Si_hoc_legere_scis


Si hoc legere scis, nimium eruditionis habes.
(If you can read this, you have too much education.)
Verbm

Finite Forms
(conjugated) Non-Finite Forms
(= Verbals = Verbids)
Infinitive Gerund Participle
VERBALS
Verbals include three non-finite forms of the verb: the infinitive, the gerund and the participle.
Unlike the finite forms of the verb, they do not express the grammatical categories of person, number and mood. Therefore they cannot be used as the predicate of the sentence.
The main characteristics of the verbals
1. Their syntactical functions differ from those of the finite verb and are typical of parts of speech other than the verb.
2. They are widely used in the so-called predicative constructions, consisting of two elements – nominal and verbal. The components are related to each other like the subject and the predicate of the sentence. They make up a syntactical unit (or a complex) treated as one part of the sentence.
3. Verbals have relative tense distinctions showing whether the action expressed by the verb is simultaneous with, or prior to the action expressed by the finite verb. Thus they have non-perfect and perfect forms.
4. They also express the category of voice represented by the opposition of active and passive forms.
5. Like all other verbs, verbals take objects and are associated with adverbial modifiers.
1. FORMS OF VERBALS
PASSIVE VOICE PERFECT to have been written having been written having been written
NON-PERFECT to be written being written being written
ACTIVE VOICE PERFECT to have written to have been writing having written having written
NON-PERFECT to write to be writing writing writing
ASPECT NON-CONTINUOUS CONTINUOUS INFINITIVE GERUND PARTICIPLE
2. MEANING OF VERBALS
NOTE After the verbs “remember”, “forget”, “forgive”, “thank” the NON-PERFECT GERUND is used in spite of the priority of its action to that of the finite verb.
I remember going to the library once.
Forgive me for taking so much of your time. After the verb “be to”, “expect”, “hope”, “intend”, mean”, “ought”, “should”, the PERFECT INFINITIVE is used to denote an action which was not carried out. The concert was to have taken place yesterday, but was postponed. The verbs which cannot be used in the Continuous have no form of the Continuous Infinitive.
The verbs which cannot be used in the Continuous have no form of the Perfect Continuous Infinitive.
EXAMPLE I like playing chess.
He used to play chess in the evening.
He woke up early to play chess.
He sat playing chess.
Seeing us he stopped. I am glad to have met them.
I regret having wasted so much time.
They were, indeed, old friends, having been at kindergarten together. The students pretended to be listening. In fact they were sleeping.
It seems to have been raining for ages.
MEANING The NON-PERFECT Infinitive/Gerund/Participle I is used to denote: 1) a general action;
2) a repeated, habitual action;
3) an action which refers to the future;
4) an action which occurs simultaneously with that of the finite verb;
5) an immediate succession of the action in the sentence. The PERFECT Infinitive/Gerund/Participle I is used to denote an action which is prior to that of the finite verb. The CONTINUOUS Infinitive is used to denote an action in progress which occurs simultaneously with that of the finite verb.
The PERFECT CONTINUOUS Infinitive is used to denote an action which lasted for a period of time before the action of the finite verb.
3. NOMINAL AND VERBAL CHARACTERISTICS OF INFINITIVE
USAGE EXAMPLES
NOMINAL The Infinitive may function as:
Subject
b) Object
c) Predicative To study Dutch is my dream.
I like to study Dutch.
My dream is to study Dutch.
VERBAL 1.The Infinitive has categories of:
Tense
Voice
Aspect I’m happy to have met you.
This article is sure to be published.
He is said to be reading.
2. The Infinitive of a transitive verb may have a direct object. I ‘m glad to see you.
3. The Infinitive may be modified by an adverb. I like to read aloud.
4. NOMINAL AND VERBAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GERUND
USAGE EXAMPLES
NOMINAL 1. The Gerund may function as:
a) Subject
b) Object
c) Predicative Smoking destroys your health.
I hate smoking.
Your problem is smoking.
2. The Gerund can be preceded by a preposition. I am afraid of skating.
3. The Gerund can be modified by a noun or a pronoun. We insisted on John’s coming to Rio de Janeiro.
We insisted on his coming as soon as possible.
VERBAL 1. The Gerund has categories of
Tense
Voice She denied having spoken to them.
Students like being asked a lot of questions.
2. The Gerund of a transitive verb may have a direct object. All students enjoy writing tests.
3. The Gerund may be modified by an adverb. I like reading aloud.
5. ADJECTIVAL/ADVERBIAL AND VERBAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PARTICIPLE I
USAGE EXAMPLES
ADJECTIVAL/
ADVERBIAL 1. Participle I may function as:
a) Attribute
b) Adverbial modifier We looked at the barking dog.
Answering my question he went out.
VERBAL 1. Participle I of a transitive verb may have a direct object. Having read the novel I went to sleep.
2. Participle I may be modified by an adverb. He sat reading aloud.
3. Participle I has categories of
Tense
b) Voice Having spoken to him she went away.
Being translated into many languages, the novel is known all over the world.
6. INFINITIVE WITHOUT THE PARTICLE “TO”
USAGE EXAMPLES NOTE
1. After modal verbs: He may have come. 2. After the verbs of sense perception (in the Complex Object) I didn’t notice you enter the room.
I felt somebody knock at the door. 1. If the verb “to feel” expresses mental perception the particle “to” is used:
I felt him to be true.
2. The particle “to” is used in the Complex Subject:
He was seen to enter the house.
3. After the verbs:
to make
to have (=to make)
to know (=to experience)
to let
to bid Don’t make me laugh.
I will not have you behave like that.
We have never known him lose his temper before.
Let it be.
The knight bade the travelers enter. The particle “to” is used in the Passive Voice:
He was made to laugh.
4. Sometimes after the verb to help. John helped me mend my bicycle. The construction with the particle “to” is more formal.
5. After the expression:
had better/best
would rather/sooner
cannot but
do nothing but
nothing to do but You’d better go away.
I’d rather stay here.
I cannot but laugh. The infinitive is part of the compound verbal predicate
She does nothing but make plans
We had nothing to do but wait. The infinitive is an adverbial modifier of exception.
6. After why (not), how in rhetorical questions. Why (not) go there right away.
How leave her there? In one-member sentences.
7. If the Infinitive expands the meaning of the verb to do. All I did was (to) turn off the gas.
Turn off the gas was all I did. The particle “to” is optional if the Infinitive is a predicative.
