Fifty Strategies For Teaching English

Чтобы посмотреть этот PDF файл с форматированием и разметкой, скачайте его и откройте на своем компьютере.
Manipulatives Strategies
Using Objects to Connect Concepts
learning. Although they are most often used in math and science, they can be very helpful in sup-
porting language understanding in other subject areas. For manipulatives to be used effectively the
teacher must demonstrate their use, while simultaneously modeling the connection to academic lan-
the human body, which can be disassembled for study, or nonrepresentative manipulatives such as
are often used to support the development of academic vocabulary, while nonrepresentative manip-
ulatives are used to explain and illustrate an abstract concept such as number. (See Figure 10.1for
suggestions for using manipulatives.)
The steps in the use of manipulatives are the following:

Identify concepts to be taught and ways to represent them
Identify the concept to be
a teaching plan that employs a demonstration of the concept using the manipulatives as examples.

Demonstrate and explain
Demonstrate the use of the manipulatives as you explain the
concept to the students. Use the demonstration to connect the manipulative, the concept, and any
new vocabulary. Model the way you expect the students to use the manipulatives.

Provide guided practice
Provide guided practice in the use of the manipulatives. Walk the
students through the procedure to be used, demonstrating how to use the manipulatives and con-
necting the manipulatives to the vocabulary to be learned.

Give students time for additional practice
Give the students time to use the manipula-
tives independently while you circulate around the classroom observing, giving feedback, and scaf-
folding language usage.

Celebrate and review
Celebrate the students demonstration of learning, again taking the
opportunity to connect the manipulatives to the vocabulary and concepts learned.
Integrated Curriculum
Using Authentic Projects to
Integrate Content Knowledge
integrated curriculum project
(Meyers, 1993) is an approach to planning curriculum in which
knowledge and skills in several curricular areas are combined to accomplish an authentic task. The
studies are integrated, usually around an active-learning project, so that the students are learning
vocabulary and having experiences that demonstrate the need to use knowledge in multiple disci-
ways. There is no attempt to bring all subject areas into the project. An authentic project is accom-
This approach is appropriate for English language learners because of the use of vocabulary in
multiple contexts and the focus on authentic projects, which embed the language in real tasks. In
addition, the work that is done in an integrated curriculum project is almost always done with coop-
engaging in activities that require communication (Kohn, 2004).
The steps in implementing integrated curriculum projects are the following:

Identify an authentic project opportunity
Be alert to curriculum possibilities related to
science and social studies curricula; national or local news events; and service project needs in the
school, community, or your own classroom. If no ideas emerge from that approach, interview your
would you like to learn about? For further suggestions see Figure 39.1.
Involve students in project planning. This will enhance their intrinsic motivation. Present the
project or possible projects and engage students in brainstorming ideas about what might be accom-
plished. It is very important for students to be enthusiastic about the project and perceive opportu-
nities to really accomplish things.

Relate the project to grade-level and ESL standards
While you plan the curricular con-
nections, required vocabulary, and key lessons, keep in mind the concepts that students will need to
Predictable Routines and Signals
Predictable routines and signals save a lot of time in the classroom because a short signal or standard
which is especially important for English learners.
collaboration. When she thinks that the assignment is one that her English language learners can handle
on their own, she doesnt write the names on the assignment paper.
collaborative work is acceptable. She also has some lessons that she records and the English lan-
guage learners are instructed to use the listening station to listen to the tape and follow the directions
step-by-step. Her English language learners know when she wants them to move to the listening sta-
tion because Ms. Newsome simply hands a tape to Joaquin, which signals that it is his job to go by
and tap the others on the shoulder. Ms. Newsome doesnt have to say a word.
Strategies on Video
Predictable Routines and Signals
Watch Segment 2 of the DVD that accompanies this text to see predictable routines demon-
strated in a kindergarten and a fourth-grade classroom. Ask yourself these questions:
How do the routines differ in the different grade levels?
Which of these routines would I use in my own classroom?
How do the teachers help the students to understand and respond to the routines and
What did you learn about the teachers as they talked about their classroom routines?
Examples of Approximation Behaviors Related to the TESOLStandards
Pre-K3 students will:
restate information given.
give or ask for permission.
48 students will:
follow directions from modeling.
associate labeled realia with
912 students will:
ask for information and
negotiate solutions to problems.
Krashen, S.(1982).
Principles and practice in second language acquisition
. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Krashen, S., & Terrell, T.(1983).
The natural approach: Language acquisition in the classroom.
Oxford: Pergamon Press.
About the Authors
Adrienne Herrell
is a visiting professor at Florida State University.
She taught classes in early literacy, assessment, and strategies for
teaching English language learners at California State University,
50 Strategies for Teaching English
Language Learners,
Fourth Edition, is Dr. Herrells 15th book for
Pearson. Her other previous books include
Camcorder in the
with Joel Fowler;
Reective Planning, Teaching, and
Evaluation: K

with Judy Eby and Michael Jordan; and
Fifty Active
Learning Strategies for Improving Vocabulary, Fluency, and
with Michael Jordan. Dr.Herrells writing and
research are built on her experiences teaching in Floridas public
schools for 23 years. She and coauthor Dr. Jordan are engaged in
research in public schools in California, Florida, and Alaska
to validate the effectiveness of the strategies described in this text.
Michael Jordan
Fresnohas taught primary grades through high school in Georgia,
Alabama, Florida, and California. Dr. Jordan is an actor, education
director, and former B-52 pilot. He and Dr.Herrell incorporate many
dramatic reenactment strategies in their joint research working with
vocabulary and comprehension development in children learning
English in public schools.
50Strategies for Teaching English Language
Fourth Edition, is Dr. Jordans eighth book for Pearson. His
other previous books include
Reective Planning, Teaching, and
Evaluation: K

with Judy Eby and Adrienne Herrell; and
Active Learning Strategies for Improving Vocabulary, Fluency, and
35 Classroom Management Strategies: Promoting
Learning and Building Community
with Adrienne Herrell. He has
published several articles on interactive script writing and vocabulary
development to enhance reading comprehension for children.
Drs. Herrell and Jordan
serve as educational consultants to a
number of school districts across the nation and have presented
widely on the subject of reading and comprehension at national and
international conferences.
Interactive Comprehension Building:
Using Technology to Build Background Knowledge
Its Alive and Well
Its Alive and Well
Next Slide
Animals in the Water
Animals in the Water

Our ocean is teeming with animal life.
Our ocean is teeming with animal life.

There are fish
There are fish

There are mammals
There are
Animals in the Water
Animals in the Water

Lots of other strange looking creatures
Lots of other strange looking creatures
Animals in the Water
Animals in the Water

Join me in exploring the ocean depths
Join me in exploring the ocean depths
Animals in the Water
Animals in the Water

Thanks for joining me in my underwater
Thanks for joining me in my underwater
Title Slide (notice the button in the lower right corner to advance
to the next slide).
If students click on the word
on this slide they
will be automatically taken to a document containing additional
information and pictures of mammals that live in the ocean.
links above, they will be taken to exciting sites containing a
wealth of pictures and information about sea life.
The final slide ends the presentation and directs the student back
to the beginning slides.
An Example of a PowerPoint Support Document Used to Build
Language Focus Lessons
Support English Vocabulary and Structure Acquisition
Ellis, R.(2006). Current issues in the teaching of grammar: An SLA perspective.
TESOL Quarterly,
(1), 83107.
Gibbons, P.(1993).
Learning to learn in a second language.
Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Strategies on Video
Language Focus Lessons
Segment 5 of the DVD that accompanies this text shows a middle schoolfocused language
lesson. As you watch this segment, ask yourself these questions:
How does Ms. Salazar make the purpose of the lesson clear to her students?
Why did she decide to teach this lesson?
Examples of Approximation Behaviors Related to the TESOLStandards
Pre-K3 students will:
form and ask questions related to
gather and organize materials
48 students will:
nd and use information from
edit and revise written assignments.
912 students will:
take and support a position on an
assigned topic.
prepare for and participate in an
oral report or debate.
Multiple Intelligences
Teaching and Testing to Student-
Preferred Learning Modes
Multiple intelligences
(Gardner, 1993) are the ways people are smartthe modes in which they
process information effectively. Though traditionally teachers have taught only two intelligences in
intelligences are well
researched and documented, and others are currently being documented (Gardner 2006). Although
all people possess all intelligences at varying levels, it is helpful for teachers to present content mate-
It is equally important to encourage students to demonstrate their understanding of content in a
format consistent with their strong intelligences. Using knowledge of multiple intelligences and being
exible in planning instruction and assessment is one way of supporting students to be more suc-
cessful in the classroom. Using knowledge of multiple intelligences strategies is especially benecial
to English language learners since allowing them to learn and demonstrate their understanding in the
mode in which they are most condent serves to lower the affective lter and boost their self-esteem
and motivation. See Figure 8.1for an explanation of the eight intelligences currently documented.
The steps to implement the use of multiple intelligence approaches for teaching and assessing are the

Explain multiple intelligences
Introduce the concept of multiple intelligences to your stu-
dents. Depending on their ages you might use the actual labels for the intelligences, the denitions
and examples, or simply talk about people being smart in different ways, while using the body-
smart, people-smart, and self-smart labels to help them understand the concept. Explain that
class that you will be giving them some choices in the way they study and the way they show you
that they are learning.

Adjust lessons and assessments to student intelligences
Assume that the students in
dents a choice in the way they study and the way they document their understandings. See Figure
8.2for suggestions on how to allow this exibility.
Advance Organizers
Advance organizers
(Ausubel, 1963) are brief presentations of abstract concepts given before a les-
to be presented. The form these organizers take should depend on the age, developmental level, and
existing knowledge of the learner. Two forms of advance organizers can be used, depending on the
nature of the material to be presented. An
expository organizer
is designed to present concepts
new material to be learned. This form of organizer is used when the new material is quite unfamil-
iar. When the material to be learned is somewhat more familiar, a
comparative organizer
can be
used. This form of organizer serves to integrate new material with similar material already understood
by the learner and focuses on how the new and known material differ. This is particularly important
when the new material may be confused with the previously known material (Newell, 1984).
Attention to the developmental levels and previous knowledge of the learners is very important
when advance organizers are designed (Ausubel, 1963). The use of advance organizers with English
language learners is particularly effective because their design builds on the past experiences of the
learner and provides bridges to the new material being taught. Because the developmental levels of
the learners are critical to the design of advance organizers, appropriate formats for organizers are
shown in Figure 37.1.
The steps in designing and using advance organizers are the following:

Identify the main concepts in a lesson
Identify the main concepts or understandings the
students must master in the lesson. Thinking about the previous knowledge and experiences of the
students, develop a way to connect this previous knowledge to the new information.

Design a way to connect prior knowledge to the new concepts
Design a visual, hands-
on learning experience or discussion topic that will encourage the use of known vocabulary and
The 13 strategies included in this section encourage teachers to support English learners as they
acquire reading and writing skills while improving vocabulary and uency in English. Beginning with
strategies to support students as they move into reading, approaches are provided for helping stu-
dents understand the way the English language works, for helping them to process written informa-
tion, and for using free reading to increase their background knowledge and reading uency.
material, vocabulary, and concepts being taught, it is important that teachers know what their stu-
dents know and can do and that they build on this knowledge. The strategies included in this sec-
tion demonstrate how to obtain this knowledge and use it effectively to differentiate instruction.
The research on teaching literacy skills to second-language learners emphasizes the quality of
instruction, the importance of interactions, and active participation. The value of extensive interaction
with English reading materials, particularly verbal interaction about the material read, is extremely
positive (Shanahan & Beck, 2006).
ness, phonics, oral reading uency, comprehension, and writing skills are all acquired over time and
require innovative instruction and active participation.
The strategies included in this section are designed to actively involve the students and to pro-
vide them with the support they need to be successful. The involvement of students in acquiring self-
for themselves and understand that their efforts and self-evaluation are important elements of success
in literacy.
Shanahan, T., & Beck, I.(2006). Effective literacy teaching for English-language learners. In D. August
& T. Shanahan (Eds.),
Developing literacy in second-language learners: Report of the national
literacy panel on language-minority children and youth.
Mahwah, NJ: Center for Applied
Strategies for Literacy
BostonColumbusIndianapolisNew YorkSan FranciscoUpper Saddle River
AmsterdamCape TownDubaiLondonMadridMilanMunichParisMontrealToronto
DelhiMexico CitySao PauloSydneyHong KongSeoulSingaporeTaipeiTokyo
Strategies for
Teaching English
Language Learners
Adrienne L.Herrell
Florida State University
California State University, Fresno, Emeritus
Educational Partnerships, Panama City, Florida
Educational Partnerships, Panama City, Florida
Story Reenactment
Making Stories Come to Life!
Story reenactment
is a strategy that encourages students to act out stories after they have read them
or have heard them read. This strategy involves creating props for the students to use in reenacting
text by acting it out in sequence.
Props for story reenactment may consist of costumes for the students to wear or prop boxes con-
taining props made of clay, annel, or laminated photos which may have been scanned from maga-
active involvement of the students in discussing the stories and creating the needed props.
The steps in story reenactment are the following:

Read the story
Read a story to the students or have them read the story independently.

need to accurately reenact the story.

