John Paul Lederach-The Moral Imagination_ The Art and Soul of Building Peace (2005)


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The Art and Soul of
Building Peace
TheMoralImagination
TheMoral
TheArtandSoulofBuildingPeace
johnpaullederach
OxfordNewYork
AucklandBangkokBuenosAiresCapeTownChennai
DaresSalaamDelhiHongKongIstanbulKarachiKolkata
KualaLumpurMadridMelbourneMexicoCityMumbai
NairobiSa
oPaoloShanghaiTaipeiTokyoToronto
2005byOxfordUniversityPress,Inc.
PublishedbyOxfordUniversityPress,Inc.
198MadisonAvenue,NewYork,NewYork10016
OxfordisaregisteredtrademarkofOxfordUniversityPress
Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,
ThisbookisdedicatedtoRoseBarmasai
Sowerise
DustDancers
Sandalstotheground
ThoughtsforaPreface
ForalongtimeIdebatedwithmyselfaratherdisconcertingques-
tion:ForwhomwasIwritingthisbook?Ihavealwaysoperatedwith
theideathatanauthorshouldpickanaudience,infactasingleper-
sonexemplaryofthataudienceandwritetothatperson.ButI
wantedtowriteabookthatcouldbeofwideinterest,onethatwould
cutacrossmultipledisciplinesandappealtopolicymakersandprac-
titioners,topeopleintownhallsandthosekneelingforFriday
thoughtsforapreface
quelinnature.Thereaderwillnddescribedtheevolutionandchangesofmy
ideas,approaches,andrevisionsandspecicreferencestohowthesedeveloped
sincethewritingof
BuildingPeace
.But
TheMoralImagination
isnotanad-
thoughtsforapreface
thisregard,asearlyreadersofthismanuscriptnoted,thisisabookthattakes
adecidedlypersonaltack,withallofthestrengthsandweaknessesthataccom-
panysuchanendeavor.AsIwrote,Idiscoveredthatthewritingwasspeaking
tothingsofwhichIhadbeenawarebuthadnotfullyaddressed,muchless
embraced.Onthefrontandbacksidesofpeaceengineering,Idiscoveredthat
TheMoralImagination
wasndingitswaytotheartandsoulofwhatIdo.
thoughtsforapreface
thisbookdoesnotseektoprovideatechniciansmanual.Infactitproposes
tobreakbeyondsuchaview.Iinvitethepractitionertosuspendtheneedfor
thoughtsforapreface
attachtoitaqualityofdenitiveness.Ishouldliketosuggesttheopposite.I
wanttosharethoughtsinaprocessmoreinlinewithaconversation,hopefully
Thisbookowesmuchofitsevolutiontoconversationswithstudents
andcolleaguesovermorethanadecade.Ihaveshareddraftsof
chaptersandthefulltextwithmygraduatestudentsattheJoanB.
KrocInstituteforInternationalPeaceStudies,UniversityofNotre
Dame,andwithparticipantsofseveralsummerpeacebuilding
coursesatEasternMennoniteUniversity.Theimprovementofthis
textfromthefeedbackreceivedfrommystudentsandcolleaguesis
substantial.Ishouldliketothankespeciallytomycolleagueswho
haverespondedtospecicchaptersandideas.TheseincludeEm-
manuelBombande,Aku
mLongchari,JaremSawatsky,DekhaIbra-
him,JaniceJenner,HaroldMiller,HermWeaver,andWendellJones.
Forwonderfulsupportandsuggestionsontheoveralltext,Iam
deeplyindebtedtoBernardMayer,ChrisHoneyman,BillHawk,
HeidiBurgess,andBillUry.Averyspecialthanksisduetomycol-
leaguesattheKrocInstitutefortheirfeedbackasImademyway
throughthemainideasandtext.InparticularIamgratefulforthe
commentsandinsightsemergingfromtheResearchInitiativeon
andtheresburningwhileIwrestledwithputtingideastopaper.Finally,no
writingprojectofminereachesfruitionwithoutthepatienceandsupportof
myfamilyWendy,AngieandJoshtowhomIamindebtedandfromwhom
Ireceiveenergyandsustenance.Thankyou.
1.OnStatingtheProblemandThesis,3
2.OnTouchingtheMoralImagination:FourStories,7
3.OnThisMoment:TurningPoints,21
4.OnSimplicityandComplexity:FindingtheEssenceof
Peacebuilding,31
5.OnPeaceAccords:ImageofaLineinTime,41
6.OntheGiftofPessimism:InsightsfromtheGeographiesof
Violence,51
Epilogue:AConversation,179
Glossary,181
Notes,185
Bibliography,187
Index,193
TheMoralImagination
OnStatingtheProblem
andThesis
AkmalMizshakarolpaintedtheimagefoundonthecoverofthis
bookfollowingthetragiceventsunleashedinNewYorkandWash-
ingtonD.C.,onSeptember11,2001.Itstitleisthatdate.Tajikby
themoralimagination
AkmalwastrainedattheSurikovMoscowArtInstitute,oneofthebest
Russianartacademies.Neartheendofhisstudieshewanderedfromthe
normsofhisRussianmentors,exploringrootsinhimselfandinhisnative
Tajikistan.Speakingofhisnowgrowinginternationallyrecognizedstyle,he
oncecommented,Ittooksometime,butIfoundmyvoice.Atsomepoint,
eventhoughitistotallyuncertain,youhavetotaketheriskoffollowingyour
ownintuition,yourownvoice.Alldirectquotationsfrommyfriendsand
colleagueshavebeenreconstructedtothebestofmyabilityfrommynotes,
journals,andrecollections.
Wetalkedaboutthepaintinghetitled
September11
.Fromrstsight,Iwas
mesmerizedbythecombinationofthepaintingitself,thecontextinwhichit
wasmade,thecolorchoices,thefaces,andtheimplicationsofsuchaneffort.
ATajikMuslimpaintersittingjustnorthofAfghanistanhadreectedthrough
onstatingtheproblemandthesis
Theacademiccommunity,unliketheartisticcommunity,oftenbeginsits
interactionwithandjourneyintotheworldbystatingaproblemthatdenes
boththejourneyandtheinteraction.Theartisticcommunity,itseemstome,
startswithexperienceintheworldandthencreatesajourneytowardexpress-
OnTouchingtheMoral
FourStories
AStoryfromGhana:ICallYouFatherBecauseIDo
NotWishtoDisrespectYou
Duringthe1990s,northernGhanafacedtherisingescalationof
themoralimagination
TheKonkombas,ontheotherhand,weremoredispersed.Principallyag-
riculturalists,yamgrowers,astheyattimesweredenigratedandstereotyped
theKonkombasdidnotorganizearoundthesamesocialandroyalfeatures.
Theywereanonchieytribe,notnecessarilybytheirchoice.Highchieftaincy
inthispartoftheworldbroughtbenetsandacomparativesenseofimpor-
tancethattranslatedintosuperiority.Forexample,thechieygroupsgained
advantagefromcollaborationwiththeslavetrade;thenonchieywerefatedto
livethegreattravestyofdehumanizationandexploitationincarnatedinthis
trafckingofmen,women,andchildren.Followingtheperiodoftheslave
trade,thechieygroupsagainbenetedduringtheperiodofcolonization.
Theyreceivedrecognitionandtheirtraditionalpowerandsenseofsuperiority
werefurtheringrained.Theseedsofdivisionsownduringtheperiodofslavery
ourishedintheperiodofcolonialrule.
Insubsequentcenturiestheirconictswereplayedoutovercontrolofland
andresources.Thearrivalofreligiouslybasedmissionarymovementsadded
morelayersofdivisiontotheirrelationships.Whilesomegroupsremained
animists,theKonkombasfollowedChristianity,andmostDagombas,includ-
ingthepowerfulroyalhousesandparamountchieftancy,becameMuslim.One
unexpectedresultwasthattheChristianmissions,withtheiremphasison
education,providedschoolsthatgaveaccessandentrytorisingsocialstatus
fortheKonkombas.Thiswouldeventuallyhaveanimpactonthecommunities
andpolitics.
AsGhanagainedindependence,thecountrymovedtowarddemocracy
basedonelections.Politicianswithaspirationsforvotesunderstoodtheexist-
ontouchingthemoralimagination
recurrenceofcrisesthatinthepasthadtranslatedintodeadlyghting.Butit
wasnotasmoothroad.
Inoneoftheirearlyencountersthoseinvolvedinthemediationobserved
astorythatcreatedatransformationintheprocessandintherelationship
themoralimagination
withoutresponse.Whennallyhespoke,hedidsowithachangedvoice,
addressinghimselfdirectlytotheyoungmanratherthantothemediators:
Ihadcometoputyourpeopleinyourplace.ButnowIfeelonly
shame.ThoughIinsultedyourpeople,youstillcalledmeFather.It
isyouwhospeakswithwisdom,andmewhohasnotseenthetruth.
Whatyouhavesaidistrue.Wewhoarechieyhavealwayslooked
downonyoubecauseyouhavenochief,butwehavenotunder-
stoodthedenigrationyousuffered.Ibegyou,myson,toforgive
AtthispointtheyoungerKonkombamanstood,walkedtothechief,then
kneltandgrippedhislowerleg,asignofdeeprespect.Hevocalizedasingle
andaudibleNa-a,awordofafrmationandacceptance.
Thoseattendingthesessionreportedthattheroomwaselectried,charged
withhighfeelingandemotion.Itwasbynomeanstheendoftheproblems
ontouchingthemoralimagination
themoralimagination
ontouchingthemoralimagination
quickactionandstopthepotentialmomentsofescalationbydirectlyengaging
thepeopleinvolved.Formerghtersnowdisarmedand,backinthecommu-
nity,becamealliesofthemovement.Theyhelpedtoconstructivelyengage
otherghtinggroups,increasingtheprocessofdisarmament.Whencrimes
werecommitted,theirowngroupbroughtthoseresponsibleforward,andres-
titutionwassoughtratherthanblindprotectionandcyclesofrevenge.
Tenyearslater,Wajirdistrictstillfacesseriousproblems,andtheWajir
PeaceandDevelopmentCommitteestillactivelyworksforpeaceandhascon-
tinuedtoexpand.Newprogramsincludepolicetrainingandworkinlocal
schools.MorethantwentyschoolsareparticipatingandhaveformedthePeace
themoralimagination
munity.Sodoestheriverofdrugtrafckers.And,ofcourse,asisthecasein
manyruralpartsofColombia,theriverofarmedgroupsandgunsowstoo.