8. After than. I have more important things to do, than (to) translate this text. The particle “to” is optional.
7. FUNCTIONS OF INFINITIVE
FUNCTION CONJUNCTIONS EXAMPLES
SUBJECT To translate this text is easy.
It is easy to translate this text.
PREDICATIVE My dream is to translate this text.
PART OF PREDICATIVE This text is easy to translate.
PART OF COMPOUND VERBAL MODAL PREDICATE I can’t translate this text.
You should have translated this text.
PART OF COMPOUND VERBAL ASPECT PREDICATE He began (continued) ceased to translate this text.
OBJECT I plan to translate this text.
Are you glad to have translated this text?
ATTRIBUTE He was the last to translate this text.
PARENTHESIS To tell the truth, I am not ready with this text.
ADVERBIAL MODIFIER OF PURPOSE (in order), (so as), as if, etc. She took a dictionary to translate this text.
RESULT Too, enough,
such … as,
so … as She was too busy to translate this text.
He was clever enough to translate this text.
I am not such a fool as to translate this text.
COMPARISON OR MANNER than You ought to know better than to translate texts like that.
ATTENDANT CIRCUMSTANCES He came to find that the text had already been translated. (=He came and found…)
CONDITION He is a great translator. You wouldn’t believe it, to look at him.
MOTIVATION OR REASON She was silly to translate this text. (=She translated this text and it was silly of her.)
EXCEPTION except, but, save What could he do but translate this text.
TIME This translator lived to be ninety. (=till he was ninety.)
PART OF THE COMPLEX OBJECT I don’t want you to translate this text.
PART OF THE COMPLEX SUBJECT He is not expected to translate this text.
8. INFINITIVE AS ATTRIBUTE
USAGE EXAMPLES
1. After nouns The next thing to do is to see a movie.
2. After indefinite and negative pronouns and adverbs:
somebody anybody nobody
something anything nothing
someone anyone none
somewhere anywhere nowhere
She has nothing to do.
There was nowhere to go.
We have nobody to talk with.
3. After substantivized quantitative adjectives:
much, little, more, less, enough I have no more to add.
Her knowledge leaves much to be desired.
4. Substativized ordinal numerals, the words next, last He was the first to speak.
5. After the noun-substitute one He was the one to ask.
9. OBJECTIVE INFINITIVE CONSTRUCTION
USAGE EXAMPLES
1. After the verbs of sense perception: to see, watch, observe, notice, hear, feel, smell, etc. I saw him enter the room.
2. After the verbs of mental activity: to think, expect, know, believe, prefer, feel, imagine, find, etc. I would prefer you not to complain all the time.
I consider John (to be) a good driver.
3 After the verbs of request, order and permission: to ask, beg, beseech, implore, allow, let, suffer, order, cause, etc. Walter asked him to stay for dinner.
For a while she allowed her thoughts to wander.
They let us examine the documents.
I won’t have you stay here..
The general ordered us to wait.
The noise caused her to awaken.
4. After the verbs of wish and intention, liking and disliking: to wish, want, desire, mean, like, dislike, intend, hate, etc. I want you to translate the text.
5. After the verbs of declaring: to declare, pronounce, report, etc. They reported the boat to have been seen not far away.
6. After the verbs: to wait, rely, listen, etc. (with prepositions) I rely on you to come in time.
10. SUBBJECTIVE INFINITIVE CONSTRUCTION
USAGE EXAMPLES
1. After the verbs of sense perception: to see, watch, observe, notice, hear, feel, smell, etc. He was heard to mention the matter.
2. After the verbs of mental activity: know, believe, prefer, feel, imagine, find, etc. He is known to have left for London a week ago.
3 After the verbs of request, order and permission, compulsion: to ask, beg, beseech, implore, allow, let, suffer, order, cause, etc. He was ordered to go there right away.
He was made to translate the text.
4. After the verbs of declaring: to declare, pronounce, report, etc. He is said to have arrived in London.
5. After some verbs in the Active Voice: to seem, appear, turn out, prove, happen, chance, etc. He seems to have left for London.
It turns out to be raining now.
I happened to come across him in the street.
6. After the word-groups: to be likely, to be unlikely, to be certain, to be sure, etc. It is unlikely to rain soon.
He is sure to come soon.
You are certain to like it.
11. FOR-INFINITIVE CONSTRUCTIONS
FUNCTION EXAMPLES
COMPLEX SUBJECT For John to say such a thing is nonsense.
It would be difficult for him to find words that sounded well.
It took three years for the students to read the book.
COMPLEX PREDICATIVE The only sensible thing was for you to go away.
It is not for you to make terms.
COMPLEX OBJECT They waited for the boy to answer.
We longed for the lesson to be over.
I think it necessary for the students to learn the Infinitive.
COMPLEX ATTRIBUTE There are several people for you to consult.
The teacher can always find something for you to do.
COMPLEX ADVERBIAL MODIFIER OF PURPOSE He opened the door for her to go out.
RESULT The bridge was too narrow for the truck to cross.
The bridge was wide enough for the bicycle to cross.
12. FUNCTIONS OF GERUND
FUNCTION PREPOSITIONS EXAMPLES
SUBJECT Translating this text is rather difficult.
There’s no avoiding it.
It is no use translating this text.
The Gerund is not used after “essential”, “important”, “necessary”. “
PREDICATIVE - / like My idea is learning English.
I don’t feel like going home.
PART OF COMPOUND VERBAL ASPECT PREDICATE He began (kept on, stopped) translating this text.
DIRECT OBJECT of, at, in, into, on, for, to, etc We suggest going to the museum.
She denies having met us.
PREPOSITIONAL OBJECT They insisted on going to the library.
She was not conscious of having shown any special interest in grammar.
ATTRIBUTE of, about, in, at, for, to He gave up the idea of going to Bangladesh.
They entered the reading hall.
ADVERBIAL MODIFIERS OF TIME after, on, in, at, before After hesitating he answered in the affirmative.
The Perfect Gerund is used only if the priority is emphasized. He came back after having been away for twenty years.
PURPOSE for, for fear of, for the sake of, for the purpose of He wants to visit a solicitor for the purpose of making a new will.
CONDITION without, but for, in case of He won’t go without saying good-bye.
CAUSE (REASON) for, through, for fear of, due to, owing to, because of, on account of Through being left out all night in the rain the metal rusted.
He felt better for having written the letter.
ATTENDANT
CIRCUMSTANCES instead of,
without He went away instead of working.
He arrived without having once appeared on the stage.
CONCESSION in spite of, despite, notwithstanding In spite of being busy she managed to read the novel.
MANNER
COMPARISON in, by, without She spent her evening in reading.
