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The Foregrounding, its Types and FunctionsMartynova Anastasiya408 LD Aimscertain layers of poetic texts selectively use certain deviations (foregrounding devices) by favoring certain types of deviations rather than others; this selective use is determined by cognitive constraints – that is, the options that are selected more often than not are cognitively simpler than those that are less frequently used. ForegroundingLinguist Michael Alexander Kirkwood Halliday (often M.A.K. Halliday) has characterized foregrounding as motivated prominence: "the phenomenon of linguistic highlighting, whereby some features of the language of a text stand out in some way" (Explorations in the Functions of Language, 1973). FunctionEstablishment of hierarchy of meanings and elements inside the text, that is emphasizing or foregrounding of the most important parts of a message.Providing cohesion and integrity of the text and at the same time segmenting the text for perception convenience : establishment of links between the parts of the text and its separate constituents. Putting in order the information due to which readers may decode unfamiliar elements of the code.Foregrounding forms aesthetical context and fulfills a number of semantic functions, with expressiveness being one of them. Expressiveness is a property of the text or its part to convey a meaning with enhanced intensity and results in emotional or logical reinforcement, which can be either figurative or not. Types of foregrounding Defeated expectancy may come up on any level of the language. It may be an unusual word against the background of otherwise lexically homogeneous text. It may be an author’s coinage with an unusual suffix. Among devices that are based on this principle we can name pun, zeugma, paradox,oxymoron, irony, anti-climax, etc. Convergence as the term implies a combination or accumulation of stylistic devices promoting the same idea, emotion or motive. A stylistic device is not attached to this or that stylistic effect. Therefore a hyperbole, for instance, may provide any number of effects: tragic, comical, pathetic or grotesque. Inversion may give the narration a highly elevated tone or an ironic ring of parody. Coupling is based on the affinity of elements that occupy similar positions throughout the text. Coupling provides cohesion, consistency and unity of the text form and content.Syntactical affinity is achieved by all kinds of parallelism and syntactical repetition–anadiplosis, anaphora, framing, chiasmus, epiphora to name but a few. Semantic field is a method of decoding stylistics closely connected with couplingLexical elements of this sort are charged with implications and adherent meanings that establish invisible links throughout the text and create a kind of semantic background so that the work is laced with certain kind of imagery. Semi-marked structures are a variety of defeated expectancy associated with the deviation from the grammatical and lexical normIt’s an extreme case of defeated expectancy much stronger than low expectancy encountered in a paradox or anti-climax, the unpredictable element is used contrary to the norm so it produces a very strong emphatic impact. Thank youfor your attention