapersability to offer unwavering sup- port for individual politicians.Beginning in 1880 the countrys newspapers formed a co- operative press association that provided a heap and reliable news source while pro- broadcasts were prepared in the prime minis- ters office and were required to be broadcast without any alterations.There was no se- crecy about the practice,with Michael oseph Savage (18721940),Labours inau- gural prime minister,openly acknowledging Press:1994;ÑÑÑ. oice and Vision:A History ol.2.Auckland, NZ:Auckland University Press,2000; Meiklejohn,G.M. Early Conßicts of Press and Government. kland,NZ:Wilson and Horton,1954;ScholeÞeld,G.H. ellington,NZ:A.H.and A.W. Reed,1958;Watson,Chris,and Roy Shuker. the Public Good? Censorship in New Zealand. almerston North,NZ:Dunmore,1998; illiams,John F. Anzacs,the Media and the Great War. Sydney:University of New South Wales Press,1999. Nixon,Richard (1913Ð1994) Coming from a poor family,in 1946 Richard Nixon entered politics as a Republican con- essman representing Southern California. In 1948 he came to national attention for his ole in exposing Alger Hiss (1904Ð1996) as a former Communist in hearings conducted by the House Committee on Un-American Ac- tivities.Nixon was elected to the U.S.Senate in 1950.In 1952 he served as Dwight D. EisenhowerÕs (1890Ð1969) vice-presidential unning mate.In 1960 Nixon lost his bid for the U.S.presidency to John F.Kennedy.Un- daunted,Nixon ran again and was elected president,serving from 1969 to 1974.Facing conviction on three impeachable offenses re- lating to a failed attempt on 17 June 1972 to ug the Democratic National Committee headquarters (at the Watergate apartment uildingÑhence the appellation ÒWatergate affairÓ),Nixon resigned the presidency on 9 NixonÕs career as propagandist is closely tied to the medium of television.He Þrst ap- peared on national television on 23 Septem- ber 1952 to defend his integrity in what has become known as the ÒCheckersÓspeech (during which he adroitly introduced a red herring near the end of the broadcast by promising that his daughters would not re- turn a black-and-white cocker spaniel named Checkers sent to Nixon as a gift).In 1960,now a front runner,Nixon agreed to a series of four one-hour televised debates with John F.Kennedy,his less-well-known Democratic opponent.Nixon was widely thought to have lost the Þrst round because of his evident discomfort before the cam- Richard Nixon,official presidential photograph.(Library of Congress) Ambrose,Stephen E. 3 vols. New York:Simon and Schuster/Touchstone, 1991;Bernstein,Carl,and Robert Woodward. All the Presidents Men. New York:Simon and Schuster/Touchstone,1974;Kutler,Stanley I. Abuse of Power:The New Nixon Tapes. New York: Simon and Schuster/Touchstone,1997;Nixon, Richard. Six Crises. New York:Simon and Schuster/Touchstone,1990. Northcliffe,Lord (18651922) A pioneer of the popular press in Britain and propagandist during World War I,over the course of his long career he built up a pub- lishing empire that included regional newspa- pershe reshaped the British press by intro- ducing such American techniques as banner headlinesas well as a host of popular edu- cational and self-improvement books. Born Alfred Harmsworth in Ireland,and raised in London,he plunged into journalism immediately after leaving school.In 1896 he launched the Daily Mail imes. British War Mission to the United States, using publicity to consolidate the transat- lantic alliance.In 1918 he directed Britains propaganda offensive against the Central the Department of Enemy Propa- ganda,located in Londons Crewe House, which many observers,including Adolf Hitler (18891945),claimed played a major ole in destroying German and Austrian morale.Displaying alarming symptoms of nervous collapse,he died shortly after wars end.Lord Northcliffes service at Crewe House ensured that for the generation fol- lowing World War I his name would become synonymous with propaganda,as that of oseph Goebbels (18971845) was for the generation following World War II. Nicholas J.Cull ustrian Empire;Britain;Morale; Psychological Warfare;World War I ound,Reginald,and Geoffrey Harmsworth. Northcliffe. London:Cassell, 1959;Sanders,Michael,and Philip M.Taylor. British Propaganda During the First World War. London:Macmillan,1982. Norway Scandinavia Novel Fictional narratives,a key mode of human expression,have played their part in the story of propaganda.Early examples of novels used as propaganda include religiously inspired orks such as John Bunyans (16281688) Pilgrims Progress (1678)and political satires such as Jonathan Swifts (16671745) livers Travels syn (1918),author of The Gulag Archipelago (1973).Their works were published in the est,were circulated clandestinely in the USSR,and frequently gured in radio broad- casts beamed back to Russia over stations such as RFE/RL.More recently,the Islamic The Satanic Verses (1989) by Salman Rushdie (1947),calling it blasphemy and placing a death sentence (in absentia) on its author. While the novel has had a distinguished his- tory as an oppositional medium,literary criti- cism has demonstrated the extent to which novels have also underpinned the dominant cultural order in terms of racial,class,and gender stereotyping.In his book Culture and Imperialism (1994) Edward Said (1935) ar- gued that much European literatureinclud- ing Jane Austens Manseld Park (1814),Joseph Conrads Heart of Darkness (1898),and Albert Camuss Ճtranger (The Stranger;1942) implicitly bolstered imperialism. Nicholas J.Cull Oates,Titus (16491705) English anti-Catholic propagandist,cleric, and convicted perjurer,Oates was born in Rutland.His early career gave ample indica- tion of his fondness for lying.He was ex- pelled from school,discharged from service as a naval chaplain,and narrowly escaped a term in jail for libel.In the mid-1670s he fell in with Israel Tonge (16211680) and the two men became xated on the danger of Catholicism to the crown of England.Fol- lowing a false conversion and a period spent in Jesuit colleges in France and Spain to gather evidence,in 1678 Oates established himself as Englands foremost authority on the Catholic conspiracy,spreading his ideas functions included inltrating revolutionary or seditious groups and generally harassing any group that could be seen as a threat to tsarist hegemony.When not contributing to the general fear ingrained in the Russian rul- ing class,much of the Okhranas time and ef- fort was expended in seizing and preventing the distribution of dangerous materials.Al- though the organization was known by vari- ous names under Nicholas Is reign (1825 1855),it was referred to as the third sec- tionOkhrana remained the generic term. 1881 with the Reactionto the attempt on the life of Alexander III (r.18811894). Okhrana activity increased again in 1912 1914 concomitant with an increase in labor orking behind the scenes;the massacre of orkers in Siberias gold elds was caused by agents provocateurs.The Okhrana led re- ports of peasant unrest in 1916 and of the actions of revolutionary groups in February 1917.Although the organization was offi- cially disbanded by the provisional govern- ment,its traditions were revived in 1918 by the Cheka and,later,the KGB. Graham Roberts Revolution,Russian;Russia Smith,Edward Ellis. The Okhrana. Stanford,CA:Hoover Institution,1967; Zuckerman,Frederic. apartheid laws.The next games,held in Mexico in 1968,were used as an overt prop- aganda platform.Mexican students rioted to protest the money lavished on the games while the poor starved.Several black Ameri- storm of criticism concerning Chinas abysmal human rights record. Mark Connelly Cold War;Exhibitions and Worlds airs;Germany;Greece;Japan;Korea; Mexico;Satellite Communications;Spain; Sport Buchanan,Ian,and Bill Mallon. Historical Dictionary of the Olympic Movement. Lanham,MD:Scarecrow,1995;Espy,Richard. The Politics of the Olympic Games. Berkeley:University of California Press,1981; Hargreaves,Jenny,ed. Sport,Culture and Ideology. London:Routledge,1982;Kanin, David B. A Political History of the Olympic Games. Boulder,CO:Westview,1981;MacAloon, ohn J. This Great Symbol:Pierre de Coubertin and the Origins of the Modern Olympic Games. Chicago:University of Chicago Press,1981; Manheim,Jarol B. Strategic Public Diplomacy and American Foreign Policy:The Evolution of Inuence. New York:Oxford University Press,1994; Senn,Alfred Erich. olitics and the Olympic Games. torian Thomas E.Mahl has shown,while the United States was still neutral,British intelli- order to undermine the popular isolationist position and stimulate a bandwagonof sup- port for Britain. Despite the remarkable growth in both the use and accuracy of public opinion surveys since the mid-1930s,some problems remain. Public opinion polls have a natural appeal in a tion can produce dramatically different re- sponses.For example,the percentage of Americans supporting aid for the contras in writer and journalist.His writing was unashamedly political.All arthe once wrote is to some extent political.In his 1946 essay Why I Writehe explained: What I have most wanted to d o...is to make political writing into an art.Orwell used his writing to raise public consciousness about such issues as povertyin Down and Out in Paris and London Wigan Pier Homage to Catalonia (1938).During orld War II he worked for the BBC Eastern Service,writing and producing propaganda broadcasts to Asia.His rsthand experience of censorship and intimate knowledge of such things as the 850-word language called Basic Englishwhich was occasionally used in BBC broadcastsprovided the foundation for his account of a future propaganda state in the novel back Ottoman power (as seen in the Russo- urkish War of 18281829) and put them- selves forward as champions of the Slav cause.In Arabia the teachings of Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahab (17031791) roused fol- lowers to holy war against non-Arab rule. The Wahhabis remained a major challenge While Abdlhamids ideological regener- tionapparently rallied the masses in the empire,the emerging middle class did not accept his political repressions passively.Re- sistance lived on in the Young Turk move- ment,which developed a powerful hold on the Ottoman military establishment.Litera- the constitution of 1982,immortal leader and unequaled hero.His portrait is every- where in Turkish shops and homes,and criti- cism of his life or legacy remains largely taboo. During World War II both Axis and Allied propaganda vied for the attention of neutral urkey.At wars end the country became the focus of Cold War tension.In 1947 President uman made his famous Containment speech to rally U.S.support and aid for the urkish government in its struggle against the domestic Communist threat.In 1950 the Voice of America.OWIs director,jour- nalist Elmer Davis (18901958),had come to public attention as one of the CBS radio substantial sums to nance a missionary expe- Narrative of Missionary En- terprises (1837) became well known.His tebeing eaten by the inhabitants of Errog- mango in the New Hebrides in 1839led to his being called the Apostle of Polynesia.A staple of Victorian religious propaganda,his tale,which attracted new recruits,created an enduring image of Oceanic culture. The sexual frankness of the art appalled missionaries,resulting in the wholesale de- struction of cultural artifacts,especially in ynesia.What offended the missionaries at- tracted others,most famously the artist Paul Gauguin (18481903),whose eroticized im- ration (ABC),Radio France Overseas credited with shifting popular opinion from loyal protest to independence,although aineÕs point was that the British did this themselves by opening Þre on the militia at Lexington in April 1775,an act he compared to that of a brutal mother devouring her oung. aine served as aide to Generals George ashington (1732Ð1799) and Nathanael Greene (1742Ð1786) during the Revolution- ary War,but his greatest contribution to the ar effort was maintaining morale.In De- cember 1776 he wrote the Þrst of the ÒCrisisÓ papers,meant to rally support for a war that the colonists appeared to be losing,which began:ÒThese are the times that try menÕs souls.The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will,in this crisis,shrink from the service of their country;but he that stands it now,deserves the love and thanks of man and oman.Tyranny,like hell,is not easily con- The cover of the 1791 Bradford edition of Thomas Paine's Common Sense. (Library of Congress) v George Fox (16241691).Other sects preaching peace included the Mennonites ties Union (ACLU) in 1920.Internationally