The seaside is much better for me than working in the hot city all summer.
13. GERUNDIAL AND HALF-GERUNDIAL CONSTRUCTIONS
USAGE EXAMPLES NOTE
GERUNDIAL 1. Noun in the Possesive Case + Gerund I remember John’s telling me that.
The action is emphasized.
2. Possessive Pronoun + Gerund She denies his knowing anything. HALF-GERUNDIAL
1. Noun in the Common Case + Gerund
There came the sound of the door closing then being locked.
Fancy a woman of taste buying a hat.
We object to children and women smoking. 1. This construction is common:
a) with inanimate nouns and pronouns that are not used in the Possessive Case.
b) with nouns accompanied by attributed in post position.
c) when the Gerund is preceded by more than one pronoun.
d) when the speaker wants to emphasize the doer of the action.
2. The Construction can’t combine with the verbs to avoid, to defer, to delay, to deny, to enjoy, to postpone, to put off, to risk, to suggest.
2. Personal Pronoun in the Objective case + Gerund It’s no good you hating it. NOTE 1. In Modern English there is a tendency to use the half-gerundial Construction even with such nous as may be used in the Possessive Case.
NOTE 2. The use of the Objective case of personal pronouns is not so common.
14. FUNCIONS OF GERUNDIAL CONSTRUCTIONS
FUNCTION EXAMPLES
COMPLEX SUBJECT Your going there won’t help much.
COMPLEX PREDICATIVE The main thing is our starting early.
COMPLEX OBJECT Do you mind my closing the window?
COMPLEX ATTRIBUTE I hate the idea of her coming.
ADVERBIAL MODIFIERS After your coming it started to rain.
15. RIGHT-HAND COMBINABILITY OF SOME VERBS
(VERB + PREPOSITION + GERUND)
Verb + of + Ger.(dis)approve, be on the point, beware, come, complain, consist, despair, dream, make a point, speak, talk, tell, think, accuse, exasperate, remind, suspect, deprive, etc.
Verb + about + Ger.arrange, bother, care, complain, forget, grumble, hesitate, talk, think, tell, worry, have no doubt, squabble, ask, question smb., say smth., etc.
Verb + on + Ger.agree, concentrate, count, decide, insist, plan, reckon, rely, compliment smb., congratulate smb., pride oneself, spend smth., etc.
Verb + in + Ger.believe, trust, consist (=to be equivalent to), delight, end, lose time, persist, result, succeed, take pride, take risks, etc.
Verb + at + Ger.aim, play, scream, etc.
Verb + with + Ger.threaten, charge, amuse smb, etc.
Verb + to + Ger.admit, agree, apply, be up, amount, come, come round, confess, consent, fall, feel up, get, get down, get round, go back, lead, look forward, object, plead guilty, point, accustom smb., attribute smth., limit oneself, reduce smth., restrict smth., etc.
Verb + into + Ger.drop, bamboozle smb., bribe smb., coax smb., deceive smb., frighten smb., hypnotize smb, persuade smb., pester smb., starve smb., talk smb., trap smb., trick smb., etc.
Verb + out of + Ger.argue smb., make an occupation, talk smb., etc.
Verb + from + Ger.abstain, despair, escape, refrain, result, save, shrink, shy away, discourage smb., hinder smb., keep smb., prevent smb., prohibit smb., rescue smb., stop smb., etc.
Verb + for + Ger.account, apologize, atone, find excuses, long, blame smb., bless smb., criticize., excuse smb., forgive smb., honour smb., pardon smb., praise smb., punish smb., reprimand smb., reproach smb., respect smb., reward smb., scold smb., scorn smb., thank smb., etc.
Verb + by + Ger.mean, amuse oneself., oblige smb., etc.
Verb+against+Ger.warn smb., insure smb., etc.
16. RIGHT-HAND COMBINABILITY OF SOME ADJECTIVES
(ADJECTIVE + PREPOSITION + GERUND)
Adj. + of + Ger.afraid, ashamed, aware, (in)capable, certain, confident, conscious, fond, guilty, hard, hopeful, ignorant, proud, quick, shy, sick, sure, tired, weary, worthy, independent, irrespective, regardless, etc.
Adj. + about + Ger.angry, careful, concerned, doubtful, excited, happy, hesitant, hopeful, mad, crazy, sad, sensible, thrilled, worried, etc.
Adj. + with + Ger.acquainted, content(ed), heavy, red, satisfied, etc.
Adj. + at + Ger.angry, annoyed, astonished, bad, brilliant, clever, clumsy, delighted, disappointed, excited, expert, good, gratified, hopeless, indignant, pleased, prompt, quick, relieved, shocked, stupid, surprised, etc.
Adj. + in + Ger.busy, careless, experienced, expert, fortunate, happy, interested, justified, late, mistaken, occupied, patient, ready, skilful, slow, wise, successful, temperate, engaged, etc.
Adj. + for + Ger.convenient, eminent, famous, favourable, fit, notorious, remarkable, responsible, sorry, etc.
Adj. + on + Ger.dependent, determined, insistent, intent, keen, mad, etc.
Adj. + to + Ger.(un)accustomed, averse, close, opposed, preparatory, reluctant, subsequent, used, attached, etc.
Adj. + from + Ger.different, exempt, etc.
17. RIGHT-HAND COMBINABILITY OF SOME NOUNS
(NOUN + PREPOSITION + GERUND)
Noun + for + Ger.capacity, cause, excuse, genius, gift, time, grounds, liking, mania, motive, opportunity, passion, preference, pretext, propensity, reason, regret, reputation, talent, taste, knack, etc.
Noun + in + Ger.advantage, amusement, belief, believer, use, difficulty, experience, harm, hesitation, ingenuity, interest, meaning, object, point, participation, pleasure, sense, skill, success, tact, etc.
Noun + at + Ger.amazement, annoyance, astonishment, attempt, delight, dismay, effort, embarrassment, hand, excitement, expert, irritation, pleasure, practice, pride, proficiency, regret, relief, satisfaction, shyness, surprise, etc.
Noun + to + Ger.alternative, liking, means, objection, tendency, preparation, key, etc.
Noun + about + Ger.doubt, fantasy, obsession, scruples, etc.
18. INFINITIVE OR GERUND
Verbs followed by  the GERUND Verbs followed by  the INFINITIVE Verbs followed by  the GERUND and INFINITIVE
abhor abide acknowledge admit adore anticipate appreciate avoid be worth begrudge can't help carry on complete confess consider countenance contemplate defer delay deny detest disclaim dislike drop enjoy envisage escape evade face facilitate fancy favour feel like finish foresee give up imagine involve keep keep on leave off
loathe mention mind miss ponder postpone practise put off quit recall recollect relish repent resent resist resume risk shun suggest agree afford arrange  assent be about be bound be wont beg beseech care challenge choose claim command compel condescend consent contrive decide decline deign demand desire determine direct expect endeavour fail fix hasten hesitate hope learn long manage offer opt persuade pledge prepare pretend proceed
professpromise purport reckon refuse remain request resolve seek set out strive tend threaten trouble trust undertake venture wish would like
yearn
attempt bother can't bear cease commence continue dread endure fear forbear intend neglect omit plan purpose scorn                                                                                
 
19. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN INFINITIVE AND GERUND
NOTE INFINITIVE VERB GERUND NOTE
a paricular/  singular action  I don't like to go to the South now. 
I hate to trouble you. like, love, prefer, hate
  I like going to the South every year.  a general/  recurrent action 
The action of the Infinitive takes place after the act of remembering, forgetting or regretting.  Remember to close the window. 
I regret to inform you that it is impossible.    remember, forget, regret, etc

  Do you remember closing the window before leaving? 
I regret having sold her that.  The action of the Gerund takes place before the act of remembering, forgetting or regretting. 
 
The Gerund is not used:  a) if the finite verb is in the continuous form.  b) with the verbs to understand, to see (=to understand)  c) if the subject denotes a lifeless thing
. a) He is beginning to study French. 
b) He began to understand it. 
c) The door began to creak. begin, start

  =to put an end to an action for some purpose We stopped to have a talk. stop
  We stopped talking. =to cease, give up
followed by an object, expressing the person to whom the action is directed. They allowed us to smoke. 
  allow, recommend, advise, permit, encourage, prohibit They allowed smoking. 
  not followed by an object, expressing the person to whom the action is directed.
=attempt, use one's utmost efforts; is often replaced by 'try and do' Try to behave better.  try
Try knocking at the door if nobody hears you. =make that experiment and see whether it is satisfactory
=worried, filled with apprehension She is afraid to tell her parents that she broke a cup. be afraid
  She is afraid of being punished by her parents. =doubtful/anxious about the consequences
=want to do very much, have a great desire I am anxious to hear your news. be anxious
  I am anxious about leaving the child alone in the house. =afraid 
 
=intend, have in mind as a purpose or plan; 'to have done' is used to denote an action which was not carried out in the past. I mean to arrive tomorrow. 
I meant to have arrived yesterday but fell ill. 
  mean