Gather or make the props
Provide materials for the students to use in creating the props
for the prop box. The materials might be clay, dough for baked-dough art, felt, or drawing materials.
Encourage the students to sign up for the props they will make. See Figure 19.1for instructions for
making dough-art props. Overhead transparencies can be created which can be projected onto the

Store the props
After the props are made, painted, and sealed, decorate a shoe box in
which to store the props. The box can be labeled with a photograph of the cover of the book so the
students can easily identify the story props.

act the stories, working in pairs or small groups.

using the book language and vocabulary. This is a good opportunity to document language usage
main events, characters, and inference.
Moving into Reading
Using Multiple Strategies to Foster Comprehension
Example of a Story Map
:Megan Bateman, 4thgrade, Thomas Lake Elementary School, Eagan, Minnesota.
Used with permission.
Applications and Examples
Ms. Baker has been using interactive read-aloud
with her kindergarten class as she reads the
Curious George
books (Rey, 1941). She uses
different voices for George, the other animals,
and the man in the yellow hat. She stops and
interacts with the students as she encounters
Repeated Reading
Using Script Writing and
Readers Theatre
Repeated reading of familiar text
(Tompkins, 2006) is one of the most effective ways to support
students as they develop uency and comprehension. An approach that engages students in writing
Even though readers theater scripts have long been available commercially, supporting students
as they write their own scripts using favorite storybooks provides many opportunities for literacy
growth (Herrell & Jordan, 2006). The storybook chosen for writing the script is read and reread in the
process of the script writing activity. The script is read and reread as the characters are developed
and the readers theater is practiced.
The steps in script writing and readers theater are the following:

Select a book
Choose a book that will be interesting to both you and the students. Make sure
you match the book to the students English development levels and their ages. Books with lots of dia-
logue are best for the beginning script writing activity but later, as students further develop writing and
language skills, they will enjoy creating the dialogue for characters who do not speak in the original

Read the book aloud
Use Read-Aloud Plus (Chapter 26) to engage the students in discus-
sion and interaction as you read the book. Explore the vocabulary as a part of the discussion of the

Demonstrate the format for writing a script
Start by showing how dialogue is written in
different literary formats. Draw a simple cartoon with speech balloons to show who is talking. Write a
simple sentence including dialogue to show how you have to indicate who is talking and then put their
words in quotes to show exactly what they are saying. Then model the writing of a script with the char-
acters name at the left margin and the words to be spoken indented to the right. See Figure 36.1for an
example of this step.
Creating Visual Pictures to Support Understanding
Applications and Examples
Mr. Fernandezs third graders are trying to gure
out some difcult word problems in math. These
problems are especially difcult for English learn-
ers because they rely heavily on language com-
The rst problem gives the following
Jan and Bob are cousins. Jan is 6 years old and
Bob is 4 years older. Jan has a brother whose
name is David. David is a year older than Jan
but younger than Bob. Bob has a sister named
Carol who is 2 years younger than Jan. Which
of the cousins is the oldest? Who is the
youngest? How old is each of the cousins?
Mr. Fernandez reads the problem aloud to
the class and says, This is a new kind of prob-
lem. There is a lot of information given but its
hard to keep track of it all. I nd that it helps to
create a picture to see if I have all the informa-
tion I need to solve the problem. When I read
the rst sentence, I picture Jan as a little 6-year-
old girl. I picture Bob as a tall 10-year-old boy.
I know Bob is 10 because the problem says he
is 4 years older than Jan. In my mind I see Jan
and Bob. They look like this. Mr. Fernandez
draws a stick gure of Jan and Bob.
Now, the next part says that Jan has a
brother named David, who is a year older than
she is. That makes him 7. In my mind I now see
Jan, David, and Bob. Mr. Fernandez draws
David and points to each of the stick gures as
he says this. So far I know that Jan is 6, David is
7, and Bob is 10. I can picture them in my mind.
Now it says that Bobs sister Carol is 2 years
younger than Jan. That makes her 4 years old.
I can picture her in my mind. Mr. Fernandez
adds Carol to the picture. (See Figure 29.2for
Mr. Fernandezs picture.)
Now I have all the information I need to
answer the questions, Mr. Fernandez smiles.
Now you try it. Ill read the next problem: Ms.
Garcia has three children, Jose, Maria, and Lidia.
Each of them is exactly 2 years older than the
next younger one. Jose is the eldest and Lidia is
the youngest. If Maria is 8 years old, how old are
Jose and Lidia?
As Mr. Fernandez moves around the room,
he notices that several of the children have their
eyes closed and are talking to themselves. They
begin to write down numbers and names as
they see the pictures in their minds. Gabriella is
drawing pictures on her paper. Mr. Fernandez
stops to talk to Gabriella.
I see you have Maria drawn on your
paper. Mr. Fernandez says. How old is she?
Eight, Gabriella says as she writes the
number under the picture of Maria. But thats
the only one I know.
OK, Mr. Fernandez says. What else do
you know?
Mr. Fernandezs Picture
Theory to Practice Connection
The old saying a picture is worth a
thousand words is very true. When
readers or listeners can visualize new
vocabulary, the words are more easily
understood and remembered (Harvey
& Goudvis, 2000).
Handheld Computers
and Smartphones
Applications In and Out
of the Classroom
As new technologies become available, it is important for teachers to be aware of the many ways in
which they can be used in classroom projects and outside the classroom for projects traditionally
computing technologies converge to produce powerful mobile devices that offer a wide range of
applications. These devices include new generation cell phones or smartphones such as Apple
of small or micro laptop computers, and even personal digital assistants (PDAs) like Palms Treo have
found their way into the classroom as well. Some schools and districts have recognized these devices
The advantages these devices have over traditional computing technologies are their broad avail-
ability, popular foundation for software, and their mobility. Many students, especially in secondary
grades, already have these devices as parents see an advantage of always being able to contact their
kids. As these devices have exploded in popularity, software manufacturers and open source develop-
ers have recognized the need to produce software that expands their functionality. Also, because these
devices can be taken anywhere, information and teachable moments are always present, with support
materials for a number of excursions into the real world. See Figure 50.1for examples of ways in which

Explore the list of available applications
Each device will have its own website and
tutorial. For an example,visit the iPhone website at
Explore the applications to see which would support projects in your classroom by providing mobile
Advance Organizers
Bilingual Books and Labels
Cohesion Links
Collecting and Processing Words
Cooperative Learning
Free Voluntary Reading
Graphic Organizers
Guided Reading
Interactive Comprehension Building
Language Focus Lessons
Learning Centers
Learning Strategy Instruction
Leveled Questions
Modeled Talk
Moving into Reading
Multiple Intelligences Strategies
Read, Pair, Share
Repeated Readings
Reporting Back
Scaffolding English Writing
Sorting Activities
Syntax Surgery
Total Physical Response
Visual Scaffolding
Vocabulary Role-Play
Wiki Building
Collecting and
Processing Words
Making Vocabulary Your Own
Collecting words
and writing vocabularies. It also serves to support their understanding of the nuances of words that
have the same or similar meanings. Research clearly indicates that the development of extensive
vocabulary and understanding of word meanings is essential to successful and uid comprehension
in reading and verbal interactions (Allen, 2000). By collecting words, students are constantly build-
ing a repertoire of words and word meanings that will serve to increase their understanding of oral
language as well as stories, and improve and strengthen their spoken vocabulary and eventually their
writing skills.
Collecting words involves making charts of words discovered by the children as they listen to or
read stories or as they listen to and participate in conversations. Charting the words serves to support
students understanding of word meanings as the words are categorized, acted out, or connected to
objects and context. Word charts provide a record of the words students acquire as they add to their
collections, as well as act as a reference for the students and their classmates. As students locate and
add words to the charts, they are responsible for helping other students understand the meanings
andnuances of the new words. This may be accomplished through simple explanations, or may
require more elaborate visualizations such as drawing, miming, or acting out to demonstrate the
word meanings.
While the words are being collected on charts within the classroom, the children are engaged in
nding ways to process or use the new words. As they discover new words, the children are encour-
aged to nd ways to use the words and report back to the teacher and other students to show how
day for word study, with part of this time spent discussing the ways in which the new words have
been used by the children. In kindergarten and beginning rst grade this is done orally or by having
the teacher take the childrens dictation to document the word usage in a double-entry journal cre-
ated by the class. As the children are able to write for themselves they take over the writing of the
journal. See Figure 17.1for an example of a double-entry word journal.
Bilingual Books and Labels
Supporting Biliteracy Awareness
Books and labels
written in two or more languages, including English, are appropriate for use in
bilingual or multilingual classes for several reasons. First, they validate the students home languages
and allow them to use their knowledge of the home language to support their understanding of texts.
Books and labels written in the home languages of students introduce some of the students native
culture to the classroom. They also provide opportunities for all the students in a class to be exposed
to multiple ways of expressing thoughts and value systems. In classrooms where students have
learned to read and write in their rst languages, labels and books in those languages provide access
to information. Some books contain an entire text, written in two languages, and support the trans-
fer of reading ability from the home language into English.
In classrooms where the students do not read and write in their native languages, bilingual books
and labels in the students home language provide some exposure to the written systems of the native
languages and to the customs and traditions of multiple cultures. Some books may encourage parents
to read and discuss the books with their children. There are now many books available in which the
cultures are depicted by stories, in English, with some samples of common expressions in the rst lan-
guage added for a taste of the language. For example, in the poem I Am Cucaracha (Johnston, 1996),
the Spanish words
por favor
are integrated into the English version and serve to
add a Spanish lilt to the rhyme and rhythm. Many of these books, while not truly bilingual books, are
written by authors familiar with the cultures about which they are writing and are very helpful in sup-
porting multicultural studies in the classroom (Tomlinson & Lynch-Brown, 1996). See Figure 31.1for
a listing of some of these books.
The steps for implementing the use of bilingual books and labels are the following:

Identify the languages represented in the classroom
represented in your classroom and the stages of English development achieved by each student.

Pronounce and label common objects
Provide opportunities for the students to verbalize
the words for common items in the classroom using their home language. Involve the students in
writing and placing labels for items around the classroom. For example, the words
door, la puerta
Finding Key Words
and Main Ideas
The ability to nd the key words in individual sentences, also called
is a prerequisite
for students understanding how to nd the main idea in longer reading passages (Baumann, 1982). By
beginning with individual sentences, students nd success and gradually transfer this ability to longer
text passages. The ability to locate key words in sentences and main ideas in passages are critical skills
tize the information read. Once they can identify the main idea, they are more likely to be able to para-
phrase the meaning of a sentence rather than having to memorize it as written.
Microselection is done at the sentence level and practiced in several ways before it is expanded into
nding the main idea in paragraphs and whole passages. Students are taught rst to identify important
key words and then to paraphrase the meaning of a sentence. They are taught to identify words for
which they have limited or no understanding and ways to nd meanings. The use of resources like dic-
Although microselection (Irwin, 1991) involves the understanding of individual words, phrases, and sen-
tences, the skills of identifying key words and paraphrasing are important to comprehension at the para-
graph and whole-selection level as well. This is especially valuable for English learners.
The steps in teaching microselection are the following:

Introduce the concept of microselection
Explain that understanding the meanings of
important words in a sentence is very important in understanding the whole sentence. No one can
be expected to remember every word heard or read but by identifying the important words in a sen-
tence, it is easier to be able to understand and talk about the meaning of the sentence. Being able to
talk about the important concepts in a sentence is more valuable, and easier, than having to memo-