the experience of the Great War energized the peace movement as never before. The interwar peace movement had no shortage of remarkable polemical material, including novels such as in a future war.The Þrst formal statement of this position appeared in the 18 August 1945 Saturday Review of Literature A protester holds a banner stating "Don't Attack Iraq" before an antiwar demonstration in London,15 February 2003. ar nor the war in Bosnia sparked large- scale peace movements,the memory of 1960s activism served as a break on U.S.for- eign policy and that of other governments through the 1990s.Succeeding U.S.presi- dents assumed that the American people ould object to a large or prolonged military commitment and sought to ght wars in ways that did not jeopardize U.S.lives,such as the use of airpower or smart weapons. Nicholas J.Cull Capa,Robert;Environmentalism; Music;Peace and Antiwar Movements (15001945);Scandinavia;United Nations; gesture rather than one based on political re- ality.Spain did not launch its conquest of the islands until the 1560s.Catholic missions specically the Jesuit ordersoon followed. Although by the late sixteenth century the tween the West and the East,popular unrest as never far below the surface,with the Moro (Muslim) population remaining a par- ticularly thorny problem. sending a medical team (and eventually some military engineers) to the war in what as known as the Many Flags nature of this involvement became a major diplomatic issue,with the Philippine govern- ment extracting a high price in U.S.aid money for a small show of support. Anti-Communism offered an ideal chan- nel for a Philippine politician to win Ameri- can support.The man who cornered the which kidnapped Westerners to draw atten- tion to its demands. Nicholas J.Cull Counterinsurgency;Japan;Southeast Asia,Spanish-American War;Terrorism,War A 1936 example of New Deal propaganda by Farm Security Administration photographer Walker Evans.Evans arranged the interior of this Alabama tenant farmer's kitchen to show middle-class viewers that the poor were driven the dicates of tidy housekeeping.(Courtesy of David Culbert) soil erosion,and endemic poverty.The best known of these photographers was Walker Evans (19031975),who was less interested in people than in creating beautiful composi- tions depicting worn or abandoned struc- tures.Dorothea Lange (18951965) cap- tured the spirit of survival in hard times in Migrant Mother,the best-known image of the FSA years. orld War II was a time of unprecedented importance for photographers,both on the home front and the battle front,and for all of The lm tells the story of the mechanized cultivation of the prairies to feed the world during World War I and the disastrous effect of high winds and sunon the land during the 1930s.Lorentzs images of the Dust Bowl,many featuring the children of the re- ion,are made even more poignant by a powerful musical score by Virgil Thomson (18961989).Although it was well made,as a documentary the lms impact was limited, thanks in part to low production values.Mil- lions more were affected by the photographs of Dorothea Lange (18951965) or the pow- erful novel The Grapes of Wrath (1939) byJohn Steinbeck (19021968). Nicholas J.Cull Film (Documentary);Roosevelt, Franklin D.;United States;United States Lorentz,Pare. FDRs Moviemaker: Memoirs and Scripts. Reno:University of Nevada Press,1992;Snyder,Robert L. Lorentz and Reno:University of Nevada Press,1968. peoples desire for liberty and self-gover- nance while subjugated by imperial Austria, especially in the collection entitled (1847),which helped to inspire the 1848 up- isings.So did the legendary and provocative tions,images,and ideas.Unlike prose,which tends to be a vehicle for lucid exposition,po- mnemonic devices as rhyme,rhythm,and Krasinski (18121859).Art by painters like Piotr Michalowski (18001855),which fre- quently celebrated Kosciuszk and his bat- tles,circulated widely in print form. Russian- and Austrian-occupied Poland ose up in 1848,with the former again re- olting in 1866 during the January Revolu- tion.In the wake of these rebellions,the Rus- sians in the east and Prussians in the west both began campaigns of Russication and Germanization,respectively,which included censorship,propaganda,and educational con- trols,as well as the renaming of places.Op- ponents of this policy included Count Ledchowski (18221902),arch- bishop of Poznan,who in 1874 refused to obey the Prussian order not to teach in the olish language.The Prussians were involved in a wider conict with the church during the period known as the Kulturkampf(cultural struggle).Artists who promoted Polish na- tionalism included the painter and dramatist ski (18691907) and the novelist Stefan eromski (18641925).Po- litical activists involved in the Polish inde- pendence movement later in the century in- cluded the young Jzef Pi 1935),who in 1894 launched the under- ound left-wing journal (Worker). During World War I Pi sudski led the Pol- ish army against Russia,but he also quarreled with the Central Powers.In 1918 he declared an independent Polish republic,which was conrmed by the Treaty of Versailles in 1919. The 1920s saw a heated debate over the na- ture of the Polish state.Lithuanian-born Pi ost-Communist Poland saw a prolifera- tion of political parties and a lively culture of interparty propaganda.Although Wa sa won the presidency in 1990,the country went though eight prime ministers in rapid succes- sion.In 1995 Wa sa lost the presidential election to Aleksander Kwa niewski (1954), a former Communist propagandist who had 1970s and editor of the reformist party jour- the iconography of emblems and attributes. In short,the very nature of portraiture is propagandist:the projection of an image which may or may not be trueto a passive audience. Early portraiture reected the grandeur of the Renaissance.The rise of humanism gave the practice of portraiture a conceptual dig- culture of the political parties merged with an international seminar,he spoke neither of the liberation from Spanish rule in 1640 nor of the ending of British rule in 1820 but rather the Christian victoriesof the Middle Ages. One of the beneciaries of the Christian conquest of Muslim Portugal was Prince Henry (13941460),a commander of the Order of Christ with a papal license to plun- der the lands of the indels.The Lancas- trian prince,a grandson of John of Gaunt oldest allydemanded its pound of esh and its pint of blood.In 1703 the neocolonial de- a working-class conspiracy fomented in se- tuguese empire for another half generation, and Salazar was able to force U.S.president ohn F.Kennedy (19171963) to reverse an American policy of proclaiming Africa for the Africansby threatening to close the mid- Atlantic airelds on the Portuguese islands. The Washington climb-down enabled Salazar parks,aboriginal peoples,important cities, expositions,ships,and sports heroes.In this y Canada seeks to project a favorable image of its country. The United States has produced similar stamps,plus some conveying American ideol- ogy.During World War II its stamps and can- cellations featured slogans such as Defense stamps changed in terms of size and theme. Chairman Maos sayings (either in type or in his own handwriting) appeared alongside his likeness.Other stamps featured heroes who had died,terraced hillsides symbolizing the conquest of nature,scenes from Maos wifes new revolutionary operas,and the integra- tion of women into the workforce. ames A.Leith Black Propaganda;China;Posters; Russia;Spain Altman,Dennis. The Politics of Stamps. North Ride,Australia: Angus and Robertson,1991;Leith,James A. Postage Stamps and Ideology in Communist China. QueensQuarterly 78,2 (1971): the belligerent powers waged total war against their enemies.Such warfare involved the mobilization of huge armies,the produc- tion of vast quantities of military supplies, and the raising of huge amounts of money. Recruitment posters generally depicted a military leader or a soldier who pointed a n- ger at the onlooker,asking:Have you volun- teered?Recruitment campaigns also used Barnicourt,John. osters:A Concise History. London:Thames and Hudson,1988; Bonnel,Victoria A. Guantanamo Bay in Cuba).The treatment of Òterrorist suspectsÓthus poses particularly exing questions concerning the legal status of those incarcerated in what is nominally lustrative of failings of national character. After the Korean War,for example,a num- ber of prominent American social critics harged that POWs had never before failed to escape,succumbed to disease and death, or collaborated with the enemy in such num- bers.Diverse sources of the national charac- terological malaise were identied,ranging from suffocating mothers to material afflu- ence,that had sapped the psychic and physi- cal vigor of a young generation of postwar Americans. (everything is propaganda) is not very help- ful.Equally unhelpful are those denitions that attempt to encapsulate in a single sen- tence larded with qualiers all the distinctive and distinguishing features of propaganda. Most writers on the subject agree that propa- ganda is concerned with inuencing opinion. Frederick Lumley (18801954) and William Albig,among others,regard secrecy or a ment in propaganda;as soon as the source is ealed,as in advertising,the activity ceases to be propaganda.Others stress the contro- sial element in propaganda.Harold Lass- ell has argued that while the spread of con- troversial attitudes is propaganda,the spread of accepted attitudes and skills is a form of education.Similarly,Leonard Doob (1909 2000) has suggested that propaganda is the ttempt to affect the personalities and to control the behavior of individuals toward ends considered unscientic or of doubtful propaganda is to persuade its subject that there is only one valid point of view and to eliminate all other options.What follows is a r suggestion,then this process may be called education,regardless of the intention of the educator.Leonard W.Doob. Propaganda:Its Psychology and Technique. New York:Henry Holt,1935,p.80. Propaganda refers to the conscious at- ally more numerous publics.Harwood L. Childs.Quoted in The American Political Scene. Ed.Edward B.Logan.New York:Harper, 1936,p.226. Propaganda gives force and direction to the successive movements of popular feeling and desire;but it does not do much to create those movements.The propagandist is a man who analyses an already existing stream.In a land where there is no water,he digs in vain. Aldous Huxley.Notes on Propaganda. Harpers 174 (December 1936):39.There are two kinds of propagandarational prop- aganda in favor of action that is consonant with the enlightened self-interest of those who make it and those to whom it is ad- dressed,and nonrational propaganda that is not consonant with anybodys enlightened self-interest,but is dictated by,and appeals to passion.Idem.Propaganda in a Democratic winning words or noises then the word be- ins to become appropriate(p.3).Perhaps ork:Crown,1993),suggests that advertis- ing and propaganda are half brothers.An ad- I,divided its Ministry of Information (MoI) into departments of home,allied,neutral, and enemy propaganda.Psychological war- can be distinguished from other forms of external propaganda in that it is directed at an ÒenemyÓrather than peoples of neutral or German soldiers surrender in Brittany,France,in 1944,carrying the "safe conduct" passes dropped in an Allied psychological arfare campaign.