  This illness will mean going to hospital.     
  =signify         
 
The meaning is active         
  I want to have my hair cut.  He didn't need to be reminded about it.  You are required to be there by 9 o'clock.
want, need, require, deserve
My hair wants cutting. 
This flat requires white-washing.   
  The meaning is passive         
 
points out a new stage in the sequence of actions   
  The teacher went on to explain the use of the Gerund after the use if the Infinitive. (=explained the rule and than started another)
go on

  The teacher went on explaining the use of the Gerund.   
  continuation of the action denoted by the Gerund   
 
=run that risk, be in a position where one is likely to win. What do we stand to gain by the agreement?
stand
  She can't stand being kept waiting. =can't bear, endure
=intend; to have formed a plan     
  I propose to go to London on Tuesday. 
How do you propose to finance this venture? propose

  I propose delaying our decision until the next meeting.   
  =put forward for consideration; suggest     
 
if not preceded by a noun or a pronoun  We can't afford to buy a new car.  afford

  We couldn't afford his signing up for another course. if preceded by a possessive pronoun or a noun in the possessive case
20. GERUND AND VERBAL NOUN COMPARED
GERUND VERBAL NOUN
COMBINABILITY Article It’s the only way I got to make a living.
To begin at the beginning.
Adjective It’s a new building.
Adverb Writing quickly tired my hand. Demonstrative Pronoun I don’t think this building is as clean as it should be.
Direct Object I stopped learning French. of + Noun The ringing of the bell grew louder.
CATEGORIES Number These comings and goings are getting on my nerves.
Tense I regret having wasted so much time. Voice Do you prefer teaching anybody or being taught? 21. FUNCTIONS OF PARTICIPLE I
FUNCTION EXAMPLES
ATRIBUTE
Never use the Perfect Participle in this function! The whipping waves roared through the night
The waves, whipping the shore savagely, roared through the night..
PARENTHESIS Generally speaking, I am a good student.
PREDICATIVE The effect was terrifying.
ADVERBIAL MODIFIER OF TIME
Conjunctions: when, while/whilst (While) Waiting for another question he was silent.
Having finished the repairs, the plumber prepared to leave.
Perfect Participle I of the verbs of sense perception and motion and the verbs “to put”, “to open”, “to take”, “to take off”, “to seize”, “to grasp” is used only if the priority is emphasized.
CAUSE Being late for classes, I ran up the stairs.
Having sold their house, they were free to leave.
MANNER He spent his morning reading a newspaper.
COMPARISON
Conjunctions: as if, as though For a moment he stood as if waiting for a bus.
CONCESSION
Conjunctions: though, although Though knowing all he asked me.
ATTENDANT CIRCUMSTANCES He sat in his armchair reading.
PART OF THE COMPLEX OBJECT I saw the children playing in the garden.
PART OF THE COMPLEX SUBJECT The children were seen playing in the garden.
22. FUNCTIONS OF PARTICIPLE II
FUNCTION EXAMPLES
PREDICATIVE The door was locked.
She looked irritated.
We feel rather encouraged.
ATRRIBUTE He answered through the unlocked door.
There was no evidence left.
ADVERBIAL MODIFIER OF TIME
Conjunctions: when, till, until He spoke when spoken to.
CAUSE Overcome by grief, he sat speechless.
CONDITION
Conjunctions: if, unless He didn’t usually utter a word unless spoken to.
COMPARISON
Conjunctions: as though, as if For a moment he looked at me as if puzzled.
CONCESSION
Conjunctions: though, although, even if, even though, even when, wherever, whether … or Though addressed to, he sat silent.
Whether telecast or not, the game isn’t worth missing.
PART OF THE COMPLEX OBJECT I want my film developed.
PART OF THE COMPLEX SUBJECT The matter wasn’t heard mentioned.
23. OBJECTIVE PARTICIPIAL CONSTRUCTIONS
(COMPLEX OBJECT)
USAGE EXAMPLES
PARTICIPLE I PARTICIPLE II
After the verbs of sense perception I smell the pie burning. She heard herself called.
After the verbs of mental activity I prefer you hair curled.
After the verbs of declaring He reported the dog lost.
After the verbs of wish and intention, liking and disliking I don’t want you talking back to me. The photographer wanted his film developed.
After the verbs with the causative meaning: to have, to hold, to keep, to leave, to start, to set, to catch, etc. Don’t keep me waiting. The task left the students exhausted.
After the verbs: to have, to get She had her blood tested.
24. SUBJECTIVE PARTICIPIAL CONSTRUCTIONS
(COMPLEX SUBJECT)
USAGE EXAMPLES
PARTICIPLE I PARTICIPLE II
After the verbs of sense perception He was heard mentioning the matter. The matter wasn’t heard mentioned.
After the verbs: to keep, to find, to catch, to leave, etc. We were kept waiting. The door was left locked.
After the verbs: to seem, to appear He seemed absorbed by the book.
25. PARTICIPLE I AND GERUND COMPARED
GERUND PARTICIPLE I
CHARACTER Nominal Adjectival/Adverbial
FUNCTION SUBJECT There is no translating this text without a dictionary. OBJECT He suggested translating this text without a dictionary. PREDICATIVE My dream is translating this text every day.
Note: The Gerund does not qualify the subject but identifies the subject by revealing its meaning. The sound was deafening.
Note: Participle I gives qualitative characteristics to the subject.
ADVERBIAL MODIFIERS On entering the room, he closed the door.
Note: The Gerund is always used with prepositions. Entering the room, he closed the door.
When entering the room, he stumbled over the threshold.
Note: Participle I is used without prepositions. It can be used with conjunctions.