Bythelate1960stheleftist-orientedguerrillamovementFARC(Armed
RevolutionaryFrontofColombia)enteredtheterritoriesofCarare.Military
responsefromthenationalgovernmentfollowedandescalated.Unabletoaf-
fectoreliminatetheinuenceoftheguerrillamovementsintheregion,land-
ontouchingthemoralimagination
thereinColombia?ByroughcalculationIwouldsayatleast
100,000,plusthepolice,plus20,000guerrillas,nottomentionthe
Paras,thedruglordsandprivatearmies.Andwhathasallthis
served?Whathasitxed?Nothing.InfactColombiaisintheworst
violenceever.Wehavearrivedattheconclusionthatweaponshave
notsolvedathingandthatthereisnotonereasontoarmourselves.
Weneedfarmcredits,tools,tractors,truckstomakethislittleagri-
themoralimagination
Andthesewerenotjustideas.The
createdalivinglaboratory
ofimmediateimpactandgreatrisk.Theysolidiedtheirgroupbyndinga
coretheycalledthekeyfolks,whowereuniquelyplacedasindividualsto
linkthemwithdifferentgeographicpartsofLaIndiaandwiththevarious
groups.Withinweeksafterconsultationwithlocalvillagestheypostedhand-
madesignswiththetitleWhatthePeoplefromHereSay,whichincludeda
declarationthatnoweaponswouldbeallowedintheirvillages.Theysponta-
neouslydeclaredtheirlandstobeaterritoryofpeace.
ontouchingthemoralimagination
WeareseatedinaseminarroominDushanbewithtwenty-fourprofessors
fromsevenuniversitiesacrossTajikistan.Twosmallelectricheaters,theircoils
burningbrightred,keepthelateFebruarycoldatbayinsidetheRepublican
HealthyLifestyleCentre.Wehavetheappointedcreamofthecrop.Oneortwo
aredeansandafewothersareheadsoftheirrespectivedisciplinarydepart-
ments.Fromtheperspectiveoftheorganizerswecountourselvesluckytohave
vewomenandastrongshowingofyoungerscholars,thoughseatedeachday
inthecorner,occasionallydriftinginandoutoflateafternoonnaps,isthe
kindandalwaysenthusiasticseventy-year-oldheadoftheDepartmentofSci-
enticCommunism,nowre-titledPoliticalScience.
TheIntertajikWarliesnearlysixyearsintheirpast.Ourseminaroncon-
ictresolutionandpeacebuildingprobesintothechallengesanddifculties
ofrespondingtoviolenceandbuildinganationinthisnewlyindependent
CentralAsiancountry.FollowingtheeventsofSeptember11,2001,thesched-
themoralimagination
whilewarragedandhowtheybroughttheIslamicmovementsintonegotiation
ratherthanisolatingortryingtodefeatthem.Hedrawsmetoacornerwitha
translatortotellmethestory.
Iwastaskedbythegovernmenttoapproachandconvinceoneof[the]
warlords,akeyMullah-Commanderlocatedinthemountains,toenternego-
tiations,ProfessorAbdulbegins.Thiswasdifcultifnotimpossible,because
thiscommanderwasconsideredanotoriouscriminalandhehadkilledoneof
myclosefriends.Hestopswhilethetranslationconveysthepersonalsideof
thischallenge.
WhenIrstgottotheencampment,thecommandersaidIhad
ontouchingthemoralimagination
governmentcommissionhetoldthem,Ihavenotcomebecauseofyourgov-
ernment.Ihavecomeforhonorandrespectofthisprofessor.
Theprofessorstopped.Yousee,myyoungAmericanfriend,hetapped
myarmlightly,thisisTajikmediation.
Wenishedourchaiandmovedbacktotheclassroomdiscussionsonthe
theoryofconictandpeacebuilding.
Yearshavepassedsincetheendofthewar.Theweaponshavebeenlaid
down.ThingsarenoteasyinTajikistan,butfromallaccounts,theprofessor-
mediatorandtherenegadewarlordarealiveandwell,andoccasionallythey
OnThisMoment
TurningPoints
Donotremembertheformerthings,
Orconsiderthethingsofold.
Iamabouttodoanewthing;
Nowitspringsforth,doyounotperceiveit?
Isaiah43:1819
Intherstdecadeofthenewcenturyandmillennium,wefacea
turningpoint,auniquemomentwiththepotentialtoaffectandre-
denethewaysweorganizeandshapeourglobalfamily.Theturn
ofcenturiesand,muchmore,theturnofmillenniaprovide
uniquetimestoreectaboutthegrandjourneyofhumanity.We
havetraversedacenturylledwithextraordinarychanges,onethat
hasleftusevengreaterchallenges.Throughnumerousdecades,ex-
pectationswereraised,thendashed,thatwewerendingourway
towardaworlddenedlessbyourdivisionsthanbyourcoopera-
themoralimagination
Thisisnotjustachallengeposedgenerally,orreservedforpoliticalleaders
orpolicymakers.ThisisachallengeIwishtoplacebeforetheburgeoning
eldsofconicttransformationandpeacebuildingbroadlydenedwithallof
theirprofessionalapplications.Icountmyselfapractitionerwithinthesedis-
ciplinesandIbelieveweneedadoseofrealism.Oursareprofessionsaficted
arisefromdifferentsources,particularlyfrom
advocates.Theseques-
onthismoment
ThenewestmembersofmyextendedfamilyareNonaLisa,ElizaJane,Gracie,
andGarrison,allfouronlyafewmonthsoryearsintotheadventure.Ifthey
enjoyafulllife,Iwillhaveheldthehandsofpeoplewhoinoldagewillperhaps
livetoseethecelebrationsof2100.Bouldingsuggestswecalculatethepres-
entbysubtractingthedateofbirthoftheoldestpersonwehaveknownin
ourlivesfromtheprojectedpassing-ondateoftheyoungestpersoninour
themoralimagination
agethatavoidscriticalassessmentofthesocialworld.Theantidote,hepenned
insightsandformulationoftheproblem.Myinterestisnottofurtherdevelop
hiscritiqueofthestateofaffairswithinthescienticcommunity.NoramI
orientedtowardanexplorationintowhatbecameofthissociologicalimagi-
nation,thoughanyonereadinghisbookftyyearssinceitswritingcannothelp
butbestruckbyitsextraordinaryrelevancetocontemporaryacademicand
scienticdebatesandquandaries.Myinterestemergesinitiallyfrommyown
senseofvocationandtheneedtoreectmoreintentionallyontheexperiences
Ihavebeenaffordedinthepasttwenty-veyearsofinternationalpeacebuild-
ing.Obviously,onescircleofexperienceinuenceswhatoneobservesand
writes.Myvocationandmycircleofexperiencehavetakenmeintoandaround
thegeographyofviolenthumanconict.InthosecontextsIhavebeenwitness
tothebestandworstsidesofhumanity.
Inotherwritings,Ihaveintentionallyreferredseveraltimesto
Thoughconictresolutionandpeacebuildinghavecomeintotheirownrights
asprofessionsandthoughIconsidermyselfaprofessionalworkinginthese
elds,Ihavealwaysunderstoodmyentryandsustainedworkatthelevelofa
vocation.Beyondprofession,myconcernhasbeentondandfollowacalling,
adeepervoice.Inthetruestsenseoftheword,
isthatwhichstirs
inside,callingouttobeheard,callingouttobefollowed.Vocationisnotwhat
Ido.ItndsitsrootsinwhoIamandasenseofpurposeIhaveonearth.
Tofollowthevoiceanddevelopworkascraftsmanshipinthesocial
scienticsphere,arguedMills(1959),requiresasociologicalimagination.For
thoseofusinthejustice,peace,andconictprofessions,vocationcallsusback
totheroadthatwindsbeyondthereststopsoftechniquesandday-to-dayprac-
tice.Itbeckonsustosearchforourdeeperpurposeandpossibility,foundmore
whoweare
thanin
whatwedo
.Forourhumancommunitytondthisdeeper
senseofwhoweare,wherewearesituated,andwherewearegoingrequires
thatwelocateourbearings,ourcompass.Acompassneedlefunctionsbynd-
ingitsnorth.Thenorthofpeacebuildingisbestarticulatedasndingourway
towardbecomingandbeinglocalandglobalhumancommunitiescharacter-
izedbyrespect,dignity,fairness,cooperation,andthenonviolentresolutionof
conict.Tounderstandthisnorth,toreadsuchacompass,requiresthatwe
recognizeanddevelopourmoralimaginationfarmoreintentionally.
ThiskindofimaginationhasaparallelwithOldTestamenttheologian
WalterBrueggemannsproposals,whicharecapturedinthetitleofhisbook
onthismoment
Ifound
itafascinatingjourneytoreadthroughtherangeofdisciplinesandperspec-
themoralimagination
tives.AlthoughIhavesleuthedandevenreadachapteronSherlockHolmes
asanagentofmoralimagination(Clausen,1986),Ihavenotbeenableto
discoverwhomayhaverstusedthisphraseorinwhatcontext.Mybestguess
isEdmundBurkesessayontheFrenchRevolutioninwhichhelamentsthe
onthismoment
eye.PerhapsbestcapturedinGuroiansterm,
,theauthorsspokeof
attentivenesstomorethanisimmediatelyvisible.InherdiscussionofGeorge
ThePrincessandtheGoblin
,Guroiandescribedthisqualityof
imaginationasapowerofperception,alightthatilluminatesthemysterythat
ishiddenbeneathavisiblereality:Itisthepowertoseeintotheverynature
ofthings(1998:141).
Second,nomattertheparticulardisciplinaryeld,theauthorslandedon
theterm
inordertoemphasizethenecessityofthecreativeact.
ThesubtitleofBrownsbook,
TheGenesisofMoralImaginationintheBible
(1999),suggeststhatthiskindofimaginationhasitsessenceintheveryact
oforiginalcreation.Morefrequenthoweverweretheauthorswhoexploredthe
artsnotasthedomainofprofessionalartists,butratherasaframeofref-
erenceforunderstandingadeningcharacteristicofthemoralimagination:
themoralimagination
thingsthatareimmediatelyapparentandvisible.ThequalityofthisphraseI
mostwishtoembracereverberatesinthispotentialtondawaytotranscend,
tomovebeyondwhatexistswhilestilllivinginit.
However,thetermclearlymeritsadiscussiononwhatIdonotwishto
conveywiththeword
.Wetypicallyconnectmoralwithmoralityandthen
relegatemoralitytothesphereofreligion.ThoughIcomefromareligious
community,themoralimaginationisnotthecommodityorexclusiverealmof
aparticularreligiousbelief,muchlessreligiousestablishmentsorsystems.
Moreover,thosereligiouscommunities,fromonepersuasiontoanother,who
wishtocorralandpenupmoralitybyprovidingrigidboundariesthatcanand
cannotbecrossedoftencreatetheantithesisofthemoralimagination:dogmas.
onthismoment
dentofus,foreigntous,anddistantfromus.Aninquirythatseekstounder-
standhowcyclesofviolencecanbebrokenandtranscendedispreciselyone
thatmustinfusepolitics,politicaldiscourse,andgoverningstructureswitha
capacityforresponsivenesstoourhumancommunity.
