From the History of Human Dwellings
Most of the time of a modem man is spent within the walls of some building. Houses are built for dwelling; large buildings are constructed for industrial purposes; theatres, museums, public and scientific institutions are built for cultural activities of the people. The purposes of modem buildings differ widely, but all of them originate from the efforts of primitive men to protect themselves from stormy weather, wild animals and human enemies. Protection was looked for everywhere. In prehistoric times men looked for protection under the branches of trees; some covered themselves with skins of animals to protect themselves from cold and rain; others settled in caves.
When the Ice Age had passed, Europe remained very cold, at least in winter, and so the people of the Old Stone Age had to find some warm and dry place to shelter from bad weather. They chose caves, dwelling places that storm and cold could not destroy. On the walls of their caves ancient people painted pictures. Such decorated caves are found in Europe, Asia and Africa.
When man began to build a home for himself, caves were imitated in stone structures, trees were taken as a model for huts built of branches, skins were raised on poles and formed tents.
Primitive stone structures, huts and tents are the earliest types of human dwellings; they are lost in the prehistoric past but serve as prototypes for structures of later historic times.
In the days of early civilization, once men had learnt how to build simple houses for their families, they began to feel a need to have a number of different kinds of houses in one place. At first the difference was mainly in size — the chief or leader had a larger hut or tent than the rest of the people. Much later, when men began to build towns, there grew up a difference between town houses and country houses. The streets in towns were very narrow and there was not much place for building within the town walls, and therefore houses had to be built higher than they were in the country. A typical town house consisted of a shop opening on the street where the man did his work or sold his goods, with a kitchen behind and a bedroom above.
In the country ordinary people lived in simple one-storey cottages which did not differ much from the mud and stone huts of an earlier age.
The rich people in the country, on the other hand, built huge castles with thick walls and narrow windows. These castles were built not only as dwellings, but also to stand up to enemy attack and to be strong bases in time of war. The earliest houses of which anything is known are those of ancient Egypt. They were built of bricks dried in the sun. Some of them were built around a courtyard or garden with rooms opening into it.
Greek houses, too, had a courtyard in the middle and round their courtyard ran a covered walk, its ceiling supported by pillars. There were special women’s quarters, usually upstairs on the second storey. In Rome bricks were used for building and houses were often finished with plaster over bricks on both inside and outside walls. The centre of family life was a garden-courtyard, surrounded by columns and with rooms opening out into it.
The earliest houses in Britain were round, built of wood or wicker basket work plastered over with clay. In the centre of the house was the hearth and light came in through the hole in the roof above it and through the door because there were no windows.
1. Where did primitive people look for protection?
2. What are the earliest types of human dwellings?
3. Why were the houses in town higher than in the country?
4. What were the houses in ancient Egypt built of?
5. How did the light come into early English houses?
Ex1 Match the words with their definitions
1) Detached house
2) Semi detached house
3) Apartment building (block of flats)
…is a residential building, normally detached, may contain a small loft, which is either single-story or has a second story
… is a building primarily providing sleeping and residential quarters for large numbers of people, often boarding school, college or university students
…is, typically, a small house. It may carry the connotation of being an old or old-fashioned building. In modern usage, a cottage is usually a modest, often cosy dwelling, typically in a rural or semi-rural location
…is a building containing separate residential apartments
… is a single family dwelling house built as one of a pair that share one common wall. Often, each house's layout is a mirror image of the other.
… is the building maintained and used as a single dwelling unit.
Ex2 Fill in the table
The type of the dwelling Advantages Disadvantages
Detached house Semi detached house bungalow dormitory Apartment building Cottage Ex3.Tense revision
Simple Present or Present Continuous? - Complete the gaps with the best form of the verb in brackets.
DOCTOR: How can I help you, Mr Daniels?MIKE: Well, I started having bad headaches a couple of weeks ago and they (get) worse. I can't sleep properly; I'm tired all the time, and the worst thing is my hair (go) grey and I'm only 31!DOCTOR: I see. Let me ask you some more questions. (you/smoke)?MIKE: No, I gave up a month ago.DOCTOR: Right, I see you're a salesman. On average how many hours a week (you/work)?MIKE: Well, I normally (do) eight hours a day, but at the moment I (work) at least ten hours and some Saturdays.DOCTOR: That's a lot. And so how (you/relax)?MIKE: Well, I normally (sit) in front of the TV with a pizza and a few beers.DOCTOR: Hmmm, (you/do) any exercise at the moment?MIKE: Not really, but I'm loosing a lot of weights and I (not know) why.DOCTOR: I think you (suffer) from stress. I (want) you to eat a more varied diet and to do some exercise. Come back and see in four weeks and I'll check you again.