(National Archives) sand of the thirty-thousand-strong force.The modern period can be said to have begun ernments aims and honesty,sap his morale, and ultimately to induce desertion,defec- tion,and even insurrection.Pioneered by the British,who referred to it generically as po- litical warfare,the U.S.Army used the term psychologic warfareafter joining the war in 1917.Britains campaign was at rst con- ducted by the War Office and its branch MI 7,reaching its climax in 1918 when Lord Northcliffe(18651922) was appointed to head the department of propaganda in enemy countries,with headquarters at Crewe House.The British and their allies principally propaganda,which appears to emanate from somewhere else.In white propagandabest exemplied in the BBCs broadcasts to occu- pied Europe as well as Germany and her al- liesthe approach was propaganda with its separate way until the Bay of Pigs disaster of 1961 exposed the myth of a coordinated psychological effort. Psychological warfare (psywar) was used Daugherty,William E.,and Morris Janowitz, eds. A Psychological Warfare Casebook. Baltimore, MD:Johns Hopkins University Press,1958; Lerner,Daniel. Psychological Warfare against Nazi Germany. New York:G.W.Stewart,1949; Cultural Propaganda;Gulf War;Israel; apan;Korea;Mexico;Milton,John; Propaganda,Denitions of;Terrorism,War on; USIA;VOA Quotations from Chairman Mao This work consists of a selection of short po- litical aphorisms by Mao Zedong (1893 1976),who was the chairman of the Chinese Communist Party and paramount Chinese leader from 1949 to 1976.The collection, which was also known as the Little Red Book,exhorted readers to practice self-sac- ce and exhibit devotion to the revolution- ary spirit.It was not compiled by Mao him- self but rather by Lin Biao (19081971),his defense minister,who in the early 1960s as- sembled the quotations from Maos volumi- nous published writings and distributed them in book form among the soldiers of the Peo- ples Liberation Army,the armed forces of the Peoples Republic of China.By 1963 mil- lions of soldiers were encouraged to memo- ize the quotations and use them in political discussions,thereby increasing the reverence in which Mao was held as Chinas foremost ideologist.The book was read more widely during the Cultural Revolution (1966 1976),when student revolutionaries,known as Red Guards,used it as ammunition during their attemptswhich were endorsed by Maoto overthrow the existing social and political structures.First published in the est in translation in 1966,the book also be- came popular among student radicals,who felt that its iconoclasm echoed their attempts to overthrow existing structures in capitalist The standard format for modern radio broadcastsa blend of short,digestible mu- radio for war news.Such popular commenta- tors as Edward R.Murrow (1908Ð1965), H.V.Kaltenborn (1878Ð1965),Elmer Davis (1890Ð1958),and Fulton Lewis Jr.(1903Ð 1966) gave listeners both the headlines plus their personal opinionsÑwhich were some- times rather simplistic.With the end of the ar and the rise of television,1945 marked the demise of radioÕs central role in American A government-organized protest against Voice of America (VOA) broadcasts in Hungary in 1949.VOA is mocked as a quacking duck.Such events were a sign of the effectiveness of broadcasts and the fear they engendered in the Communist governments of Eastern Europe.(National Archives). a host of broadcasters on the shortwave band (which could bounce off the earths iono- sphere and hence travel across vast dis- tances).New stations included Radio Vatican (1931) and the BBC Empire Service (1932). Beginning in the mid-1920s the U.S.gov- ernment began broadcasting to Latin Amer- ica to promote the cause of Pan-American unity,but it was slow in developing this activ- ity.Boston-based station WIXAL,the rst major U.S.commercial station aimed at erseas listeners,began broadcasting in 1933.Commercial broadcasts opposed all proposals for large-scale U.S.government sponsorship of radio propaganda,such as the 1937 plan devised by Rep.Emmanuel Celler (18881981) to broadcast anti-Nazi mes- sages to Latin America.The pressure sur- ounding World War II led to the founding of the Voice of America (VOA).The BBC acted as a midwife,providing advice and allowing the VOA to use its transmission facilities. The Cold War led to the creation of new propaganda stations,including the CIA- funded Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty (RFE/RL).The United States also main- tained a station called Radio in the American Sector (RIAS) in West Berlin,which eventu- ally became part of the United States Infor- mation Agency (USIA).RIAS played an im- portant role in encouraging the East German ising of June 1953.The Cold War intro- duced the phenomenon of jamming,whereby a high-powered signal containing just noise as broadcast on the same frequency as the foreign station.Stations affected often moved their frequency slightly so as to dodge the jammers in a radio game of cat and mouse. English-language broadcasts to the USSR not jammed and allegedly served as a elcome source of news for senior Commu- nist Party officials. Germanys international radio station Deutsche Welle (Voice of Germany;literally German [Air] Wave) was originally founded in 1929.It began life broadcasting in German to German-speaking populations around the orld.In 1953 the station was relaunched by ARD,the West German broadcasting federa- tion,and soon diversied into foreign-lan- guage broadcasting.Since 1960 it has been operated by the federal government. International broadcasting has seen nu- merous black propaganda stations,that is, radio stations purporting to represent one oup but actually subsidized by another.The most famous of these was the British station Soldaten Sender Eins(Soldiers Radio One), which was beamed at Germany during World States introduced a new radio station called prominent anti-Communist voice,support- ing the investigations of the House Commit- tee on Un-American Activities (HUAC).He also acted as corporate spokesman for the General Electric company. ReaganÕs marriage to actress Nancy Davis (1923Ð) in 1952 linked him to one of the most powerful political families in Califor- niaÕs Republican Party.He Þrst appeared na- tionally in 1964,rallying the party faithful to endorse Senator Barry GoldwaterÕs (1909Ð 1998) bid for president.In 1966 Reagan won the governorship of California (he served until 1975) and achieved a national reputa- tion as a hard-line conservative by clamping Ronald Reagan,official presidential photograph.(Library of Congress) the problem.He played the presidentwith the condence of a great actor and won the 1984 presidential election by a substantial margin,insisting that America was once again standing tall.Reagan had substantial input into scripting his television speeches,devel- In Japan reeducation was managed by the Civil Information and Education (CIE) Sec- tion of Allied General Headquarters in okyo.A CIE press code forbade criticism of the Allies.Film censors banned the patriotic historical epics of prewar Japan and encour- aged lms based on new themes and featur- ing new social mores,such as public kissing. The occupation worked to discredit the repu- tation of the wartime military regime and to put an end to the cult of the emperor.In apan,as in Germany,the occupation forces paid particular attention to school textbooks, dropping old ones and commissioning new a 1936 Þlm denouncing the addictive power of marijuana,was re-released in 1972 by the National Sacra Congregatio de Propaganda Fide (Sa- cred Congregation for Propagation of the Although the Reformation began as a movement calling for internal reform,when the Roman hierarchy condemned reformers like Martin Luther (14831586) in Germany and Hulderich Zwingli (14841531) and papal recognition and quickly became the heart and soul of the movement known as the Counter-Reformation. By the 1540s Protestantism dominated Scandinavia and northern Germany,appar- ently being close to taking over the rest of Germany and Poland,Bohemia-Moravia,and Hungary-Transylvania.It was dominant in Switzerland,had a strong position in France, and was only under control in Spain and Por- tugal,where the Inquisition had thus far Reformation and Counter-Reformation339 managed to suppress it.The Jesuits used the rst part of the Council of Trent (1545 1547),the leadership of which they in effect took over,to strengthen papal authority over the church and to formulate alternative Catholic positions to the Protestant ones. These were spread by means of education and propaganda.The Jesuits worked both se- nia the Protestants were saved by the Ot- toman occupation.Print propaganda on both sides emphasized the enemys atrocities and the religious virtue of the home side. One of the problems of the Protestants on programming,he was guided by the belief that broadcasting must be educational as well as entertaining.He allowed the BBC to be an instrument of propaganda for the British gov- ernment during the General Strike of 1926. During the 1930s he oversaw the inaugura- tion of the BBC Empire Service,which trans- mitted British news and valuesto citizens erseas.In 1938 he assumed the chairman- ship of Imperial Airways.Appointed in 1940 as the second minister of information by Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain (1869 1940),he helped to reinvigorate Britains time propaganda effort.In May 1940 inston Churchill (18741965) transferred Reith to the Ministry of Transport.He was also made a peer.Churchill dropped Reith ohn Paul II (1920) used modern mass media to ght Communism,materialism,and being the instrument of God.By choosing of British forces.After the British surrender orktown in 1781,the debate on the fu- ture of the colonies continued in newspapers American revolutionary Paul Revere's famous engraving of the Boston Massacre,entitled 1790),they never attained the level of pro- Official documents such as the Declara- tion of Rights and Grievances (1774) also appealed to public opinion.Although un- likely to effect a change in British policy, such documents were intended to justify concerted action to the public.The Declara- tion of Independence,which informed the orld that the colonists no longer consid- ered themselves subjects of the British crown,has been seen as performative propaganda,for only as men fought for it did they give meaning to it. Speeches,sermons,and plays reached an uneducated audience whose support for the olution was vital.Preachers borrowed from the religious enthusiasm and engage- ment of the Great Awakening(1734 1760).Mob oratorslike Ebenezer Mackin- emotional appeals to the crowd.Oral persua- sion,though independently effective,was re- inforced and disseminated in print.Songs and to control peoples minds.As the Revolution progressed,however,there was growing pressure from the national government,mu- nicipal authorities,and political clubs to sup- port the revolutionary cause.This pressure intensied after the advent of the Terror in 1793,during which the revolutionary gov- ernment took on many of the features of a totalitarian state. The printed word was the principal medium for spreading or opposing the revo- lutionary gospel.It requires a thick volume just to list the myriad newspapers that ap- peared once royal authorization was no longer required.Early in the Revolution prorevolutionary and opposition newspapers baths,swimming pools,libraries,museums, and schools.The effort to impress,accom- modate,and serve the masses reached a peak in the spring of 1794,when the Committee 25 October 1917 the Bolsheviks seized control our country the political and social revolu- tion preceded the cultural revolution. In view of the urgent need to spread the Bolshevik ideology,justify the seizure of power,and raise education levelsnot to mention increase economic efficiencythe Narkompros (Peoples Commissariat) quickly 1980s.The role of RFE and RL in encourag- ing the political change was well argued on Capitol Hill by Sen.Joseph Biden (1942) in whose state (Delaware) the stations were incorporated.The Clinton administration preserved the stations within a revised Inter- national Broadcasting Board,which also in- corporated the VOA.RFE/RL soon diversi- ed,adding broadcasts aimed at Iraq and Radio Free Asia to their stable.In 2001 they eceived unwelcome evidence of their effec- tiveness in the form of news of a terrorist plotinvolving Iraqi intelligence and one of the September 11 hijackersto attack RFE headquarters in Prague. Nicholas J.Cull CIA;Cold War;Poland;Radio (International);Russia;VOA Brown,Donald R. International Radio Broadcasting:The Limits of the Limitless New York:Praeger,1982;Critchlow, ames. Radio Hole-in-the-Head/Radio Liberty:An Insiders Story of Cold War Broadcasting. ashington,DC:American University Press, 1995;Mickelson,Sig. Americas Other Voice:The Story of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty. New ork:Praeger,1983;Nelson,Michael. the Black Heavens:The Battles of Western Broadcasting in the Cold War. London:Brasseys, 1997;Puddington,Arch. Freedom Radios:How Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty Broke the quit further work in uniform after witnessing a massacre committed by German soldiers in the Polish village of Konskie.She began work (The Lowlands),a lm adaptation of the opera by Eugen dAlbert (1864 1932).Held back by various circumstances, the lm was only nished in 1954.After the ar Riefenstahl was interrogated by the U.S. Army,appeared three times at denazication hearings,and was nally released after being branded as a sympathizer. She continued to undertake lm projects ut never nished any.In the 1960s she trav- eled to Africa four times.Her book on her recognition as a photographer,but it with ministerial colleagues who resented the encroachment of this new ministry on their Analyzing the political function of propa- ganda in the Third Reich is further compli- cated by the fact that it was simultaneously hanneled through three different institu- tions:the RMVP,the Reichspropagandaamt (Central Propaganda Office) of the party,and the Reichskulturkammer (Reich Chamber of Culture).Moreover,the political structure of the Third Reich was based on the twin pillars of the party and the state.According to Mein Kampf, it was the task of the state to continue the historical development of the national administration within the framework of the law,while it was the func- tion of the party to build its internal organi- zation and establish and develop a stable and tunately for the new minister,the pur- hase of radios increased dramatically in the Third Reich,and it has been estimated that er 80 percent of the ministrys expendi- tures were recovered from this source. Goebbels saw the RMVP as the main policy- and decision-making body,providing direc- tion and delegating responsibility to the nu- merous subordinate agencies that were under its control.The most important of these was the Reich Chamber of Culture.The RMVP ÒSave Freedom of Speech,Óa war bonds drive poster by Norman Rockwell,1943.This poster was one of Rockwell's depictions of Franklin RooseveltÕs Four Freedoms.