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Munitions of the mind Munitions of the mind A history of propaganda from the ancient world to the present day Philip M. Taylor Taylor conclusive evidence that propaganda is a process unique to human than most to enhance our understanding of this complex subject and Munitions of the mind 4/11/03, 10:38 1 4/11/03, 10:38 2 of the Mind Manchester and New York Philip M. Taylor 4/11/03, 10:38 3 Copyright © Philip M. Taylor 1990, 1995, 2003 The right of Philip M. Taylor to be identified as the author of this work has been First edition published 1990 by P. Stephens Room 400, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, www.manchesteruniversitypress.co.uk Palgrave, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, UBC Press, University of British Columbia, 2029 West Mall, ancouver, BC, Canada Cu 11100908070605040310987654321 4/11/03, 10:38 4 Acknowledgementspage Psychological Warfare and Persuasion1 Part OnePropaganda in the Ancient World In the Beginning É19 Ancient Greece25 The Glory that was Rome35 Part TwoPropaganda in the Middle Ages The ÔDark AgesÕ to 106651 The Norman Conquest62 The Chivalric Code67 The Crusades73 The Hundred Years War81 Part ThreePropaganda in the Age of Gunpowder and Printing The Gutenberg Galaxy87 Renaissance Warfare89 The Reformation and the War of Religious Ideas97 udor Propaganda102 The Thirty Years War (1618-48)109 The English Civil War (1642-6)117 Louis XIV (1661-1715)121 4/11/03, 10:38 5 Part FourPropaganda in the Age of Revolutionary Warfare The Press as an Agent of Liberty129 The American Revolution133 The French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars145 4/11/03, 10:38 6 colleagues for comments and suggestions: Dr Tracy Rihill for her the medieval period; Professor F. R. Bridge for his comments on the early Kate Morris, Dr Nick Cull, Dr Sue Carruthers, Dr Gary Rawnsley, Paul therefore to acknowledge the assistance of many supportive professional colleagues and friends, especially Dr Tony Aldgate, Dr Steven Badsey, Philip Bell, Professor Robert Cole, Professor David Culbert, MacGee, David Murdoch, Dr John Ramsden, 4/11/03, 10:38 7 until recently, the only single volume history of propaganda from the ancient world to the present day. No such volume can purport to be 4/11/03, 10:38 8 4/11/03, 8:18 1 Commandment, but to tell the Big Lie, they invariably invoke the 4/11/03, 8:18 2 4/11/03, 8:18 3 meant the means by which the converted attempted to persuade the unconverted. The converted were, and are, not necessarily nasty people with nasty ideas; nor were, or are, the unconverted particu- l arly unreceptive or resistant to what they are told. After all, it takes two sides to form allegiances. Much propaganda in fact also takes p 4/11/03, 8:18 4 power. In the struggle for power, propaganda is an instrument to 4/11/03, 8:18 5 When one personÕs beliefs become anotherÕs propaganda, we have already begun to take sides in a subjective manner. Propaganda analysis demands objectivity if it is to be undertaken effectively. 4/11/03, 8:18 6 edia relationsÕ or, more recently, Ôspin doctoringÕ. The euphemism to add more layers obscuring the reality. Because propaganda is 4/11/03, 8:18 7 4/11/03, 8:18 8 4/11/03, 8:18 9 dist opticians who wanted to masquerade its brutal realities? As consumers of the mass media, is it any different for us today? Just how realistic or authentic is the view of war held by non- combatants? Or are we just as blinkered as our predecessors were? An essential characteristic of propaganda is that it rarely tells 4/11/03, 8:18 10 Ever since William Howard RussellÕs despatches for The Times during the Crimean War, the needs of military secrecy have clashed revolutionÕ which we are still undergoing today. munication in 4/11/03, 8:18 11 experienced by the soldiers. Today, that gap appears to have been 4/11/03, 8:18 12 deeds from afar support their actions. With volunteers, there may 4/11/03, 8:18 13 decreed that Anglo-American history or other books should be 4/11/03, 8:18 14 4/11/03, 8:18 15 4/11/03, 8:18 16 16 Ancient World Munitions_02_Chap1-34/11/03, 8:20 Munitions_02_Chap1-34/11/03, 8:20 his tools for warlike purposes. ManÕs earliest days were undoub- tedly violent, with the environment his greatest enemy. His struggle Munitions_02_Chap1-34/11/03, 8:20 Munitions_02_Chap1-34/11/03, 8:20 Munitions_02_Chap1-34/11/03, 8:20 reminder of the defenderÕs power Ð and of his ruthlessness. By the middle of the fourteenth century BC, however, when the Assyrians were challenging the Babylonians for supremacy, they Babylonian. One of the earliest, though fragmentary, epic poems his wars with the Kassites. Dating from half a century later, the 700-line Assyrian epic of King Tukulti-Ninurta I (1250-1210 BC) glorifies the kingÕs military accomplishments and magnanimity translated visually onto palace walls, as in the case of King Tukulti- NinurtaÕs friezes, which depicted the king amidst his soldiers in and glorify the achievements or memory of a particular ruler. Munitions_02_Chap1-34/11/03, 8:20 Empire were perfecting the use of documents and monuments to create desired behaviour among their own subjects, to demonstrate divine support, and to consolidate their royal position. Forti- Munitions_02_Chap1-34/11/03, 8:20 Ninevah describes how the Assyrian king punished the rebellious their propaganda with terror, both in peace and in war. In other Propaganda in the Ancient World Munitions_02_Chap1-34/11/03, 8:20 people who did not speak Greek (Ôbar-barÕ was the sound their Munitions_02_Chap1-34/11/03, 8:20 the Trojan Horse do provide us with an insight into early Greek Munitions_02_Chap1-34/11/03, 8:20 in the art of war. Trained to fight by the state from an early age, Munitions_02_Chap1-34/11/03, 8:20 deceptions on the part of the Athenian naval commander, Themis- disinformation was called for. Themistocles first left messages for Munitions_02_Chap1-34/11/03, 8:20 Greeks) who were motivated by profit rather than duty. But in the in organized hand-to-hand fighting had to be compensated for by a Munitions_02_Chap1-34/11/03, 8:20 Munitions_02_Chap1-34/11/03, 8:20 greater numbers than now. And just as we are in greater numbers and Munitions_02_Chap1-34/11/03, 8:20 Munitions_02_Chap1-34/11/03, 8:20 year old son, Alexander the Great, who took up both his fatherÕs act at Susa where he himself married DariusÕs daughter, eighty of AlexanderÕs coins reflected this. The mint at Alexandria produced coins on which AlexanderÕs face replaced that of Heracles, the Like his father, Alexander employed Greek artists and craftsmen Munitions_02_Chap1-34/11/03, 8:20 was ever-present throughout his empire. The sheer extent of his Munitions_02_Chap1-34/11/03, 8:20 that Rome was founded by the survivors of Troy and the very best Munitions_02_Chap1-34/11/03, 8:20 aristocratÕs political and social well-being. In such an intensely war. As Sallust wrote: men of this kind no toil was unusual, no ground seemed rough or [S.P.Q.R] Ð fight. As Livy wrote, Ôhe had worked on menÕs minds from the eginningÕ and he deliberately encouraged his image as a religiously- inspired superman. A story, for example that, like Alexander the Propaganda in the Ancient World Munitions_02_Chap1-34/11/03, 8:20 commander. Many historians have pointed to RomeÕs repeated attempts to imperial expansion Ð namely, that right was always on RomeÕs side. agreement over the declaration of war, it was usually the people history, war tends to be more popular when your side is winning Munitions_02_Chap1-34/11/03, 8:20 purpose of this custom, I suppose, is to strike terror.