Model the identication of key words
Read a sentence from a reading selection required
of the students. For example, using the social studies text, you might read, The role of women in
industry changed dramatically due to their widespread participation in traditional male jobs during
Strategies to Encourage Active Involvement
Strategies on Video
Cooperative Learning
A cooperative learning training activity is shown on Segment 8 of the DVD that accompa-
nies this text. As you view this segment, think about the following:
How does the teacher make her expectations clear?
How does she provide support and encouragement for the English learners?
Why do you think the teacher keeps up a running commentary?
What do you think she would have done if one student was being excluded from the
Cohen, E.(1994).
Designing groupwork
(2nd ed.). New York: Teachers College Press.
Herrell, A., & Fowler, J.(1997).
Camcorder in the classroom: Using a video camera to enrich cur-
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall.
Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R., & Holubec, E.(2002).
Circles of learning: cooperation in the classroom
(5th ed.). Edina, MN: InteractionBook Company.
Kagan, S.(1989).
Cooperative learning: Resources for teachers.
San Juan Capistrano, CA: Resources
for Teachers.
Leki, I.(2001). A narrow thinking system: Non-native English-speaking students in group projects
across the curriculum.
TESOL Quarterly, 35
(1), 3963.
Meyers, M.(1993).
Teaching to diversity.
Toronto, Canada: Irwin Publishing.
Examples of Approximation Behaviors Related to the TESOLStandards
Pre-K3 students will:
use social language to request
follow rules to interact in a small
48 students will:
actively participate in assigned
cooperative learning tasks.
understand and perform a
denedcooperative learning
912 students will:
select, connect, and explain
information through cooperative
group interaction.
assume a role in the presentation
of group outcomes.
Strategies for Literacy Development
Button, K., Johnson, M., & Furgerson, P.(1996). Interactive writing in a primary classroom.
Reading Teacher, 49,
Evans, L.(2008). Literacy issues for English learners: Making connections. In J. Govoni (Ed.),
Perspectives on teaching K12 English language learners
(2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson
Graves, D.(1983).
Writing: Teachers and children at work.
Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Herrell, A., & Jordan, M.(2007).
50 strategies for teaching English language learners
(3rd ed.). Upper
Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall/Pearson.
Tompkins, G., & Collom, S.(2003).
Sharing the pen: Interactive writing with young children.
Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall/Pearson.
Vygotsky, L.(1962).
Thought and language.
Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Strategies on Video
Writing Workshop
Your visit a rst-grade writing workshop in segment 11 of the DVD that accompanies this
text. As you view this segment, think about the following :
How does Ms. Leonard build on the studentss prior experience to create a writing plan?
What resources are available to the children in the classroom to support their success?
How does the teacher nd time to provide extra support for student who need it?
How does the celebration circle add to the students understanding of what constitutes
good writing?
speak language, and read language. Technology can play an integral part in providing English learn-
ers with valuable language experiences as they are acquiring a new language (Ybarra & Green, 2003).
Technology strategies have been integrated throughout this text. They are identied by an icon
in the margin of the text so that they can be easily identied. This nal section of the text contains
four additional strategies that can be used to support the learning of English learners. They may be
used independently or integrated with other strategies discussed in the text.
Technology is expanding so rapidly worldwide that teachers must dedicate themselves to stay-
ing current on all the wonderful ways in which they can be implemented in the classroom. The infor-
development, supporting their growth in both written and oral English. Oral and written practice pro-
grams are valuable in providing effective practice for students while the teacher works individually
or in small groups with others.
ciation models. Visit the Drake Educational Associates website ( for a
description of this valuable resource.
Because so many teachers do not speak the home language of their students, translation pro-
grams are valuable resources to help teachers identify key words in the home language when prepar-
ing lessons. See a demonstration of one such program, Babel Fish.
For beginning English learners LeapFrog Schoolhouse offers
Language First!,
which includes
valuable resources such as an assessment and placement guide, teaching strategies cards, language
description of this program.
Ybarra, R., & Green, T.(2003). Using technology to help ESL/EFL students develop language skills.
(3). Available from
Technology Strategies for
English Learners
Syntax Surgery
Visually Manipulating English Grammer
Syntax surgery is a strategy for making English syntax visible to the students. By using written diagrams
as Mr. Reynolds does or cutting sentences apart as Ms. Newsome does, students can both see and hear
the differences in the word order in English or separate the thoughts within a complex sentence. By using
several avenues to reinforce the English syntax, the students understanding and memory are supported.
Strategies on Video
Syntax Surgery
Middle school students perform syntax surgery in Segment 14 of the DVD. As you watch
this lesson, think about the following:

How was the lesson planned so that students addressed the irregular verbs several times?

Why would cutting out the incorrect verb help the students to remember that they are

What other grammar and syntax lesson could be addressed using this strategy?
Examples of Approximation Behaviors Related to the TESOLStandards
Pre-K3 students will:
arrange word cards to create an
English sentence.
add descriptive words to sentences
in appropriate places.
48 students will:
expand sentences to include a
sequence of adjectives or adverbs
in appropriate places within the
revise sentences to improve
comprehensibility and ow.
912 students will:
visually represent connections
of appropriate connectives.
Baines, K.(1996).
Malorys Le Morte dArthur.
New York: Penguin Books.
Baltra, A.(1998).
Hispanic ESL students reading in English: The language problem.
manuscript. Fresno: California State University, Fresno.
Herrell, A.(1998).
Strategies for supporting English language learners as readers.
Manuscript submit-
ted for publication.
San Souci, R. D.(1996).
Young Lancelot.
New York: Doubleday.
Swain, M.(1993). The output hypothesis: Just speaking and writing arent enough.
The Canadian
Modern Language Review, 50,
Closing the Achievement Gap
continuous improvement model,
is currently being used with great success in many
sequence that includes the following elements:
Warm-upThis is a review of previously taught material to support the students use of back-
ground knowledge. It also supports maintenance of skills, concepts, and strategies.
Lesson for the dayNew material is introduced and guided practice provided. This may
involve several cycles of instruction, modeling, and guided practice. Guided practice means
Independent practiceStudents are given the opportunity to use the material independently.
The teachers are still monitoring but instruction and support is more limited.
which students are ready to move forward. If most students need more instruction additional
lessons are planned. If a small group of students need additional instruction a tutorial is pro-
vided specically for them. If a small group of students is ready for enrichment activities those
are also provided.
This model is based on the premise that all students can learn and that additional instruction must
be planned and provided for those who need it. Teachers work in teams to provide the tutorials and
enrichment activities their students need. Time is scheduled at the end of each school day (and some-
times after school) to make sure each student experiences success and continuous improvement. This
model is described in depth in
Closing the Achievement Gap: No Excuses
(Davenport & Anderson, 2002)
and was rst instituted in the Brazosport Independent School District (ISD) in Brazosport, Texas. It has
since been used in many school districts across the United States with great success. Once the
The Brazosport teachers raised their expectations and restructured their programs and the result
was an amazing turn-around for all students, including at-risk students in the district. The high school
with the highest percentage of low-income students and dropouts eventually outscored the high
school that traditionally led the district in achievement. They also lowered their dropout rate from
6.7percent to less than 0.01 percent and their discipline referrals from about 30 percent to about
Learning Centers
Extending Learning Through
Hands-On Practice
Learning centers
are places in the classroom where the students can engage in hands-on activities
that allow them to obtain additional experience in using new skills, expand skills usage to more
closely match their individual needs, and work cooperatively with other students. Learning centers
who need expanded verbal interaction or hands-on practice to enhance their learning. See Figure 5.1
for suggestions of ways in which learning centers can be used in the classroom.
The steps in implementing learning centers in the classroom are the following:

Identify skills to be practiced
Identify skills that have already been taught in which the
and meaningful practice in the use of those skills.

Introduce the centers
Introduce the centers to the students, making sure that you demon-
strate how they are to use the materials, what your expectations are for the activities, and how the
students work will be assessed. Display the rules and expectations in the centers so that the students
understand that center work is a part of their assigned job and will contribute toward their course
grade. The rules for moving from one center to the next should also be discussed and modeled. Rules
about cleaning up materials before moving to the next center should be made clear.

Document the center work
tion in centers. This can be as simple as a list of names at the required centers, a contract form on
which they place all center work done each day. The students have to understand the requirements
and the ways in which the center work will be assessed. Make sure your expectations are very clear
as to which centers are required and which are optional.

Bring students up to date
Whenever centers are changed, repeat the explanation and
model the steps so that students understand what is required. Centers should be changed regularly
Scaffolding English Writing
Matching Instruction to Language Development
It rain.
Oh, it was raining. Was it raining when you started to school?
It rain when we walk.
It no rain when we walk rst.
Can I write, It wasnt raining when we started walking to school?
Yes, no rain.
(Writes, speaking the words as she writes them.)
Example of Modeled Writing
Using Context to Create Meaning
Cloze activities
are based on written text in which some words are left out and blanks are inserted.
Cloze paragraphs are often used to assess reading comprehension because the word choices students
make provide the teacher with an opportunity to evaluate their understanding of the meaning of the
text. Cloze activities, when used with English language learners, provide an opportunity to teach
English vocabulary and reading decoding skills in a meaningful context (Hinkel, 2006). When done in
pairs or small groups these activities also provide an opportunity for students to discuss their choices
and justify their selection of words.
Teacher-designed cloze activities are especially valuable because they can be adapted to the spe-
cic needs and language levels of students. Based on observation of students oral reading or running
records, a teacher is able to identify students who are not using cross-checking of phonological and
meaning cues. Creating paragraphs with words left out requires students to use multiple sources of
information, such as context, to predict words that make sense in the paragraph. Cloze sentences can
also demonstrate to students that they dont have to be able to read every word of a paragraph to
understand its meaning.
The context of the sentence, in combination with phonic and syntax cues, is very helpful in sup-
paragraph can be used to provide practice adapted to individual student needs.
The steps in using cloze activities are the following:

Observe student reading behaviors
Observe your students as they read and note their
use of phonological, meaning, and syntax cues as well as their self-monitoring. Also note the cate-
gories of the words that seem to be giving them difculty. A running record is an easy way to do this.
(See Figure 27.2 in Chapter 27for an example of a running record.)

Group students for instruction

Prepare a cloze paragraph by choosing
Leveled Questions
Adjusting Questioning Strategies to
the Language Levels of Students
Leveled questions
are used when teachers adapt the way they ask questions so that students can
respond to them according to their language acquisition stage (Krashen & Terrell, 1983; Haley &
Austin, 2004). To level questions, a teacher must observe students and note how they interact in
English. Once the teacher knows the level at which a student interacts in English, the questions the
teacher poses to the student can be adjusted to ensure the students success in answering. This may
involve the teacher using gestures or visuals, or slowing his or her speech slightly while asking the
question. The teacher asks the question in a way that encourages the student to answer by pointing
dents level of language acquisition. To use this strategy effectively, the teacher must know the stu-
dents level of English acquisition and provide enough context in the question so that the student can
respond, either verbally or nonverbally, with understanding and condence.
The steps in using leveled questions are the following:

Observe and document students language levels
preproduction stage, early production stage, speech emergent stage, or intermediate uency stage.
See Figure 16.1 for a description of students English prociency at each of these stages. This list will
need to be kept up-to-date as you work with the students and observe their responses.

Choose and gather materials
need to make your meaning clear to the students whose understanding of English is limited. Gather
these support materials to use during the presentation of the lesson and your questioning. Remember
that English language learners feel more comfortable participating when they have ways to demon-
strate their understanding with visuals and support materials.

Plan a hierarchy of questions
Plan a series of questions that will help you involve your
Visual Scaffolding
Providing Language Support Through Visual Images
Genesee, F.(Ed.). (1999).
Program alternatives for linguistically diverse students.
Practice Report 1). Santa Cruz, CA, & Washington, DC: Center for Research on Education, Diversity,
& Excellence.
McCauley, D.(1976).
Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Examples of Approximation Behaviors Related to the TESOLStandards
Pre-K3 students will:
ask questions to satisfy personal
48 students will:
work in cooperative groups and
follow task roles.
paraphrase directions given orally
or in writing.
912 students will:
use verbal communication to
identify expectations for class
assist in oral presentations as
Strategies on Video
Visual Scaffolding
on Segment 3 of the DVD that accompanies this text. After you view this segment, ask your-
self these questions:
How can I use this technique to improve the quality of one of my lessons?
How does using visual scaffolding add to vocabulary instruction?
What are some of the barriers to using visual scaffolding? How can I overcome these
Guided Reading
Providing Individual Support
Guided reading
ting, while providing individual coaching. The students are taught in groups of four to six, all read-
levels, their use of cueing systems (attention to phonics, meaning, word order, sentence structure,
ing sense.
A guided reading lesson begins with a book walk, in which the students and teacher look
through the book and predict what will happen. It then progresses through multiple readings of the
book with students reading to themselves at their own pace. During this time, the teacher moves
from child to child in the group, listening to each one read and coaching him or her on decoding,
self-monitoring, and comprehension strategies. This coaching is done by asking each student ques-
tions like, Does that word start with a
? or Does that make sense? The students continue to read
until each child has been coached.
Teachers then conduct minilessons based on the needs of the students identied during the
need support in understanding what they have read. Vocabulary is discussed, clarifying and relating
it to the story, the illustrations, and the students background experiences. The group may then
engage in writing, phonics, or other skills activities.
The guided reading approach is appropriate for English language learners because of the focus
on vocabulary development, individual instruction, and opportunities for verbal interactions. Because
the English language learners participate in a group discussion of the story and the vocabulary
may be different from the native English speakers, the individual coaching provides the teacher with
an opportunity to support their understanding, correct pronunciation, and clarify word meaning and
misconceptions caused by reading in their second language.
Comprehension Building
Using Technology to Build
Background Knowledge
One very effective way to utilize technology in working with English language learners is to build
background knowledge links into written content using a presentation program like Microsoft
PowerPoint. These presentation programs are designed to provide an easy way to create interactive
clips, or vocabulary support such as photographs or rst-language translations. Providing these types
of background information or supports make it possible for the students to go beyond and expand
on the content provided in the presentations themselves. Students often need this additional infor-
to the subjects presented. Extending learning beyond basic knowledge to application can often be
accomplished by adding to the students comprehension and vocabulary base. Through these inter-
active links, students can choose materials to aid them in increasing their grasp of the content pro-
needs. For instance, an individual word might be linked to a le containing pictures or additional
information about the selected word. By clicking on the word, a student might be taken to a picture
of the object or an explanation of the term.
The steps in interactive comprehension building with technology are the following:

Select appropriate material to be presented
Because creating PowerPoint presentations
with active links takes some time and effort, teachers should identify curriculum materials that may
be difcult for English learners and that are directly related to English language development or
content-area standards. Develop PowerPoint presentations that can be utilized on a regular basis rst.
Once you understand how to create these materials you may nd that you will want to add to the
Predictable Routines
and Signals
Predictable routines and signals
in the classroom are among the easiest strategies to implement and
Because English language learners do not always understand everything that is said in the classroom,
follow the sequence of events and activities during the school day. If they know what to expect, they
can focus more of their energy on the instruction and less on what they will be expected to do next.
within the classroom where certain things are stored and accessible to students, a certain spot on the
that gives the routine in sequence, and hand or ashing light signals that indicate the close of one
activity and the beginning of another. See Figure 1.1for a list of predictable routines and signals that
support English language learners in the classroom.
The steps in implementing predictable routines and signals are the following:

reading, and partner work. Establish these areas with the students by modeling their use and asking
questions like, Will you work with other people in this area? or Where will you sit if you want to
read a book by yourself? Use your computer to create clear, legible, large-print signs and graphics
to help guide students.