Simple Past or Past Continuous?
A: I phoned you last night at 8.00 but you didn't answer. What (you/do)?B: I (work) on my computer and I (not hear) the phone ring. Sorry.A: Good Morning, International Chemical Incorporated. May I help you?B: Hello, yes, I (talk) to the Financial Director a minute ago and the line (go) dead.A: Oh, I'm sorry, Madam. I'll reconnect you.A: When did you meet your husband?B: When I (be) in Canada last winter.A: Were you on holiday?B: No, I (train) to be a ski-instructor, but on the second day I (break) my leg. I (spend) eight weeks in hospital and he was my doctor!
Simple Past or Present Perfect? - Read this extract from an article called "Famous Mums and Dads" and complete the gaps with the best form of the verb in brackets.
"It (be) my birthday yesterday. I'm 14 years old. Some people say I'm lucky but I don't think so. Imagine, in my life I (go) to eight different schools and I (never stay) anywhere long enough to make a best friend. I (live) in so many different houses that I can't remember some of them. In fact, last year we (move) house three times. It's true, there are some good things: I (meet) some really famous people and we (have) some great holidays - I (go) to Disneyland at least four times, but never with mum and dad. When I (be) young, I always (have) a nanny, and she (take) me on holiday. I'm staying with my aunt and uncle at the moment because my dad's making a film in France and my mum (go) to Los Angeles."
Present Perfect or Present Perfect Continuous or Simple Past?
a. I (know) Susan for about five years.b. Mum had to take Tim to the dentist because he (break) his tooth.c. My husband (have) his mobile phone for a week and it isn't working.d. I hope Karen rings soon because Rick (wait) by the phone for hours.e. We (go) to the new sports centre since June. Why don't you come and try it?f. Giuseppina's English is getting much better. She (practice) a lot recently.g. You look much slimmer. (you/diet)?h. John's boss (decide) to have a holiday next month.i. Goodbye and thanks for having us. We (enjoyed) this evening.l. TEACHER: Ok. (everyone/finish) the exercise? Fine. Let's go on.
1. A: When (you / join) the company?
B: Ten months ago.
2. (you / ever/ work) in Europe?
3. That's the worst presentation (I / see ) in my life.
4. Sales (rise) in 1993 but then (fall) in 1996.
5. Ryan is still working. He (not / finish) his homework yet.6. A: What (you / do) when I (call) you last night?
B: I (sit) in a cafe when you (call).
7. When you (arrive) at the party, who (be) there?
8. Lisa isn't a Canadian. I (believe) she comes from France.
9. I (have) lunch in the cafeteria every day.
10. Susie (watch) a film when she (hear) the noise.
11. Yesterday I (go) to the library, next I (have) a swim, and later I (meet) Lindsey for lunch.
12. We (play) tennis when John (hurt) his ankle.
13. When I (walk) into the room this morning, everyone (work).
14. I (go) to Montreal next Thursday. Do you want to come?
15. Carlos is rich — he (drive) a Mercedes.
16. I (think) you're crazy!
17. I (speak) to him last week.
18. The reason my skin is so brown is that I (just / come) back from a trip to Barbados.
19. It (snow) quite hard — perhaps we shouldn't go out tonight.
20. Look! Yuki (cry)! Let’s go see what’s the matter.
What a language course can do
Fill the gaps with the correct tenses.
I (learn) English for seven years now.
But last year I (not / work) hard enough for English, that's why my marks(not / be) really that good then.
As I (pass / want) my English exam successfully next year, I (study) harder this term.
During my last summer holidays, my parents (send) me on a language course to London.
It (be) great and I (think) I (learn) a lot.
Before I (go) to London, I (not / enjoy) learning English.
But while I (do) the language course, I (meet) lots of young people from all over the world.
There I (notice) how important it (be) to speak foreign languages nowadays.
Now I (have) much more fun learning English than I (have) before the course.
At the moment I (revise) English grammar.
And I (begin / already) to read the texts in my English textbooks again.
I (think) I (do) one unit every week.
My exam (be) on 15 May, so there (not / be) any time to be lost.
If I (pass) my exams successfully, I (start) an apprenticeship in September.
And after my apprenticeship, maybe I (go) back to London to work there for a while.
As you (see / can) , I (become) a real London fan already.