(Corbis) this experience with that of a professional journalist,a testament to his sense of self-es- Franklin D.Roosevelt campaigns for president with his daughter,Anna,and wife,Eleanor,in 1932.(Franklin D.Roosevelt Library) twice weekly press conferences for much of his presidency.He enjoyed engaging in a game of wits with reporters,many of whom discovered that Roosevelts charm was often intended to disguise rather than inform. Roosevelts physical handicap was largely hidden from most Americans thanks to an arrangement with newsreel and still photog- raphers.No image of FDR was permitted that showed his physical handicap.In practice this meant no shots from the waist down. Those who broke the rule were denied en- Daugherty,William E.,and Morris anowitz,eds. A Psychological Warfare Casebook. Baltimore,MD:Johns Hopkins University Press,1958;Delmer,Sefton. Black Boomerang. London:Secker and Warburg,1962;Taylor, founding of the Oprichnikiforerunner of The rule of Alexander III was also charac- terized by rapid industrialization under Min- ister of Finance Sergei Witte (18491915). The resulting social tensions planted the line with these seismic changes,a cultural olution was introduced that utilized all the arts and the media of mass cultureespe- cially lm,which was an important tool in a primarily illiterate country.Several of the propaganda devices of the previous revolu- tionary period,such as the agit-trainrail- y campaign,were resuscitated. Many of the problems faced even by loyal earth from across the USSR.The monument as unveiled on 6 May 1967 and remains a pilgrimage site for wedding couples.Around the outskirts of the capital stand the antitank hedgehogsa memorial to Moscows de- fenders.Naturally,there is also a most im- pressive memorial to Leningrads defenders on Victory Square (erected 9 May 1975). Assuming power in 1985,Mikhail Gor- bachev (1931),intent on restructuring perestroika Art;Austrian Empire; Battleship Potemkin; Castro,Fidel;Censorship;Cold War;Cold ar in the Middle East;Comintern;Crimean Disinformation;Eisenstein,Sergei;Fakes; Film (Documentary);International;The Internationale;KGB;Labor/Antilabor;Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich;Marx,Karl;Okhrana;Poland; traiture;Postage Stamps;Posters; Radio (International); RFE/RL;Stalin,Joseph;Trotsky,Leon; omens Movement:European;World War I; Satellite Communications Satellites entered the realm of international propaganda as technological symbols rather than useful additions to international com- Gorbachev (1931)and the fall of the Berlin Wall later that year. The power of satellite reports from the battlefield was seen during the Gulf War. The technology gave the Western media the sort of news monopoly not seen since the British cable ship cut the German undersea cable to the United States at the beginning of World War I.The power of this news monopoly was not lost on ob- servers of the Gulf War.The 1990s saw many nations developing their own launch acilities,launching their satellites from ve- hicles belonging to other nations,and ex- panding their television systems to accept more satellite feeds.These new satellites carried news,propaganda,and entertain- ment;some were used for surveillance.In- spired,in part,by the rapid privatization of tively little disturbance.The Danish court ourished,most notably during the reign of Christian IV (r.15961648).The court used the usual Renaissance tools of political propa- ganda (architecture,portraiture,and so forth).Denmark also claimed to have the rst national banner, Dannebrog (Denmarks Cloth),consisting of a red eld with a white cross.According to Danish legend,in 1219 it miraculously oated down from heaven into the camp of the young king Valdemar II (r. 12021241) on the eve of a battle against the heathen Estonians.Its image immediately ap- peared on coins and was incorporated into existing heraldry.The original banner was carried and lost in battle as late as 1500,but full banners of the same design were already in use.Other Scandinavian nations adopted Dannebrog, the Swedish ag being Gustav Vasas deliberate counterpoint to the Danish one:blue with a yellow cross. In Denmark the ag remains a key symbol of national identity,used not only for national holidays but also during Christmas and birth- day celebrations. The seventeenth century saw the apogee of Swedish power in Scandinavia and beyond, beginning with the reigns of Gustav Adolf (15941632),who acceded to the throne in 1611 and ruled as Gustav II with the assis- tance of Axel Oxenstierna (15831684),a hancellor of legendary ability.Gustav Adolf led Sweden into the Thirty YearsWar after the unsuccessful intervention of the Danish king.His success on the battleeld was matched by the calculated manipulation of his own (widely reproduced) image as the paragon of Protestant kingship.To preserve this image of virtue,he imposed rigid disci- pline on his army,forbidding his soldiers from participating in the looting and rapine typical of the era.However,the Swedish army soon reverted to type following Gustav Adolfs death on the battleeld.Swedens ca- eer as a great power came to an abrupt end in 1718 with the death of its warrior king Charles XII (r.16971718),who perished at the hands of a sniper during the Great North- ern War (17001721) in Norway.Playing up the kings almost supernatural reputation,a widely circulated Swedish/Norwegian story of the time claimed that the sniper used a 1879),an Icelandic historian and authority on the ancient sagas,founded the nationalist periodical Ny felagsrit (New Fellowship Writ- ing;1841) and campaigned for home rule, which was granted by Denmark in 1874.Ice- land gained full independence in 1944.A similar event occurred on the Faroe Islands,a Danish dependency,paving the way for home In Norway patriotic writers included Hen- ik Wergeland (18081845) and Bjrnstjerne Bjrnson (18231910).The latter also took part in the international peace movement and campaigned on behalf of such oppressed peo- ples as the Finns and the Slovaks.He won the Nobel Prize in literature in 1903.The linguist ell as strategic value.In May 1942 John Christmas Mller (18981948),a leading conservative politician,made a dramatic es- cape by boat to England.There he became hairman of the Free Danish Council and launched a series of patriotic radio broadcasts back home over the BBC,comparable in their impact to those of Churchill to the British people.In addition to acts of sabotage,the re- sistance coordinated a wave of strikes in Au- gust 1943 (which prompted German direct became a staple of British propaganda in the modern world,William Shakespeare was born in Stratford,located in the Midlands. He worked in London under state censorship and regularly performed at court,especially after the accession of King James I (1566 1625) in 1603,whereupon his company took the name The Kings Men.Elements of dy- nastic propaganda are most easily discernable in Shakespeares history plays.His early play (c.1593) constitutes a slander on States,19551985. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,1987;Lear,Linda. Carson:Witness for Nature. New York:Holt,1997. Africa The nations of the Southeast Asian region Burma,Cambodia,Laos,Malaysia,Singa- Cambodia,which was bombed and invaded the United States in its campaign against The military government,reconstituted as the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC),responded violently.Propaganda gambits included playing the nationalistic card enaming the country Myanmar (in 1989) rather than use the Anglicized colonial name Burma.Since 1988 NLD opposition has been led by Aung San Suu Kyi (1945),the daugh- ter of one of the architects (and martyrs) of Burmese independence,and has relied on nonviolent protest.An able writer and speaker,Aung San Suu Kyi effectively mobi- lized world opinion against the military ime.In 1990 the military overturned a landslide election that favored the NLD.In the 1990s the key gure in the military regime as Gen.Than Shwe (1933),a proponent of psychological warfare who made some at- tempts to ease international criticism of his ime by means of the token release of dissi- dents.In 1991 Aung San Suu Kyi won the Nobel Peace Prize.The NLD continues to protest against human rights abuses in Burma supplying information to the Western media (BBC,VOA,and Radio Free Asia) and pressure groups such as Amnesty Interna- tional.Public pressure successfully forced a number of major multinational corpora- tionsincluding Texaco,Levi-Strauss,and epsi Colato withdraw from Burma. Nicholas J.Cull China;Counterinsurgency;Indonesia; apan;Philippines;Satellite Communications; amily prestige through portraiture and ar- hitecture,collecting portraits and displaying them in the Alczar and Prado in Madrid and, spurred by Spanish attempts to hold on to ebellious Cuba,if necessary by taking on the United States.Jingoistic press campaigns in Spain (matched by similar campaigns in the United States) contributed to the Span- ish-American War of 1898,in which a disas- trous defeat for Spain led to angry demands for national regeneration.These were spear- headed by the propaganda campaign of re- former Joaqun Costa (18461911),which left as its legacy an intellectual movement of criticism of the liberal parliamentary monar- y of Alfonso XIII (18861941;r.1886 1931),which often looked to France as its model.Others sought national regeneration imeyoked arrows of the Catholic kingsseen on war memorials and at the en- trances to towns and villages.Jos Antonios execution on 20 November was observed as a holiday,as was the date of the uprising on 18 July,which featured a military parade in Madrid with the Caudillo (Chief) taking the There were Catholic provincial dailies,but former left-wing and liberal pa- pers were taken over by the Falange.All newspapers were published in Castilian until the 1960s,when regional languages were permitted. The transition to democracy after Francos death in 1975 has brought a stable constitu- tional monarchy into being that has rein- stated freedom of the press.Nationally the ideological balance was restored with the founding of the daily El Pas (The Country),a the five hundredth anniversary of Colum- uss arrival in the Americas was the world exhibition held in Seville in 1992,with its links to Spanish America. R.A.H.Robinson ustrian Empire;Civil War,Spanish; Goya; Guernica; Latin America;Mexico; ored for war.President McKinley,mindful of the need to keep Republican Party support, duly declared waran act of propaganda by deed for European audiences.McKinley had wn concerned by German activity in 378Spanish-American War China and wanted to show that the United States was a force to be reckoned with. While Theodore Roosevelt raised a volun- teer regiment of Rough Riders(symboli- cally beginning his recruitment campaign at the Alamo in San Antonio,Texas),the U.S. and was promoted as a medium of coopera- But there is little doubt that since 1945 the estern world has been equally keen to use sport to promote national ends.During the Cold War the United States found itself in a A huge poster of Joseph Stalin adorns a building in Leningrad,1938.(Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS) orld war.In the mid-1930s Stalin launched a major campaign of political terror.The purges,arrests,and deportations to labor camps were orchestrated via an all-pervasive propaganda campaign to convince the popu- lation (and particularly the party cadres) that the whole state was riddled with traitors. Even major gures like Zinoviev,Kamenev, and Bukharin admitted to crimes against the state in show trials and were sentenced to death.Stalin was not a particularly subtle propagandistand had little to add to the theory of the practicebut his campaigns sphere of fear instilled by the State security apparatus. sought to present Nasser as an unprincipled treaty-breaker,undermining accepted stan- dards of behavior and posing a threat to the alues and commercial interests of the inter- national community.British ministers com- pared Nasser to Hitler and Mussolini while clandestine French broadcasts denounced the Egyptian president as a Communist.These measures were clearly intended to prepare domestic public opinion for military opera- Among Britains main objectives was the destruction of Nassers personal prestige and In contrast,Britains defeat was clear for all to see,and there was little the propagan- dists could do to disguise it.The awed poli- cies of the Eden government effectively left British propagandists with an impossible task. Picking up the pieces in the aftermath of a humiliating political defeat,they concen- trated on damage limitation,attempting to efute Egyptian claims of atrocities against civilians during the Anglo-French attack on Said and,with an eye toward the eestablishment of the Anglo-American al- home for the League of Nations (1919 1946),the International Red Cross (from 1864),and other international organizations, including the World Health Organization. The projection of the Swiss national image has been closely tied to its role as an interna- tional peacemaker. tion,medieval Switzerland developed with a tradition of independence and special privi- lege not seen elsewhere in Europe.In 1291 three cantons (regions) Uri,Unterwalden, and Schwyz,combined to form the Everlast- ing League of the Three Forest Cantons to defend themselves against Habsburg Austria. Lucerne joined in 1332.These events are memorialized in the legendary campaign of esistance led by the archer William Tell,re- told by eighteenth-century historian Jo- hannes von Mller (17551809) in his tory of Switzerland (1786).Tell became a potent symbol of national awakening in Switzerland and beyond during the Enlight- campaigns.In 2002 Switzerland voted to join the United Nations. Nicholas J.Cull Herzl,Theodor;Lenin,Vladimir Ilyich; PWE,Reformation and Counter-Reformation; omens Movement:European;Zionism Butler,Michael,Malcolm Pender, and Joy Charnley,eds. The Making of Modern Switzerland,18481998. Basingstoke,UK: Macmillan,2000;Cole,Robert. Britain and the ar of Words in Neutral Europe,19391945. New ork:St Martins Press,1990;Head,Randolph William Tell and His Comrades:Association and Fraternity in the Propaganda of Fifteenth- and Sixteenth-Century Switzerland. ournal of Modern History 67,3 (September 1995): 527557;Johnston,Pamela,and Bob Scribner, The Reformation in Germany and Switzerland. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,1993. Arab World Syria387 elevision Television,the British critic Malcolm Muggeridge (19031990) once wrote,was not invented to make human beings vacu- ous,but is an Emanation of their vacuity. elevision is an electronic system of trans- lack-and-white continues to be rebroadcast as originally produced,though recently some lms have been colorized digitally. In the United States television proved a bonanza for advertisers.The 1950s witnessed Growing Up:The Impact of Televised Violence. ashington,DC:GPO,1972. elevision (News) In July 1941 Columbia Broadcasting System Wisconsin Republican Senator Joseph R.McCarthy,appearing on a television screen during his Þlmed reply to Columbia Broadcasting System newscaster Edward R.Murrow,tells a coast-to-coast audience on 6 April 1954 that Murrow "as far back as twenty years ago,was engaged in propaganda for Communist causes." McCarthy was answering Murrow's anti-McCarthy helped his less well-known opponent,John F. ennedy,win popular support.Television news also beneted from the presence of Howard K.Smith (19142002),a respected TV news reporter,who acted as moderator. That Shaped Television News:CBS in the 1950s. stport,CT:Praeger,1998. This essentially religious movement cam- paigned against the drinking of alcohol in the United States,Britain,and northern Europe A wall in Falls Road,Belfast,Northern Ireland,is painted with republican slogans and images.It links the objectives of the alestine Liberation Organization (PLO) with that of the Irish Republican Army (IRA).(Paul Seheult;Eye 1882 and other acts committed by the Fenian Invincibles.By the end of the century,sym- bolic direct action was well established in the terrorists political arsenal. tinian organizations have launched two con- certed uprisings (intifada),the rst lasting from December 1987 to September 1993 and the second,Al-Aqsa (named after the mosque in Jerusalem),in September 2000. Both were accompanied by international propaganda offensives.Distinguishing be- tween acts of terrorism associated with the intifada and the violent responses of the State of Israel has been a major preoccupation of Israeli propaganda. The 1990s saw the emergence of a new of militant Islamic organizations linked such umbrella organizations as the Inter- national Muslim Brotherhood or Al Qaeda (The Base).Groups affiliated with these or- ganizations conducted spectacular raids ments against terrorism in Islamic terms, stressing the heritage of Islamic tolerance and the Korans prohibition against killing civil- ians.The Wests presentation of the Taliban stressed their involvement in the drug trade. The War on Terrorism witnessed the de- ployment of all the mechanisms of propa- ganda and psychological warfare.The British announced a news initiative in cultural diplo- macy intended to project the moderate views of British Muslims to the rest of the Islamic orld.Radio played a key role since eco- nomic and religious conditions in Afghanistan ensured minimal TV viewership.The Taliban had used the radio station Radio Shariah as their principal propaganda weapon.In an ef- fort to establish their supremacy,the allies Osama bin Laden acknowledged responsibility for the attack of 11 September.The United States released the tape as justication for the campaign,although nations believing in Osama bin Ladens innocence contested its authentic- ity.The close of the campaign brought fresh propaganda challenges for the United States as press coverage of its treatment of Al Qaeda prisoners provoked criticism from Europe.In anuary 2002 President Bush used his State of the Union address to argue for a wider cam- paign against nations that sponsor terrorism. ould be defeated if they were denied the oxygen of publicity.She was also vociferous in her opposition to closer British ties to the European Community.Her great ally was her fellow conservative,U.S.President Ronald Reagan (1911).Like Reagan,she took a hard line in her approach to the Com- unist threat.Unlike Reagan,however,she did not pump money into international broadcasting.The BBC World Service was cut back during the 1980s because of Thatchers desire to reduce public spending and general skepticism about the broadcast By the late 1980s Thatcher had lost her touch.Critics mocked her use of royal syn- tax in announcing to waiting reporters:We have become a grandmother.Key members of her own party questioned her judgment, especially with regard to Europe.With an internal party leadership challenge under- she resigned in 1990.After leaving of- ce,Thatcher continued to promote her conservative ideology. Nicholas J.Cull BBC;Blair,Tony;Britain;Churchill, inston;Civil Defense;Elections;Elections (Britain);Falklands/Malvinas War;Ireland; Labor/Antilabor;Murdoch,Rupert; orism;World War II (Britain) Ingham,Bernard. Kill the Messenger. London:HarperCollins,1991;Young,Hugo. vided a venue for experimental productions often associated with artistic and bohemian culture. Theater is inevitably associated with drama,the Greek word for action.Actors epresent human actions by impersonating haracters on a stage.Plays and dramas are nearly synonymous,starting with Greek masterpieces such as Aeschyluss (525456 Agamemnon and Aristo- ysistrata. Christopher Marlowes amburlaine fourteenth-century Scythian shepherd, Alexander the Greats successor,whose im- pulse for absolute power leads him to con- quer most of the known world.In such dra- mas the topic of war leads to political commentary on just and unjust rulers or the ability of the weak to triumph over the strong thanks to Gods intervention. Many of the worlds greatest plays concern ynically dened by the American satirist Ambrose Bierce (1842ca.1914) in A Devils Dictionary as a by-product of the arts of peace.William Shakespeare wrote history plays lled with battles,like (c.1593),and King John (c.1594).His play (c.1604)concerns a great soldier undone by jealousy.In (c.1605) war is rarely from Lears mind. In more recent times,one thinks of the sol- dier in Georg Bchners (18131837) Woyz eck (published in 1879,though written in 1837).George Bernard Shaws (1856 Arms and the Man (1894),concerns war proteers;his Heartbreak House with a bombardment;and in Saint Joan (1923) war and religious faith are united in the gure of Joan of Arc. One of the most frequently produced of all Ultimately the trial revealed that there as no single Tokyo Rose,nor anyone who eferred to themselves as such,but for post- ar America the appellation became synony- mous with treasonous propaganda for the im- perial Japanese. The U.S.courts convicted Toguri and sent her to federal prison,where she remained until paroled in 1956.As a result of her con- viction,the U.S.government stripped her of her American citizenship and initiated depor- tation proceedings.She successfully appealed to remain in the United States as a stateless person.After long neglecting her case,the apanese American CitizensÕLeague took ac- tion and began to press Toguri to take redress against the government.In 1976,on the day before he was to leave office,U.S.President Gerald Ford (1913Ð) granted her a full presidential pardon,restoring her rights as an American citizen. Barak Kushner ustralia;Japan;Radio (International); orld War II (Japan) Chapman,Ivan. okyo Calling:The Charles Cousens Case. Sydney:Hale and Iremonger,1990;Duus,Masayo. okyo Rose: Orphan of the PaciÞc. New York:Kodansha International,1979;Fujita,Frank. oo:A apanese-American Prisoner of the Rising Sun. Denton:University of North Texas,1993; Meo,L.D. apanÕs Radio War on Australia. Melbourne:Melbourne University Press, riumph of the Will riumph des Willens This documentary Þlm directed by Leni Riefenstahl (1902Ð) has become the most amous piece of propaganda associated with the Nazi regime (1889Ð1945).The Þlm ecords the Nazi Party rally held at Nurem- berg in 1934.Highlights include the majestic descent of HitlerÕs plane through the clouds and the aircraftÕs shadow overspreading marching columns of party members on the ound;the adoration of the crowd as Hitler drives by in his car;the vast spectacle of uni- formed soldiers assembling to hear their FŸhrer speak;and a shot of Hitler and his en- tourage marching through a human avenue on his way to deliver a speech.Although crit- ics hailed the Þlm as a masterpiece,there is little evidence of its having captured the imagination of Germans at the time.It was not widely circulated overseas during the 1930s,although it won prizes at the Venice Film Festival (1935) and at the Paris WorldÕs air in 1937.In providing eloquent visual tes- timony to the regimentation and power of HitlerÕs regime,the Þlm proved an invaluable esource for Allied propagandists seeking to rally anti-Nazi feeling during World War II; clips of RiefenstahlÕs Þlm were used to good advantage in the U.S.armyÕs ÒWhy We FightÓ series. Nicholas J.Cull Exhibitions and WorldÕs Fairs;Film (Documentary);Germany;Goebbels,Joseph; Hitler,Adolph;Riefenstahl,Leni;Why We riumph of the Will (Triumph des Willens) Souvenir program of Leni Riefenstahl's (Triumph of the Will),1935.The Prussian eagle and the Hakenkreuz.