Inthisbook,Isuggestandwillexplorethemoralimaginationastheca-
OnSimplicityandComplexity
FindingtheEssenceofPeacebuilding
Iwouldnotgiveagforthesimplicitythissideofcomplexity,
ButIwouldgivemylifeforthesimplicityontheothersideof
complexity.
OliverWendellHolmes
Manisanover-complicatedorganism.Ifheisdoomedtoextinction
hewilldieforwantofsimplicity.
EzraPound
Peacebuildingisacomplextask.Itis,beyondashadowofadoubt,
themoralimagination
Theideawastomatchanexperiencedmediatorwithamentorwhowasdoing
relatedworkthatthesemediatorswouldhaveinterestinexploring.Thementor
onsimplicityandcomplexity
motiontheresultingvisualbeauty.Whattheycreated,startingbackinthelate
1980s,weregenericsimulatedockingcreaturesemergingfromthezerosand
onesofnumericcomputerlanguageinaprogramtheycalledBOIDS.The
programwasbasedondiscoveringafewsimplerulesthatcouldbewritten
intoacomputerprogramtoguidecomplexgroupbehavior.Forexample,in
nontechnicalvernacular,theycreatedruleslikethese:Steertoavoidcrowding.
Steertowardtheaverageheadingoflocalockmates.
Whentheseruleswereputintonumericcommandsadynamicrendition
ofockingwasemulatedonthecomputerscreen.Fromsimplicitycamethe
complexityofbeauty.Nopatternwaspredictable,butpatternsemerged.You
canneverpredictexactlywhataockofbirdswilldowhenatelephonepole
appearsintheirway:Willtheysplit,rise,goleft,goright?Thebeautylayin
thecreativeact,theunpredictable,unexpectedresponsecreatedanewduring
eachightandmoment.Permanentlydynamic,permanentlyadaptive,they
owasaockinresponsetothestimulithatemerge.Allthiscomplexityof
movementandartfulpatternboileddowntoafewbasic,simplerules.Atthe
baseofcomplexitywassimplicity.
Iremembercomingdownthatmountaintraillisteningtothisstoryand
atonepointIcommentedtoWendell:YouknowwhatIhavenotdone.Ihave
neverasked:Whatarethethreetofourmostbasicelementsthatcomprise
peacebuilding?IwonderwhattheBOIDSofpeacebuildingwouldbe?
WhatIhadclearwasthis.Peacebuildingisanenormouslycomplexen-
deavorinunbelievablycomplex,dynamic,andmoreoftenthannotdestructive
themoralimagination
ThethoughtprovidedareorientationasIwaswritingthisbook.Iposed
formyselfaslightlydifferentquestionthantheoneposedbythetechnical
approachofBOIDSonthecomputer.Ratherthanseektherulesofsimplicity,
Ibecamecuriousaboutwhatconstitutesthecoreessencesofpeacebuilding.
onsimplicityandcomplexity
orconstructiveactions.Facedwiththeexperienceofviolence,thechoiceof
responsethatgivesrisetothemoralimaginationrequirestheacknowledgment
themoralimagination
violenceinwhichtheylivealsoriseabovedualisticpolarities.Thatis,themoral
imaginationisbuiltonaqualityofinteractionwithrealitythatrespectscom-
plexityandrefusestofallintoforcedcontainersofdualismandeither-orcat-
egories.Assuch,thiskindofimaginationisinfusedwithaparadoxicalcuri-
osity.
isawordthathaslongbeenappropriatedinphilosophy,theology,
andthesocialsciences.WithitsoriginsinGreek(
),paradoxcom-
binesthewords
andisgenerallytakentomeancontraryto
onsimplicityandcomplexity
sidesofsufferinghumanity.Paradoxicalcuriositystartswithacommitmentto
acceptpeopleatfacevalue.
Heartvalue
goesbeyondthepresentationofap-
themoralimagination
ProvideSpacefortheCreativeAct
Themoralimaginationtakesformandexpressionthroughanact.Whilewe
mightinitiallythinkofthespacewhere
theplacewherethe
onsimplicityandcomplexity
theworldsofsocialtechniqueandmanagementexpertise,thoughourtaskis
nottopittheseworldsagainsteachother.WhatIwishtoexplorehereisnot
themoralimagination
horizoninordertoredeneboththemomentandtherelationship.Timeand
againtheprocesswasdenedbythecapacityoftheactorstoimaginethem-
selvesinrelationship,awillingnesstoembracecomplexityandnotframetheir
challengeasadualisticpolarity,actsofenormouscreativity,andawillingness
torisk.Theresultswerecomplexinitiativesofbuildingpeacedenedbymo-
mentsthatcreatedandthensustainedconstructivechange.
Weturnourattentionnexttothecontextinwhichthisjourneymustbe
OnPeaceAccords
ImageofaLineinTime
thetrickofndingwhatyoudidntlose
(existingstricky:buttolivesagift)
theteachableimpostureofalways
arrivingattheplaceyouneverleft
e.e.cummings
Since1990,thedatethatmarkedtheopeningofthegloballyrede-
themoralimagination
andschools.Tofullyunderstandandreweavethesocialfabricofrelationships
tornapartbydecadesandgenerationsofhatredremainsignicantchallenges.
Thesechallengeshaverootsinaquestionthatis,touseaPaulineimage,seen
asiflookingthroughathickglassdarkly.Thequestiongoestotheheartofthe
moralimagination:Howexactlydowetranscendcyclesofviolence?Howdo
wecreategenuineconstructivechangeinandwiththehumancommunity?
Oneplacetolookforinsightsandlessonsaboutthesequestionsispre-
ciselywheremanyofusareleastlikelytolook:intheroughterrainsand
geographiesofviolent,protractedconict.Mysurprisehasbeenthis:People
whofacetheworstsituationsofhumandegradation,violence,andabuseoften
seethechallengeofgenuineconstructivechangewithpiercingvision.Maybe
itisbecauseforthesepeoplesurvivaltoalargedegreedependsongutintuition,
asenseofwhatthingsmeanandwhopeoplereallyarebeyondtheirwords.
Maybeitisduetotheirhard-earnedcallusesofcautionandpreventionlayered
afterdecadesofpain,injustice,andviolence.
Beforeexploringthisfurtheritisusefultoaskwhatexactlyismeantby
thephrase
constructivesocialchange
.Iwouldproposeasimpledenitionthat
onpeaceaccords
thatwhichdestroystowardthatwhichbuilds.Icallthis
constructivesocial
However,ifpatternsofdestructionarerepeatedoverandoveragainacross
generations,whichisthenatureofwhatwecalldeep-rootedorprotracted
conict,howdoweknowthatachangeprocessisgenuine?Thisisthedoubt
themoralimagination
andVerwoerd,2000;Hayner,2003).Therearealsoarisingnumberofbooks
themoralimagination
contendinggroups,themedia,andtheprofessionalstalkaboutit:Wemust
ndawaytosustaintheagreementsreached.
Oncloserconsiderationagreementsthatendaconictarehardtond.
Mostpeaceaccordsarenotsolutionsincontentbutproposednegotiatedpro-
cesses,whichiffollowed,willchangetheexpressionoftheconictandprovide
avenuesforredeningrelationships.Mayer(2000)hasevenarguedthatthe
resolutionofconicthasmanyexpressionsanddepths,fromcognitivetoemo-
tionaltobehavioral,andthatanygivensolutionmayonlyattendtopartofthe
deeper-rootedneeds.However,whenpeaceaccordsarebroachedinprotracted
conictsnobodywantstobequitesobluntastosay,Theagreementrepresents
processesforcontinuingtheconictundernewdenitions.Theprevailing
imagecreatesasignicantmeaningstructurethatsuggeststhattheconictis
over,andtheimageofagreementlendsitselftothatdesire.
onpeaceaccords
themoralimagination
singleprocessofchangeproposedandcontrolledbythosefewpeoplewho
negotiatemostlymilitaryandpoliticalarrangementsandwhoaresignatories
tothepeaceaccord.Constructivesocialchangeandpeacebuildingitselfpro-
moteandmustharnessmultipleprocessesofchange,whichcutacrossthe
levelsandpopulationsaffectedbytheconict(Lederach,1997).Thebroader
onpeaceaccords
OntheGiftofPessimism
InsightsfromtheGeographiesofViolence
Areyourwondersknownindarkness,
themoralimagination
onthegiftofpessimism
ndsexpressionintheideathatviewedfromthegroundbythepeoplemost
affectedbypeacedecisionsandlogistics,thereexistsaprofoundgapofau-
thenticityinhowpeaceandpost-accordchangeprocessesoperateandshape
requiresustothinkinlinesratherthancircles,incausesandeffectsrather
thaninsystems.
Idonotwanttobelabormyargumentwiththecategoryofpost-agreement
becauseeventhoughIbelieveitobscurescertainrealities,Ialsobelieveit
themoralimagination
OvertheyearsIhavepickedupthesecautionsfrompeoplelivinginviolence.
onthegiftofpessimism
themoralimagination
tonurturebirthandgrowththroughthickandthin.Forourinquiryintothe
moralimaginationthismeansthattranscendenceisnotavoidanceoright
fromwhatis,butratheritisadeeprootednessintherealityofwhathasexisted
whileseekingnewwaystomovebeyondthegripsofthosepatterns.Transcen-
denceandimaginationrespondtohistoricalpatternsbutarenotboundby
Asecondgiftofpessimismrecognizesthattheauthenticityofchangeis
notorganicallylocatedincampaigns,images,andwordsusedpubliclybyna-
tionalleaders.Thoughtheseaffectandcancatalyze,forgoodorbad,theydo
notconstitutewhatpeopleunderstandastheintegrityofchange.Authenticity
isseededinthesoilsofsharedperceptionaboutthequalityandnatureofthe
publicsphere.Inotherwords,authenticityofsocialchangeisultimatelytested
inreal-liferelationshipsatthelevelwherepeoplehavethegreatestaccessand
wheretheyperceivetheyaremostdirectlyaffected:intheirrespectivecom-
Todrawonasubeldofanthropology,socialchangeisviewedwithan
inherentsenseofproxemics.Traditionally,
isthestudyoftheactual
onthegiftofpessimism
participationandinterchange.Inconversation,Igainentryintoanothers
themoralimagination
thatareseentoconstitutegenuineconstructivechangearejudgedwithgreat
caution,thosebehaviorsthatreinforcepreexistingperceptionsthatchangeis
notlikelytohappenorlastarejudgedrapidlyandseverely.