Establish routines
materials; and keep their book bags, lunch boxes, and other personal belongings. Model putting
these things in the established places.

Model routines
Model each new routine as it is established and be careful to maintain the
routines once theyve been established. Anytime a student shows confusion about a classroom rou-
Vocabulary Role-Play
Building Vocabulary
Through Dramatization
Vocabulary role-play
(Herrell, 1998) is a strategy used to encourage learners to make connections
among their past experiences, the content currently being studied, and vocabulary that is new or being
used in an unfamiliar way. Students are introduced to new vocabulary and given an opportunity to
discuss and use the vocabulary in context through role-playing. Often several groups of students are
given the same vocabulary and asked to write and perform a skit in which the words are used and
demonstrated. Since the groups are likely to write and perform skits in which the vocabulary words
are used in different contexts, the skits serve to show multiple uses of the same words. In this way,
English language learners have an opportunity to see the vocabulary words used in context, as well
as demonstrations of several contexts in which the words may be used appropriately.
The steps in implementing vocabulary role-play are the following:

Identify key vocabulary
reading. Make cards with the words written on them.

Teach the lesson or read the book
As you teach the lesson or read a bookeither read-
ing aloud or having the students readstop as you encounter key vocabulary and discuss and act
out the words. Pronounce the words carefully and have the students practice pronouncing them,
especially if the words contain sounds difcult for them. Be sure to reread the page uently after the

Connect the vocabulary to past experiences
read, show the cards to the class, one by one, and ask the students to talk about ways in which they
have seen the words used. Use this opportunity to explore multiple meanings of words.

Sort the words
Further explore the words by engaging the students in word sorting. Ask
them if any of the words have similar meanings or if any of them are names for thingsnouns.
eral different ways to help the students remember them. See Figure 15.1for a typical word sort.
strategies encourage teachers to think about the ways in which language is used to learn, to partici-
pate in class, and to demonstrate understanding. This section begins with total physical response, used
with the earliest English learners, and progresses through strategies used with higher-level language
students, supporting their comprehension of basic vocabulary development. This process requires stu-
dents to formulate responses in English and practice their newly acquired language skills. Section III
strategies provide approaches for the teacher to focus on the language of the lesson.
Language is vital in
lesson and activity we teach in the classroom. Students must understand
directions, be knowledgeable about appropriate verbal responses, and receive support as they begin
to produce words, phrases, sentences, and questions in their new language. Ellis (2002)makes a case
for the importance of meaningful language in supporting second-language learners. He agrees with
van Lier (1996) that the importance of interaction in acquiring language cannot be overemphasized.
For this reason language development activities must be crafted to include students involvement at
their level of development with support and interaction to help them move forward.
In addition to interaction and active participation, language development activities must include
support for meaningful comprehension. Visuals, realia, gestures, and encouragement are all vital in
supporting students as they participate in and practice verbal interactions and use their newfound
language skills.
Ellis, N.(2002). Frequency effects in language processing: A review with implications for theories of
implicit and explicit language acquisition.
Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 24,
Van Lier, L.(1996).
Interaction in the language curriculum: Awareness, autonomy, & authenticity.
New York: Longman.
Strategies for Language
Building Vocabulary and Concepts
to Support Understanding
(Lessow-Hurley, 1990) is a teaching strategy usually associated with bilingual class-
rooms where a teacher or instructional aide gives a preview of the lesson in the students home lan-
guage. The lesson is then taught in English and the material is reviewed in the home language to
ensure content understanding. This same strategy can be adapted to an English-only classroom by
using realia, visuals, gestures, and vocabulary instruction as a part of the previewmaking reference
to the support materials during the actual lesson, and then reviewing and explaining the content of
the lesson to the students using the support materials. Preview/review is especially effective in facil-
itating content knowledge acquisition because of the contextualization of the academic language
through the use of realia and visuals. See Figure 2.1for suggestions of appropriate support materials
and activities for preview/review lessons. Also see Chapter 37, Advance Organizers, for additional
The steps in a preview/review lesson are the following:

Plan and gather materials
Plan your lesson, identifying key concepts and vocabulary.
Gather any realia, visuals, or support materials that will help students understand the concepts and
vocabulary needed to comprehend the lesson.

Introduce key vocabulary and concepts
Introduce the important vocabulary and key
concepts during the preview section of the lesson using support materials you have gathered. The
focus in this section of the lesson is
on actually teaching the lesson, but on familiarizing students
with key vocabulary and concepts.

Teach the lesson
Teach the actual lesson, referring to the support materials and key vocab-
ulary already introduced during the preview, whenever possible.

Review vocabulary and concepts
Review the key vocabulary and concepts, encouraging
the students to demonstrate understanding by referring to the support materials.

Provide additional practice
dents to practice the key concepts further through use of the support materials used in the lesson.
cent of new residents come from non-English-speaking countries. The number of students with non-
English-speaking backgrounds represents the fastest growing group of this population. In the last
decade, the total student enrollment in public schools increased by only 14 percent, while the num-
ber of English learners grew 70 percent and is projected to grow even more (National Clearinghouse
for Bilingual Education, 1999). The 2000 U.S. Census identied 20 percent of school-age children as
non-native English speakers (Jamieson, Curry, & Martinez, 2001).
the needs of an increasingly diverse population. There is more content to teach each year as well.
Teachers are now expected to integrate technology and teach to myriad standards, and they are
judged by the standardized test scores achieved by their students, with no excuses tolerated and little
understanding of the challenges they face daily in the classroom.
This fourth edition of
50 Strategies for Teaching English Language Learners
includes a number of
Whats New in the Fourth Edition?
The fourth edition of
50 Strategies for Teaching English Language Learners
updates and changes. The strategies are chosen to reect our continued belief in the importance of
authentic, active-learning activities to support language and literacy development.

Reorganization of the Strategies
The strategies have been reorganized based on feedback
from professors using the text.

Updated Research
research and expands our review to include notable European researchers working in the eld of
second-language acquisition (SLA). Updated research is cited throughout the strategy chapters as well.

Focus on the Use of Assessmentto Ensure Effective Instruction
Assessment strategies
to support pre-service and in-service teachers in understanding the importance of knowing how stu-
dents learn and their current levels of functioning in order to plan effective instruction.

New Strategies
Building on suggestions from professors using the third edition we have
included additional language and literacy development strategies and combined some of the strategies
to demonstrate how teachers can effectively sequence approaches to support learning. A total of
12new strategies (an increase of more than 20 percent) are included in this fourth edition.
Language Framework
Supporting Academic Language and
Content Acquisition
Language framework planning
(Gibbons, 1993; Hinkle, 2006) is a strategy in which a teacher iden-
ties the academic language necessary for students to be successful in a lesson and plans activities that
support the use of the language in multiple functions. It is called language framework planning because
the teacher creates a framework prior to the lesson that identies the topic, activities, language func-
tions, language structures, and vocabulary that will be a part of the lesson. In this way, language and
content acquisition are both supported. The framework is shown in Figure 21.1.
The steps in language framework planning are the following:

Identify language objectives
Identify the language objectives of the lesson to be taught.
These objectives should relate to the functions of language and the sentence patterns and structures to
be practiced as a part of the lesson. To identify these objectives, ask yourself the following questions:
What are the language demands of this particular lesson?
What are the language levels of the students?
It is helpful to create a checklist on which you can record the functions the students use regu-
larly so that you can structure lessons to give them practice in using new functions of language in a

Identify and model problematic structures
Identify the language structures that are likely to
give the students problems and plan to model their use early in the lesson. If you are keeping regular
samples of the students language, these records are extremely helpful in planning language lessons
based on the kind of documentation shown in Figure 21.3.
Exploring Tough Text
(Cunningham, 1982), is a strategy
for supporting comprehension of informational text. GIST is especially helpful when students are
required to read long texts that contain a signicant amount of new information. Students work in
cooperative groups and read sections of the text silently. After each short section is read silently, the
members of the group work collaboratively to generate one sentence that summarizes the
main point, of the passage. In some very dense text, this summary sentence is generated paragraph
by paragraph. Once a sentence is generated, members of the group write it on their own papers so
that each group member ends up with a concise summary of the text. The teacher circulates among
the groups to facilitate and provide support. This is a particularly effective strategy for English lan-
guage learners because the group members discuss and clarify meaning as they decide on the best
summary sentence for the section or paragraph.
The steps in implementing GIST are the following:

Identify appropriate text for GIST
Identify text that may cause some difculty for students.

Group the students
Divide the class into cooperative groups and identify a leader for each
group. Make sure that each group contains a strong English speaker and reader. If possible, group
English language learners with other students of the same language background who can provide
rst-language support if needed. If your main purpose is to facilitate understanding of the text, the
discussion of the meaning and the negotiation of the best summary sentence can be done in the stu-
dents rst languages and later translated to English. If your purpose is facilitating English communi-
cation, then the discussion should take place in English with rst-language translations made only for
the purpose of clarication.

Demonstrate the strategy
Demonstrate the strategy by discussing background knowledge
and informing students that they will be working in groups to create a summary of the material to be
read. Post the summary points, the points in the reading at which each group is to stop, then discuss
and summarize. See Figure 42.1for an example of a summary point chart. Instruct the students to
Realia Strategies
Connecting Language Acquisition
to the Real World
knowledge and vocabulary. Realia is used to provide experiences on which to build and to provide
students with opportunities to use all the senses in learning (Echevarria, Vogt, & Short, 2010). Though
using realia in the classroom is not always possible, it is usually the best choice if students are to learn
all they can about a topic. Realia allows students to see, feel, hear, and even smell the object being
explored. If the real thing is not available, the teacher must move down the continuum from the con-
illustration. However, each move down the continuum causes the loss of some sensory information
that could be helpful in comprehension. See Figure 13.1for suggestions of classroom realia that are
helpful in the presentation of powerful learning experiences.
The steps in implementing the use of realia are the following:

Identify opportunities to use realia
Be aware of opportunities to include realia in lessons as
you plan. Preread any stories that will be read aloud or used for reading instruction to identify vocabu-
lary that may be unfamiliar to the students and locate realia that will be helpful to their understanding.

Collect realia
Begin to collect items that can be stored in the classroom and organize them
so that they can be easily accessed for instruction. Plastic tubs or large, clear plastic bags are often used
for this purpose. Some items will be appropriate for only one theme or book and should be stored
with the theme materials or book. Yard sales and end-of-season sales at craft stores are good sources
of realia for classroom use. Parents can often be helpful in locating and supplying useful items.

Build a library of realia
Collaborate with other teachers at your school or grade level to
build a library of realia that can be shared for major theme studies. Locate local merchants, farmers,
and other resources for the loan of large items such as farm equipment or animals.

Use eld trips as realia
If its too large to move and your students learning would bene-
t by experiencing it, take a eld trip. Give your students the opportunity to really understand what
they are studying.
In this section of
Fifty Strategies for Teaching English Language Learners,
you are introduced to the
basic theory, principles, and assessment strategies underlying the effective teaching of students who
are in the process of acquiring English as a second language.
This section provides the research and exemplary practices on which the 50 teaching strategies
are built. It is vital that teachers make good choices in their everyday interactions with students, par-
ticularly students for whom English is not their rst language. To make good choices in the way they
plan instruction, interact verbally, correct mistakes, and assess English language learners, teachers
must understand how language is acquired.
Educators are encountering a growing number of English learners in their classrooms. They have
become the fastest-growing population in public schools today (Leos, 2004). Pearlman (2002)pre-
dicts that by the year 2015 more than 50 percent of all students enrolled in K12 public schools across
the United States will be English learners. To add to the challenge, accountability requirements of the
No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 and Race to the Top of 2009 include English learners in the laws
need for teachers to look for effective strategies for teaching all students.
This fourth edition of
Fifty Strategies for Teaching English Language Learners
is aligned with the
national standards for teaching English language learners published by Teachers of English for
Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL). These standards provide teachers with clear guidelines for
supporting English language learners as they become more procient in speaking, writing, and com-
prehending social and academic English. The ongoing quest for ways to foster and sustain procient
bilingual students in schools can only be achieved with teachers who understand the value of good
teaching. These are teachers who produce academically successful students who stay in school and
are given every opportunity to participate fully and equitably.
The research in language acquisition has been rich and productive during the past 25 years. Working
tion of new languages and content knowledge (Crawford & Krashen, 2007). It is vital that classroom
teachers understand the implications of language acquisition research so they can provide the scaf-
folding necessary for their students to be successful in the classroom.
Modeled Talk
Demonstrating as You Talk
Modeled talk
(Herrell, 1999), the concurrent verbal explanation and physical demonstration of direc-
tions or concepts, is one of the simplest and most powerful strategies to use with English language
learners. It takes some planning and practice but can soon become a habit for effective teachers.
Modeled talk is the use of gestures, visuals, and demonstrations as explanations are made. Gestures
exactly what to do because they have seen the directions or content modeled.
The steps in implementing modeled talk are the following:

Identify the lesson and gather materials
Identify the lesson to be taught and the materials
to be used. Think about what you plan to say to explain the lesson and the directions to the students.
Prepare the materials the students will use so that you have an example to show and, if necessary,
what will be expected of them without having to rely solely on English vocabulary for understanding.

Practice your modeled talk
instructions, modeling, and gestures convey the message you want the students to understand.