ATTRIBUTE 1. He liked the idea of going to Hungary.
(preceded by the preposition “of”)
2. a reading hall
(=a hall for reading)
a hunting dog
(=a dog for hunting)
The Gerund does not denote the performer of the action. a reading boy
(=a boy who is reading)
a hunting dog
(=a dog that is hunting)
Participle I denotes an action that the person or thing performs or experiences.
26. ABSOLUTE CONSTRUCTIONS
ABSOLUTE CONSTRUCTIONS 4. PREPOSITIONAL ABSOLUTE CONSTRUCTION
Mr Black was eating ice cream with his hat on his head. 3. PREPOSITIONAL ABSOLUTE PARTICIPIAL CONSTRUCTION
Mr White went for a walk with his dog following him.
John was listening to the radio with his eyes closed.
NOTE: An additional idea of time, cause or condition may be prompted by the context:
I can’t read with everyone looking at me. 2. NOMINATIVE ABSOLUTE CONSTRUCTION
The lesson over, the students went home. Everything ready, I had nothing to do. The weather good, everyone will be happy. Mr Brown was walking along the street, his hands in his pockets. 1. NOMINATIVE ABSOLUTE PARTICIPIAL CONSTRUCTION
The work being finished, Mr Brown went home.
Examinations passed, the students were happy. It being very late, there were no buses in the street.
The work completed, I was able to take a month’s holiday. The weather permitting, I will go to work.
The students were writing а test paper, their hands trembling.
The students were writing a test paper, their books closed. Adverbial modifier of time Adverbial modifier of cause Adverbial modifier of condition Adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances 27. ACTIVE AND PASSIVE INFINITIVE WITH SIMILAR MEANING
The idea of obligation can sometimes be expressed by an infinitive after a noun.
I’ve got letters to write.
These carpets are to be cleaned as soon as possible.
If the subject of the sentence is the person who has to do the action
I have work to do. (Not: *I have work to be done.)
If the subject of the sentence is the action that has to be done (or the person or thing that the action is done to)
These clothes are to be washed. (Not: *These clothes are to wash.)
This form is to be filled in in ink. (Not: *This form is to fill in.)
The cleaning is to be finished by midday. (Not: *… to finish …)
2. In some structures (for example, after there is/there are), both active and passive infinitives are possible with a similar meaning. We use the active infinitive if we think more about the person who has to do the action than about the action itself.
There is a lot of work to do/to be done.
There are six letters to write/to be written.
Give me the names of the people to contact/to be contacted.
We usually say that a house is to let, but to be let is also possible.
3. The passive infinitives to be seen, to be found, and to be congratulated are common after be.
He was nowhere to be seen.
The dog was nowhere to be found.
You are to be congratulated.
4. Note the difference between something/anything/nothing to do and something/anything/nothing to be done.
There is nothing to do. I’m bored. (=There are no entertainments.)
There is nothing to be done. (=There is no way of putting it right.)
5. To blame is often used in a passive sense (meaning ‘responsible for something bad that happened’)
Nobody was to blame for the accident.
Übung macht den Meister.
(German proverb)
PRACTICE
Ex. 1. Insert the particle “to” where necessary. Translate into Russian.
1. Practice makes perfect, but nobody is perfect, so why ___ practice?
2. Who is not lucky, let him not ___ go to sea. 3. He was heard ___ repeat over and over again, “Let me not seem ___ have lived in vain.”
4. I left a chemistry PhD program because I felt as if I was not intelligent enough, or better yet, was made ___ feel as if I were not intelligent enough to handle chemistry on the doctoral level. 5. Listening to the news got me ___ think hard about some proposals by politicians in these trying times. 6. Urlacher, king of the one-syllable utterances in local media settings, was heard ___ wax jubilantly in his conference-call chat with northern California media. 7. It is a stupid goose that listens to the fox ___ preach. (French proverb) 8. We felt the floor ___ vibrate. 9. We felt the idea ___ be a good one. 10. That had better not ___ be what you were going to say. 11. So already at this level, Giotto was seen ___ be doing more than imitating external appearances. 12. Love makes the time ___ pass. Time makes love ___ pass. (French proverb) 13. According to tradition, Buonaparte's military reputation was seen ____ have begun with the Siege of Toulon. 14. And truth be told, I'm sure he understood exactly what she meant, but delighted in having her ____ repeat it. 15. Langdon felt the tiny car ___ shrink around him. 16. He evaded the question. Someone was heard ___ mutter, "Halfwit nitwit." 17. After enough of that, the Secretary of Defense was seen ___ stroll after the President into the White House proper, and as the door began to close upon them, the Sec Def dissolved into a vague cloud and disappeared inside. 18. Would you come into the garden? I would like my roses ___ see you. (Richard Sheridan) 19. Money makes the world ___ go round.
Ex. 2. Write all possible forms of the infinitives.
1. to seek; 2. to grind; 3. to fling; 4. to forsake; 5. to spin; 6. to tread; 7. to hang; 8. to wind; 9. to sew; 10. to rend. 11. to broadcast.
Ex. 3. Use the words in brackets in the correct form of the infinitive. Translate into Russian.