Equallyimportantinthisunderstandingisthedirectreintroductionofreal-
lifepeopleintotheequation.Muchofwhatisseenasconstitutinggenuine
onthegiftofpessimism
themoralimagination
onthegiftofpessimism
distrustisneededasarealitychecktoassurethatchangeisnotsupercial,
Pollyanna-ish,ordisguisingotherintentions.Distrustassuresusthatweare
notdippingintoandpromotingacheaphope;itkeepsusauthentic.
Inseekingconstructivechangeourchallengeisrarelyalackofwell-
intended,well-articulatedideas,proposals,designs,andevenagreements.In
factIamalwaysstruckbytheextraordinaryinsights,visions,andeveninspi-
themoralimagination
onthegiftofpessimism
peopleandcommunitiestobeandlivevulnerablyinthefaceoffearandthreat,
andultimatelytondthereinthathumansecurityisnottiedprimarilytothe
quantityorsizeofweapons,theheightorthicknessofthewallthatseparates
them,nortothepowerofimpositionorcontrol.Themysteryofpeaceislocated
inthenatureandqualityofrelationshipsdevelopedwiththosemostfeared.
Toinvokethismysteryandcreativitywemustturnourattentiontore-
sourcesandprocessesinarenasthattodatehavebeenmostlyseenasperiph-
eraltothecoreofprofessionalpeacebuildingandconictresolution.Thejour-
neywilltakeusintothesurprisinglandofthemoralimaginationandwill
requirethatweexplorethingsnottypicallypartofourtechnicalskillmanuals.
Wearerequiredtoexploretheunchartedwatersoftheartandsoulofsocial
themoralimagination
intosomemarginsofnotesandgotscribbledontonapkinsandeventuallyinto
traveljournalsIhadstartedtokeep.Ihaveoftenwonderedwhatitwasabout
themoralimagination
themoralimagination
listeningtoapieceofmusic,orhearingalineofapoemthat,asOsutjiputit,
echoesinyourhead(Yasuda,2000:31).Thesearemomentswhenallinvolved
feelacollectiveah-hah.
Ihaveparticipatedandconductedalotoftrainingprogramsonconict
resolution,particularlyaroundtheprocessandskillsofmediation.Inallof
thematsomepointweteachthenecessityofdevelopinglisteningskills.These
ofteninvolvetheskillofparaphrasing,ofndingawaytofeedbacktothe
speakerwhathasbeensaid.Thereisofcourseatechnicalsidetothisprocess,
butitisnotthetechniquethatcreateslistening.Infacttheinverseistrue.
Manypeopleareputoffbythetechnologyoflistening.Ihaveincreasingly
cometobelievethatlisteningisnotabouttechniqueorparaphrasingbutabout
themoralimagination
themoralimagination
ofuswhowishtosupportsuchmovementtoseeourselvesforwhomweare:
OnSpace
LifeintheWeb
Spidersarenotlittleautomatonsmakingthesamethingoverand
over.Theyreexible.Andtheyrenotstupidlyexible;theyresmart
BillEberhard,quotedinDeadlySilk
InthepoemTheSecondComing,W.B.Yeats(1996)pennedsev-
eralwell-knownlineswhichhavebecomepointsofreferenceand
eventitlestosubsequentbooks.Oftenusedtoreectthedifculty
themoralimagination
onspace
Whatdidtheshiftintitlessuggest?Itwasontheonehandamoveto
captureamorecommonlyunderstoodlanguage.Inotherwords,thetitle
changeliftedtogreaterprominencetheeverydayexpressionsaboutconict
whilethetechnospeakoftheconictelddiminished.Atadeeperlevel,how-
ever,hiddenintheopeningwords,thetitleputwhoatthecenterofthe
how.AsIdescribedinmydoctoraldissertation(Lederach,1988),thiswho
lensgaveenormousinsightintoamuchwiderworldviewofconict.
TheSpanishterm
themoralimagination
ciplinetouse,appropriatelenses,whichbringthingsintofocus.Theartof
know-who,theessenceofthe
approach,liesinwhatwelookforand
whatwebringintofocus.Toseeandlocatechangeinbothaphysicalandsocial
geographyentailscarefulobservationforthatwhichispresentbutnotalways
immediatelyvisible:thewebofrelationships.Thisapproachasksustolookat
relationshipsthroughthelensesofsocialcrossroads,connections,andinter-
onspace
ofquestionsandfeedback,keptraisingissueswiththetermandeventhe
themoralimagination
orlinguistic.
isthespacewhereverticalandhorizontallinkages
onspace
themoralimagination
onspace
movesfromthosepointsbacktothecenter,strengtheningthehubsconnec-
tiontotheoutercirclethroughaseriesof
.Theradiilookverymuchlike
wheelspokesfromhubtoframe.Thecenterexpandedout,theanchoredges
themoralimagination
adjustingonesself(andonesinheritance)tothosecontours.(1996:
Whatistherelevanceofthesespidersandwebmakingtopeacebuilding?
Theanswerliesinunderstandingthatconstructivechange,perhapsmorethan
anythingelse,istheartofstrategicallyandimaginativelyweavingrelational
onspace
similarsocial,political,oreconomicspace.Thisistrueofhigh-leveldiplomats
asmuchaslocalcommunityworkers.Interdependenceis.Period.Constructive
changeandpeacearenotbuiltbyattemptingtowinconvertstoonesideor
another,orbyforcingoneortheothershand.Webmakingsuggeststhatthe
themoralimagination
Ofthemanythingsdiscussedinthischapter,threeideashelptointegratethe
weboflifeforpeacebuilding.
Think,feel,andfollowrelationships.Relationshipsareattheheartofsocial
change.Relationshipsrequirethatweunderstandhowandwherethingscon-
nectandhowthiswebofconnectionsoccupiesthesocialspacewherepro-
cessesofchangearebirthedandhopetolive.Thekeyforpeacebuildingisto
rememberthatchange,ifitistobesparkedandthensustained,mustlinkand
OnMassandMovement
TheTheoryoftheCriticalYeast
Thatwhichcountscanrarelybecounted.
AlbertEinstein
Thelessonsofthespiderteachusaboutstrategicallyapproaching
spaceandaboutthenatureofbuildingwebs.
Whenappliedtoso-
cialprocesses,however,thewebapproachmayyinthefaceofone
commonlyacceptednotionofwhatcreatesshiftsandchangeinsoci-
themoralimagination
protestagainstaparticularissueorproposal.Atapopularlevel,socialchange
advocatesoftenunderstandtheirgoalascreatingthenumbersthatcount,what
ineverydaycoinagehascometobecalledarrivingatthecriticalmass.
Theageofthemassmediahascertainlyaddedtothisphenomenon.In
lessthanasoundbyte,thesuccessofsocialchangeismeasuredinasingle
onmassandmovement
webapproachasksearlyandoften:Whohastondawaytobeconnectedto
themoralimagination
iteration.However,ifroughlytwo-thirdsoftheneutronscausethession,then
subsequentreactionsarecreatedthatreproducethemselves.Itwasinthisidea
ofreproducingthemselvesthattheterm
criticalmass
wasused.Nuclearphys-
icistscallthis
.Thekeyistheideathataself-sustainedprocessis
generated,meaningthatonereactioncanreproduceitselfexponentially,in-
dependentoftheoriginalcause.
Theideaofthecriticalmassoatedoverintothesocialsciencesgivenits
(Gladwell,2002).Infact,inseveralofhisexampleshewatchessocialepidem-
icsrisefromthestandpointofstrategicrelationalconnections.Thisconclusion
paralleledanideathathadpoppedupformeyearsagoinpeacebuilding.
Whilecommoninstrategiesofmanypeacemovementsattemptingto
onmassandmovement
andshort-lived.Insomecasestheywereevencounterproductive,forinthe
aftermath,whenlittleornothingchanged,peoplebelievedevenlessthat
themoralimagination
tialchange.Whatyoulookforisthequalityofwhathappensifcer-
onmassandmovement
relationalspacesevenwhenthosearenotindirectphysicalproximity.
Basedonrelationalspaces,criticalyeastconstantlymovesacrossa
rangeofdifferentprocessesandconnections.
Inthisimagethelargestingredient,our,isananalogyforthecritical
mass.However,thesmallestingredient,yeast,istheonlyonewithacapacity
tohelptheotheringredientsgrow.Ifwefollowtheanalogy,yeastneedsmois-
ture,warmth,andtobemixedinordertomaketheotheringredientsgrow.
themoralimagination
again,isinthelittlethings,notinlargenumbers.Thekeyisthecapacityto
onmassandmovement
dozensofinitiatives,Ihaveonlyservedasamediatorinseveralspecicinter-
nationalconictsatthehighestlevelofthepoliticalprocess,andeveninthose
themoralimagination
cessesandsolutionsaroundconicts.Commontothiskindofinteractionis
acapacitytobuildrelationshipsandtoaddressspecicissues.InNorthern
Irelandmediativeattitudesandbehaviorwereaimednotatintroducingame-
diator,butratheratndingspacesofnaturalandnecessarycross-community
interaction,forexample,inpublichousingorhealth,thatcouldincreasea
constructivecapacityininterpersonalandsocialskills.
isunderstanding,ability,anddiscipline.Itsuggestsskillandwill,
andinvolvesbothpracticeandattitude.Forourpurposeshere,
isem-
powermentatitsmostprimordialessence:Iamableandcommitted.
Socialspaces
onmassandmovement
leaderswhositatthehighestlevelofvisibilityandpoliticalormilitaryrespon-
sibility.Iamnotsuggestingthatpoliticalnegotiationisnotnecessary.Aweb
approach,however,doesarguethatpoliticalnegotiationisnottheprimarynor
themoralimagination
tum.Formerghtersengagedelderstostoppromotingclanghting.Smaller
claneldersappealedtothemoralimperativeofchangeindiscussionswith
onmassandmovement
ing.TheconciliationworkinNicaraguathathelpedshapetheendofthewar
themoralimagination
driventoinformalmechanisms,andbydefaultintothehandsof
OnWebWatching
FindingtheSoulofPlace
themoralimagination
onwebwatching
themoralimagination
Herein,bymyexperience,isoneofthehardestlessonstolearnforthose
impelledbysocialactivismandadesiretounderstandhowchangecanbe
sustained:Stillnessistheprerequisitetoobservationandthedevelopmentof
acapacitytoseewhatexists.Seeingwhatexistsistheprerequisiteoftranscen-
dentimagination.