Design a visual of directions
Design a standard visual that will be used regularly if the les-
son or directions require that students follow a sequence of instructions. This will help students
become accustomed to looking for this visual for support in remembering the sequence. Simple num-
printed, laminated, and placed in sequence on the chalkboard can be used again and again for dif-
ferent activities. A picture of a pair of scissors, for example, always reminds the students that the next
step is to cut, while a picture of a crayon reminds them to color.

Review the steps to be taken
Review the steps the students are to take after you have deliv-
ered your modeled talk. Use the visuals you have created to reinforce the students reference to them for
support in remembering what to do. When the students are performing the activities you have explained,
refer to the visuals whenever there is a question about what to do next so that the students practice the
use of them. See Figure 14.1for suggestions of props and visuals that support modeled talks.
Manipulatives Strategies
Using Objects to Connect Concepts
Examples of Approximation Behaviors Related to the TESOLStandards
Pre-K3 students will:
use manipulatives to represent real
manipulate objects to demonstrate
48 students will:
use manipulatives to solve
use manipulatives and verbal
explanations to demonstrate
problem solutions.
912 students will:
use manipulatives to represent
complex interactions.
use manipulatives to explain
concepts to others.
Brown, M.(1947).
Stone soup.
New York: Aladdin/Macmillan.
Cummins, J.(1986). Empowering minority students: A framework for interaction.
Harvard Review,
McGovern, A.(1968).
Stone soup.
New York: Scholastic.
Strategies on Video
Manipulatives Strategies
As you view Segment 7, Manipulative Strategies, on the DVD that accompanies this text,
think about the following:
How did the teacher use manipulatives to review concepts already taught?
How did Mr. Workmon incorporate vocabulary instruction with the use of manipulatives?
What other types of objects can be used as manipulatives?
How did Mr. Workmon encourage the students to talk during the lesson?
Moving into Reading
Using Multiple Strategies to
Foster Comprehension
Interactive read-aloud
(Barrentine, 1996) is reading books out loud, using facial expressions,
different voices for different characters, and gestures, and with the active participation of listeners
through predicting, discussion, and checking for understanding. It also involves the exploration of
the structure of text and think-aloud strategies that demonstrate how readers gain meaning from
text.This form of read-aloud is a powerful teaching tool to use with English language learners; it
voices,illustrations, and gestures helps comprehension (Reid, 2002). Students see their teachers
asrole models and in interactive read-aloud the teachers demonstrate what good readers do
(Tompkins, 2009).
Although read-aloud has traditionally been used extensively with young children, its effective-
ness with older students has been documented many times (Krashen, 1993; Trelease, 1995). This
research has led some administrators of high schools with low test scores in reading and compre-
hension to mandate the daily use of read-aloud on a schoolwide basiswith very positive results
(Trelease, 1995).
Interactive read-aloud is motivational. When students observe a teacher reading uently and
withenthusiasm they often choose to read the same book, or another book by the same author,
involved in interactive read-aloud provides shared understanding and vocabulary that helps English
who frequently hear books read aloud have a more extensive vocabulary than those who do not
(Trelease, 1995).
Shared reading
(Holdaway, 1979) is a strategy that teachers use to read books, charts, and other
texts with students when the text is too difcult for students to read independently. Students and
hear the words pronounced as their eyes follow the text. In the primary grades, large books with big
printbig booksare used with small groups of students so that everyone can see the illustrations
About the Authors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi
Preface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii
Strategies on Video DVD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii
Strategies to Encourage Active Involvement . . . . . . . . . .17
Predictable Routines and Signals:
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Building Vocabulary and Concepts to Support
Understanding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Visual Scaffolding:
Providing Language Support Through
Visual Images. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Small Groups and Partners:
Interactions to Enhance Instruction
. . . . . . . . . . . 30
Learning Centers:
Extending Learning Through Hands-On Practice. . . . . . . .
Cooperative Learning:
Group Interactions to Accomplish Goals
. . . . . . . . . . 45
Practicing Verbal Interactions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multiple Intelligences Strategies:
Teaching and Testing to
Student-Preferred Learning Modes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Culture Studies:
Learning Research Skills and Valuing Home Cultures
in One Project. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Manipulative Strategies:
Using Objects to Connect Concepts. . . . . . . . . . . .
KWL and Data Charts:
Researching and Organizing Information
. . . . . . . . . . 74
Attribute Charting
Organizing Information to
Support Understanding
Attribute charting,
also called
semantic feature analysis
(Peregoy & Boyle, 1997), is a way of
visually organizing information to support students understanding of the attributes of the concept
being studied. For example, if students are engaged in the study of continents, an attribute chart of
the continents could be constructed where the students look at maps and note which continents are
found in the Northern Hemisphere; which are connected to other continents; which are surrounded
This strategy supports English language learners because the chart they make clearly illustrates
their understanding of the main attributes of the topicin this case, continents. By making a chart of
these attributes, students can more easily compare and contrast the continents. Students are involved
they are given opportunities to interact verbally as they construct the chart. A sample students chart
for the study of continents is shown in Figure 40.1.
The steps in teaching the use of an attribute chart are the following:

Choose a concept to chart
the charting of its attributes. If it does, make a list of the attributes, traits, or characteristics that could
be charted.

Discuss attributes or traits
Involve students in a discussion of the traits or attributes of the
see which attributes are present in each. Demonstrate how to use a marking system for the task. For
example, an attribute might simply be checked on the chart or it could be marked with another sym-
the continents of Europe and Asia would be marked with a plus sign because they are connected
across a large area of land, while North and South America would be marked with a check mark
because they are more minimally connected. Australia would be marked with a minus sign because it
is not connected to any other continent.
Sorting Activities
Organizing Information into Categories
Sorting activities
appropriate for use with English language learners because they provide a way for students to manip-
ulate objects and written symbols to show their understanding of concepts, while acquiring the
vocabulary and structures needed for verbal interaction.
Sorting activities can be used in a wide range of curricular areas and are appropriate from kinder-
garten through 12th grade with careful planning and adaptations. Figure 25.1provides suggestions
for using sorting activities.
Word walls
purpose of word study and vocabulary development. They can be as simple as words written on indi-
paper. In classrooms where students are learning English as a second language it is helpful to create
bilingual (or multilingual) word walls with the words written in several languages and illustrated.
These word walls then serve as a reference for students as they write or interact verbally. Some
teachers prefer to create a number of different word walls in their classroom, one containing high-
frequency words, which the students use for reference in writing, and others related to words being
studied in connection with a literature or science focus unit. When the class moves on to another lit-
erature focus the teacher might collect the words written on cards, punch a hole in the corner of each
card, and place them on a word ring to keep for the students reference. Placing a copy of the cover
of the book to which the words are related helps students to later locate the appropriate word rings
by simply recalling the context in which the words were studied.
Word sorts
(Allen, 1999)are a
good way to give students additional opportunities to interact with words by using the words from
the word wall. Teachers can sort the words from the word wall by beginning, ending, or vowel
sounds; by parts of speech; by meaning; or by the number of syllables. Sorting encourages students
to lookat words more carefully and to think about ways in which words are similar or different. See
Figure 25.2for samples of word sorts.
Culture Studies
Learning Research Skills and Valuing
Home Cultures in One Project
Culture studies
(Freeman & Freeman, 1994) are studies in which students research and share
information about their own cultural history. These studies will vary greatly depending on the ages
of the students in the class but generally t well with the history or social science goals in most school
Many different language arts skills can be supported by culture studies. Students are required to
use reading, writing, speaking, listening, viewing, and visual representations of ideas to interview
their parents, grandparents, and other members of their culture. The key to making this strategy work
is the way the word
is dened. Any culture study should begin with a discussion of culture
and what makes up a culture. This can be done effectively by examining the culture of the classroom
and what makes it unique. The use of time, the attitude toward learning, the expectations for partic-
the use of materials all contribute to the culture of the classroom.
Once students understand the broad denition of
that is to be investigated, they can
begin to organize the study of their own culture. Some teachers have found it protable to encour-
age students to work in pairs or small groups so that they can begin to compare and contrast cultural
norms as an ongoing part of the study. For possible approaches to culture studies see Figure 9.1.
The steps in implementing culture studies are the following:

Find an age-appropriate project
Decide on a project that is appropriate for the ages of
your students and that supports the objectives for your grade level. Examine the objectives in both
for suggestions.)

Identify the purpose of the projects to be done and
then pairs or small groups should be used. Make a visual with the students that clearly identies the
Learning Strategy
Acquiring Self-Help Skills
Learning strategy instruction
(Gagne, 1985) is based on supporting students in understanding
writing, discussions, and research. Learning strategy instruction helps support English language learn-
ers in employing self-monitoring and self-help approaches to succeed in school (Chamot & OMalley,
1994). Three areas of instruction are addressed in learning strategy instruction. All three areas are self-
related. Learners focus on strategies they can use to improve their own success in school. The three
(b) cognitive strategies, and (c) social/affective strategies.
include having a plan for learning, monitoring the learning that is tak-
ing place, and evaluating how well content has been learned.
Cognitive strategies
include how to
manipulate material mentally or physically to facilitate learning.
Social/affective strategies
ways to interact with others or control your own emotions in ways that support your learning. See
Figure 38.1for descriptions of some of the strategies included in each category.
The steps in teaching learning strategies are the following:

Match strategies and curriculum
Select the strategy to be taught by thinking about the
curriculum and the demands it will make on learners. Plan to teach only a few strategies at rst, giv-
ing students opportunities to practice the strategies well before introducing new ones.

Reect on learning task approaches
Develop students self-awareness by having them
reect on how they approach a learning task. Remind them of the cooperative learning activities they
have been involved with and what they have learned about their approaches to learning during the
debrieng sessions. See Figure 38.2for suggestions of additional introductory activities.

Model strategy use
Model the strategy you are teaching. Call the strategy by name each
time you model it. Explain how the strategy works to support the students learning. Give examples
of instances in which the strategy will be helpful.
Read, Pair, Share
Working with a Partner to
Negotiate Meaning
Read, pair, share
is an adaptation of a partner activity called think, pair, share (McTighe & Lyman,
appropriate section of text to answer the traditional who, what, where, when, and how questions
ers, giving them the opportunity to read and reread tough text, while receiving encouragement and
support from a partner. Pairing an English learner with a strong English speaker gives both students
an opportunity to explore the language at a relaxed pace in a less stressful environment. The social
element introduced in this activity offers a positive opportunity for verbal and social interaction, rein-
forcing language acquisition and development. Figure 32.1shows the questioning format used with
this strategy.
The steps for implementing read, pair, share are the following:

Introduce the question words
Begin the activity by introducing the questions words
and explaining them. Talk about newspaper reporters and the fact that
they must include answers to all ve of these questions in a newspaper article to make sure they tell
the entire story. Explain that some paragraphs dont include information in response to all ve ques-
tion words.

Model each step of the strategy
Ask one student to act as your partner and give the class
a paragraph and questioning format page for use in practicing the strategy. Introduce the title of the
strategy and say, This page tells you exactly what we will do. First we will read the paragraph

Model how to work with a partner
answer the questions. The share step also involves going back to the paragraph to share the location
of the answers to the questions or share the responsibility of rewording the questions to t the para-
graph. The teacher and his or her partner then model this step as the class observes. They model
Language Focus Lessons
Support English Vocabulary
and Structure Acquisition
Language focus lessons
(Gibbons, 1993) are lessons in which the emphasis is on English vocabulary
and usage, rather than the curricular content. These lessons may involve exploration of content such
as math, science, or social studies, but the focus of the lesson is on the language being used rather
than the content itself. The language selected for language focus lessons is based on a teachers obser-
vation and knowledge of the language forms and functions that give English language learners dif-
culty. Examples of appropriate language for language focus lessons are shown in Figure 20.1.
The steps in teaching a language focus lesson are the following:

Observe and note language errors
Observe your students and take notes on the types of
language that they tend to misuse. Plan time to work with small groups of students who have the same
needs for direct instruction in language usage.

Gather materials
Gather realia, visuals, and ideas for hands-on demonstrations of the lan-
guage usage to be taught.

Explain and model language usage
Introduce the vocabulary and model its use, simulta-
neously using the language as you model. Give several examples for each term so that students can
see when and how the language is used.

Practice in active mode
Give students an opportunity to actually perform or model a
hands-on movement or activity as they use the focus language.

Practice for mastery
Design an activity that allows you to observe the students mastery of
the focus language. If they do not connect the language to the actions correctly, repeat the third and
fourth steps.
Creating Visual Pictures to
Support Understanding
(Chamot & OMalley, 1994) is a strategy that encourages students to create images in their
minds to support the understanding of concepts or problems to be solved. The teacher verbally prompts
students in creating mind-pictures that enable them to imagine a scene that is being described in a text
or a problem to be solved. Once images are created in the students minds, the teacher encourages the
students to describe what they can see. This gives the teacher an opportunity to interact with the stu-
dents to support their understanding. Research in reading comprehension (Irwin, 1991) has shown imag-
ing as an attribute of effective readers, which is not often employed by poor readers. For this reason, it
is a key strategy to teach. It is especially important to teach the strategy and discuss the images, or mind-
pictures, with English language learners because they may form faulty images due to misconceptions
related to language misunderstanding. Possible curricular uses of imaging are shown in Figure 29.1.
The steps in implementing imaging in the classroom are the following:

Identify a curricular connection
Be aware of areas of the curriculum in which imaging
would support your students understanding. Are certain students having difculty remembering or
sequencing what they read? Are students having difculty conceptualizing word problems in math?
students need instruction in imaging. Identify an area that would help students understand the power
of imaging in supporting their academic understanding.