1. The snow melted around the school as February arrived, (replace) by cold, dreary wetness. 2. “Never mind, never mind,” said Twycross dryly, who did not seem (expect) anything better. 3. Manure is junk of a sort, but it can make flowers (grow). 4. They are right (concern). 5. But all the same, you won’t get a jury (take) much note of a jailbird’s evidence. 6. The same technique permits old instruments (grind) down and recycled into new ones. 7. I feel you are hiding something from me, and I demand (tell) the truth. 8. The man was not one (think) rapidly. 9. In a pleasant way Eddie Swanson stated that he would have a physician (analyze) his coffee daily. 10. God seems (forsake) a good portion of Silicon Valley's water, too, since IBM arrived on the scene. 11. I woke up with the idea that seemed (fly) into my brain overnight. 12. Later she visited this place, where a scattering of adobe huts appeared (spin) off by a derelict plaza into fields and gullies and a stand of tall weeds. 13. Paleoanthropologists have discovered the earliest evidence of stone blades – sophisticated tools once thought (make) only by Neanderthals – dating to 500,000 years ago. 14. A lot of dirt is going (sling) at him. 15. And all day long in the schoolhouse cabin, little James Whitcomb Riley, who ought (do) his sums, stared through the window. 16. Such a dress can’t (sit) down in. 17. Matisse may have conceived his picture (hang) high overhead. 18. About 1.5 million are thought (seek) refuge along the rugged frontier with Iran last year. 19. The cook pretended (read) a book. It was a cook book. 20. How fortunate you are (travel) all over the world and (see) so much of it. 21. You are hard (please). 22. There are things that have (do). 23. He appears (know) practically all African languages; he is said (learn) them while travelling. 24. The latest alphabet (use) by Germanic tribes is the Latin alphabet. 25. He seemed (weigh) something in his mind. 26. He was a currently unemployed electrontech, thirty-six years old, who claimed (look) for temporary work at the spaceport when a stranger offered him fifty credits and promised to double it if he went with four others and did as he was told. 27. I’m glad to hear you (say) that. 28. The door opened, but no one could be seen (open) it. 29. No one who is interested in the subject of language can have failed (strike) with the prevalence of complaints about the corruption which is overtaking our own speech.
Ex. 4. Complete the sentences using the infinitive in the correct form. State the functions of the infinitive.
1. ______ was impossible. 2. ______ is a usual thing for me. 3. Our plan was _______. 4. What I want is ______. 5. The students were anxious _______. 6. Do you care _______? 7. We are sorry _______. 8. I was the first _______. 9. I learnt all new words so as _______. 10. I stopped _______. 11. I am clever enough _______. 12. I will go to Tegucigalpa _______.
Ex. 5. Expand the phrases with the infinitive as adverbial modifier of condition. (Remember that the verb of the predicate should be used in the Conditional Mood.)
E.g. To hear him, _____. To hear him, one would think he was as poor as a church mouse.
1. To see that woman run after the bus, ________. 2. To hear that girl speak to people like that, ________. 3. To read only some pages in this book, _______. 4. To see the students working hard during the term, _______. 5. To hear the minister speak at the meeting, _______. 6. To look at her steadily, ________.
Ex. 6. Complete the following sentences, using the infinitive as adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances. (Remember that the idea represented by the object of infinitive or the infinitive itself should be unexpected or unpleasant.)
E.g. The student took the record to find out _______. The student took the record to find out that it was not the one he needed.
1. Mr Gook started the car to realize _______. 2. John has read the letter to learn _______. 3. The teacher entered the classroom to see _______. 4. They arrived in London to find out _______. 5. The girl came up to the mirror to realize _______. 8. Mr Brown got on the tram to understand ________. 9. Mr Green went to Australia to _____. 10. I woke up to ________.
Ex. 7. The infinitive in the function of adverbial modifier of purpose may be used alone or with the conjunction in order, so as: E.g. I left early to catch the train. = I left early in order to catch the train. = I left early so as to catch the train.
In negative sentences with “not” the conjunctions in order, so as must be used. The infinitive alone is not usually correct.
E.g. I left early in order not to miss the train. = I left early so as not to miss the train. Typical mistake: I left early not to miss the train.
Translate into English.
1. Гости поднялись, чтобы уйти. 2. Студенты учили правила, чтобы не делать ошибки. 3. Гарри снял очки, чтобы их протереть. 4. Оркестр играл очень тихо, чтобы не разбудить публику. 5. Запишите все новые слова, чтобы их не забыть. 6. Заведите будильник погромче, чтобы не проспать первую пару. 7. Наденьте шапку-невидимку, чтобы вас больше не видели.
Ex. 8. Translate into English using the infinitive.