Thefundamentalnatureofstillnessiesinthefaceofcommonnotions
onwebwatching
bear,thedeerallspeaktothem.IrememberwhenCheyennepeacechief
LawrenceHartarrivedataconferenceheldinHarrisonburg,Virginia.Hehad
justdrivenfromWashington,D.C.,acrossthemountainsandthendownthe
ShenandoahValley.Iwasgladtosee,helaughedwhenhemadehisearly
introductiontothegroup,thatthepeopleoftheValleyhavearrivedatour
conclusion.Ipassedjustafewmilesbackalargesignontheroadthatsaid,
VisitLurayCaverns:HeartheRocksSing.Themarvelforindigenouspeople
themoralimagination
couldhavepotentialorisalreadybuildingthewebinfrastructureofconstruc-
tivechange;and(2)steppingquicklytowardactiontoprovideshort-terman-
onwebwatching
songsoftheaboriginalsinAustralia,orJacob,whowrestledallnightwithan
unknownbeingandthenmarkedtheplacewherehesurvived.Thisisthe
deepersearchformeaninginidentity,relationship,andgeography.Itisthe
birthplaceofhumility.Forhereistheplaceofencounter,wherewecometo
recognizeoursenseofselfandoursenseoflivinginamuchgreaterweb.
Theabovediscussionsuggeststwoessencesofhumility.Therstisac-
themoralimagination
ThosewhohavestruggledandcontinuetowrestlewithWhoamI?and
WhereamI?nurtureasenseofaweandconnection.Theybuildthesoulof
onwebwatching
day.Wearespellboundbywords.However,ifwearetoawakenandengage
themoralimagination,wenecessarilymustengagethefullerrangeofsenses,
whichincludesbutgoesbeyondtheworldofwords.
Webwatcherscaptivatedmeinthisregard.Witheverysteptheyfeltthe
grounduponwhichtheywerewalkingasifthegroundspoketothem.Their
eyesightwasxedandsharp,attunedtothatwhichwasvisibleandnotso
visible,lookingforsignsofwhatmightbetherebutwasnotreadilyseen.Their
skinseemedhypersensitive.Attheslightestfeelofastrand,allmovements
werestoppedandmultipleperceptionsbroughttobearinordertofollowthe
strandtothewebandthespace.Theywhistledandsang.Itseemsthatcertain
sounds,imitatinginsectsdesiredbythespider,couldbringthehiddenmaster
outandtowardtherealmofmoredirectvisibility.Theirmannersuggesteda
themoralimagination
Ihavenoticedeversincehowoftenpeoplewhoselivesdependonwhat
happensassessproposalsandprocessesthrougholfactoryintuition.Phrases
onwebwatching
themoralimagination
ersproposeasimpleidea:Relationalspacescreateandholdthecenterofsocial
change.Finding,understanding,andrelatingtothewebsthatexistrequire
stillness,humility,andourfullsenses.Webwatching,thezenofgoingno-
where,attendstowholeuniverseswithgentlemovement.Ittouchesthesoul
ofplace.
OnSerendipity
TheGiftofAccidentalSagacity
themoralimagination
tudeandhumility,thenatureofdevelopingtheoriesofsocialchange,andthe
buildingofadaptiveprocessesthatcansustainchange.Iftakenseriously,ser-
endipityincreasesourcapacitytoberesponsiveintherealworld.Anditall
startswithafairytale.
onserendipity
Serendipity,itseems,isthewisdomofrecognizingandthenmovingwith
themoralimagination
processhappenednotthroughdirectplanningbutthroughserendipitous
openingsthatledtorelationships,breakthroughs,andultimatelydirectnego-
IstartedthejourneyviaaninvitationfromtheMennoniteCentralCom-
onserendipity
year-olddaughter,Angie,intow.Onarrivalshewasstartledatthedoorby
themoralimagination
Tunnelvisionprovidestheimportantelementofvisualizingaguidinglightat
thefarside.Butthefocusoftunnelvisionneglectstwoimportantcomponents
thatarenoteasilyreducedtoconictanalysisorcommunicationskills,forthey
reallyareaboutattitude,art,andcreativity.
First,tunnelvisionassumesafartoostaticenvironment.Bythisassump-
tionitsuggestssocialchangeislikeaprocessofseeingamountainandde-
visingapathwaythroughitthatlinkspointAononesidewithpointBonthe
otherside.Ourdifcultyinpeacebuildingisthis:Themountainthroughwhich
wehavetodeviseapathismoreakintoaseathanarock.Itoccupiesagreat
spacethatlinksthepastwiththefuture,andweliveinaconstantlymoving,
ebbingandowingpresent.Themountainifyouwillisdynamic.Tocon-
tinuethemountainparallel,weshouldask:Howwouldyoucarveatunnel
throughanactivevolcano?Whatwewerenotalwaystaughtinconictreso-
lutionschoolwasthis:Weareintroducingachangeprocessintoahistorically
patternedandpermanentlychangingenvironment.Thechallengeofpeace-
buildingishowtointroduceconstructivechangethataffectsthepatternswhile
livinginandadaptingtoadynamicenvironment.
Thisleadstotheseconddifcultywithtunnelvision:Itneverdevelops
peripheralvision.Itlooksunidirectionallytowardapreconceivedprocessand
goal.Ifyouhaveeverwatchedacrabworkthesandsofseatides,youwillhave
onserendipity
maintainingpurposewhileconstantlyadaptingtothedifcultandshifting
sandsandtidestheymustfaceandsurvive.Theleastrealisticthingwecould
dowouldbetodeviserigidprocessesofpoliticsandsocialchangethatare
incapableofadaptation.
Wehaveforsometimelivedunderthemyththatsomehowweincrease
ourabilitytocontroltheoutcomeofprocessesthroughanequationthatlinks
powerandmilitarycapacity.Atapoliticallevel,ourassumptionisthatsince
violenceandviolentpatternsaretheresultofthecapacitytoproduceviolence
weultimatelybelievethatwecancontrolandovercometheseprocessesby
introducingmoreofthesame.Thosewiththegreatestcapacitytointroduce
coercionorviolencecontroltheprocessandoutcome.Whatwefailtorecognize
isthatdeep-seatedpatternsofviolencearenotcontrolledandovercomebythat
whichcreatesthem.Theyarebroughtasunderbychangingtheenvironment
withinwhichthepatternisgivenlife.Authenticchangeandhardcorerealism
donotaimatthesymptomatic,mostvisibleexpressionofviolencebutrather
adapttotheenvironmentthatgeneratesthesymptomandchangethenature
oftheenvironmentfromwithin.Realismrequiresperipheralvision.
Thishasbeen,infact,thehardestlesson,thelessonmostlyleftunlearned,
fromSeptember11,2001.TheattacksontheUnitedStateschangedthegame.
Terrorism,atitshorricworst,isthenegativesideofperipheralvision.Itnever
attacksthemountaindirectly.Itunderstandsthatthemountainismorelikea
sea,offeringupenormouspowerbutmanyoptions.Itusesthepowerofthe
seaagainstitself.InthecaseofSeptember11,civilianplanes,easilyavailable
themoralimagination
Whatthenarethecapacitiesthatcreatetheserendipitousmoment,the
capacitytogivebirthtodiscoveryandthroughdiscoverytogivebirthtocon-
structivechange?Involvingfewerskillsthanashiftinworldview,ndingthe
serendipitousmomentsuggeststhreeguideposts:acquireandbuildacapacity
forperipheralvision,developcreativelearningdisciplines,andsustainplat-
formsthataresmartexible.
Guidepost1:PeripheralVision
Intheoriginalstory,thethreeprinceshadasinglecapacitythatprovidedthe
foundationofsagacity:astute,continuous,andrigorousobservation.Thiscan-
notbeoverstatedforunderstandingthenatureofserendipity.Serendipitywas
notanactofrandomchancethatsomehowresultedinagoodoutcome.Ser-
endipityinvolvedengagedobservationofwhatwasfoundalongtheway.This
notionofhavingeyesattentivetothealong-the-wayisthecoreofperipheral
vision.Peripheralvisionpaysattentionprimarilytothepurposeoftheprocess
ratherthantotherotedeliveryoftheprocessdesignedtoprovideadesired
outcome.Itisattentivetothesurroundings,thatwhichcanbeseenaround,
under,andbehindpresentingproblems.Peacebuildersmustbecrablikein
theirapproachtoobstacles.AsanastuteobserverfromtheFijiislands,Paolo
Baleinakorodawa,oncesuggestedinatrainingworkshop,crabs,whensur-
roundedonallsides,willburythemselvesinthesandandthenriseagainat
alaterpoint.Acrabhastheinstinctualcapacityofmultidirectionality.
Inpeacebuilding,peripheralvisionisattentivewemightevensayhy-
persensitivetocertainkindsofphenomenathataredirectlyconnectedtothe
foundationofthemoralimagination.Forexample,obstaclesinthepathwayof
constructivechangepresentthemselvesmoreoftenthannotintheformof
proceduralimpassesandsubstantiveissuesaccompaniedbydeepdisagree-
mentsoversolutionstothesame.Forthemostpart,peripheralvisionignores
whatappearsasthesymptomaticexpressionoftheconictandlooksthrough
thecontentoftheproblemtothebroaderpatternofhowthingsarerelated
(Lederach,2003a).Peripheralvisionhasalensthatbringsintofocusthehis-
toricalpatternsoftheserelationships.Patternsofrelationship,likecomplexity,
offerupasenseofthelargerpictureandmyriadsofsmallopeningsandop-
portunities.Relationalspacesandthepatternsofhowthingsareconnected
createcontinuousopportunitiesforaddressingobstaclesinnewwayswhen
ndingsolutionsdirectlytothosesameproblemsappearasdeadends.The
greatgiftofrelationalspacesistheirongoingdynamicnature.Theycontinue
toofferupaccidents,unexpectedtwists,andopportunities.Peripheralvision
watchestherelationalspacesoftheprocessmorethanwhatappearsasthe
contentoftheloomingobstacle.
Withperipheralvision,multipleavenuesareheldsimultaneouslywithin
onserendipity
thepanoramaofthepossible.Thisistheessenceofnonpolarity.Peripheral
visiondoesnotframetheprocessorthedecisionsexclusivelyintermsofeither-
orchoices.Itholdsconnectionsandchoiceswithinawiderframe.Whenone
avenueoffersresistance,peripheralvisiondoesnotcounterpushagainstthe
resistance.Itsidesteps,locatesotheravenues,andwatchesforopeningsand
indirectchannels.
themoralimagination
forpeacebuilding:Nevertalkonlytopoliticiansandmilitialeaders.Talktotaxi
drivers.Talktoconstructionworkersandhousewives.Talktoelders,shamans,
onserendipity
dishesatarestaurant,plantingcorn,ordevisinghousingpolicyforaninner
city.Andyoucanndtechniciansmanaginguniversities,directingachurch
choir,orpurchasingeighteenth-centuryartforanationalmuseum.Thedif-
ferenceisnotinwhattheydoorwheretheyarelocated.Thedifferenceisin
howtheyareattentivetoandinteractwiththeworldthatsurroundsthem.