(Courtesy of David Culbert) Barsum,Richard Meran. to Triumph of the Will. Bloomington:Indiana University Press,1975;Hinton,David B. Films of Leni Riefenstahl. A national gure symbolizing the United States,Uncle Sam emerged during the nine- teenth century and became a staple of propa- ganda illustration both for and against the ld War I recruiting poster by James Montgomery Flagg,based on an earlier British poster,in which Uncle Sam King,Nancy. A Cartoon History of United States eign Policy from 1945 to the Present. ashington,DC:Foreign Policy Association, Uncle Toms Cabin Serialized in 1851 in newspaper installments and published as a book in 1852,this novel epresents the most famous example of abo- litionist propaganda.Three hundred thou- sand copies were sold in the United States alone during its rst year in print,making it a key text of the abolitionist movement. Robert Cecil (18641958).The league be- came a forum for international debate and arbitration.Unfortunately,member states in- ed the propaganda tool of resigning in protest and the league (which already lacked .S.membership) could do little to prevent orld War II.The key to future peace esided in establishing a new organization and winning American support for it. The idea of a new organization for collec- tive security was at the heart of the Atlantic Charter,which the still officially neutral U.S. president Franklin Roosevelt (18821945) and the beleaguered British prime minister inston Churchill (18741964) signed in ugust 1941.The Atlantic Charter became the core of a joint United Nations declaration signed by all the Allied powers on 1 January 1942.The British Inter-Allied Information Committee,formed to feed Allied propa- ganda to a neutral American audience,now became the United Nations Information Committee (under a U.S.director),which promoted internationalism and awareness of the Allied war effort by supplying material to the U.S.press,promoting United Nations days,and even organizing a television pageant in 1942.Advocates of internationalism within the United States included lawyer and Republican presidential candidate Wendell illkie (18921944) and lm mogul Darryl Zanuck (19021979),who produced (1944),a valentine to U.S.president ilson and the lost opportunities of 1919. By the end of the war the U.S.public was solidly behind membership in an interna- tional organization. the General Assembly,its resolutions increas- ingly reected the needs and views of the de- eloping world.UN resolutions have con- demned the apartheid system in South Africa and Israeli actions in the Middle East.The British secured a UN mandate before launch- ing the Falklands/Malvinas War of 1982 and the United States and its allies secured a UN mandate before launching the Gulf War of 1991.Within the United States the UN is a frequent rallying point in right-wing propa- ganda,from Senate Republicans who success- fully blocked payment of UN dues in the 1990s to extreme Militiamembers who against a UN conspiracy to conquer and control the United States. The United Nations has become an active player in the world of international commu- nications through its commissions and agen- cies.The United Nations Educational,Scien- tic,and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in Paris,founded in 1945 (and a UN agency since 1946),has promoted education and in- tellectual exchange around the world.UN- ESCO attracted controversy in the 1970s when the Third World membership initiated a drive for a so-called New World Interna- tional Communications Order.The specics 500,000 copies in a country with three mil- lion inhabitants.American governance is also connected to the medium of the newspaper, the rst of which,the The Constitutions Bill of Rights guaran- teed a free press and freedom of speech.Yet as early as 1798 Congress passed the Alien and Sedition Acts,making it a crime to criti- cize John Adams (17351826),Federalist president of the United States.Though this notorious legislation was soon permitted to expire,it left behind a legacy threatening to those considering an open attack on any in- cumbent administration.No propaganda had eater impact than the published in 1829 in Boston by David Walker (ca.1796 1830),a black man.His lengthy tract urged slaves to use violence to gain their freedom, sending great waves of fear throughout the slaveholding South.Indeed,the entire aboli- tionist struggle (18201860) represents a dening moment in U.S.propaganda.A great moral wrong was debated in special-interest publications,but it was generally not talked about on the oor of Congress;on this sub- ject Americas political institutions proved in- capable of nonviolent compromise.The one piece of propaganda that did the most to make the abolitionist case was Uncle Toms viewers in that bygone era.Presidential cam- paigning has involved national radio ad- dresses and (since 1960) televised presiden- tial debates,which have transferred the stump speech to another medium. ar has tempted the government to seek temporary ways of restricting the opposi- tional potential of the media.The Sedition Act of 1917 and the notorious Espionage Act of 1918 enabled Woodrow Wilson (1856 1924) to send to prison anyone criticizing the ar effort;the Supreme Court upheld time restrictions on freedom of speech and the press in Schenck v.United States (1919),where Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes (18411933) famously declared that no citizen has the right to cry refalsely in a crowded theater. ears of oppositional propaganda mean that the electronic media have not been given full citizenship when it comes to freedom of speech.In the FCCs 1941 Mayowerruling, broadcasters were told they could not edito- ialize;this so-called Fairness Doctrinewas Red Lion Broadcasting v.FCC where the courts ruled in favor of denying a broadcast license to someone not serving the public interest,convenience,and neces- sity.The print media have never been so idly controlledthough not because a journalist believes the federal government cannot do him or her harm. Houchin. New York: Columbia University Press,1994. .S.propaganda in the 1930s relates di- ectlybut not exclusivelyto President Franklin Roosevelts (18821945) New Deal program.Roosevelt himself was a masterful public speaker.His voice had a certain aristo- cratic quality that he made no attempt to dis- guise.His sense of timing meant that he un- derstood how to give listenersradio being the primary mass medium in the United States in the 1930senough time to savor a particular phrase.Roosevelts chief speech- writer was his longtime friend Samuel Rosenman,but many of FDRs memorable phrases were his own,as can be seen by not- ing Roosevelts penciled emendations to typescripts prepared by others.For example, in his rst reelection speech on 8 October 1940 in Philadelphia,the ironic suggestion that Republican oratorswere shedding tearscrocodile tearsat the prospect of taking charge of New Deal programs was his wn ideaand his audience loved the humor. Roosevelt felt he was his own best propa- gandist,although he distrusted the ability of propaganda to cover up official shortcom- ings.Roosevelt sold his New Deal policies in a relatively few so-called reside chats,in which the president spoke to the nation in a less formal style than was the custom for presidents.Visitors to the White House saw the replace (with fake logs) where Roo- sevelt made his national radio addresses,car- Depression America.After Pearl Harbor the emaining FSA photographers turned to im- ages of a bountiful,prosperous land.Federal Arts Projects also projected an image of a re- vitalized America.Murals (intended for post offices and other public buildings) were commissioned as Works Progress Adminis- tration (WPA) relief work.They were painted in an American socialist realist style, where workers tend to be muscular and re- ional culture is often ennobled.The Federal Theater Project adapted topics favorable to the New Deal in a series of Living Newspa- perproductions.For example, Power fended the socialist content of the TVA and openly advocated public control of utilities. Harry Hopkins (18901946),head of the WPA,commented on the political content of the play:People will say its propaganda. ell,I say what of it?Other Living News- papertopics focused on the value of labor unions. Roosevelt even introduced television as a new medium to mark the opening of the New York Worlds Fair in April 1939.A primitive television camera positioned next to conventional newsreel cameras captured FDRs opening remarks,which were sent by wire to downtown New York City.Roosevelt appeared on television again in 1940 and was seen by a few hundred industry executives at best,but otherwise television as a medium of political communication had to wait until David Culbert Labor/Antilabor;Long,Huey; The Plow that Broke the Plains; Roosevelt,Franklin D.; United States Curtis,James. Minds Eye,Minds uth:FSA Photography Reconsidered. mple University Press,1989;Molella, Arthur P.,and Elsa M.Bruton,eds. Intimate Presidency:Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Communication,and the Mass Media in the 1930s. ashington,DC:National Museum of American History,1982;Park,Marlene,and Gerald E.Markowitz. Democratic Vistas:Post Offices and Public Art in the New Deal. Philadelphia:Temple University Press,1984; Steele,Richard W. Propaganda in an Open who sought to reform U.S.cities.Prominent Progressives included Theodore Roosevelt (1858Ð1919),who made his name as an inno- tive police commissioner in New York City and pushed through reforms during his presi- dency (1901Ð1909).Also prominent was Jane Addams (1860Ð1935),who founded Hull House in Chicago in 1899 to promote the elfare of immigrants.Investigative (Òmuck- rakingÓ) journalists of the era included Ida (1866Ð1936),who both contributed to ClureÕs magazine,and the African-American The USIA (known overseas as USIS) took pains to reach al populations in the Third World during the Cold War. Here Masai people in Kenya wait in line to view a USIA exhibit on agriculture in 1957.(National Archives) many other organs of U.S.propaganda,in- cluding the embassy-based United States In- formation Service (USIS) offices (which gave their name to all USIA operations over- seas).The USIA never had control of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL). During the administration of President Jimmy Carter (1924Ð) the agency carried the alternative name United States Interna- tional Communications Agency (USICA). Owing to the legislative restrictions of the Smith-Mundt Act of 1948,the USIA was never able to conduct propaganda within the United States or even to show its films without a special act of Congress;hence the agencyÕs work was not well known by the American people.The fortunes of the USIA frequently linked to that of its director and,in turn,that personÕs relationship to the president.Although the USIA director as not a statutory member of the National Security Council (NSC),some presidentsÑ such as Eisenhower and Ronald Reagan (1911Ð)Ñmade a point of allowing the The USIA outreach techniques in rural areas included bookmobiles such as this one in Rangoon,Burma,1953.(National Archives) Czechoslovakia,1968; made in 1969).Two (including the latter) won Academy Awards in the best documentary shortcategory. The following have served as directors of the agency:Theodore Streibert (1953 1956),Arthur Larson (19561957),George Allen (19571960),Edward R.Murrow (19611964),Carl T.Rowan (19641965), Leonard Marks (19651968),Frank Shake- speare (19691973),James Keogh (1973 1976),John Reinhardt (19771981),Charles Z.Wick (19811989),Bruce Gelb (1989 1991),Henry Catto (19911993),Joseph Duffey (19931999).Of these,Murrow brought with him considerable prestige as a ell-known broadcaster and did much to raise the national prole of the agency.Carl Rowan and Leonard Marks found themselves strug- Qinzhouwan region of China.Different parts of Indo-China were ruled in various ways. French cultural power was strongest in South estern South,on the understanding that elections would be held in due course to agree to a united government.In place of elections the United States sponsored South 1973 the United States withdrew its armed sored journalisticespecially TV news coverage undermined American public sup- port for the war. Public Affairs Office (JUSPAO) at the em- bassy,run by Barry Zorthian (1920),for- merly of the USIA.This office linked the USIA,military PSYOPS,and civilian devel- opment initiatives,in addition to providing a central location for press briengs.This structure did not last long,and in 1967 key functions fell under the jurisdiction of Civil- ian Operations and Revolutionary Develop- ment Support (CORDS).U.S.operations in- cluded all of the following:campaigns to Willis Conover (seen here in 1978),legendary jazz disc jockey for Voice of America radio.Conover's jazz broadcasts on VOA a keen following in the the Eastern bloc during the Cold War.