Õ And so it was. anus, during the Third Punic War (149-146 BC), ordered that 400 sor. Rome always her interests and conquered foreign dispute in RomeÕs favour by means other than war, and only when this was refused did Rome declare war, ÔjustlyÕ and after alternative Munitions_02_Chap1-34/11/03, 8:20 Roman military organization was legendary, but military dynasts secure their soldiersÕ loyalty, but good pay and booty remained an care was taken to distribute booty evenly, and thus avoid serious their recruitment base beyond the peasantry, employing men who Munitions_02_Chap1-34/11/03, 8:20 Rome established its reputation for military invincibility, despite Munitions_02_Chap1-34/11/03, 8:20 Julius Caesar was, of course, one of historyÕs greatest military Munitions_02_Chap1-34/11/03, 8:20 owever, it was these very characteristics that were to be CaesarÕs he ended up alienating the aristocracy. His propaganda became too very propaganda campaign they had directed at CaesarÕs power distic. This does not invalidate, for example, CaesarÕs Gallic War (58-52 BC) often tell us as much about the political Caesar wrote about the Civil War in which, even when addressing Munitions_02_Chap1-34/11/03, 8:20 CaesarÕs successor, his great-nephew Octavian, who became the Munitions_02_Chap1-34/11/03, 8:20 practice of granting divine status to the dead, not the living Ð Munitions_02_Chap1-34/11/03, 8:20 Munitions_02_Chap1-34/11/03, 8:20 and the celebrations might last for days or even months (TrajanÕs perhaps the public execution of the enemy leader. The British king Munitions_02_Chap1-34/11/03, 8:20 army, upon which the emperorÕs power had come to rest by the third century. As one historian has put it: ÔThe emperor at first ruled through the army. In the third century the army ruled through the emperor.Õ Munitions_02_Chap1-34/11/03, 8:20 the Turks who destroyed the Roman empire in the east when they Prior to the professionalization of the Roman army, the Roman Munitions_02_Chap1-34/11/03, 8:20 Part Two Middle Ages Munitions_03_Chap4-104/11/03, 8:26 Munitions_03_Chap4-104/11/03, 8:26 Roman legion as the principal instrument of warfare. With it went substitute for morale-boosting. Islam, with its light cavalry, swept western Europe and Christianity were able to counter-attack in the terized by speed, brutality, and improvization and motivated by the Munitions_03_Chap4-104/11/03, 8:26 driven home.Õ By the eighth century, the heavy cavalry was Ôqueen Munitions_03_Chap4-104/11/03, 8:26 New Testaments, visual symbols that were instantly recognizable upiter. Although an increasingly universal phenomenon, Christian- y also catered for antiquityÕs yearning for local gods and cults by ensure orthodoxy, and thus maintain the unity and position ritual behaviour, visual imagery, and sermons helped to encourage the use of propagandist techniques. The Venerable Bede, writing in Munitions_03_Chap4-104/11/03, 8:26 Iconoclastic (Ôimage-breakingÕ) Schism with the papacy. This clash Munitions_03_Chap4-104/11/03, 8:26 have provided the Goths and the Vandals with more of their concept and virtues of peace, or at least of non-hostility. Having began early, and failure to join the army on maturity or on tradition, peer-pressure, and booty. If the gods did not oblige by providing victory, they could quite easily be abandoned, as Clovis Gaul) did after the battle of Tolbiac when he became the first barbarian king to convert to Christianity. The gods thus served a ours (538-94), described mainly civil warfare and the feuding of Munitions_03_Chap4-104/11/03, 8:26 Munitions_03_Chap4-104/11/03, 8:26 Constantinople, which finally fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. Great Church of St Sophia Ð was in full view. But by the seventh century, the Byzantine empire was on a virtually permanent war- footing as military threats from all sides threatened JustinianÕs combined assault from the Slavs, Avars, and Persians when the strife, the early stages of which are described by Gregory of Tours, dynasty. The Pope, alarmed by the Iconoclastic Schism with the the Carolingians. After all, PepinÕs father, Charles Martel (714-41), Poitiers in 733. He did this with foot soldiers against cavalry, but sitioned Church money, whereupon he drove the Moslems back had invaded Italy, defeated the Lombards, and given the Pope his the ÔVicar of ChristÕ. The PopeÕs power to do this was, in fact, In 800 PepinÕs son Charles, King of the Franks, was crowned Munitions_03_Chap4-104/11/03, 8:26 ganda in war, but much more than that we cannot say. We know he enthusiasm. We know also that his armies were prepared for battle Munitions_03_Chap4-104/11/03, 8:26 Saxons to the north-east, which he did with a brutality character- Munitions_03_Chap4-104/11/03, 8:26 was written in about 850 to provide a model of how kingship should work just at the time when Louis the PiousÕ reign was going wrong. In fact, decentralization of government was matched by decentralization of warfare, with feudal lords levying their own armies from their own lands, which meant that armies became smaller but the aristocrats who raised them became more Munitions_03_Chap4-104/11/03, 8:26 for the later Duchy of Normandy. Here they began to assimilate feudalism and Christianity, invaded England in 1066, and moved south into France and southern Italy. Armed with their unique the pagan Vikings terrorized Europe militarily and psychologically. Munitions_03_Chap4-104/11/03, 8:26 warfare, left to us by William of Poitiers. William the Conqueror portrayed his invasion as a holy war under a papal banner. Having Munitions_03_Chap4-104/11/03, 8:26 church in solemn procession the body of St Valery, confessor beloved ment to the otherÕ. William then was the first to sail for England Munitions_03_Chap4-104/11/03, 8:26 Despite the admiration which William of Poitiers revealed for when a rumour spread during the battle that William had been killed, but it would appear that WilliamÕs reappearance and courage spurred on his troops at this critical moment. William rode the countryside. William thereafter took Canterbury and Winchester Apart from William of PoitiersÕ invaluable, though biased battle: the Bayeux tapestry. The work (actually an embroidery) was Munitions_03_Chap4-104/11/03, 8:26 about 1017 and as such can be regarded as a near-contemporary Hastings. Told from the Norman point of view, and especially from OdoÕs (the ConquerorÕs half-brother), the visual narrative was illiam the ConquerorÕs claim to the throne of England to the now the battle of Hastings itself, Bishop OdoÕs role is depicted as being almost as prominent as that of the Conqueror, revealing the degree But why was the tapestry made? Was it celebratory, possibly like the arrangements made for its display in England or Normandy. Norman occupation. The final segment of the tapestry provides us with a vivid depic- tion of medieval warfare and also indicates, chiefly in the lower The Norman Conquest 65 Munitions_03_Chap4-104/11/03, 8:26 HaroldÕs body after he has fallen victim to an arrow is certainly not behaving in a chivalrous way. It would not be unreasonable, Munitions_03_Chap4-104/11/03, 8:26 late medieval mind cannot be understood. After religion, chivalry was perhaps, in the words of the great Dutch historian Johan Munitions_03_Chap4-104/11/03, 8:26 family, especially if the story was picked up by some chronicler or Munitions_03_Chap4-104/11/03, 8:26 Munitions_03_Chap4-104/11/03, 8:26 preserve ourselves from vile reproaches, than those Romans who believed the soul died with the bodyÕ. But reading about war and Munitions_03_Chap4-104/11/03, 8:26 The war-torn eleventh and twelfth centuries were fuelled by the chivalric code, which often led to a love of war for warÕs sake and a romantic glorification of fighting skills. An over-zealous admirer of It is a joyous thing, a war. I believe that God favours those who risk equity, to justice. You love your comrade so much in war. When you Munitions_03_Chap4-104/11/03, 8:26 help until it was too late, largely out of pride! Such songs, however, Munitions_03_Chap4-104/11/03, 8:26 first (PeopleÕs) crusade, advocated by Pope Urban II in a sermon at Munitions_03_Chap4-104/11/03, 8:27 Munitions_03_Chap4-104/11/03, 8:27 and they needed to maintain their status through war. Crusading was a lucrative business and land was the source of power. All Munitions_03_Chap4-104/11/03, 8:27 Inspired by religious fervour, the Crusaders also recognized the pation of conquered lands, and Edessa in particular, by the infidel motivated the earlier campaign. This time, however, the sons of in a field outside of Vezelay, so