CreativelearningistheroadtoSerendip,thediscoveryofthingsbyacci-
dentandsagacity.Aninsatiablecuriositydoesnottranslateintosomeformof
disrespectforwhatothersknoworhavelearned.Infacttheoppositeistrue.
Curiositywantstoknowmore,notjustabouttheidea,solution,orprocess
proposedbysomeoneelsesjourney.Itwantstoknowhowthosethingswere
generated.Andmostofall,curiosityjustwantstoknowhowthingsareand
howtheywork.Whenappliedtosocialchange,insatiablecuriosityhasasingle
question:Howexactlydothingschange?
IoncetaughtauniversitycourseanddecidedIwouldaskthatquestion
earlyandoften.Iproposedasinglepaperthatthestudentswouldhavetowrite
bytheendofthesemester.Everypaperwouldhavethesametitle:HowI
BelieveSocialChangeHappens.Iwasaskingthemtostrugglewithsome-
thingthathappenswhenartistsbecomenotetechnicians:Theylosecuriosity
abouttheirowntheoriesofchange.
themoralimagination
onserendipity
dene,andfundpeacebuilding.Inessence,projectsareactivitiesconducted
themoralimagination
Serendipitynudgesustowardthe
ofsocialchange.Itasksustobe
attentivetohowthingsareconnected.Itopensoureyestothegreatlearnings
alongthewaythatwerenotoriginallyexpectedorintended.Itbuildsanin-
satiablecuriosityandloveforlearning.
Guidepost3:SmartFlexiblePlatforms
Thelensesofserendipityandspidershavemuchincommon.Theybothare
attentivetothesurroundingenvironment.Theirlives,sotosay,arewovenwith
thewinds.Theyintuit,observe,andlearn.Andtheybothsurvivewithacapacity
toinnovateandadapt.Thebestdenitionof
accidentalsagacity
perhapsisfound
inthesimpleideaofbeingsmartexible.Buthowdoesthattranslateintoa
strategyforsocialchange?Itisfound,Ibelieve,intheideaofbuildingplat-
formsforchange.
Intheearlywritingof
BuildingPeace
Italkedaboutstrategicchangere-
quiringfourbroadcategoriesofattentionandinnovation(Lederach,1997).
Nottobeunderstoodasalinearinquirybutratherasaprocessofmultitasking,
thetitlesofthefourspheresofattentionplacedonthematrixwerecrisis,
people,institutions,andvisions.Thethirdcategoryrepresentedaneffortto
movebeyondthecourageouseffortsofafewindividualstowardacapacityto
onserendipity
buildinginthissenseofthewordwasnotwhatIhadinmind.Adifferent
kindofconceptwasneededandIlandedonedaybyserendipity,inthemidst
ofalecture,ontheideaof
forconstructivechange.Thechallenge
remainedthesame:Howdowesustainthesocialcapacitytosupportconstruc-
tivechangewhileconstantlyinnovatingandadaptingtoadynamicandde-
mandingenvironment?
Aplatformprovidesabaseforresponse.However,thefocusisonthe
purposeoftheplatformratherthanontheplatformitself.Aplatformhas
permanencyofpurposeandexibilitytogeneratenewresponsestoemerging
challenges.Itisinthissensesmartexible.Institutionsarenotoriousfor
creatingstructuresbutarenottypicallyknownfortheircapacitytoshiftand
changeaccordingtoshiftsandchangesinenvironmentaldemands.Theyare
permanentinpurposebutnotexibleinhowtheymightpursuethatpurpose.
Sincethe1990s,muchhasemergedinsystemstheoryandorganizational
developmentthatarguesthatthisispreciselywhycorporationsandorganiza-
tionsliveordieinfast-changingenvironments(Wheatley,1994).Institutions
thatbecomelikeplatformsunderstandtheinterdependencyofpurposeand
exibilityofformforsurvival.
Inthissense,smartexibleplatformsforchangehaveacapacitytomove
withtheshiftsthatarepresentedalongthewayandfromthatplacegenerate
responsiveprocessesandsolutionstorisingandconstantlyshiftingdemands.
Inthearenaofsocialchangethisrequiresacapacitytocontinuouslythinkin
strategicwaysaboutthecontext,thewho,theoverallpurpose,andtheinno-
vationofprocess.Thegreatironyisthis:Innovationofprocessandtheform
oftheplatformareconstantlyadaptive;whilethepurposeofthesocialchange
providesmeaningandorientation.Strategicpeacebuildersdonotconfusethe
morepermanentnatureofpurposewiththefarmoreuidnatureofresponsive
innovationandtheformsitmusttake.Inotherwords,platformsaresocial
constructionsofwhatthenewscienceshastermed
inthenaturalworld(Wheatley,1994).
themoralimagination
onserendipity
serveit,seewhatitmeans,andinnovateappropriateresponses.Wisdomand
survivalaremostclearlyfoundinthiscapacitytorecognizeandadapt.
Serendipityisthegiftoflife.Itkeepsusalivetoconstantgrowthand
unendingpotential,ifwedevelopacapacitytoseewhatisfoundalongtheway
andadaptcreativelywhilekeepingakeensenseofpurpose.Spiders,crabs,
skin,rivers,andpeacebuildersareartisansofsocialchange.
OnTime
ThePastThatLiesbeforeUs
Whenthelastpersonwhoknewthedepartedalsodies,thenthefor-
merpassesoutofthehorizonoftheSasa(thePresent)period;and
themoralimagination
ontime
wasagatheringofelders,clanmothers,andchiefs.Thecontextwasagain
urgentandanxious.AlanddisputenearthecityofOkahadsproutedarmed
barricadesontheoutskirtsofMontreal.Eachpassinghouranddayfeltasif
animminentandviolentdisasterwouldexplode.
themoralimagination
ofcialdom,itwaspragmaticpoliticsandthecontroloftimethatcarriedthe
day,describedasdismantlingthebarricadeswithoutlossoflife.FortheMo-
ontime
Sopowerfulandalivewasthepastthatitoccupiedhisgrandchildrensfu-
ThenCameNaivasha
NaivashaislocatedpartwayuptheRiftValley,severalhoursdrivefromNai-
themoralimagination
startedinschoolandstudiedinEnglishIlearnedthatthefuturelies
beforeusandthepastisbehindus.
JBthenstooduptoexplainanewinsight.ThismorningIunderstandthat
whatweknow,whatwehaveseen,isthepast.Soitliesbeforeus.Whatwe
cannotsee,whatwecannotknowisthefuture.Thenshebegantowalkback-
ward.Sothepastweseebeforeus.Butwewalkbackwardintothefuture.
Maybemygrandparentswayofsayingitismoreaccurate.
Accurateindeed!WhatJBhaddescribed,linguisticallyandwithherwalk-
ingmotion,wasveryclosetoMbitisargument.WhenJohnMbitirstreleased
hisbook
AfricanReligionsandPhilosophy
,in1969,hewashailedforhisorig-
inalitythoughhewascritiquedforsomeprovocativestatements.Itwasamong
therstAfrican-basedexplanationsofworldview,religion,andphilosophythat
directlytookonmuchofwhathadbeenuptothatpointWestern-basedan-
ontime
anorientationwouldmakeAfricansbackward,unenlightened,anddoomedto
notmakeprogress.AcarefulreadingofMbiti,however,suggeststhiscould
hardlybefurtherfromhisintentoractualdescription.Backwardconjures
themoralimagination
authorthengoesontolisttheancestors,whobyallaccounts,giventheactive
memoryofthem,areamongtheliving-dead,whoformagreatcloudofwit-
nessesthatsurroundus,andtowhomweturnforguidanceandexample.
InNaivasha,abriefanddynamicconversationsuddenlylinkedupaseries
ofinsightsIhadheard,mostlyfromindigenouspeople,aboutthenatureof
time.TheMiskitoconciliator,theMohawkelder,theBudongpeace-pactholder
ontime
whatcapacitymightbeneededtoimagineapastthatwasaliveandaccompa-
nyingusateverystepoftheway.
Thereismuchthatisusefulandholdsgreatpromiseintheintegrated
frameworkforbuildingconstructivechangethatIsuggestedin1997.Butthere
isalwaysmuchtobediscovered,whichhappenedformethroughclassroom
andtrainingsessions.Overtheyears,asIwouldpresenttheintegratedframe-
work,Ireceivedfeedbackfromparticipants.Themostdauntingandinsightful
themoralimagination
werethesimplequestionsthatseemedtoconsistentlyarisefromaboriginal
andindigenouspeople.Asonepersonputitsuccinctly:Whathappenedto
thepastinyourframework?OnoneoccasionaMayantraditionalpriestin
Guatemala,havinglistenedtomemostofthemorningandhavingwatched
medrawaversionoftheintegratedframeworkonnewsprint,cameupat
lunchtimetotalk.Frommyview,hesaid,yourframeworkcapturesmany
thingsbutitismissingoneoverarchingelement.
Whatisthat?Iwascuriousaboutwhatpolitical,economic,orhistorical
pieceImightbemissing.
Yourframeworkismissingtheearthandskies,thewindsandrocks.It
doesnotsaywhereyouarelocated,heresponded.InatraditionalMayan
view,ifthereisaprobleminthecommunity,therstthingwewouldaskis:
ontime
itselfhasendeavoredtotakethisup,thoughwehadnotlocatedthiswithinan
expansiveunderstandingoftimeconnectedtosocialchange(Sawatsky,2003).
themoralimagination
storiesinthislivedhistorytimeframeareexperiencesthathaveeshandblood
attachedtothem,andmoreoftenthannot,theyareexperiencesthathave
repeatedthemselvesintothenextgeneration.Itisnotjustthatmygrand-
mothertoldmeaboutthosepeoplefromthenextvillageoverwhohaveharmed
us.Ihaveexperienceditmyself.Livedexperiencescreate,recreate,andrein-
forcethestoryofourcollectivelife,whichisembeddedinthepatternsthat
accompanyourcommunity.
Athird,widercircleoftimepushesustoenterwhatwemightcallthe
contextofmemory,orrememberedhistory.Thisishistorykeptaliveand
presentbywhatisrememberedfromagroupstopographicmapoftime.In
mapmaking,topographyshowsthecontours,heights,anddepthsofland-
scapes.Inasimilarway,appliedtoprotractedconict,thereexistsakindof
landscapeofsocialmemorythatiskeptalive.Inthegroupsviewofitshistory,
certaineventsstandout,thatis,theyrisetoalevelofheightenedrecognition.
Theseeventsshapeandformthecollectiveidentity.Thesepointsinhistory
areoftenthemoments,exactlyasAku
msuggested,whenthestoryofwho
peopleare,theirself-understanding,wastransformedinunexpectedways,dis-
rupted,orevendestroyed.Recentlythisunderstandinghasbeenexploredin
theconictliterature,particularlyfromthedisciplineofpsychology,asremem-
beredeventsthatcreateachosentrauma.