Plan an introductory imaging activity
Introduce imaging as a way of making students
academic work easier or a way of helping them to solve problems. You will need to start slowly and
carefully walk them through the rst activity. Not all students have experience in creating mental pic-
tures. Some students will have to create actual drawings before they begin to understand the process.

Create mental pictures through verbalization
Plan the words you will use to create the
mental pictures carefully. Be prepared to use synonyms to make images clear with English learners.
Because the purpose of this exercise is to support students in seeing the power of visual imaging, be pre-
pared to integrate some words from the students rst languages in creating the images, when necessary.
Wiki Building
Using Wikis to Support Reading, Writing,
and Vocabulary Development
is a website technology that allows students to create and edit a web page without knowl-
material, videos, or images. Wikis are especially powerful in the classroom environment because stu-
dents can create and edit their work just as they would on a word processor but the process is
empowering to students because their work is published almost instantaneously to their chosen audi-
language skills, with a high level of timely individual monitoring and encouragement. Wikis also allow
students to work in collaboration to create stories, academic reports, or multimedia presentations. An
added feature in most common wikis allows students to control their versions and teachers to track
the process and progress made by the students.
Wikis are a wonderful way to implement writing workshops because students can write and
teachers or peers can be assigned as their editors. The wiki software supports students understand-
ing of the errors they make. Each error is marked by the editor but the original writer has the option
to accept or reject the suggested edit. For a tutorial and explanation of all the ways wikis can be used
in the classroom, visit the Wikispaces website (
The steps in implementing wiki in the classroom are the following:

your wiki.

Decide how you want to use wikis in your classroom
journals you will decide if you want to pair students to interact or assign students to adult editors
such as teachers, aides, or parent volunteers. If you want students to collaborate on a project in small

Demonstrate how the wiki works
Model the ways to begin the project, and demonstrate
how students will edit and interact.
The 10 strategies in this section are designed to support English language learners as they encounter
content instruction in subjects such as mathematics, science and social studies.
English learners continue to lag behind their native English-speaking peers on national assessment
measures (Lee, Grigg, & Donahue, 2007). As well, English learners are three times as likely to drop out
Because of these discouraging statistics, it is important that teachers of English learners carefully
monitor the progress of their students and use the information they gather to differentiate and design
of this text, English learners often have difculty with the vocabulary and concepts they need in order
to be successful in academic subjects and language. Other areas of concern in addressing instruction
in the content areas include building background knowledge and academic language structure.
Teachers can support second-language students by adding active-learning strategies and engag-
ing students in monitoring their own understanding. Teaching English learners ways to support their
own learning is an important aspect of content instruction for English learners.
Lee, J., Grigg, W., & Donahue, P.(2007).
The nations report card: Reading 2007
(NCES 2007-496).
Institute of Education Sciences, U. S. Department of Education, National Center for Education
Statistics. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Ofce.
National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES). (2004).
Language minorities and their educational
(NCES 2004-09). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of
Strategies for
Content Instruction
Cohesion Links
Understanding the Glue That
Cohesion links
are the important parts of written and spoken paragraphs that connect sentences so
that they form a cohesive whole. These links often appear in the form of pronouns that refer back to
a person, place, or thing in a previous sentence or references that require the reader to recall a pre-
viously stated fact or condition. Cohesion links that are frequently used in spoken and written English
are often confusing to English language learners. This is because the use of pronouns or use of
ellipses where words are understoodbut not spoken or writtenare not always easy to connect to
words used in previous sentences. Cohesion-links lessons make these links more visible and under-
standable to English language learners and are valuable in supporting their understanding of both
spoken and written material. The forms of English writing and speaking that English language learn-
ers nd most confusing are shown in Figure 30.1.
The steps in teaching a cohesion-links lesson are the following:

Use a sample paragraph
Prepare an overhead transparency of a paragraph at the stu-
dents reading level that contains pronouns, conjunctions, substitutions, or ellipses. Start with a fairly
simple paragraph and then gradually add complexity in future lessons. Write the paragraph so that
you can uncover one sentence at a time.

Read one sentence at a time
Cover all but the rst sentence of the paragraph and have the
students read that sentence aloud with you. Discuss any words that substitute for others or refer the
reader to another word in the sentence. Uncover the second sentence and repeat the process, sup-
rst sentence. Use an overhead marker to draw an arrow back to the proper noun that has been
replaced by a pronoun or other word that has been replaced to make the connections visible to the

Read the rest of the paragraph one sentence at a time
Work your way through the
entire paragraph this way. Make connections among pronouns and nouns, sequence words, con-
junctions, and multiple ways of referring to the same thing.
Communication Games
Creating Opportunities for
Verbal Interaction
Communication games
ties and purposes for verbal communication practice. Many times the purpose of the communication
of the games provide practice in the use of a particular language function such as giving directions
problem. Suggested communication games are shown in Figure 23.1.
The steps in teaching communication games are the following:

Identify a language need
Identify a language function in which your students need prac-
tice. Following directions, asking questions, and conveying academic information are among some
of the most commonly used in communication games. Choose a category of communication game
from Figure 23.1.

Model the game
Model the way the game is played by involving one or more students in
demonstrating the game. Review the rules carefully and post them in the room so that students can
refer to them during the activity.

Organize the pairs or groups
Organize the students in pairs or small groups, making sure
you have a fairly uent English speaker in each pair or group. Give the pairs or groups their tasks

Guide the practice
Move around the room providing support and encouragement.

Talk about the experience
After the game, ask the students to share their experiences, any
problems they had, and the solutions they devised. Make a list of the vocabulary they found helpful
and discuss how it was used.
Reporting Back
Verbal Practice in
Curriculum Connections
Reporting back
ten language (Diaz-Rico & Weed, 2002; Gibbons, 1993). This strategy can be used as a follow-up after
any active-learning experience. The students describe their experience using vocabulary that is con-
nected with the experience, so that the rest of the class has a clear understanding of the materials and
sequence of actions that were used. The students then write their reporting-back summary to be
included in the class daily news, or their daily learning log. See Figure 18.1for suggested activities
appropriate for reporting back.
The steps in using the reporting-back strategy are the following:

Prepare the students for action
Prepare the students for an active-learning experience by
giving directions for the activity and modeling what is expected. Follow up your demonstration by
saying, After you nish your activity, you will report back to the class describing what happened.
For example, if you were reporting back to the class on the experience just demonstrated, you would
say, I opened the jar of red paint and I opened the jar of blue paint. I took an eyedropper and used
it to draw up some of the red paint and dropped two drops of red paint into the plastic cup. Next,
Iused the eyedropper to draw up some blue paint and put two drops of blue paint into the plastic
After you nish your activity, you and your partner need to decide what to say when you report back
to the class.

List and review the steps
After explaining the procedure to the students, list the steps on
the chalkboard or on a chart. The steps might be:
b.Make a list of the steps you used.
c.Practice reporting back with your partner.
d.Ask for help if you need it.
Collaborative Reading
What to Do When They Cant
Read the Textbook
Collaborative reading
(Gibbons, 1993) is a strategy that is helpful to English language learners
when they are reading for information. This strategy also allows a teacher to support readers of var-
and/or textbooks with information on a topic being studied. These books are selected to provide a
reviewing information from four or ve different sources, depending on the number of students in
each group. Members of the group then discuss the information gathered so that everyone becomes
an expert on the topic.
ticipate in a group research activity (Tompkins, 2009). Because the teacher selects books appropriate
for the reading levels within the group of students, each student can make a signicant contribution
to the collective task. English language learners are supported because, if necessary, they have texts
with simpler language and illustrations. Each member of the group can contribute in unique ways.
English language learners may contribute by drawing a visual to represent the main points of the col-
laborative research. This allows them to provide a translation of the information by reporting orally
to the group if there are other students who share the same home language, or providing informa-
tion related to the difference in use of the concept being studied in the students home cultures.
The steps in a collaborative reading lesson are the following:

Gather a range of books on a topic
Gather books on the topics to be studied, making sure
to include books at various reading levels so that all students will be successful in nding information.

Carefully considering the strengths and needs of the stu-
dents, organize your students into groups of four or ve to explore topics. Make sure that each group
contains a student with strong reading and writing skills. Have each group explore either a different
topic or a different aspect of one topic. Instruct the groups to brainstorm questions they want to
answer about their topic. These questions can be included on a KWL chart, a chart on which the
Practicing Verbal Interactions
(Lozanov, 1982) is a strategy that prepares English language learners with sample language
interactions or situational dialogues appropriate for upcoming events. These sample language inter-
actions, called
are presented and practiced prior to the students encountering the situation in
which the scripts will be needed. Preparing and practicing scripts in advance of events is supportive
To use scripting, the teacher must be able to identify or create opportunities for verbal interaction
and engage the students in verbal play and role-play so that the students understand the situation in
which the script is appropriate and practice delivery of the basic script as well as several possible
alternate responses to ensure communication. Preparing the students for alternate responses some-
times involves the preparation of a ready-made template, which students can use in their own par-
ticular situation. The students do this by lling in the slots in the template with specic information
to communicate. Suggestions for possible scenarios for scripting experiences are shown in Figure 7.1.
The steps in using scripting with students are the following:

Identify an opportunity for verbal interaction
Identify a situation for which a script will
be helpful to English language learners or other students. Carefully consider the normal verbal inter-
actions that would occur in the situation and write the words in the form of a short dialogue.
Duplicate the script for the students.

Explain and model the script
Explain the situation to the students and enlist one student
to walk through the script with you. Read the script with the student, acting out the physical actions
that will normally be a part of the situation, such as opening the door, pulling out a chair, or motion-
ing for the other person to walk ahead of you. Be sure to emphasize that peoples responses may not
be exactly the same as the words in the script and the importance of listening to their responses.
Provide some practice in listening to peoples responses and choosing alternative words as appro-
priate. This step involves the analysis of possible responses by the teacher and providing practice for
the students in which the teacher emphasizes the importance of listening to the speakers response
Small Groups and Partners
Interactions to Enhance Instruction
Skills grouping
(Gibbons, 1993) is the act of arranging students in groups based on their need for
instruction in a specific skill. Skills grouping is done for a short period of time, usually for only a
few lessons, and is effective only when the groups are based on the teachers knowledge of the
language and skill levels of the students. The criterion for grouping is based on teacher observa-
tion of a specific instructional need. This greatly enhances the delivery of comprehensible input
because the lessons are planned to scaffold learning at the students present level of functioning
(Krashen, 1985).
are concerned. A skills group might consist of students reading on a range of levels. Skills groups
consist of students with a specic instructional need, for instance, a group of students who are not
using quotation marks correctly or a group of students who need instruction in solving math prob-
lems involving fractions. Skills groups are used effectively in the teaching of language usage, read-
ing, language arts, and mathematics skills.
Partner work
(Meyers, 1993) is a form of cooperative learning that is particularly effective with
English language learners because of the opportunities for verbal interaction and support it provides
(Diaz-Rico & Weed, 2002). In partner work the teacher pairs two students to accomplish a learning
task. They are given specic instructions and are expected to accomplish a process or product to
share with the group or with other pairs. Suggested formats, learning tasks, and pairing schemes for
partner work are shown in Figure 4.1.
Peer tutoring
(Thonis, 1994) is a strategy in which a student who has already achieved cer-
tain skills works with a classmate to help him/her acquire the skills. It differs from partner work
language learners for several reasons. A peer who has mastered a higher level of proficiency in
academic skills and English usage can often support learning by explaining the assignment in the
students first language or modeling what is expected. The peer tutoring situation often lowers
and the students are less likely to be inhibited. Questions can even be answered in the home lan-
guage when the students have the same language background. Peer tutoring also provides the
tutor with positive feelings of self-esteem and accomplishment as the tutee gains knowledge and
English proficiency.
Graphic Organizers
Visually Representing Ideas,
Text, and Connections
Graphic organizers
texts. Graphic organizers aid comprehension by enabling readers to label aspects of a text, using lan-
number of graphic organizers that can be used to support students in reading and comprehending text
(Bromley, Irwin-DeVitis, & Modlo, 1995). Venn diagrams are used to compare different texts or a readers
experiences with text in the form of overlapping circles. Flow charts are used to visually represent the
sequence of events in text.
The number of different ways in which graphic organizers can be used to support understand-
ing in readers is endless, so matching the graphic organizer to the purpose of the lesson is vital. See
Figure 44.1for a list of graphic organizers, their suggested uses, and websites where you can nd
As students create the graphic representation of a text, they are required to reread, discuss, and
explore relationships within the text. Graphic organizers are also effective ways to brainstorm, plan,
and organize writing. In addition, teachers can use conceptual organizers to make ideas within infor-
mational text more accessible to students. Students are required to think more analytically to place
individual characteristics and ideas in their proper position within the diagram (Tompkins, 2006).
These diagrams may also be used to assess student learning.
The steps in implementing graphic organizers are the following:

Identify the teaching purposes
Identify text to be used that can be supported with a
graphic organizer. Refer to Figure 44.1to nd a graphic organizer that can be used to support stu-
dent understanding of the text and your teaching objective.

Explain the purpose
Explain the graphic organizer and its purpose to your students and
model how the organizer works. Construct an example, talking through the construction as it is built.