(National Archives) Life at the VOA was frequently turbulent. The journalists who provided news pro- ramming believed that it had a duty to re- Graffiti painted on the Russian parliament building by a grateful listener in 1992 at the time of the attempted coup against the ailing government of Mikhail Gorbachev.It translates:"Thank you Voice of America for telling the truth." (Voice of America) The War Game This lm is both a classic of antiwar propa- ganda and an example of television censor- ship.In 1965 the British Broadcasting Corpo- ration (BBC) commissioned then rising star manipulating its audience.Propaganda,how- er,may also be open and aboveboard.For example,when the Nazis came to power in 1933,one of the rst government depart- ments to be established was the Ministry for opular Enlightenment and Propaganda.The is known,aims and intentions are identied, and the public knows that an attempt is being ducer who became closely associated with Ronald ReaganÕs (1911Ð) 1980 presidential campaign.Wick distinguished himself as a fund-raiser and successfully organized inau- gural festivities.Reagan recognized his po- tential to revitalize the USIA.The agency had not fared well under the Carter adminis- tration,having been renamed the Interna- tional Communications Agency (ICA).Now it became a hive of activity.Wick restored Wick,Charles Z.427 the old name and increased propaganda to a level recalling the heady days of the early Eisenhower administration.He built up the oice of America (VOA) and established Radio Mart,a radio station aimed at Cuba. He also moved into TV propaganda with a on Woman. Expelled from the Commons and subject to arrest,Wilkes ed to France.He omens activism and campaigning.Propa- ganda techniques included journalism and the publication of arguments in essay and novel form.Nationally constituted womens movements have formed a succession of in- ternational alliances for mutual inspiration and support. Bajer (18401934) in Denmark.These and other campaigners succeeded in delivering omens suffrage somewhat in advance of their European counterparts.Of the Euro- pean nations Finland was the rst to grant fe- male suffrage,in 1906 (lagging behind New Zealand [1893] and Australia [1902]),fol- lowed by Norway (1913),Denmark and Ice- of a rational,compassionate marriage based on friendship that required female education to create more rational wives and mothers. Catherine Macauley (17311791),although justly famous for her work as a historian,also and the radicalÑof the movement in achiev- ing reform. The womenÕs movement in the United States developed in the north and was linked to other reform movements,such as the abo- litionist movement.In 1848 the Þrst of a se- ies of womenÕs conventions were held at Seneca Falls,New York,where a ÒDeclaration of SentimentsÓwas drafted that pointedly made use of the framework of the Declara- tion of Independence.Leaders of the move- eferenda campaigns became much more in- entive and eye-catching in their propa- ganda thanks to the success of the California Pioneers of woman suffrage in Britain in- cluded John Stuart Mill (18061873),no- tably in his work entitled The Subjugation of (1869).Most British suffragists did not use the mass propaganda techniques of their U.S.counterparts.They were reluctant to address mixed audiences publicly and there were no womens conventions.Class rather than race issues caused divisions. almost three hundred women were arrested for civil disobedience.These tactics did not become widespread in the United States. While U.S.women organized for suffrage during wartime,most of those involved in the British womens movement suspended their campaigns after Britain declared war on Germany in 1914.Emmeline and Christabel ankhurst (18801958) turned their ener- ies to supporting the war effort.Although it is generally agreed that World War I played a Britain from 1968 to 1970 shared many of the same issues,aims,and key texts with the feminist movement in the United States,it as more closely linked to socialist and Marxist groups of the New Left.However, of negative social change and moral decay. The backlash was stronger and more effective in the United States,particularly in the anti- abortion movement.At the same time,how- er,women adopted an increasingly positive stance toward the political system and organ- ized to increase their representation. In the 1990s it was argued that we had en- tered a postfeministage.Films and adver- tisements increasingly portrayed women as assertive and empowered,and womens stud- ies courses were replaced by gender studies, encouraging a tendency to assume gender equality.A mens movement developed,with books by such male authors as Neil Lyndons (1946) No More Sex War (1992).Lyndon questioned the historical assumptions under- pinning feminism;however his argument was educed by critics into a crude claim that men had now become the victims.A number of pressure groups were formed to address mens lack of rights,especially in the area of hild custody.Naomi Wolfs (1962) book (1990) and Susan Faludis (1959) Backlash (1992) were particularly inuential in documenting how the legal and social gains previously made by the womens movement were now being eroded.Wolf ar- gued that beauty had replaced domesticity as patriarchys latest propaganda weapon against omen.Feminism had successfully con- vinced women that they were not obliged to adopt traditional roles,but womens time, money,and emotional energy were now being consumed by attempts to conform to the media ideals of beauty with which they surrounded.Faludi pointed to continu- states at war,which remains the dominant usage.Since World War I organized propa- ganda has been regarded as an essential part of any war effort,increasing in importance played a signiÞcant part in the decision by the United States to enter the war.Its scope and success caused a scandal among American isolationists when revealed after the war. Preparedness Day Parade in Baton Rouge,Louisiana,1916, turing a 300-foot-long American ßag.Note the rigidly- segregated bystanders:whites on the left;blacks on the right. (Courtesy of David Culbert) British activity in World War I.Prewar plan- ning proved chaotic,and the dress rehearsal in the form of the Munich Pact of 1938 showed that Britain had much to do to pre- pare for a full-scale war.Despite an accelera- tion of planning in 1939,the British began the war with an inefficient propaganda appa- ratus both at home and abroad,specically the neutral nations.Britain adopted the strat- egy of conducting propaganda with fact, basing key campaigns,including its approach to the neutral United States,on facilitating commercial news coverage of the war.This orked well,especially during the London Britains principal propaganda structures the Ministry of Information (MoI) for home,allied,and neutral territory,and the olitical Warfare Executive (PWE) for enemy territory.The programs of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) earned Britain a powerful reputation for credibility [RMVP]),whose minister was Joseph Goeb- However,there was a basic contradiction Enormous vertical red banners,at the time of a Nazi Party ally,Nuremberg,September 1934,seen in Leni Riefenstahl's propaganda Þlm iumph of the Will. (Courtesy of David Culbert) East and presented the Reich as the defender of European civilization.A constant theme as Òencirclement.ÓPropaganda claimed that Germany was the victim of a conspiracy be- tween a Bolshevik Russia and a plutocratic Britain,orchestrated by Jews who dominated Nazi Party rally,Nuremberg,September 1934.(Courtesy of David Culbert) the Newspaper and Publication Control Or- dinance in January 1941.Military press mat- ters came under the direct supervision of the Daihonei Honbu,or Imperial General Head- quarters Press Department.This section ersaw all press reports that dealt with any matter,however tangentially related to the military.Even weather reports were banned following the attack on Pearl Harbor on the assumption that such information could pro- vide vital information to the enemy.Japanese newspapers continued to provide coverage albeit biasedof the war.With few excep- tions,a majority of writers and journalists oided arrest even in the face of draconian laws and censorship regulations.As Japanese military triumphs mounted,domestic excite- ment created by the initial victories peaked. Editors and writers,along with the general population,believed in the justice of Japans cause and its ability to defeat its enemies. ith the attack on Pearl Harbor in De- cember 1941,Japan was faced with the daunting military task of ghting on two fronts simultaneouslyin China and the Pa- cic.The Japanese government asked its peo- ple,already under duress since the mid- 1930s,to endure further economic estrictions,recycle scarce materials,do with less,and live by wartime slogans such as lux- ury is the enemy.During the many Pacic is- land battles,American troops found it diffi- cult to take Japanese prisoners alive.A great number of both Japanese civilian and military personnel often chose suicide over capture. Intense domestic pressure and propaganda campaigns often left Japanese infantrymen little choice. While Japanese propaganda generally ailed in Asia,domestically the results were different.By the summer of 1945 the United States had to acknowledge that Japanese rule, with the emperor as head,must be left intact or a viable peace would not be obtainable. ollowing the Japanese capitulation on 15 ugust 1945,the U.S.-managed occupation as quick to install its own pro-Western propaganda institutions.However,the occu- pation forces soon realized that they had nei- ther the human resources nor the ability needed to democratizeJapan single-hand- edly.Ironically,American occupation forces employed many of the same high-level Japan- ese special police and military propagandists who,only months earlier,had been ghting against the West. Barak Kushner ustralia;China;Indonesia;Japan; ea;Philippines;Radio (International); Southeast Asia;Tokyo Rose;World War II (United States) Dower,John. ar without Mercy:Race and Power in the Pacic War. New York: antheon,1986;. Embracing Defeat: apan in the Wake of World War II. New York: Norton,1999;Friend,Theodore. The Blue-eyed Enemy. city),and threatened Moscow itself.By the end of 1941,however,the German forces had lost their momentum.German move- ments were increasingly hampered by harsh winter weather,attacks by partisans,and dif- culties in maintaining overextended supply lines.At the same time,the Red Army had re- covered from the initial blow and began to strike back. After the initial shock,including a ru- mored escape from the capital by Stalin him- eign Correspondent Confessions of a Nazi Spy (1939).Isolationists in the Senate de- nounced such ventures as propaganda on be- half of Jewish and pro-British vested interests. President Roosevelt initially took a back- seat in the debate because of the impending presidential election.In December 1940 he demonstrated more active leadership by ad- ancing his ÒLend LeaseÓaid policy through a ÒÞreside chatÓover the radio.The Lend-Lease Act,promising Òall aid short of war,Ópassed Congress on March 15,1941.As part of its policy of rearmament,the Roosevelt admin- istration established a number of propaganda and information organizations,including the Rockefeller Bureau to rally opinion in Latin America (1940);the Office of Government Reports (1939) and Office of Facts and Fig- ures (1940) to present information at home; and the Office of the Coordinator of Infor- mation,a new covert intelligence agency that included a propaganda branch.In August 1941 Roosevelt persuaded Churchill to sign the Atlantic Charter,calling for a postwar United Nations and a policy of unconditional surrender.By the time of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor,December 7,1941,the de- bate over U.S.foreign policy had been all but ld War II U.S.poster.Every combatant made similar Recruiting poster for women during World War II.(National Archives) Signal Corps lm series Why We Fight) and to motivate its civilian population.The ap- oslavia Zimmermann Telegram (1917) Labour Partys opponents hammered home class.The earliest publicity material of Herzl- ian Zionism consisted of a series of postcards and delegatescards produced in conjunction with the First Zionist Congress.Although crude by later standards,these items helped introduce the pantheon of Zionist heroes to a wide audience,notably Herzl and Max Nor- dau (18491923),who formed the mainstay of Zionist imagery through World War I. Berkowitz,Michael. Zionist Culture and West European Jewry before the First World War. New York:Cambridge University Press,1993; estern Jewry and the Zionist Project, New York:Cambridge University Press,1997;Raider,Mark A. The Emergence of American Zionism. New York:New York University Press,1998. 