Whiletheterm
chosentrauma
hasbouncedaroundcounselingandtherapy
circles,theoristsandpractitionersJosephMontvilleandVamikVolkanhave
ontime
perspectiveofnarrative,theunderstandingsofhowpeoplecometoseetheir
placeonthisearth,inagurativesenseandtheirplaceastiedtoaspecic
geography,inaliteralsense.Narrative,thedeep,formativetellingofones
story,hasincreasinglyfounditswayacrossacademicdisciplinesandtheir
respectivepractices.Thereareapproachesandevenschoolsofnarrativepsy-
themoralimagination
communitycircles(Zehr,2002).Theseareeffortstoexploretheimpactof
brokenrelationshipsinthecontextofspecicinterpersonalandcommunity
relationships.Formany,thesemodelsmayappeartobemicro-orientedin
ontime
ofsocialchange,whichdependsonthepracticesofaccessibility,reconnecting
peopleinactualrelationships,andlocalresponsibility.Thesepracticesassume
thatthecapacityofpeopletohealandrestorytheiridentitiesandrelation-
shipsrequiresmorethantheruleoflawexpressedasaremotebureaucratic
concern.Healingrequiresproximitythattouchesthewebofcommunitylife,
whichincludesboththerecenteventsandthelivedhistoriesofacommunity.
Thelocusoftheinitiativeisthereforeplacedinthecontextofactualrelation-
shipsandcommunity(Zehr,2002).
Thecenterblock,whichinthewiderintegratedframeworkconnectsa
subsystemlevelofanalysiswiththehistoricaltimeframewecallremembered
history,requiresexplorationofhowchosentraumasinvolvingwholecom-
themoralimagination
commentedthatlosingageographicplacemeantlosingthepast,andifthe
pastislost,weceasetobe.Theworldviewofindigenouspeoplessuggests
thatstory,place,andidentityarelinked.Theyunderstandthatcollectivenar-
rativeandsurvivalareconnected.Inotherwords,timeisnotacommodity
foundinalinearsequencewheretheremotepastandremotefuturearesep-
aratedattheextremeends.Timeisbestunderstood,aswaswrittenbythe
ontime
themoralimagination
multipletimeandspacespheres.Eveninthemomentsofgreatestcrisis,when
theurgencyofthesituationseemstohingeonquickshort-termdecisions,
multidimensionalityispresent.Thusweneedtheimaginationofthepastthat
ontime
OnPiedPipers
ImaginationandCreativity
themoralimagination
Themoralofthestoryseemedclear:Whenyougiveapromise,youhadbest
keepyourword.
Fourdecadeslater,whenIreadthestoryagain,thiswasnotthemoral
thatcaughtmyattention.WhatIsawwasthepowerofautisttomoveatown,
addressanevil,andbringthepowerfultoaccountability.Withoutanyvisible
powerorevenprestige,muchlessaviolentweapon,autisttransformeda
wholecommunity.Iwasstruckwiththenonviolentpowerofmusicandthe
creativeact.Themoralofthestorynowseemedtobe:Watchoutfortheutist
andhiscreativemusicfor,liketheinvisiblewind,theytouchandmoveallthat
theyencounterintheirpath.
ArtfulChange
In1996IfoundmyselfsittingintheKillyhevlinHotelinFermanagh,Northern
Ireland.IwasakeynotespeakerataconferencetitledRememberand
Change,aphrasethathadbeenpulledfromatalkIhadgiveninBelfasta
yearearlier(Lederach,1995).In1994,atthetimeoftheceaseredeclarations
bybothrepublicanandloyalistparamilitarygroups,peopleengagedinconict
transformationandpeacebuildingworkhadrequestedsomereectionson
onpiedpipers
oftheviolenceandthosewhojustieditononesideoranother.Performed
byasolovoiceaccompaniedbyapiano,thelyricsareprofound,suggesting
thatviolenceistryingtocarvetomorrowfromatombstoneandiswasting
ourchildrensfuturefortheworn-outdreamsofyesterday(Brady,1992).
Whenrstplayedpublicly,thesonggeneratedimmediatecontroversy.Per-
ceivedaswrittenbyawell-knownartistfromonecommunitycriticizingpeople
engagedintheviolence,threatswentoutfromtheparamilitariesagainstthe
artist,radiostationsthatwouldplaythemusic,andstoresthatwouldsellit.
ForyearsTheIslandwasnotplayedorcirculatedpublicly.
themoralimagination
onpiedpipers
theHaudenosauneetheSixNations.Histitlehasbeenhanded
downfromgenerationtogeneration,likethetitleoftheDalaiLama
orPope.IamTadodahotoday.
Thiscanofcoursebetakenasaquaintfolkstorypasseddownthrough
thegenerations.Oritcouldbetakenforwhatitis:thecapacityoftheoral
traditiontorememberandkeepalivetheidentityofpeoplehoodandhowit
cametobe.Abriefreminderisinordernottoloseoursenseofhistorical
context.ThecraftingoftheGreatPeace,theformationofthesix-nationcon-
federacyledbyChiefTadodaho,wasaforerunnertoandinspiredthewriting
oftheU.S.Constitution(BrownChilds,2003).Atagivenmomentintimethe
IndianpeopleofthesixnationscalledonthePiedPipersoftheirday,whohad
themoralimaginationtotranscendthechallengeoftheirpatternswhilead-
themoralimagination
onpiedpipers
madnessofviolence,wasfoundinthehandsofacellistwhosatfastinthe
midstofthegeographyofhate.Sarajevo,itseems,foundthegiftofthePied
Piper.
ExhibitD.Thelastmajorbombthatdestroyedbuildingsandlivesduring
theTroublesofNorthernIrelandcameseveralyearsaftertheceaserehad
beendeclared.OnAugust15,1998,inthetownofOmagh,thewarningsabout
thebombweremisleading.Asaresult,insteadofpeoplebeingdirectedaway
fromthethreat,theywereevacuatedintothepathofthebomb.Thehidden
deviceexploded.Twenty-ninepeopleandtwounbornchildrendied.Morethan
400wereinjured.TheeventsinthecommunityofOmaghsentwavesofshock
themoralimagination
Believethatafarthershore
Isreachablefromhere.
Believeinmiracles
Andcuresandhealingwells.
TheexhibitwasthenopenedtothepublicandhassincetraveledaroundIre-
landandEurope.Kane(1999:32)recountsherexperiencewatchingthefami-
liesseethepiecesforthersttime:
onpiedpipers
Hermcallshimselfahusband,father,songwriter,roofer,andpsychology
professor,roughlyinthatorder.Heusuallyleavesoffhisinformalresumethat
hewasonceareverend.Someyearsbackhedecidedtopursuehisdoctoral
degree.Hewantedtolookintothepsychologicalprocessesthatunderpinrec-
onciliationandhealing.Aspartofhisresearchhebegananinquiryintothe
natureofmusicandhealing.Hermhadperipheralvisionsoitwasnotlong
untilthesideinterestcamefrontandforward.Heembarkedonajourneyto
takehismusicasseriouslyashetookhisintellectualstudiesandtofocusmore
directlyonmusicintheprocessofhealingandreconciliation.Inessence,he
wrotesongsandpaidattentiontohowthecreativeprocessmightberelatedto
theprocessofhealing.
Therewereofcoursemanyfascinatingoutcomesofthisprocess,including
theproductionofamusicalCD,
TravellinHomeandBack
,andafull-blown
thesisexplainingit(Weaver,1999a,1999b).Forme,however,oneofthebest
elementsoftheentireprocesswastheformationofasinglequestion,which
Iwouldnowframeas:Whatifreconciliationweremorelikeacreativeartistic
processthanalinearformulaofcumulativeactivitiesaimedatproducinga
themoralimagination
healingasaprocesspacedbyitsowninnertiming,whichcannotbepro-
grammedorpushedtotaproject.Peopleandcommunitieshavetheirown
Theartisticprocessrisestoitshighestlevelwhenitndsexpressionthat
issimpleandhonest.Eleganceandbeautyareoftencapturedwhencomplexity
isreectedinthesimplestoflines,curves,textures,melodies,orrhythms.
Reconciliationthatisframedasanintellectuallycomplexprocesswilltoooften
createsomuchnoiseanddistractionthattheessenceismissed.Thekeyisto
ndtheessence.Honestyofexperience,aheadofcorrectnessofperception,
Weaverargued,isthekeytoreconciliation.Artandreconciliationmayshare
thisguideline:Behonestearly.Behonestoften.Inhealing,thereisnoreplace-
mentforstraighthonesty,evenwhenithurts.
onpiedpipers
mightsay,No,Ijustenjoyworkingwithmyhandsandtakingcaretodoit
well.Artisaformoflove.Itisndingbeautyandconnectioninwhatwedo.
IrememberasalittlechildwatchingmygrandmotherNonaandgreat-
auntLeonamakingapplepiesontheMillerfarminnorthernIndiana.Two
memoriesstickwithmetothisday:howgoodthosepiestastedandhowthose
womenmadecrusts.Therewasacrafttorollingthedoughatthenopping
itintothepiepan,butitdidnotstopthere.Icanstillheartheknifebladehit
thesideofthepiepanrimastheexcessdoughwascut.Thentheedgeofthe
crustwaspinched,thumbandngersbouncingalongtherim,butanawesome
themoralimagination
OnVocation
TheMysteryofRisk
SinceIwascutfromthereedbed,Ihavemadethiscryingsound.
Rumi,
TheReedFlute
Alongourwayintheprecedingpages,Ihavehintedatbutnotfully
exploredthefourthdiscipline:risk.Commitmenttorelationshipal-
waysentailsrisk.Sittinginthemessyambiguityofcomplexitywhile
refusingtoframeitindualistictermsrequiresrisk.Beliefthatcrea-
tivitycanactuallyhappenisanactofrisk.Walkingintothecampof
themoralimagination
andsaw.Afterseveralgo-roundsofclaricationaboutmylikelyshortcomings
asatheologian,Iaccepted.
onvocation
InourcontextofthirtyplusyearsoftheTroubles,violence,fear
anddivisionareknown.Peaceisthemystery!Peoplearefrightened
ofpeace.Itissimultaneouslyexcitingandfearful.Thisismystery.
Peaceasksalotofyou.Peaceasksyoutosharememory.Itasksyou
themoralimagination
onvocation
themoralimagination
onvocation
OnConclusions
TheImperativeoftheMoralImagination
themoralimagination
onconclusions
worstofconditionsspawnedpreciselythatkindofimaginationandsuggest
fourpathwaystoassistitsbirth:
Wemustmovefromisolationandattitudesofdominateorbedomi-
natedtowardacapacitytoenvisionandactonthebasisthatwelive
inandformpartofawebofinterdependentrelationships,whichin-
cludesourenemy.Ourgrandchildrensdestiniesareone.