Involve students in constructing a graphic
Walk students through the building of a
graphic, asking questions that lead them to place components into the proper places on the graphic.
Cooperative Learning
Group Interactions to Accomplish Goals
Cooperative learning
(Johnson, Johnson, & Holubec, 2002) is a term used for a collection of strat-
K12 researchers have concluded that, to succeed, group work must be carefully structured; the students
must be thoroughly prepared through social skill-building activities; assignments must be open-ended
required to accomplish it. (Leki, 2001, p. 41)
The group task is structured so that each member of the group is expected to perform an
assigned task. Because of the embedded structure of the unique tasks assigned to each member of
the group, cooperative learning is much more effective than ordinary group work usually done in
classroom situations. Appropriate training and structure is introduced into the process. These
approaches are especially effective for English language learners because the students have more
opportunities for verbal interactions in small groups (Kagan, 1989). They are encouraged by the other
members of the group and can participate at their ability level. English language learners working in
cooperative groups must be given assignments according to their levels of English prociency, which
requires the teacher to be aware of their stages of language acquisition. See Chapter 16for how to
use leveled questions with children of different abilities in English reading and writing.
Cooperative learning activities must be preceded by some team building (see suggestions in
others strengths. In addition, teachers must make their expectations clear if cooperative learning
activities are to be successful. Some of the principles of cooperative learning are explained in
Figure 6.2.
Steps in using cooperative learning strategies in the classroom are the following:

Assign groups and build a team
Divide the class into cooperative groups. Provide a team-
to know each other. Each time a new team is formed, there should be a team-building activity to help
Scaffolding English Writing
Matching Instruction to Language Development
As Jody plans these lessons she wants to provide oral language experiences that support their
use of irregular verbs in their writing. She devises ways to actively engage the students, practice oral
use of irregular verbs, and then follow up with a writing activity using the verbs. After each activity
she notes which of the students are correctly using the irregular verbs in their writing and oral speech
and documents this growth using a checklist. She also notes which students need additional guided
practice with irregular verbs and which verbs need to be revisited. Figure 28.5is a chart that sum-
marizes Jodys planning.
English learners can be successful in learning to write in English when their teachers provide the sup-
port they need to comprehend the complexities of writing. A gradual sequential use of writing for-
mats, which consider the language development levels of the students and their understanding of
English sounds and how they are represented, is vital in providing the needed scaffolding. As with
everything we present to English learners we, as teachers, must assume responsibility for knowing
the language, reading, and writing levels of our students and providing the scaffolding and support
each student requires in order to be successful in the task at hand.Most important, we, as teachers
of English learners, must remember If we teach them, they will learn.
Examples of Approximation Behaviors Related to the TESOLStandards
Pre-K3 students will:
participate in writing activities at
their language development levels.
express ideas in writing.
48 students will:
use writing to express their
understanding of sentences and
paragraphs in English.
write paragraphs on specic
912 students will:
use academic language to write
demonstrate understanding of
different genres of writing.
Strategies on Video
Interactive Writing
Segment 12 gives you an example of an interactive writing lesson in a kindergarten class-
room. As you watch this segment, think about the following:
How does the teacher support each writer so that they can participate successfully?
How are the student involved in creating and remembering the sentence
How is reading integrated into an interactive writing lesson?
Free Voluntary Reading
Nothing Helps Reading
Like Reading
Free voluntary reading
(Krashen, 1993) is a powerful tool for involving students in the reading of
English text. Free voluntary reading, or FVR, is a system for encouraging silent, self-selected reading
of enjoyable books written at the students independent levels. It has been found to support reading
comprehension, writing, grammar, spelling, and vocabulary development even though the texts read
are written at an easy reading level. Series of books in which the reader becomes familiar with the
priate for building vocabulary and comprehension in readers with limited English vocabularies.
Although free voluntary reading has been criticized (Hernandez, 1997) as difcult to implement
because of the large numbers of books required, it has been shown to be effective for English lan-
guage learners because of the power in exposing them to a large volume of English reading and the
in Figure 35.1.
The steps in implementing free voluntary reading are the following:

Identify the independent reading levels of students
Identify the independent reading
levels of the students in your class and gather a number of books at their levels. Organize the books in
a way that identies the reading levels and provides easy student access to the books. To identify other
sources of easy reading materials for your students, enlist the help of the school media specialist.

Explain the program to the students
Introduce the free voluntary reading program to the
students, explaining that reading widely helps them learn new English vocabulary and improves their
tem so they can check out books freely, taking them home to read or reading them during DEAR
(Drop Everything and Read) time or free time in the classroom. Provide a celebration system so that
the class is keeping track of the numbers of books being read by the class members. Arrange for cel-
ebrations as the class reads 100, 500, and 1,000 books. Focus on the number of books being read

Discuss the books in groups
Schedule informal literature discussions so the students can
share their favorite books and talk about favorite authors. Use these discussions to provide positive
feedback to the students who are reading a lot of books. Encourage wide reading by introducing new
Syntax Surgery
Visually Manipulating
English Grammar
Syntax surgery
(Herrell, 1998) is a strategy that allows students to see the relationship of elements
within a sentence that may be confusing to understand. Because English syntax often differs from the
culty in comprehending sentences they read or confuse word order when speaking or writing in
English (Baltra, 1998).
Syntax surgery involves writing a sentence on a sentence strip and then cutting the sentence apart
to rearrange it into more understandable pieces. Because students actually witness the pieces of the
sentence being moved, they are more likely to understand and remember the English syntax rules when
called on to use them in the future. Syntax surgery is also helpful in rening students understanding of
the elements of writing and speaking that make their English difcult for others to understand; there-
fore, the use of this strategy helps them to be more condent in their use of English. Swain (1993)calls
this rening of the spoken and written product vital to the development of uency in her description
of output theory.
The steps in implementing syntax surgery are the following:

Identify a problematic sentence
Identify a sentence that is causing difculty. It may be a
sentence that the student has spoken where the home language word order conicts with the English
word order, or it may be a complex sentence encountered in reading that is causing confusion.

Write the sentence and initiate the surgery
Write the sentence on a sentence strip and
reread the sentence aloud with the student or students involved in the speaking or reading activity. For
example, if the sentence that was written by the student says, She was wearing a sweater green, take
a pair of scissors and cut the sentence apart in the place or places of difculty. She was wearing a
sweater green would be cut before the words

Rearrange the words
rect English sequence. Place She was wearing a green sweater on the chart and say, This is the way
we say it in English, reading the sentence with the correct English word order. Reafrm the students
Multimedia Presentations
Oral Reports for the New Millennium
Multimedia presentations
(Diaz-Rico & Weed, 2002) involve the use of media such as audio and
video equipment (VCRs, videodisc players, video cameras), computers and related software, and
greatly improved, making the use of these resources in the classroom more practical. The use of mul-
timedia presentations with English language learners is especially important because of the exibility
the approach lends in both teaching and learning. Students benet when teachers use multimedia
resources in presenting lessons because such media add context to the language and the lessons.
Students using multimedia resources to gain access to information in multiple languages are sup-
ported in their learning. When students use multimedia resources to present their research, writings,
and projects, they can document and present their growing capabilities without the constraints often
encountered when making oral reports.
In the use of multimedia it is not just the nished productthe report or presentationbut also
the processes of exploring, synthesizing, and summarizing that technology creates with opportunities
for meaningful learning to take place.
The use of multimedia resources in the classroom presents some challenges for both teachers and
the possibilities and the potential barriers. However, there are many resources available to teachers for
using multimedia resources in the classroom. See Figure 47.1for a partial list of resources.
The steps in implementing multimedia presentations are the following:

Model media use
Model the use of multimedia resources by incorporating video clips, an
overhead projector, audiotapes, and other media as you teach. Emphasize how the use of the media
allows you to visually or orally demonstrate as you teach. Before you ask students to use multimedia
approaches, give them experience in seeing the effectiveness of different media in the support of
Leveled Questions
Adjusting Questioning Strategies to the Language Levels of Students
Strategies on Video
Leveled Questions
Segment 6 of the DVD that accompanies this text shows a kindergarten teacher using leveled
questions to involve all of her students in a literature lesson. As you view this segment, think
about the following:
Why is it important to know the English language development levels of your students
when planning a lesson?
How does this teacher make sure that all her students can be successful?
What scaffolding does the teacher provide for her students during this lesson?
Think about a lesson you are planning and write some leveled questions for it. How
does this activity help you to consider the language development levels of your students?
Haley, M., & Austin, T.(2004).
Content-based second language teaching and learning
. Boston:
Pearson Education.
Krashen, S., & Terrell, T.(1983).
The natural approach: Language acquisition in the classroom.
Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Scaffolding English Writing
Matching Instruction to
Language Development
One of the most challenging of tasks for English language learners is acquiring English writing skills.
In order to support students in this daunting task, teachers must provide scaffolding, modeling, mon-
itoring, and encouragement. Fortunately, recent innovative approaches now allow teachers to provide
exactly the amount of support needed to move beginning English writers forward (Button, Johnson,
& Fergerson, 1996; Tompkins & Collom, 2003).
As with any effective teaching approach, it is important to have an accurate understanding of
what students know about writing in English. This information is easily obtained through an informal
writing sample. Simply ask students to draw a picture and write about that picture, or read a brief
story and ask the students to respond to the story. For the earliest beginning English learners you will
have to demonstrate how to do this. The teacher can then select the stage of writing support appro-
priate for each student. This doesnt always require individual instruction; English learners can be
grouped for this process because the teacher can adapt each students expected involvement accord-
ing to their language level and understanding of English writing. The examples of various approaches
in this chapter are scaffolded in much the manner as they would be in the classroom.
The Beginning Sequence
Modeled writing
provides the beginning English student with a demonstration that shows how
English sounds are represented by symbols. The teacher simply says the words as she or he writes
them slowly. This can be done on a chalkboard, whiteboard, or on paper. The writing should be
simple at rst. Knowing how much English students comprehend is important to this process because
you want to write words that learners readily understand. You might start with statements like Today
is Monday. It is raining. If you are working individually with a student, you might write, My name
is Dr. Herrell.
The 11 strategies contained in this section range from simple classroom procedures to formats
designed to support English learners in their successful participation in the classroom.
Many of the approaches that teachers use can be more successful with English learners simply
with the addition of some planning based on their knowledge of the students levels of English devel-
English learners, are exemplied in these 11 strategies. English learners are most successful when
they are:
Supported by language that is contextualized (connected to real objects, visuals, actions)
Actively involved in authentic learning situations
Participating in classroom situations without fear of embarrassment
Given opportunities to participate in classroom activities at their individual language levels
The strategies included in this section begin with the easiest to implement and build in com-
plexity. Conscientious teachers constantly build their repertoire of teaching strategies. The purpose
of this book is to support that endeavor.
The national TESOL standards addressed by the strategies are listed on the inside back cover of
levels. The TESOLs (2006) Pre-K12 English Language Prociency Standards is particularly helpful in
suggesting progress indicators at various grade levels (pre-K3, 48, and 912) for each of the nine
standards. These progress indicators make excellent benchmarks to be documented in individual stu-
dent portfolios.
grated into the step-by-step sections of individual strategies as appropriate. Sample assessment pro-
tocols are included in several of the strategy chapters as well. By using the teaching strategies in this
well on their way to providing English learners with the type of instruction and assessment necessary
to help them be successful participants in ongoing learning sequences.
Strategies to Encourage
Active Involvement
Teacher Resources
An Informal Multiple Intelligences Survey
I. Linguistic Intelligence
Reading books makes me feel
Listening to the radio makes me feel
Nonsense rhymes, tongue twisters, or puns
make me feel
Playing word games like Scrabble, Anagrams,
or Password makes me feel
In school, English, social studies, and history
make me feel
When people talk about books theyve read or
things theyve heard, I feel
I feel
II. Logical-Mathematical
When Im asked to compute numbers in my
head, I feel
In school, math and/or science makes me feel
Using big words in speaking or writing makes
me feel
Strategies for Language Development
Baker, L.(1987).
The third-story cat.
Boston: Little, Brown.
Herrell, A.(1998).
Exemplary practices in teaching English language learners.
Fresno: California State
Jordan, M., & Herrell, A.(2002). Building comprehension bridges: A multiple strategies approach.
California Reader,35
(4), 1419.
Strategies on Video
Vocabulary Role Play
In this segment you visit a rst grade classroom as they participate in a shared reading les-
son supported with vocabulary role play. As you watch the video think about hte following:
How does the teacher involve all of the children?
How is the realia used to support vocabulary development?
How many different ways is the vocabulary introduced and repeated?
Visual Scaffolding
Providing Language Support
Through Visual Images
Visual scaffolding
is an approach in which the language used in instruction is made more under-
standable by the display of drawings or photographs that allow students to hear English words and
connect them to the visual images being displayed. To use this strategy, the teacher builds a le of
visuals, such as photographs or drawings, that can be easily accessed for teaching. (See Figure 3.1for
suggestions of resources for visuals.)
The steps in planning and implementing visual scaffolding are the following:

Identify the vocabulary
Identify the vocabulary in the lesson to be taught that can be scaf-
folded with visual images, such as drawings or photographs.

Collect visuals
Find (or make) photos or line drawings that can be used to visually support
images that can be collected in a visuals le on the computer for future use.

Reproduce and organize visuals
Reproduce the visuals on transparency lm and orga-
nize them so that they can be easily used during teaching. Sequential order works well for a specic
access the pictures for future lessons. Since pictures to be projected on an overhead projector need
stored on the computer and later projected for classroom use.

Engage the students
Encourage students to use the transparency picture le in their pres-
entations or as a way of asking and answering questions.