456Zionism .S.and,6667,80,81,98,180, 215,225,238,240,241, 242243,251,284,296,304, 333,335,371 Anti-Defamation League of Bnai Brith (ADL), 15,263,413 Anti-drug message,106,337 Antilabor, Antinuclear movement,117,204, 215,267,286,291,292,293, 369,425 Anti-Saloon League,393 in Balkans,34 in lm,14,129,130,205 in France,14,137,201 and Holocaust denial,168169 literature and,302 Nazi,14,31,168,220,228,233, 255,314,323 organization against,5,1415, 165,413,454 Roman Catholic Church and,400 Russian,14,323,360 in Poland,303 14,16,123,323,360 Antislavery movement, 8,230, Antiwar movements, eace movements Antonescu,Ion,34 Apartheid,10 (Walker),409 Aquino,Benigno,296 Aquino,Corazon,296 Arab world, Arafat,Yassir,17,395,396 Arbeiter-Illustrierte Zeitung (AIZ),67 Arbuthnot,John,204 Arc de Triomphe,238,245 Architecture,as propaganda, 29,126,183,232,246,280, 348349,374,376. Areopagitica (Milton),85,250 Argentina,124125,139,223,224, Aristide,Jean-Bertrand,65,358 Armand,Inessa,430 Armenia,281,282 Bernays,Edward L.,319 Beveridge,Albert,378 Bevin,Ernest,152,186 Biden,Joseph,352 Biderman,Albert D.,47 Bierce,Ambrose,400 The Big Lie, Biko,Steve,10 Bin Laden,Osama. Laden,Osama Birley,Robert,336 Birth control,3 The Birth of a Nation 129,259 Bishop,Maurice,65 Bismarck,Otto von,70,146 Bittmann,Ladislav,104 Bjrnson,Bjrnstjerne,368 Black Hundreds,360 Black Panthers,83 (illus.),84 Black Power movement,84,210,236, Black propaganda, British,42,60,98,266,326,328, 333,371 Canadian,61 Cold War,105 in Falkland/Malvinas War,42 in Middle East,4243,158 Nazi,4142 Brown,John,2 Brown v.Board of Education, Browne,Malcolm,422 communism in,47,7577,98, 215,236237,329 Cultural Revolution in,76,237, 329,372 lm in,75 India and,176 apanese occupation of,75,444 ea and,211,213,215 media in,253 akistan and,176 press in,7374,75 propaganda against,251 propaganda in,7577,324, 236237,312,314 sports in,277,380 .S.and,215,450 Copland,Aaron,255 Corradini,Enrico,196 Corts,Hernn,246 Cosic,Dobrica,35 Cosio y Cisneros,Evangelina,378 Costa,Joaqun,375 Costa-Gavras,Constantin,154 Coubertin,Baron Pierre de,276 Coughlin,Father Charles,14,291,331 Counterinsurgency, Counter-Reformation,xvi,302, Cousens,Charles Hughes,27 Cousins,Norman,292 Dupuy de Lme,Enrique,378 Drer,Albrecht,28,305,306 Duvalier,Franois Papa Doc,6465 Duvalier,Jean-Claude Baby Doc,65 Dylan,Bob,255,293 Dzherzhinsky,Felix,350 Earth Day,116 Earth in Balance (Gore),116 East and West (Patten),253 Eastern Samoa,286 Echeverra,Esteban,223 Economic Recovery Plan (ERC). Marshall Plan Eden,Anthony,384 Edison,Thomas,379,409 Edward R.Murrow Center for Public Diplomacy,327 Egypt,15,16,20,95,383385 (play),60 (Milton),86 Einstein,Albert,455 Eisenhower,Dwight D.,120,271, 326,365,384,413,450 Eisenstein,Sergei,37,40, Eisler,Hanns,255 El Salvador,225 Elgar,Edward,55 Eliot,George,432 Eliot,T.S.,302 ord,Henry,14,23,323 eign Office (FO),179180,186, oscolo,Ugo,196 x,Charles,110,306 x,Goerge,290 Gulf War (1991), Russian,30,342 .S.,295,378,379 British Empire; Ince,Thomas,290 Index Librorum Prohibitorium, India,173177 Indian Press Act of 1810,174 266,385 (documentary),178 Information Research Department (IRD),152, Ingham,Bernard,398 Ingres,Jean-Auguste-Dominique,306 assassination of,105,140,254 Cold War and,94 counterinsurgency and,97 on environmental issues,370 peace corps and,224 presidential victory of,115,271 television debates of,115,207, 271,392 Local Defence Volunteers (LDV),81 Lockhart,Robert Bruce,328 Lockwood,Stuart,158 Lon Nol,372 London Can Take It (documentary),232 Cold War in,9496 imperialism in,1517,94 alestinians in,1720,99,395, radio in,1617,19,158, 159160,287,334,397 Six-Day War (1967),193,195, 395,455 terrorism in,18,186,222,316, 343,352,395398 Gulf War (1991);Gulf War individual countries Migrant Mother(Lange),299,411 Mihajlovic,Draza,34 Milestone,Lewis,11 Mill,John Stuart,434 Milne,A.A.,291 Milner,Alfred,12 Milosevic,Slobodan,xix,36,45,216, 217,218 Milton,John,85,86, Ministry of Information (MoI), censorship and,72 civil defense and,81 intelligence and,179 purpose of,179,324,439,441, elationship with USIA,254 truth in propaganda of,284 Ministry of Popular Culture (Italy), Ministry of Popular Enlightenment and Propaganda (Nazi),xv,xvii, 148,166,425,441442. Minow,Newton,389 Mishima,Yukio,204 Miss Liberty,the Buenos Aires Belle, Mission to Moscow (lm),130, Missionaries,Christian,8,55,211, 285286,295,371,417 Mitrokhin,Vasili,105 Mobutu,Joseph,10 (Swift),188 Mohamad,Mahathir,372 Mller,John Christmas,369 Molotov,Vyacheslav,446 Molyneux,William,188 Money,commemorative,9192,264, 346,376 Montenegro,34,217 Montesinos,Vladimiro,225 Monuments,238, Moore,Jo,44 Mor,Antonis,306 Morale, More,Hannah,54,432 Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF), Morris,Robert,288 Morris,William,412 Mosley,Oswald,233 Mossadeq,Muhammad,185 Mother Courage and Her Children (Brecht),400 Mowlam,Mo,44 Mozzoni,Anna Maria,430 Mubarak,Hosni,18 Mugabe,Robert,7,334 Muggeridge,Malcolm,389 Muhammad Ali (Ottoman Empire), Muhammad,Elijah,235 Muir,John,116,117 (illus.) Muir,Thomas,54 Mller,Johannes von,386 Murals,23,248,412 Murdoch,Keith,2728,253 Murdoch,Rupert,27,28,43,91, 366,397 Murray,Robert H.,248 Murray,Sir Ralph,187 Murrow,Edward R.,207,232,243, 332,391,415 Music, British,53,55,125 lm,255256 Danish,368 Dutch,264 French,136,237238,348 patriotic,53,88,136,169,180, 181182,237238,255,264, 346,368,376 olish,302,376 protest,255,293 eggae,65 eligious,254255 Italian,195196 Nazi,169 Norwegian,368 Socialist,181182 lack propaganda of,41 censorship and,130,147,148 lm,130132,133,150,205, 352,401 architecture of,21 art of,22,306,307 Mexico and,249 Ministry of Popular Enlightenment and Propaganda in,xv,xvii, 148,166,353355,425, occupations by,266267,368 Olympics of,277,380 press in,147,148149 propaganda against,66,67,109, 137,163164,167169,182, 252,300,316,325,328,386 acism,289294,369 aine,Thomas,54, 344,345,347,407 akistan,175176,327 alacky,Frantisek,29 alestine,1720,99,395,455 alestinian Liberation Organization (PLO),17,19,395 alestinian National Liberation Front, almerston,Lord,309 Pana ma,72 an-Hellenic Socialist Movement (PASOK),154 ankhurst,Christabel,435 ankhurst,Emmeline,434,435 an-Slavism,29,30,31,360,383 aoli,Juan,246 apandreou,Andreas,154 apandreou,George,154 apua New Guinea,287 (Milton),301 ark,Alice,433 ark Chung-hee,212 arker,Sir Gilbert,151 arks,Rosa,83 tido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI),249,250 asa,Ziya,281 asha,Enver,282 asha,Vaso,35 asternak,Boris,272 thes Weekly, 132,409 ton,Alan,10 tten,Chris,253 aul,Alice,431,434 aulus,Friedrich von,446 elic,Ante,34 vlov,I.P.,47 eace Corps,207,224 eace movements, earson,Drew,61 earson,Lester,62 Primo de Rivera,Jos Antonio, Primo de Rivera,Miguel,375,377 Prisoners of war, Proles in Courage (Kennedy),207 Progress and Poverty (George),412 Progressive Era, (Tallents),56 Prokoev,Sergei,255 Propaganda denition of,xvxx, 339,437439 disinformation as,104106 truth in,39,94,150,187,426 Black propaganda;Gray propaganda;White propaganda Propaganda and Empire (MacKenzie),55 Proposal for the Universal Use of Irish Manufacture (Swift),188 Protestant Reformation. Reformation,Protestant Protestantism,187,189,190,234, 5,14,16, Psychological operations (psyops), 228,324,326,421,422 Psychological Strategy Board,93,326, Psychological warfare, British,98,323324,325 Canadian,61 in Cold War,101 in Gulf War (1991),157,159, 159,228 in Gulf War (2003),162 .S.,101,228,324,397 Semitism;Christianity; Crusades,Christian;Islam; Missionaries,Christian; Protestantism;Reformation, Protestant;Roman Catholic Church Remarque,Erich Maria,11,272,291 Rembrandt van Rijn,265 Remington,Frederic,165,379 Rendezvous(cartoon),66 Renoir,Jean,137,238 The Republic (Plato),300 Resnais,Alain,128 Revere,Paul,345 (illus.),346 Revolution. American Revolution; French Revolution;Russian Revolution Reynolds,Quentin,232 Reza Shah Pahlavi (Reza Khan),183, Reza Shah Pahlavi,Muhammad,185 Rhee,Syngman,212 Rhodes,Alexandre de,417 Rhodes,Cecil,8,12 Rich,Marc,91 (Shakespeare),370 Richelieu,Cardinal,341 Riefenstahl,Leni,120,128,131 (illus.),132,166,277, 401,426 Riel,Louis,59 (Paine),289 Riis,Edward,353 Riis,Jacob,297, The River (documentary),128,411 Rivera,Diego,23,248 Rizal,Jos,295 RMVP (Reichministerium fr olksaufklrung und Propaganda),166, Ministry for Popular Enlightenment and Propaganda Roberts,Lord Frederick Sleigh,13 Robeson,Paul,61 Robespierre,103 Rockefeller,Nelson D.,224 Rockwell,Norman, 356 (illus.), Roe v.Wade, 3,4 Rogers,Pat,104 Roh Tae-woo,213 Roman Catholic Church abortion and,4 censorship by,70,134 in Ireland,188,189,190 in Italy,197198 in Latin America,223,224,225, 246,248 in Philippines,295,296 in Poland,304 politics and,342343 in Portugal,310 Reformation and,xvi,223,264, 337341,386 sentiment against,24,29,54, 134135,223,234,245,248, 250,263,264,275,305,310, in Spain,86,87,373,374,376 Roman Empire,91,244 Romania,32,33,34,35,36,37 Romanov dynasty,342,361 Romero,Archbishop Oscar,225 Rommel,Erwin,9 Roosevelt,Eleanor,357,358 Roosevelt,Franklin D., funeral of,140 reside chats of,331,357,375, 409,411,448 Huey Long and,232,233 New Deal program of,297,299, radio and,233,266,331,357, 409,411,448 Schell,Johathan,293 Schiller,Johann von,386,399 Schlesinger,Arthur M.,346 Schmeling,Max,380 Schmidt,Auguste,430 Schneeberger,Hans,352 Schouten,Willem Cornelis,285 Schwarzenberg,Felix zu,29 Schwarzkopf,Norman,157 (Carson),116 Seale,Bobby,236 Sebastian (Portugal),308 Sedition Act of 1917,410 See It Now,243,254,391 (Beauvoir),430 Star Wars,82,335 umbo,Dalton,291 uth,Sojourner,2,433 Tsau Yu,400 udjman,Franjo,36 unisian Victory (lm),9 urkey,153,154,155, Tur ner,J .M.W.,1 Tur ner,N at,2 ner,Richard,393 ner,Ted,91,253,392 utu,Desmond,10,11 eed,William Boss,262 Uganda,10 The Ugly American (Burdick and Lederer),272 Ukraine,446447 Ulster Unionist Parliamentary Party, Uncle Sam,134,262, Uncle Toms Cabin (Stowe),1,2,261, Underground (lm),36 Unions,220 United Irishmans Rebellion of 1798, United Nations (UN), arms inspections,162 Atlantic Charter and,406,441,448 Bosnian War and,44,45,46 Education,Scientic,and Cultural Organization (UNESCO),156, 224,407 environment and,117,287 Information Committee,406 (UNHCR),407 human rights and,2,406,407 International Childrens Fund (UNICEF),407 ean War and,213,216,406 osovo War and,217 membership in,9,310,387,406 Protection Force (UNPROFOR), 44,45,46 Security Council (UNSC),217 orld Health Organization United States, Arab relations with,18,384 art in,23 anthem,255 antiwar movement in,290291, censorship in,72,88,160,161, 410,420421 China and,215,450 civil defense of,8182 colonialism of,286,295 communism and,80,81 Cuba and,69,70,180,208 cultural propaganda of,101 elections in,113115 exhibitions in,7,118119 lm in,63,68,72,99,106,115 Gulf Wars and,157162 Imperialism,295,378,379 India and,176 intervention in Caribbean,65 Iran and,185,186 apan and,203,204 osovo crisis and,216217 labor issues in,219,220 Latin America and,224,225 Marshall Plan,198,238241 Mexico and,247248 monuments in,245 Olympics and,277 in Philippines,295296 polling in,278279 Progressive era in,412413 propaganda against,65,69,77, 132,154,215,224,267,300, propaganda of,92,104106, public diplomacy in,327328 eeducation policy of,102,133, 315,336337 satellites,365366 slavery and,12 illa,Pancho,248 The Village Notary (Eovos),29 irgil,300 Vlademar II (Denmark),367 Nguyen Giap,418 ogel,Julius,268 oice and Vision of the Islamic Republic (VVIR),185,186 oice of America (VOA), AID education and,11,164 Cold War and,61,101,243,254, 304,326,332 (illus.),351, 362,426 Cuba and,428 Germany in,41,148,166,266, 228,441444,445446 health campaigns in,163 Italy in,125126,197,257 apan in,80,252253,286,295, 316,337,371,400401, ea and,212 Latin America and,224 David Culbert is professor of history,Louisiana State University,Baton Rouge,and editor of Historical Journal of Film,Radio and Television. ld War II,Film and His- (1996) and editor-in-chief of Film and Propaganda in America:A Documentary History, 5 vols. plus microche (19901993). Nicholas J.Cull is professor of American studies and director of the Centre for American Studies at the University of Leicester,UK.He has written widely on the history of propa- ganda,including his 1995 book Selling War:British Propaganda and American Neutralityin the Sec- ond World War.

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