that he could speak from a high place to the Munitions_03_Chap4-104/11/03, 8:27 had been unworthy executors of GodÕs will. Munitions_03_Chap4-104/11/03, 8:27 and of the Crusades in particular, when the knights were usually one chronicler described how the Crusaders, having seen SaladinÕs Munitions_03_Chap4-104/11/03, 8:27 Munitions_03_Chap4-104/11/03, 8:27 both by word and exampleÕ and the clergy were to donate one- Munitions_03_Chap4-104/11/03, 8:27 The Hundred Years War, which in fact lasted intermittently from Munitions_03_Chap4-104/11/03, 8:27 of the fifteenth century. Pitted against footsoldiers, heavy cavalry physical effect. The objective was to induce fear, panic, and flight of the development of full plate armour, which replaced chain mail Munitions_03_Chap4-104/11/03, 8:27 Munitions_03_Chap4-104/11/03, 8:27 Munitions_03_Chap4-104/11/03, 8:27 Gunpowder and Printing Munitions_03_Chap4-104/11/03, 8:27 Munitions_03_Chap4-104/11/03, 8:27 not words implying cataclysmic or sudden change. We have Middle Ages did not stop suddenly, giving way to the modern Bosworth) and the advent of the Tudors would be challenged by Munitions_03_Chap4-104/11/03, 8:27 significantly, with the production of cheap paper replacing expensive parchment in the first half of the fifteenth century, the Munitions_03_Chap4-104/11/03, 8:27 developments in human activity, especially in the conduct of warfare. We have already noted the arrival of gunpowder by the logical than military. By the late fifteenth century, its military use Munitions_03_Chap4-104/11/03, 8:27 Munitions_03_Chap4-104/11/03, 8:27 through the Hapsburg-Valois rivalry and lasted until 1559, his highest bidder. Money was the major motivation in such men, and the promise of financial reward. It didnÕt always work. When the Munitions_03_Chap4-104/11/03, 8:27 defend themselves manfully and vigorously. For soldiers can march in confusion and disorder, so that they would be in danger of being and environment that was as important as uniforms, pageantry, or frequently harangue his men: for by that he may dispel their fear, he way to escape it, rebuke, entreat, threaten, reproach and encourage. that they put Ôgreat heart into a whole army, to the point of Munitions_03_Chap4-104/11/03, 8:27 prelude to a new crusade against the Turks following the collapse of battle. Charles VIIIÕs successors, Louis XII and Francis I (1515- ransomed, and released a year later by his arch enemy. As late as which virtually disappeared from Europe for nearly a century. The images remained, however, as TitianÕs famous portrait of Charles an endless source of fascination even to the Humanists. To some, war Munitions_03_Chap4-104/11/03, 8:27 Munitions_03_Chap4-104/11/03, 8:27 knightly orders, and the popularity of such plays as ShakespeareÕs Henry V. Munitions_03_Chap4-104/11/03, 8:27 however, have different motivations and are inspired by different social and cultural values, by superstition and by authority. As Munitions_03_Chap4-104/11/03, 8:27 Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 The difference now was that the clergy had access to printed works that served as guidebooks for their ideological messages. Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 kingÕs ruthless persecutions in France. One commentator wrote from Paris in 1520 of LutherÕs publi- has sold 1,400 copiesÉ Everywhere people speak highly of Luther. Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 such centres as Lyon and Paris throughout France and which mani- reform that ultimately became the Counter-Reformation. But the Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 by the Henrician reformation of the 1530s, Henry VIIIÕs minister of the Tudor dynasty, had always been acutely aware of the impor- tance of propaganda as a means of consolidating his power. Henry Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 Despite the fiasco of the French war of 1512-14, HenryÕs propa- with the signing of the Treaty of Universal Peace and the Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 storm clouds were forming as HenryÕs wife, Catherine of Aragon, failed to produce an heir for the dynasty HenryÕs father had fought HenryÕs propaganda efforts at home, aided by Cardinal Wolsey, break with Rome. With Francis the prisoner of Charles, Wolsey Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 while the kingÕs new title of supreme head of the Church appeared course. Repeated offenders, however, demanded strict measures and ment. Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 princes could rival. Militarily, England remained a relatively inconsequential continental power, especially after the loss of tradition that suited EnglandÕs geographic position perfectly. However, the carefully controlled images of the monarchy Ð such provided an illusion of unity. This was the lasting propaganda triumph of the Tudors. Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 Since the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrsis in 1559, which ended the Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 of warfare had all but disappeared with the advent of gunpowder Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 mission to South America and China. The Jesuits fully recognized the importance of discipline and of educating their recruits from an early age. Loyola was made a saint in 1622. It was also in that year Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 Misery also appeared in a soldierÕs uniform. In his Art of War on (1615), Johann Wallhausen listed the qualifications required by a good soldier, including discipline and having ÔGod in his main characteristics of the Thirty Years War. Soldiers could hardly Often sleep but little, lie uncomfortably, Often hunger, thirst, sweat and shiver into some form of coherent fighting unit, most notably by Gustavus its opponents. However, with the drain on Scandinavian manpower, Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 or in the ÔPeasantsÕ WarÕ of Upper Austria. Defending commanders Thirty Years War must be seen. If war aims were presented in the Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 or the other. The most celebrated occasion of this happening took Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 ÔFor sheer volume of publicity, the seventeenth century was one of innovation,Õ concluded Professor Kamen. For the sheer inter- nationalization of propaganda, the Thirty Years War was a water- Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 into full scale civil war, or the Great Rebellion as it was known. an exercise in persuasion; it frequently reflected genuine popular attitudes, uestioning of all authority. As soon as the floodgates of censorship had way of oppressionÕ. When, therefore, the opponents of Charles I (r. attack oppressor, a medium of liberation and revolution of such power that it inevitably demanded the twin response of counter- Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 EnglandÕs state Church, and of the growing Parliamentary criticism the kingÕs extravagant spending and his High Church innovations. ithout a standing army, however, Charles was unable to suppress logical issues (merchants v. aristocrats, Puritans v. Anglicans, parliament v. royal absolutism) came to a head. Though it was initially successful in dismantling the kingÕs personal government against the latter, mob pressure forced Charles to leave London of the censorship and licensing system established by the Tudors and Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 laws with particular skill. They made extensive use of the printing press and had publications smuggled in from the continental publish- ing centre of Amsterdam. In 1647, John Lilburne declared that he was Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 years. With the war over, the various political factions began to jostle for power. But the king refused to accommodate Puritan CromwellÕs Independents had been prevented from entering parlia- CromwellÕs ruthless suppression of Ireland, his conquest of Scot- which he became Lord Protector. Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 example of how Cromwell, despite the use of propaganda, failed to more glaring example of the dangers of shadow without the substance. France under the Bourbons also reveals the dangers of Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 Thophraste RenaudotÕs Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 opinion (the Code Michaud of 1629 made writers of illegal works su bject to arrest and trial), but they were never able to prevent illicit publications from entering France, especially the French language migrs in Holland following the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685. Instead, they relied heavily upon positive means of persuasion. As one French minister wrote, the king needed to employ Ôskilled pens, have them Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 of Versailles, which is decorated entirely with depictions of LouisÕ victories in the Dutch War (1672-8). Artists portrayed Louis as the adulation were wrought into a fixed habit of mind. Conceivably, this Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 kingship within France. Internally, Torcy was able to control the flooded with these editionsÕ. Abroad, however, Torcy attempted to was distributed, and by a positive campaign in LouisÕ favour. Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 of Revolutionary Warfare Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 witnessed both an expansion in the role of public opinion in affairs of state and an increase in the degree to which the Press was were quick to recognize this and, drawing upon early modern prece- dents, established rigorous censorship systems to regulate the flow religious toleration following the ÔGlorious RevolutionÕ of 1688 Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 security and for criminal prosecution of offending items only after publication. A massive growth in the number of newspapers that the English Parliament had suddenly embraced the notion of Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 organ of the opposition to Robert Walpole, the popularity of which almost as popular, was the even bully-boy tactics of sending in the KingÕs Messengers to smash Review. government propaganda and counter-propaganda and he used both Swift and Daniel Defoe as writers on his paper, which Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 Nothing encourages newspaper circulation more than war, and in England sales increased dramatically during the Seven Years War in the Stamp Tax), newspapers were widely shared and read aloud Annual Register, government] manipulated the press, subsidized it, and prosecutedit, but could not control it.Õ The degree to which politicians such asJohn Wilkes (1727-97) used his newspaper, the extreme care, despite MacaulayÕs claim that Ôthe true history of a Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 Ôunwise, unjust and ruinous policyÕ of their British imperial over- over the French in the Seven Years War, the British had tried to Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 RevereÕs romanticized cartoons of the massacre were widely Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 and for the Ônatural rightsÕ of men described by Tom Paine in his Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 Canadians to his regiment partly Ôto the poison which the emis- saries of the rebels have thrown into their mindÕ. W ith the die cast, American revolutionary propaganda blos- Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 form, Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 the colonists). With Britain now preoccupied with a front that Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 were sent back into the British ranks to spread the word still wider. Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 restrain them. However, successive British defeats, combined with news of BritainÕs growing international predicament, meant that Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 lated in London every day, the circulation of supportive papers was far the most popular paper of its day. Even so, the this unhappy, wicked, and self-destroying war against America Englishmen could team up with BritainÕs traditional Ð and Catholic Ð arch enemy. Blame in the press was fixed squarely upon NorthÕs ic discontent. It was in this atmosphere that FranklinÕs Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 ments in warfare. Frederick II (the Great, r.1740-86) of Prussia had small power to assume wider significance. FrederickÕs armies were maintained their line and discipline throughout. With parade- ground precision, FrederickÕs armies felt safe in the knowledge that Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 were also motivated by ideology, patriotism, and nationalism. In France, Jacques de GuibertÕs Essai Gnral de Tactique Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 have already seen from the case of Louis XIV that official Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 their position to judge themÕ. In the same year, however, Voltaire Although there was a lesson here for Louis XVI, VoltaireÕs essay was curiously contradictory. In the same piece he admitted that pointed to the danger of SpinozaÕs writings. With such advice, it is small wonder that Louis XVIÕs government failed to put its own house in order. Attempts at reform, especially of financial issues, failed miserably. In short, the failure of the Old RegimeÕs censor- people acquire must, a little sooner, a little later, produce Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 democracy. Despotic governments must not; press freedom is a sign of weakness. You must either have a total media control, enforced by terror, or as little as possible within the confines of national security. The only way a despotic government can allow France was its failure to realize this Ð or at least to act decisively. Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 mitting complicated ideas in a simple form; one symbol was capable other garments and symbols came to represent the calls for ÔLiberty, Equality, and FraternityÕ. Right from the start, the revolutionaries cup was worn as a symbol of equality, the Fasces emerged as a symbol of fraternity, and the female figure of Marianne as a symbol of liberty. A female figure was chosen partly to reflect the Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 two in particular deserve mention by virtue of their founders. The first was the Friend of the People, founded by the mob orator and journalist Marat. Here was a propagandist who clearly recognized the revolution into language the masses could understand. The The Defence of the Constitution, founded by Robespierre. Both men developed clubs to instil and debate the eas of freedom and liberty and to create an alternative to religion, Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 t he beloved image of Republican liberty and prideÕ. A new calendar was introduced to underline a new beginning, with 1792 becoming Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 The victory at Valmy was in many respects a lucky one. The a soldier, and every soldier a citizenÕ. Payment was a reward, not Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 be a witness to the shouts and cries of ÔVive la RpubliqueÕ, one and indivisible, ÔVive la ConstitutionÕ which rang out at the end of this epublican joy that the troopsÕ enthusiasm gave way. Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 heat of battle, would morale hold up? This has been one of our recurring questions and, as in previous wars, we must not discount the social climate that affected battle morale. During the revolu- tionary wars, many of the same pressures that have influenced men to acts of courage on the battlefield throughout history still Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 became Consul for life and in 1804 he was proclaimed Emperor. to the career of Caesar and, like Caesar, he wrote self-congratulatory Paris and the provinces. With his crowning as Emperor, Napoleon were informed that the theme was to be Vengeance: Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 value to the enemy, it was its supervision was therefore called for, and he and his ministers army. His image appeared on coins, medals, statues, and paintings. Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 his too was characterized more by disunity than harmony. As Clive Emsley has written: ÔPittÕs government was faced with the problems of maintaining and boosting morale and, as ever, raising money and of Charles Fox. A new ÔBritish War SongÕ was published which ran: Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 line against invasion: ÔIn Britain is one breath/We are all with you now from shore to shore/Ye men of Kent, Õtis victory or death!Õ Munitions_04_Chap11-184/11/03, 10:46 ith Napoleon finally defeated and safely out of harmÕs way in Munitions_05_Chap194/11/03, 10:48 century, by the advent of electricity and flight. Asa Briggs was right Munitions_05_Chap194/11/03, 10:48 Munitions_05_Chap194/11/03, 10:48 advertising, newspapers began to employ special correspondents to g ather exciting news that was often designed more to entertain than Munitions_05_Chap194/11/03, 10:48 army commanders (including Wellington) would not allow any Munitions_05_Chap194/11/03, 10:48 Crcy, remained the Ôfinest, most powerful army in the worldÕ. Munitions_05_Chap194/11/03, 10:48 British war hero. However, it had also begun to destroy some old Munitions_05_Chap194/11/03, 10:48 looked happy and healthy. Comparing FentonÕs photographs with The significance of RussellÕs work lies in the fact that it brought declared it. War was no longer the business of sovereigns, states- of official propaganda and censorship seriously. It took another half century for this to filter through properly, but the Crimea was Official recognition Ð perhaps over-estimation Ð of the power of Munitions_05_Chap194/11/03, 10:48 been overwhelmed by sheer weight of numbers and savagery, the Ôwhite manÕs burdenÕ that had to be borne. The Victoria Cross Empress Victoria, its Pomp and France and, after 1870, a united Germany, recognized the domestic communications within it. Havas of France and the Wolff Bureau photographic record of the conflict (especially Mathew BradyÕs HarperÕs ivity. HarperÕs, for example, published an engraving of a totally Munitions_05_Chap194/11/03, 10:48 Munitions_05_Chap194/11/03, 10:48 conscious of the need to be seen doing his duty bravely, and thus government admits of that organization and discipline without Munitions_05_Chap194/11/03, 10:48 cotton producing Confederacy, by writing directly to them and Munitions_05_Chap194/11/03, 10:48 telegraph from all parts of the globe, was able to increase its cover- Munitions_05_Chap194/11/03, 10:48 The First World War otal War and Cold War Munitions_06_Chap20-214/11/03, 10:52 Munitions_06_Chap20-214/11/03, 10:52 Munitions_06_Chap20-214/11/03, 10:52 had even become, as the French Prime Minister Clemenceau said, Ôtoo serious a business to be left to the generalsÕ. Munitions_06_Chap20-214/11/03, 10:52 the Spanish-American War (1898) with his cry to ÔRemember the Munitions_06_Chap20-214/11/03, 10:52 Munitions_06_Chap20-214/11/03, 10:52 and Germany were each otherÕs best trading partners. On the Munitions_06_Chap20-214/11/03, 10:52 Propaganda in the Age of Total War and Cold War Munitions_06_Chap20-214/11/03, 10:52 The New York Tribune on the anniversary of the Munitions_06_Chap20-214/11/03, 10:52 war propagandists. The First World War was no exception. Images of the bloated ÔPrussian OgreÕ, proudly sporting his pickelhaube, the he war, it was important for the propagandists to cast blame on the Munitions_06_Chap20-214/11/03, 10:52 press who had a field-day with the story. Many members of the United States and helped to bring the Americans firmly into the war on the Allied side. The story is also a classic example of the Munitions_06_Chap20-214/11/03, 10:52 Good fortune, also in the summer of 1915, revealed the where- revealing to the Americans the degree to which BritainÕs code- breaking activities extended to neutrals. On 23 February, Balfour alter Page, and it was published in the United States on 1 March. Not unnaturally, it caused a sensation. The Germans were actually threatening to bring the Old WorldÕs war into AmericaÕs back garden; Mexico had been offered their lost territories of Texas and Munitions_06_Chap20-214/11/03, 10:52 path with the powerful anti-interventionist lobby. And any linger- were, in an astonishing fit of stupidity, dispelled by the German Munitions_06_Chap20-214/11/03, 10:52 Munitions_06_Chap20-214/11/03, 10:52 even sent to America on loan for public display. But the British had Munitions_06_Chap20-214/11/03, 10:52 threat to American soil itself, whilst films such as The Hun Within The Kaiser, the Beast of Berlin ith such a willing partner, the American government might be CPI was not always happy with the dream factoryÕs more zealous wartime products. After a slow start, the CPIÕs Films Division itself PershingÕs Crusaders The Official War Review. greater fame in the Second World War, when top Hollywood AmericaÕs Answer than the commercial industryÕs productions. They were designed to represented part of the CPIÕs philosophy that it was its duty to engage in patriotic education for a modern democracy. Munitions_06_Chap20-214/11/03, 10:52 The Creel CommitteeÕs major preoccupation was with the ParisÕs conduct of the war. But the French modelled their organization was at its most complex. Wellington House had gone Munitions_06_Chap20-214/11/03, 10:52 campaign as well as his appreciation of its finer points, such as the Munitions_06_Chap20-214/11/03, 10:52 of the German submarine campaign to starve Britain into sub- Munitions_06_Chap20-214/11/03, 10:52 ilson led the way on 8 January 1918 with perhaps the most of ItalyÕs frontiers along lines of nationality, autonomy for the peoples of Austria-Hungary, including the establishment of self- governing states for the Yugoslavs, Poles, Rumanians, and nationalitiesÕ which, in turn, would weaken GermanyÕs capacity to Munitions_06_Chap20-214/11/03, 10:52 eriously neglected. German attempts at counter-propaganda there- papers, and lectures; but, as previously, this work was conducted was waging war. They appreciated too late that modern warfare Munitions_06_Chap20-214/11/03, 10:52 In 1918, the War Office began to compile information as to Munitions_06_Chap20-214/11/03, 10:52 impact on the course of this new struggle. Accordingly, Lord itchener, who was rare among soldiers and politicians at that time fight for King and Country. At first, there was no shortage of volun- teers; within a month, the figures had reached 30,000 a day. Munitions_06_Chap20-214/11/03, 10:52 fism was also on the increase, especially after the battles of Verdun, the Somme, and Ancre. Clearly, more concerted efforts to sustain old HunÕ was, however, a resilient popular theme, the legacy of Propaganda in the Age of Total War and Cold War Munitions_06_Chap20-214/11/03, 10:52 first has already been discussed Ð namely, the use to which the likes in central and eastern Europe. When President Wilson announced Munitions_06_Chap20-214/11/03, 10:52 Munitions_06_Chap20-214/11/03, 10:52 the destruction of the human body.