Build the le
Continue to build your le on an ongoing basis.
Strategies on Video DVD
Predictable Routines and Signals
In this segment, kindergarten teacher Susan McCloskey
and fourth-grade teacher Vince Workmon demonstrate how they support their students through
the use of consistent routines in their classrooms.
Strategies on Video feature with focus questions for this segment is found on page 21.
Segment length is 8 minutes 33 seconds.
Visual Scaffolding
features Dr. Michael Jordan, author, and Vince Workmon, fourth-grade
They take you through the process step-by-step.
Strategies on Video feature with focus questions for this segment is found on page 29.
Segment length is 9 minutes 28 seconds.
Realia Strategies
features rst-grade teacher Diane Leonard as she demonstrates how to inte-
grate realia into a literature lesson.
Strategies on Video feature with focus questions for this segment is found on page 92.
Segment length is 4 minutes 07 seconds.
Language Focus Lessons
features middle school teacher Jody Salazar as she uses student work
Strategies on Video feature with focus questions for this segment is found on page 125.
Segment length is 10 minutes 55 seconds.
Leveled Questions
are demonstrated by Diane Leonard in her rst-grade class as she explores
new vocabulary with her students.
Strategies on Video feature with focus questions for this segment is found on page 107.
Segment length is 5 minutes 07 seconds.
Manipulative Strategies
are used by Vince Workmon as he teaches a lesson on adding unlike
fractions with his fourth graders.
Strategies on Video feature with focus questions for this segment is found on page 73.
Segment length is 8 minutes 31 seconds.
Cooperative Learning
is an exciting strategy demonstrated by Jody Salazar and her middle
school students. Jody demonstrates a cooperative learning training lesson in this segment.
Strategies on Video feature with focus questions for this segment is found on page 50.
Segment length is 10 minutes 30 seconds.
Students of all ages and at all stages of language development benet from the use of collaborative
and writer in each group, teachers can encourage discussion of a reading and give students a chance
to clarify meaning and vocabulary. The group task of writing a summary sentence for each paragraph
that is read provides an authentic assignment that requires the students to discuss the meaning of the
paragraph and agree on a sentence that conveys the important information. Once the paragraphs are
read and discussed and summary sentences are written and read, each student in the group has a
concise summary of the reading assignment.
When several groups read and summarize the same text and then share their summaries, further
opportunities to hear the information discussed and new vocabulary claried.
Strategies for Content Instruction
Strategies on Video
In Segment 12 you will view a fourth-grade GIST lesson. As you watch this segment, think
about the following:
How did Mr. Workmon make sure that his students understood the process?
What was Mr. Workmon doing as the students were working?
What did the teacher do when a group included a misconception in their summary?
How would using this strategy support students in improving their language abilities?
Examples of Approximation Behaviors Related to the TESOLStandards
Pre-K3 students will:
collaboratively write a summary of
a paragraph.
support their opinions in a group
48 students will:
identify main ideas in text.
write summary sentences of
912 students will:
discuss nuances of word meanings
and negotiate with peers to
accurately summarize bodies of
explore specic word meanings
related to content in the collabora-
tive summarization of text.
Harris (Eds.),
New inquiries in reading research and instruction
(pp. 4247). Washington, DC:
National Reading Conference.
adeVoto, B.(Ed.) (1984).
The portable Mark Twain.
New York: Penguin Books.
Gibbons, P.(2002).
Scaffolding language, scaffolding learning
. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Stevenson, A.(1986).
Paul Revere: Boston patriot.
New York: Aladdin (Macmillan).
Strategies for Language Development
Echevarria, J., Vogt, M., & Short, D.(2010).
Making content comprehensible for elementary English
Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
George, J.(1959).
My side of the mountain.
New York: Dutton.
George, J.(1979).
River rats, Inc.
New York: Dutton.
Johnson, T.(1996).
My MexicoMxico mio.
New York: G. P. Putnams Sons.
Nation, I. S. P.(2005). In E. Hinkel (Ed.),
Handbook of research on second language teaching and
(pp. 581596). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
ODell, S.(1960).
Island of the blue dolphins.
Houghton Mifin.
Paulsen, G.(1987).
New York: Aladdin Paperbacks/Simon & Schuster.
Examples of Approximation Behaviors Related to the TESOLStandards
Pre-K3 students will:
associate written symbols and realia.
represent story sequence with realia.
48 students will:
compare and contrast real objects.
represent information through the
use of realia.
912 students will:
describe change and growth in real
Strategies on Video
Realia Strategies
Segment 4 of the DVD that accompanies this text shows realia being used to build vocab-
ulary in a rst-grade classroom. After you watch this segment, ask yourself these questions:
How did the teacher connect the objects to the written labels?
How could she extend the lesson with a writing activity?
How could you include realia in a lesson you are planning?
What are some of the barriers you see in using realia in the classroom?
It serves another important function when the teacher uses it consistently. English-speaking students
often learn how to model talk and use it when explaining procedures and concepts to English lan-
guage learners in the classroom. Students use of modeled talk to other students increases the oppor-
tunities for English language learners to interact successfully with their peers and it builds feelings of
community within the classroom.
Modeled Talk
Demonstrating as You Talk
Examples of Approximation Behaviors Related to the TESOLStandards
Pre-K3 students will:
follow instructions from verbal and
nonverbal cues.
gather and organize materials
48 students will:
follow a sequence of instruction
based on verbal directions and
physical actions.
generate and ask questions to
clarify expectations.
912 students will:
compare and classify information
based on verbal instructions and
physical modeling.
construct a chart or visual repre-
sentation of information gained
through oral directions and
physical modeling.
Herrell, A.(1999). Modeling talk to support comprehension in young children.
Education: Research, Theory, and Practice, 3,
Peregoy, S., & Boyle, O.(2001).
Reading, writing, and learning in ESL
(3rd ed.). Boston: Longman.
Strategies on Video
Modeled Talk
As you view Segment 9 on the DVD that accompanies this text, watch how the kindergarten
teacher models as she gives directions. Think about the following:
How does using modeled talk contribute to the students abilities to participate successfully
in the classroom?
Does modeling talk require any additional time on the teachers part?
How does modeled talk contribute to the students language acquisition?
What additional planning is involved in modeling teacher talk?
KWL and Data Charts
Researching and
Organizing Information
KWL charts
(Ogle, 1986) are three-section charts that students use to explore what they know (K),
what they want to know (W), and what they learn (L) about a topic. Typically the teacher prepares
sample KWL chart.
The teacher introduces the topic and asks the students what they know about it. The teacher
then lists the students responses on the chart under the K. This is very much like brainstorming; the
teacher doesnt edit the responses, just notes them under the K column. The teacher then asks the
students what they would like to know about the topic and lists their responses under the W, for
want to know. The L column is left blank at this point and only lled in as the students nd infor-
mation related to the questions they have listed in the W column; this column then indicates what
the students have learned about the topic.
An extended version of a KWL chart is called a KWL Plus. An additional column is added to fol-
low both the K and L columns. In the additional columns students cite their sources as they nd new
information for the L column. This allows them to verify or reject information listed in the K column
by evaluating the accuracy of their sources. Figure 11.2provides an example of a KWL Plus chart.
Data charts
(Tompkins, 2007) are a form of graphic organizer that gives the students an effec-
tive format for recording the knowledge they gain as they research a topic. Data charts are valuable
in teaching students to organize the information they gain in a form suitable for studying for tests or
preparing oral and written reports. A data chart is a perfect companion to the KWL chart; students
Sample KWL Chart
Herrell, A., & Jordan, M. (2006).
50 strategies for improving vocabulary, comprehension, and
uency: An active learning approach
(2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
(What we
)(What we
to know)(What we
Exploring a Book to
Deepen Comprehension
involves using a piece of text in several different ways to reinforce
understanding and the gradual integration of the texts vocabulary and concepts into the speaking
and writing vocabulary of the students (Tompkins, 1996). The text is introduced and explored in mul-
tiple modes with the students nally rewriting the text to create an innovation on the original. This
approach is especially effective for English language learners because they have multiple opportuni-
ties to revisit both the text and the vocabulary in multiple learning modes. Figure 33.1provides sug-
gestions for innovations that can be used for this strategy.

Choose a book that will sustain interest over time
Choose a book that you and your
the same text several times; the book should have some interesting vocabulary and action or it will
become boring. A book with a pattern or obvious structure makes a good choice for this kind of
activity. If necessary, have the book read in the students rst language(s) before reading it in English.

Explore the story structure
Explore the structure of the story. If it is a circular story, focus
on the fact that one thing leads to another and stress that as you read. If the story has a beginning,
middle, and end, emphasize that as the book is read. Try to help the students understand the struc-
ture and the relationship of the events to the structure.

Play with words
Explore the pattern or structure of the book by having the students do
pattern or structure of the book until they can substitute words and make meaningful patterns on
their own.

Create an alternate text
Using the pattern that you and the students have practiced on the
Improving Listening and
Communication Skills
is a strategy developed by Ruth Wajnryb (1990)for use with high school students, but it
can be adapted for use with students of all ages. It is especially effective with English language learn-
ers because the strategy focuses on uent academic language and supports learners in listening and
recalling good English language models (Gibbons, 1993).
A dictoglos involves students in listening to repeated, uent readings of English text. At rst they
thetext as possible. The activity provides an authentic reason for communication and practice in
re-creating, rewriting, and rereading English text.
The steps in teaching a dictoglos lesson are the following:

Select an appropriate piece of text
Select a content-related text and read it aloud at a
normal speaking pace. At rst, instruct students to Just listen carefully.

Reread the text orally
Read the text twice more. The students are now instructed, Jot
down key words and phrases.

Pair to re-create the text
Have students work in pairs to re-create as much of the text as
possible using the notes taken by each of the partners. Instruct them to write the text as closely as
possible to the original text as read by the teacher.

Work in groups of four
of the text as possible. Their aim is to re-create it as closely as possible to the original.

Read the re-created text
Ask one member of each group to read the groups re-creation
of the text and ask the other groups to see how closely it matches their versions. Display the groups
re-created texts, and compare and discuss them, noting the sections in the text that were difcult to
Total Physical Response
Integrating Movement into
Language Acquisition
Total physical response
(Asher, 1982) is an approach to second-language acquisition based on
rst-language acquisition research. In rst-language acquisition, children listen and acquire receptive
language before they attempt to speak, they develop understanding through moving their bodies,
and they are not forced to speak until they are ready. In total physical response, the teacher gradu-
ally introduces commands, acting them out as she or he says them. Initially, the students respond by
performing the actions as the teacher demonstrates them. Gradually, the teachers demonstrations are
removed and the students respond to the verbal commands only.
The steps in teaching a total physical response lesson are the following:

Choose vocabulary to physicalize
Choose vocabulary that will be used in the classroom,
such as verbal directions, colors, and parts of the body, and list the words the students will need
a movement response such as Stand up, Sit down, Touch your head, or Show me the red

Introduce vocabulary gradually
Introduce two or three commands at rst, giving the
command while demonstrating physically. For example, Stand up is accompanied by standing up.
Motion for the students to do it with you. Introduce the next command and demonstrate. After you
have introduced three commands, randomly alternate them, still demonstrating and encouraging the
students responses.

Drop the physical modeling
After the students have practiced the commands as you
demonstrate them, and they appear to know what to do without waiting for your demonstration, drop
the demonstration and encourage students to respond to the verbal commands.

Add additional commands
Add new commands, but no more than three at a time. Always
start with demonstrations as you introduce new commands, practice until the students appear to
know what to do, and then drop the demonstrations.
Read-Aloud Plus
Using Strategies to Support
Read-aloud plus
(Jordan & Herrell, 2001) is a strategy that can be used whenever students must read
tough text. It is an especially valuable strategy to use with English language learners because it
incorporates the modeling of uent, expressive reading of English text with techniques for clarifying
vocabulary, periodic checking for understanding, and providing and activating knowledge that helps
Read-aloud plus involves the teacher reading text aloud to students while adding visual support,
periodic paraphrasing, and/or rewriting as the plus or extension to the read-aloud. The students are
actively involved in the plus part of the lesson and so are more motivated to listen carefully as the
teacher reads aloud. The read-aloud and extension activities allow students to become familiar with
strategies they can use independently whenever they must read difcult text, thereby providing them
with reading comprehension instruction and practice in the process of interacting with required
content-area or literature text. Figure 26.1provides a list of read-aloud plus extension activities.
The steps in implementing the read-aloud plus strategy are the following:

Preread and choose support materials
The teacher prereads the text to be explored and
chooses appropriate support materials and extension activities. In preparing for the lesson, the
teacher selects vocabulary and/or concepts that may be unfamiliar to the students. She or he identi-
es appropriate extensions such as visuals or rewriting activities that will be used and designs an
approach for presenting the materials to the students. Some of the support materials will be most
effectively presented prior to reading the text aloud, others may need to be presented as the text is
read, while still others will best be used after the reading. If visuals are needed, the teacher locates
them and prepares them in the form of transparencies, charts, or posters. See Chapter 3for visual
resources. It is important that the teacher mark the text to be read so that a plan is in place for when
to stop reading and which visuals or other support materials will be presented at each stopping point.

Explain the process to the students
The teacher explains the process to the students,
telling them that she or he will be reading the text to them and that they will be expected to listen

Приложенные файлы

  • pdf 15167534
    Размер файла: 4 MB Загрузок: 0

Добавить комментарий