Wemustnotfallpreytothetrapofnarrowlydeneddualisms,which
severelylimittheframingofourchallengesandchoices.Wemustnd
waystonurtureaninquisitivecapacitythatexploresandinteractscon-
structivelywiththecomplexityoftherelationshipsandrealitiesthat
faceourcommunities.
Belowandabove,outsideandbeyondthenarrowwallswithwhichvio-
lencewishestoencloseourhumancommunity,wemustlivewith
trustthatcreativity,divinelyembeddedinthehumanspirit,isalways
withinreach.Likeaseedintheground,creativecapacityliesdormant,
lledwithpotentialthatcangiverisetounexpectedblossomsthatcre-
ateturningpointsandsustainconstructivechange.Wemustexpose
andbreakthefalsepromisethatplacestrustinviolenceas
fenderanddelivererofsecurity.
Acceptingvulnerability,wemustriskthestepintounknownandun-
predictablelandsandseekconstructiveengagementwiththosepeople
andthingsweleastunderstandandmostfear.Wemusttakeupthe
inevitablyperilousbutabsolutelynecessaryjourneythatmakesitsway
backtohumanityandthebuildingofgenuinecommunity.
AFewImplications
Thesepathwayshavesignicantimplicationsforpeacebuildingandforthe
conductingofhumanaffairsingeneral.Theyshowtheneedtoexpandhow
weasconict,justice,andpeaceprofessionalsenvisionourtheoriesand
ourpractice.Inbroadterms,theimperativeofthemoralimaginationrequires
ustoreectdeeplyonourworkasembeddedinthewiderpurposeofinitiating
andpromotingconstructivesocialchangeprocesses,anditposeschallenges
andquestionstothedevelopmentofourprofessions.Severalbroadinquiries
arisingfromtheprecedingchapters,illustratethenatureofthesechallenges:
themoralimagination
changehappensandourservicesareoffered.Assuch,ourabilityto
initiate,design,andsupportspecicservicesisembeddedinand
buildsfromthecapacitytounderstandanddevelopstrategicap-
proachestosocialspacetheknow-whooftheimmediateandwider
relationalcontextwithinwhichweoperate.Ratherthannarrowand
specialize,weexpandhowweviewservicesinthecontextofthe
onconclusions
themoralimagination
burstsforthaspartofalifejourneythatcaresaboutthenatureand
qualityofourrelationshipsandcommunitiesandabouthowwemove
fromrelationshipsdenedbydivisionandfeartowardthosecharacter-
izedbyrespectandlove.OneofthethingsIhavediscoveredoverthe
onconclusions
imagine,thoughperhapsafewguidelineswouldbehelpful.Itcould
startwithoneweekayear.Thatisnottoomuchtoask.Theclassroom
wouldbemadeupofpeoplewhorarelyinteractwitheachother,in-
cludingpoliticalandideologicalenemiesandacreativemixofthepeo-
pletheypurporttoserve.Therewouldbelotsofteaandcoffeetime
andfewlectures.Participantswouldbeaskedtodoonesimplething:
talkopenlyandhonestlywitheachotherabouttheirhopesandfears,
abouttheirlivesandfamilies.Teacherswouldonlybestorytellers,
mostlycommonfolkchosenfortheirlifestoriesofhowtheyovercame
whatseemedinsurmountableoddstobreakoutofinjusticeandthreat
withoutresortingtoviolence.Theycouldbechildrenorrefugees,wise
oldfarmersorwartorncommunitysurvivors.Atleastpartofeachday,
AConversation
Epilogue:Aspeechorshortpoemaddressedtothespectatorsby
oneoftheactorsattheconclusionoftheplay.
CompactOxfordEnglishDictionary
Noepilogue,Iprayyou,foryourplayneedsnoexcuse.
Shakespeare,
AMidsummerNightsDream
HowdoImakethemoralimaginationappear?areaderasked.
Idonthaveamagicformula.Norecipeexists,theplaywright
answered.Butifyoupayattention,advicemayaccompanyyour
search.Watchandlisten!
Whenyoufeeldenigrated,saidtheyoungKonkombaman,
offerrespect.
Inthefaceoffear,Abduladvised,offeryourvulnerability.
Whendivisionandhateisallaroundyou,thewomenofWajir
responded,buildsolidaritywiththosecloseathandandthenreach
forothersasfarasyoucantouch.
Inthefaceofviolenceandthreat,Josue
andthe
MagdalenaMediosaid,offertruth,transparency,anddialogue.
Whenoverwhelmedbycomplexity,thehaikumasterlaughed,
themoralimagination
Glossary
Constructivechange:
Thepursuitofshiftingrelationshipsfromthosedened
byfear,mutualrecrimination,andviolencetowardthosecharacter-
izedbylove,mutualrespect,andproactiveengagement.Construc-
tivesocialchangeseekstomovetheowofinteractioninhuman
conictfromcyclesofdestructiverelationalpatternstowardcycles
ofrelationaldignityandrespectfulengagement.
Criticalyeast:
Ratherthan
criticalmass
,commonlybelievedtobethemo-
Horizontalcapacity:
Theabilitytobuildandsustainrelationalspacesofconstructive
againstgravity,knowingthatmomentumwillpulltherest.Appliedtosocial
processes,thesiphonstrategyraisesthisquestion:Who,iftheyarelinked
chapter2
1.Thefollowingstorywasreceivedduringmultipleconversationswith
thisparticularshortversion.Formoreinformation,see
TheWajirStory
documentaryvideoproducedbyRespondingtoConict.Forfurtherread-
ing,seeDekhaIbrahimandJaniceJenner,BreakingtheCycleofViolence
inWajir,in
OvercomingViolence:LinkingLocalandGlobalPeacemaking
,ed-
itedbyRobertHerrandJudyZimmermanHerr.
3.ThisaccountistakenfromGarcia,
HijosdelaViolencia
.Ihadthe
Clausen,1986;Kirk,1988;Coles,1989;McCollough,1991;Allison,1999;
Beidelman,1993;Johnson,1993;Tivnan,1995;Babbit,1996;Bruce,1998;
Guroian,1998;Stevens,1998;Williams,1998;Brown,1999;Werhane,
notestopages41154
1999;FernandezandHuber,2001;Fesmire,2003;McFaul,2003;andNewsom,
chapter5
1.PortionsofthenexttwochapterswererstpresentedattheRIRECconfer-
encesponsoredbytheJoanB.KrocInstituteforInternationalPeaceStudies,Univer-
sityofNotreDame,undertheworkingtitleofTheHorizonofPeacebuilding,Sep-
tember26,2002.
2.Alloftheguresinthisbookwillbepresentedasdoodles,drawingsthat
father,JohnLederach,intheelegantproductionofthesegraphics.Formoreofan
explanation,seechapter7.
chapter7
1.JackKerouacwrotethissentenceinexactlythisform.
2.Anexampleofthiscanbefoundinchapter12.
InsidetheMaze
isapoemI
wrote,whichemergedfromaconversationinsidetheMazeprisoninNorthernIre-
chapter9
1.PortionsofthischapterwererstpublishedinBuildingMediativeCapacity
inDeep-RootedConict,
smallhandwrittennotefromDeborahOverholtafteroneoftheselectures,whichwas
veryhelpfulinidentifyingseveralfactorsspecictoyeast.
chapter12
1.ThischapterowessignicantdebttoconversationswithAku
mLongchariand
JaremSawatsky.
chapter13
1.IwanttoacknowledgetheguidinghandsandhelpofDr.DavidBoltonand
Dr.HermWeaverinthedevelopmentofthischapter.
2.Itisimportanttoaddthattherearearangeofscienticinquiriesandessays
exploringthistopicofartsandpeacebuilding.Asamplingcouldincludethefollowing
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denition,126
Aceh,44
advocateroles,44
authenticity,49,54,56,5859,6162
gap,49
litmustestof,57
Babbit,Susan,27
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,65,6768,73
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Belfast,134,15253
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93,97,118,151,163,17374
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seealso
Holmes,Sherlock,26
horizontalcapacity,denition,182
HornofAfrica,10
humility,35,68,1034,1068,112,114,
essenceof,107
Hutus,142
imagination,x,5,2728,34,3639,56,
58,60,62,69,71,73,94,97,101,
1045,121,124,138,14648,151,
163,17274
denition,28,62
listenfor7172
watch,7172
MiddleEast,172
Miller,Harold,135
Miller,Lydia,22,127
Mills,C.Wright,2324,57,62,73
Milosevic,Slobodan,90
Mindanao,164,172
MiskitoIndians,116,131,138
Mizshakarol,Akmal,34
MohawkNation,13234,138
time,133
Montreal,133
Montville,Joseph142
moralimagination
artandsoulof,73,147,162
andtheartisticprocess,2627,15258,
beliefsof,6163
bookswithtitleof,2527
capacitiesof,5,29
capacitytoincitethe,169
denition,ix,29,182
disciplinesof,5,34,98
essenceof,34
givingbirthandspaceto,172
imperativeof,171,173
keyroleof,86,108
mysteriousjourneyof,164
pathwaysto,173
andrisk,3940,62,98,165
roleofsensesin,10911
roleofserendipity,11329
schoolfor,17677
Moravianchurch,116,131
Morrison,Toni,26
multidimensionality,137,148
music,152,159,166,180
powerof,70,15156
roleinpeacebuilding,15359,17475
Muslim,8
mystery,163
theologyof,164
Nagaland,140
Nairobi,123
NairobiPeaceInitiative,Africa,135
Naivasha,135,138
,x,115
divine,115
narrativetheology,140
NationalCouncilofChurchesofKenya,
135,168
CommunityPeaceandDevelopment
Project,168
NationalGeographic
,80,101
peacebuilding(
dualisticstruggle,8788
essenceof,31,35
horizontalcapacity,79
integratedframeworkfor,13839,145
intuitionin,45,49,7071,73,168,
listeningin,165
middleoutapproach,7880
andmoralimagination,29
mysteriousjourneyof,164
peripheralvisionin,120
platformsfor,4749,85,128
post-accord,4345,5253
professionalchallenges,17377
reductionismin,12425
riskin,29,3940
serendipityin,11920,125
Sarajevo,15556
Sawatsky,Jarem,140,145,186
UnitedNations,1617
UnitedStates,25,14546,172
Constitution,155
InstituteofPeacePress,vii
NASA,27
verticalcapacity,denition,183
violence,geographyof,53,58,62,101,
103,1089
vocation,24,39,6162,163,165,167
69,175
denition,183
voice,4,10,24,26,35,39,5962,66,
103,13334,140,143,149,16567,
169,176,180
locationof,166

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