Õ That an activity which might seem peculiar today. But it was quite common in Britain after the First World War and reflected how much the meaning of Munitions_06_Chap20-214/11/03, 10:52 the War of Ideologies (1917-39) Munitions_07_Chap224/11/03, 11:11 The Bolshevik Revolution and the War of Ideologies of course, great publicists. Working from underground presses, Munitions_07_Chap224/11/03, 11:11 Propaganda in the Age of Total War and Cold War Munitions_07_Chap224/11/03, 11:11 Archangel on 1 August. Even so, from Siberia, the Civil War spread intervene more intensively. This gave time for Trotsky to build up Munitions_07_Chap224/11/03, 11:11 However, as the Civil War dragged on, food shortages in the cities led to requisitioning, and this merely alienated the peasantry. Munitions_07_Chap224/11/03, 11:11 Munitions_07_Chap224/11/03, 11:11 Munitions_07_Chap224/11/03, 11:11 Europe and America had rocked the established order. The Red Flag had even been hoisted over Glasgow Town Hall! Calls for the world. In 1925, it added the worldÕs first short-wave transmitter. In the following year, when the General Strike in Britain conjured up Munitions_07_Chap224/11/03, 11:11 for politics, propaganda, and warfare were to be far-reaching. In Glasgow, Baird demonstrated the transmission of colour television television before even the First World War), although this particu- The World Economic Depression that resulted from the collapse Munitions_07_Chap224/11/03, 11:11 East, and Africa, many observers felt that the Spanish Civil War could quite easily develop into a second world war. As in the case of the Russian Civil War, the European powers became involved in But although the Second World War broke out in 1939, Poland, limit the effects of the Spanish Civil War and prevent it from Russia, Germany, and Italy, however, honoured the agreement The Bolshevik Revolution and the War of Ideologies Munitions_07_Chap224/11/03, 11:11 The Second World War The Second World War witnessed the greatest propaganda battle in even the First World War. There were several reasons why this was Munitions_08_Chap234/11/03, 11:04 The Second World War on the radio. The Prime MinisterÕs speech announcing the start of hostilities against Nazi Germany, broadcast by the BBC on that round for democratic principles. Chamberlain informed his listeners: have a clear conscience. We have done all that any country could GermanyÕs ruler could be trusted, and no people or country could feel Munitions_08_Chap234/11/03, 11:04 Propaganda in the Age of Total War and Cold War Barely twelve months later, Chamberlain declared war on after the Ôwar to end warÕ. Poland, however, was the reason for war, but not the cause. The events of March 1939, not September Hitler could not be trusted, that he was intent upon war. Some pogrom to date. But Bohemia and Moravia were not GermanyÕs ersailles Treaty. Chamberlain dropped appeasement overnight ened by Hitler: Poland, Greece, Rumania, and Turkey. And too Britain was hardly ready in September 1939 either, and it was month period of the ÔPhoney WarÕ that she could build enough and Nagasaki only became a World War in the real sense in 1941, Munitions_08_Chap234/11/03, 11:04 The Second World War Christmas. But neither did they succumb to panic or despair. If attrition against the German military phoenix. This First World by the governmentÕs attitude towards propaganda which placed first winter. While the Germans fought the courageous Poles in the East, and divided the spoils with StalinÕs Russia in accordance with Munitions_08_Chap234/11/03, 11:04 Propaganda in the Age of Total War and Cold War involved in Total War. Elected British politicians and their later. But they remained suspicious of the new working-class 1926, and the Depression of the 1930s. The bomber, however, was troops before having their permits revoked by the War Office Munitions_08_Chap234/11/03, 11:04 The Second World War and, before long, the MOIÕs motto became: ÔThe truth, nothing but he remainder of the war. It formed the basis of the domestic propa- for most of their information. Before the First World War, the Post Munitions_08_Chap234/11/03, 11:04 Propaganda in the Age of Total War and Cold War in the entire war. And when all is said and done, and in spite of the Prime Minister in May 1940, the paper conducted its acrimonious campaign against the ÔGuilty Men of MunichÕ to the point where summoned its owners and virtually ordered them to desist. His inclination to suppress the paper was tempered by the Home Munitions_08_Chap234/11/03, 11:04 The Second World War the English Channel when the bastion of BritainÕs Far Eastern carried Philip ZecÕs famous cartoon depicting a half-drowned, oil- Munitions_08_Chap234/11/03, 11:04 Propaganda in the Age of Total War and Cold War Mussolini and Hitler, was a great film fan and he fully recognized degree to which allowing public criticism of the governmentÕs former neutrals like the United States, enemies like Nazi Germany, Munitions_08_Chap234/11/03, 11:04 The Second World War Firstly, a general aversion to reading any notice of any sort, secondly a possibly be addressed to oneself; thirdly, a general unwillingness, even The first propaganda film of the war, The Lion Has Wings part of most peopleÕs life, an Ôessential social habitÕ, by far the most who were now being called upon to fight the PeopleÕs War. In 1939, challenged by the British film industry during the war, British Munitions_08_Chap234/11/03, 11:04 Propaganda in the Age of Total War and Cold War in a serious light. Before the war, the working man and woman had been largely caricature figures of fun. The PeopleÕs War, however, treatment of social issues. Walter GreenwoodÕs novel Munitions_08_Chap234/11/03, 11:04 The Second World War Ôthe creative treatment of actualityÕ. Like the newsreels, therefore, the official films presented, not reality but an illusion of reality, an Munitions_08_Chap234/11/03, 11:04 Propaganda in the Age of Total War and Cold War of Carol Reed ( The Young Mr Pitt The Way Ahead and The True Glory )(The Big Blockade, The Foreman Went to France Munitions_08_Chap234/11/03, 11:04 The Second World War In a series of broadcasts made on the BBCÕs overseas service in Munitions_08_Chap234/11/03, 11:04 Propaganda in the Age of Total War and Cold War Munitions_08_Chap234/11/03, 11:04 The Second World War the BBC for American broadcasters such as Ed Murrow, who did the British during their finest hour. Films were also used for the same purpose. The MOI produced London Can Take It )burgerÕs in Canada. At home, the broadcasts of J. B. Priestley, particularly brilliant radio orator, Winston Churchill. As the BBC began to ÔLord Haw HawÕ (William Joyce) declined, and thereafter the BBC Munitions_08_Chap234/11/03, 11:04 Propaganda in the Age of Total War and Cold War Munitions_08_Chap234/11/03, 11:04 The Second World War Munitions_08_Chap234/11/03, 11:04 Propaganda in the Age of Total War and Cold War Munitions_08_Chap234/11/03, 11:04 The Second World War Munitions_08_Chap234/11/03, 11:04 Propaganda in the Age of Total War and Cold War , whose expos of Nazi brutality in ÔInside Nazi GermanyÕ (1938) was banned in Britain pre-war, used a combination of actu- Munitions_08_Chap234/11/03, 11:04 The Second World War Munitions_08_Chap234/11/03, 11:04 Propaganda in the Age of Total War and Cold War Enemy of Women )form of atrocity propaganda, more subtle perhaps, but with thesame message: the Germans were the enemies of civilization anddemocracy. There were attempts to lampoon the Nazis (as in To Be or Not To Be lightly. Chaplin had shown how to do it in Munitions_08_Chap234/11/03, 11:04 The Second World War Munitions_08_Chap234/11/03, 11:04 Propaganda in the Age of Total War and Cold War Munitions_08_Chap234/11/03, 11:04 The Second World War criminals hindered their efficiency. The influence of years of anti- (1945), made by CapraÕs Why We Fight Munitions_08_Chap234/11/03, 11:04 Propaganda in the Age of Total War and Cold War propaganda policy. The pact was explained by both sides as a Germans invaded Poland on 1 September, and the Russians Munitions_08_Chap234/11/03, 11:04 The Second World War Munitions_08_Chap234/11/03, 11:04 Propaganda in the Age of Total War and Cold War Munitions_08_Chap234/11/03, 11:04 The Second World War after the German surrender, was one such seven-reel example with Munitions_08_Chap234/11/03, 11:04 Propaganda in the Age of Total War and Cold War Munitions_08_Chap234/11/03, 11:04 The Second World War Munitions_08_Chap234/11/03, 11:04 Propaganda in the Age of Total War and Cold War General KatoÕs Falcon Fighters JapanÕs leading wartime film director, Kajiro Yamamoto, and Munitions_08_Chap234/11/03, 11:04 The Second World War as Ôthe war that Hitler wonÕ. However, as in the case of Japan, it is indoctrinated with Nazi ideas to such a degree that propaganda Munitions_08_Chap234/11/03, 11:04 Propaganda in the Age of Total War and Cold War become diluted. Rather, its role through propaganda was Ôthe rape restoration of GermanyÕs ÔrightfulÕ place in the world. Towards this end, the RMVPÕs tentacles spread into every aspect of German life, Munitions_08_Chap234/11/03, 11:04 The Second World War re-dedicate themselves to the Fhrer. Half a million or more banners blessed by the Fhrer, to pay their respects to the party rtyrs (such as Horst Wessel), and to hear speeches in a regimented Munitions_08_Chap234/11/03, 11:04 Propaganda in the Age of Total War and Cold War years of the war. The Deutsche Wochenschau (German Weekly OKW. Their material was then sent back to Berlin and because they im Westen (ÔVictory in the WestÕ) (1941). These films were self- of the German race and the will of the Fhrer. Abroad, these merely demonstrated that resistance to the German ar on film is exciting and cathartic. The Nazis used newsreels successes in Denmark and Norway, the security forces reported that it had Ôundoubtedly increased confidence in victory... total Munitions_08_Chap234/11/03, 11:04 The Second World War the reality of war. Besides, after Stalingrad, the PK cameramen Munitions_08_Chap234/11/03, 11:04 Propaganda in the Age of Total War and Cold War the Bolsheviks. Blinded by his own ideology, Hitler would not Munitions_08_Chap234/11/03, 11:04 The Second World War , which inter- Munitions_08_Chap234/11/03, 11:04 Propaganda in the Age of Total War and Cold War heightening enthusiasm for the war. But neither the German people success of German armies in Russia in the summer of 1941 raised morale again, which was only to be undermined as the Russian Munitions_08_Chap234/11/03, 11:04 Munitions_09_Chap244/11/03, 11:00 moral supremacy. Democracies, equality, liberty and fraternity were embedded in important new United States. Victory had only been achieved with considerable Munitions_09_Chap244/11/03, 11:00 Munitions_09_Chap244/11/03, 11:00 Munitions_09_Chap244/11/03, 11:00 alliance blocs of NATO and the Warsaw Pact, it was imperative to Munitions_09_Chap244/11/03, 11:00 Munitions_09_Chap244/11/03, 11:00 future in the transformation from Empire to Commonwealth, the Munitions_09_Chap244/11/03, 11:00 organizations as the World Peace Council, founded in 1949, which Munitions_09_Chap244/11/03, 11:00 assuming an increasingly political significance. Wanger put it bluntly: ÔDonald Duck as World Diplomat!Õ. Propagandist, more Munitions_09_Chap244/11/03, 11:00 movies which depicted the darker side of the American way of life Ð crime and gangster movies and the like Ð was overcome since the Munitions_09_Chap244/11/03, 11:00 But in the West, Moscow was now being viewed through American Munitions_09_Chap244/11/03, 11:00 The new ÔEnemy WithinÕ now became all members of American Munitions_09_Chap244/11/03, 11:00 (1959) or in Stanley KubrickÕs satirical masterpiece, Dr Strangelove, or How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the IÕm in favour of economy, but when it comes to waging war, er, waging Munitions_09_Chap244/11/03, 11:00 for Russian audiences. As the popular singer, Bing Crosby, said on one fund-raising film shown in AmericaÕs cinemas: Munitions_09_Chap244/11/03, 11:00 loosening of MoscowÕs previous iron grip on its Eastern European Munitions_09_Chap244/11/03, 11:00 personnel, from providing access to news gatherers to the super- Committee, the ruling body of the State, and its censorship agency, VIT. The Politburo also appointed the head of the State-owned Munitions_09_Chap244/11/03, 11:00 ashington, seeing this a tool for preserving authoritarian regimes to the brink of nuclear confrontation over Cuba. Washington, invigorated by the new administration of John Fitzgerald Kennedy, propaganda. Significantly, in the aftermath of the crisis, Munitions_09_Chap244/11/03, 11:00 to greater international agreements concerning the fostering of Munitions_09_Chap244/11/03, 11:00 was real and which was a propaganda plant. Psychological operations were, then, no longer being confined to the traditional battlefield, for the battlefield had become the global information environment. They were still used in low intensity conflicts Ð in the colonial and guerilla wars, for example Ð Munitions_09_Chap244/11/03, 11:00 Shortly after KennedyÕs death, the World Rule of Law Centre iction. But, in a sense, Whitton and Larson missed the point. Wars are not caused solely, or even mainly, by propaganda. They are caused comes into play. Propaganda can escalate a conflict but it usually comes after the policy has been decided. The Cold War, once it was under way, demanded that policy and propaganda be conducted Munitions_09_Chap244/11/03, 11:00 Munitions_09_Chap244/11/03, 11:00 JUSPAOÕs official battle accounts and casualty figures and their Munitions_09_Chap244/11/03, 11:00 Munitions_09_Chap244/11/03, 11:00 cratically elected politicians becoming increasingly sensitive to Munitions_09_Chap244/11/03, 11:00 Munitions_09_Chap244/11/03, 11:00 shortage of equivalent material from the enemy side Ð the differ- Munitions_09_Chap244/11/03, 11:00 T Munitions_09_Chap244/11/03, 11:00 should now lie with their NATO partner Ð a democratic regime Propaganda in the Age of Total War and Cold War Munitions_09_Chap244/11/03, 11:00 of intelligence, even at the risk of President Reagan abandoning his anti-communist crusade in Latin America that was to have been Munitions_09_Chap244/11/03, 11:00 his words will be heeded by the many who responsibilities for standing up for our task force, our boys, our people and the cause of democracy. Churchill would have been proud of her. The government was at Munitions_09_Chap244/11/03, 11:00 Munitions_09_Chap244/11/03, 11:00 had in fact made the same mistake as her political hero, Winston soldiers from their own country, do not want to reveal information Munitions_09_Chap244/11/03, 11:00 organized journalists into pools, by then the invasion was all over, Munitions_09_Chap244/11/03, 11:00 Munitions_09_Chap244/11/03, 11:00 The Gulf War of 1991 The New World Munitions_10_Chap254/11/03, 11:01 The New World Information Disorder Munitions_10_Chap254/11/03, 11:01 The Gulf War of 1991 The Gulf War of 1991 ith the Cold War effectively pronounced over by 1990, there was Cuba and North Korea and, in a slightly different way, the increasingly consumerist PeopleÕs Republic of China Ð especially after the suppression of the Tiananmen Square uprising in 1989 Ð Munitions_10_Chap254/11/03, 11:01 The New World Information Disorder Munitions_10_Chap254/11/03, 11:01 The Gulf War of 1991 IraqÕs invasion of Kuwait in August 1990. In the six months that to withstand inter-state aggression. This remarkable diplomatic when, following IraqÕs refusal to withdraw from the oil rich country Munitions_10_Chap254/11/03, 11:01 The New World Information Disorder was, at least in theory, significant. Munitions_10_Chap254/11/03, 11:01 The Gulf War of 1991 Munitions_10_Chap254/11/03, 11:01 The New World Information Disorder he Gulf War through the creation of a Ômedia managementÕ system. Munitions_10_Chap254/11/03, 11:01 The Gulf War of 1991 Munitions_10_Chap254/11/03, 11:01 The New World Information Disorder Munitions_10_Chap254/11/03, 11:01 The Gulf War of 1991 then swing eastwards in an attempt (in the words of one com- mander) the coalitionÕs real intentions. This plan was to give the Iraqis the For example, in the build up to the land war, reporters were from the Saudi desert. Stories concentrating on SaddamÕs Ôeco- Munitions_10_Chap254/11/03, 11:01 The New World Information Disorder seen the countryÕs only Ôbaby milk plantÕ destroyed following a weapons facility. How could journalists unversed in the minutiae Munitions_10_Chap254/11/03, 11:01 The Gulf War of 1991 from the coalitionÕs previous pronouncements about minimal Ôcol- lateral damageÕ that it prompted many to attack the messenger. achery. While coalition spokesmen insisted that they had hit what rather than a civilian shelter, the images depicted many dead civil- ganda battlefront. The pictures did alter slightly the coalitionÕs Munitions_10_Chap254/11/03, 11:01 The New World Information Disorder Munitions_10_Chap254/11/03, 11:01 The Gulf War of 1991 aboard a converted EC 130 (the ÔVolant SoloÕ) broadcast under the name ÔThe Voice of the GulfÕ. These broadcasts warned that the DefeatsÕ in their efforts to encourage desertion, defection or sur- der. Although the precise figure is unknown, around 70,000 Iraqi Munitions_10_Chap254/11/03, 11:01 The New World Information Disorder The Gulf War was hailed as the Ôfirst information warÕ partly because of the effective use of new technologies, especially satellites, (RMA) was underway. Although the Gulf War was one of the most would, however, be fair to say that the Gulf War was the first real- time or live television war, propelling the twenty-four-hour rolling Munitions_11_Chap264/11/03, 11:02 Information-Age Conflict in the Post-Cold War Era Munitions_11_Chap264/11/03, 11:02 The New World Information Disorder systems Ð the largely computer-based command and control capa- Munitions_11_Chap264/11/03, 11:02 Information-Age Conflict in the Post-Cold War Era Munitions_11_Chap264/11/03, 11:02 The New World Information Disorder Munitions_11_Chap264/11/03, 11:02 Information-Age Conflict in the Post-Cold War Era they, indeed, who were the victims in this conflict. Serb protests Munitions_11_Chap264/11/03, 11:02 The New World Information Disorder ar experience and the doctrine of Ôinformation operationsÕ (IO) Munitions_11_Chap264/11/03, 11:02 Information-Age Conflict in the Post-Cold War Era of the Psychological Operations Task Force contributed a monthly Munitions_11_Chap264/11/03, 11:02 The New World Information Disorder Munitions_11_Chap264/11/03, 11:02 Information-Age Conflict in the Post-Cold War Era Munitions_11_Chap264/11/03, 11:02 The New World Information Disorder Munitions_11_Chap264/11/03, 11:02 Information-Age Conflict in the Post-Cold War Era Munitions_11_Chap264/11/03, 11:02 The New World Information Disorder out of their militaristic tendencies after the Second World War thinking. One of the key debates of the Cold War surrounded the ountries. With Kosovo branded a Ôhumanitarian interventionÕ, such terventions in East Timor, Macedonia, Sierra Leone and Afghani- Munitions_11_Chap264/11/03, 11:02 Information-Age Conflict in the Post-Cold War Era of PSYOPS is credibility, and if PSYOPS are lumped in with Munitions_11_Chap264/11/03, 11:02 The New World Information Disorder Munitions_11_Chap264/11/03, 11:02 Information-Age Conflict in the Post-Cold War Era of the Cold War see a newly invigorated and potentially decisive instrument for consolidating a New World Information Order. In the new terrain that has been identified for war-fighting and controlÕ is indeed an old philosophical conundrum faced by PSYOPS Munitions_11_Chap264/11/03, 11:02 The New World Information Disorder this question. Lord PononbyÕs belief that Ôthe defilement of the Munitions_11_Chap264/11/03, 11:02 The World after 11 September 2001 The terrorist attacks on New York and Washington on Ô9/11Õ Munitions_12_Chap27-284/11/03, 11:03 The New World Information Disorder Munitions_12_Chap27-284/11/03, 11:03 The World after 11 September 2001 been cast on the veracity of American claims about al-QaedaÕs in fact been taken during the Gulf War, and that the strikes were Munitions_12_Chap27-284/11/03, 11:03 The New World Information Disorder East Timor. US foreign policy was, instead, accused of being selec- driven by Texan oil barons and anti-Islamic Ð indeed anything but Munitions_12_Chap27-284/11/03, 11:03 The World after 11 September 2001 Munitions_12_Chap27-284/11/03, 11:03 The New World Information Disorder In the previous edition of this book, published in 1995, the epilogue need more propaganda, not less. We need more attempts to influ- debacle of the 2000 presidential election in the United States. We human beings, regardless of race, creed, colour or nationality. We Munitions_12_Chap27-284/11/03, 11:03 on that theory, we expose ourselves to self-deception, and to forms of persuasion that we cannot verify. Munitions_12_Chap27-284/11/03, 11:03 The New World Information Disorder Munitions_12_Chap27-284/11/03, 11:03 323 practices as they operate on the ground Ð it does serve to remind us that dominant ideologies and corporate interests which benefit from those ideologies are always happy to use propaganda via whatever media are available. The same is beginning to happen to Munitions_12_Chap27-284/11/03, 11:03 The New World Information Disorder behind propaganda that needs scrutiny, not just the propaganda Munitions_12_Chap27-284/11/03, 11:03 325 4/11/03, 10:49 325 examination of this topic can avoid Walter LippmannÕs seminal as advertising include: A. & J. Trout, Positioning: The Battle For Your The Mirror Makers (1984) and W. Schramm (ed.), (1963). Vance PackardÕs was J.A.C. BrownÕs propaganda and morale. These are H.W. KochÕs illustrated War fare (1987), Sir Michael HowardÕs Michael WaltzerÕs Just and Unjust Wars (1977), Geoffrey BestÕs in Warfare (1980) and John KeeganÕs History of Warfare For the ancient period Arthur FerrillÕs The Origins of War 4/11/03, 10:49 326 For the early modern period, J.R. HaleÕs 4/11/03, 10:49 327 emains as good a starting point as any, especially on war correspondents and censorship, and John MackenzieÕs 4/11/03, 10:49 328 Propaganda Techniques 4/11/03, 10:49 329 330 4/11/03, 10:49 330 ffler, ar and Anti-War: Survival at the Dawn of the 21st Century British Propaganda during the First World War Film and Propaganda in America (5 vols, 1990-3) . But to all authors who have dedicated their time, energy and attention to this area, living and deceased, my thanks. 4/11/03, 10:49 331 332 Aboukir Bay, battle of, 156 Academy Awards Afghanistan war, 251, 259, 275, 281, 282, agitpunky, Al Jazeera TV, 317 Al-Khafji, battle for, 291 Alexander Nevsky, Algerian war, 255 AmericaÕs Answer American Civil War, 166-9 ÕAmerique en Guerre, Andropov, Yuri, 281 Anglo, Sidney, 103 4/11/03, 10:50 332 Balfour, A.J., 181, 182 Bates, Rev. Henry, 141 4/11/03, 10:50 333 Canterbury Tale, A, Carter, President Jimmy, 275, 276 Casement, Sir Roger, 179 Cateau-Cambresis, Treaty of, 109 Cavour, Count Camillo, 170 Caxton, William, 102 Celler, Emanuel, 261 Central Intelligence Agency, Charles IV, 82 Charles V, 93, 95, 99, 103 Chateaubriand, Viscompte, 155 Chicago Times, China Sky, Chomsky, Noam, 299, 322 Christopher, St, 53 Churchill, Winston, 214ff., 223, 224, 232, Cicero, Marcus Tullius, 29, 36, 42, 46 4/11/03, 10:50 334 Cromwell, Oliver, 119-20, 121, 129 Cronkite, Walter, 270 Crosby, Bing, 262 dÕEpinay, Madame, 146 Daily Mirror, The, Daily Universal Register, Daily Worker, The, Day, Robin, 274, 279 Days of Glory, Deerhunter, The, Moscow, Defence of Tsaritsin, Delmer, Sefton, 225-6 Deni, V., 200 Desert Victory, Destination Tokyo, Deutsche Welle, 262 Diary for Timothy, A, 4/11/03, 10:50 335 336 197 4/11/03, 10:50 336 Gulf War, 4/11/03, 10:50 337 J.F.K., Johnson, President Lyndon B., 269-70, 272 Joyce, William, Haw-Haw, Lord JUSPAO, 269-70 Justinian, Emperor, 57 Kaiser, Beast of Berlin, Kamen, Professor Henry, 113, 117 Kelley, Hugh, 141 Kennedy, John Fitzgerald, 267-8, 269, 300 Keppler, Johann, 111 Khrushchev, Nikita, 259, 262, 263 Kissinger, Henry, 279 Kitchener, Lord, 193 Knightley, Philip, 163 Korda, Alexander, 217 Korean War, 251, 256-7 Kubrik, Stanley, 261 4/11/03, 10:50 338 Macauley, Lord, 132 Mackay, Charles, 169 Major, John, 301 Manvell, Roger, 244 March of Time Marvel, Andrew, 120 Mayakovsky, 199 McCarthy, Joseph, 258-9, 265 4/11/03, 10:50 339 340 4/11/03, 10:50 340 Pressburger, Emeric, 215, 219, 223 Priestley, J.B., 223 Priestley, Joseph, 141 prisoners of war, 192 4/11/03, 10:50 341 Scotland Yard, 212, 214 4/11/03, 10:50 342 rcy, Colbert de, 124-6 rafalgar, battle of, 156 rajan, Emperor, 46 riumph of the Will otsky, Leon, 199, 201, 204 ue Glory, The, uman, President Harry S., 252, 257, 258 yndale, William, 104 unconditional surrender, 221-2, 226 United Nations Charter, 250 United States Information Agency, Universal Peace, Treaty of, 103 Uphold Democracy, Operation, 296 Urgent Fury, Operation, 280 USS Vincennes, Utrecht, Treaty of, 130 almy, battle of, 139, 150, 151 4/11/03, 10:50 343 alta conference, 250 our Job in Germany, 4/11/03, 10:50 344