1. Быть несправедливым к себе так же трудно, как быть справедливым к другим. (Ш. Лемель) 2. Пылесосить лучше всего пылесосом. 3. Терять нечего. 4. Никогда не спорьте с дураком – люди могут не заметить между вами разницы. 5. Мне нечего предъявить кроме своей гениальности. (О.Уайльд) 6. Согласно Библии, Мафусаил (Methuselah = חלשותמ) прожил 969 лет. 7. Вам есть, что сказать? – Мне нечего сказать. 8. Он был первым, кто ушёл. 9. Мистер Браун поехал в Киншасу, и заболел ОРЗ. 10. Наденьте валенки, чтобы не замёрзнуть. 11. Я приехал в аэропорт и узнал, что рейс в Манагуа отменили. 12. Я рад, что мне дали почитать книгу про Беовульфа. 13. Студенты были довольны, что сдали экзамен. 14. Мы хотим, чтобы нас проинформировали о последних событиях во всём мире и его окрестностях. 15. Студенты не ожидали, что их вызовут в деканат. 16. Мне неловко, что я причинил вам столько беспокойства. 17. Мне досадно, что я забыл зайти в Московский зоопарк, посмотреть лошадей Пржевальского. 18. Фильм оставляет желать лучшего. 19. Со мной трудно иметь дело. 20. Наш биатлонист пришёл к финишу сто двадцать восьмым. 21. Это памятник, который будет воздвигнут на главной площади нашего посёлка. 22. Я встал в пять часов утра, чтобы не опоздать в университет. 23. Это был матч, который нельзя забыть. 24. Кто последний вошёл? Закройте дверь! 24. Первым китайским тайконавтом (taikonaut = 宇航员), полетевшим в космос, стал Ян Ливэй (Yang Liwei = 杨利伟). 25. Книга слишком интересная, чтобы её забыть. 26. Мистер Грин ушёл последним. 27. Крысы первыми бегут с тонущего корабля, но люди их всё равно в итоге обгоняют. 28. В нашем университете слишком холодно, чтобы учиться зимой. 29. Турецкий язык очень легко изучать. 30. Слишком хорошо, чтобы быть правдой. 31. Мне нечего больше сказать.
Ex. 9. Make up sentences using the following infinitive phrases parenthetically. Use your active vocabulary.
1. To be quite frank, _______. 2. To tell the truth, _______. 3. To make a long story short, _______. 4. To put it mildly, _______. 5. To be more precise, _______. 6. To make things worse, _______.
Ex. 10. Translate into Russian. Find the Complex Object with the infinitive.
1. Langdon felt a trace of self-preservation grip his unconscious mind. 2. We have had no guidance in this situation. We must rely on you to tell us how to proceed. 3. And on that enigmatic note he waved to Harry, who understood himself to be dismissed. 4. I’m dead clumsy, did you hear me break that plate in the kitchen? 5. We all knew it to be impossible. 6. I never took him to be a Norwegian. 7. He didn’t mean this to be a long meeting. 8. I trust him to make the right decision. 9. I expect you to expect me to expect you to do your homework. 10. In the afternoon, leaning from my window, I saw him pass down the street, walking tremulously and carrying the bag. Each time he passed a lamp-post he shrank a little, as though expecting it to strike him, or maybe the sense of plebeian contamination. 11. I’m glad to hear you say that! I certainly am glad to hear you say that!
Ex. 11. Paraphrase the sentences so as to use the Complex Object with the infinitive.
1. John felt that an ant was creeping on his nose. 2. Did you hear that someone called your name? 3. The passenger ordered that his luggage should be sent to Honolulu. 4. I don’t think that you are fit for the job. 5. What I want is that you both stop talking. 6. I hate it when people argue about trifles. 7. I should like to see how he would say it to my face. 8. I always believed that he is a brute.
Ex. 12. Translate into English using the Complex Object with the infinitive.
1. Ваше замечание заставило всех чувствовать себя неловко. 2. Мы полагаем, что план вполне осуществим. 3. Я хочу, чтобы задание было сделано как можно скорее. 4. Мы можем рассчитывать на то, что вы нас поддержите? 5. Вы когда-нибудь видели, чтобы такое случалось? 6. Астрономы полагают, что Плутон не является планетой. 7. Никогда не видел, чтобы вы так здорово выглядели. 8. А затем я увидел, как изменилась погода. 9. И пусть ваше здоровье всегда будет в хорошем настроении. 10. Пусть бегут неуклюже пешеходы по лужам. 11. Вы слыхали, как поют дрозды? 12. Я хотел бы, чтобы это было для вас сюрпризом. 13. Разрешите мне от моего имени приветствовать съезд лучших менеджеров России. (Жванецкий) 14. Если правительство рассчитывает, что квартиросъемщики спокойно отнесутся к повышению квартплаты, оно сильно ошибается. 15. Нам бы хотелось, чтобы вы рассказали нам что-нибудь о Гибралтаре. 16. Задувая чужую свечу, не ожидайте, что ваша станет гореть ярче. 17. Никто в Гидрометцентре не предполагал, что наступит зима. 18. Мыши собрались и решили: «Давайте купим колокольчик и повесим его коту на шею, чтобы всегда было слышно, что он идёт». 19. Не ожидайте, что это произойдет на этой неделе. На это могут уйти годы. 20. Древние считали Венеру, видимую на нашем небосводе в утренние и вечерние часы, разными светилами. 21. Я хочу, чтобы репортер Би-би-си Гюнтер Глик был немедленно доставлен в этот кабинет. 22. Никогда не заставляйте нас ходить по магазинам, всё равно что-нибудь не то купим.
Ex. 13. Translate the Latin sentences with the construction Accusativus cum Infinitivo into English using the Complex Object with the infinitive.
1. Romāni scriptōres tradunt Romŭlum Romae conditōrem fuisse. 2. Video arborem florere. 3. Audio puellam cantare. 4. Fluviis saepe adiacere campos herbosos et silvas densas videmus. 5. Constat lupum lupum non mordere. 6. Constat ignorantiam non esse argumentum. 7. Notum est naturam nihil facere frustra. 8. Inter omnes constat haud semper errare famam. 9. Notum est scientiam potentiam esse. 10. Lupos avidos esse liberi etiam sciunt.
Ex. 14. Translate into Russian. Find the Complex Subject with the infinitive.
1. Article 31 of FIFA’s Disciplinary Code further clarifies that “teams sunctioned with a forfeit are considered to have lost the matching by 3-0 (unless the original score was a worse defeat). 2. It was the first time he had ever been known to enter the salon. Who could tell what the future held. (K. Mansfield) 3. I went to the post office, and as I stood on the steps, umbrellaless, hesitating before plunging into the slushy road, a little hesitating voice seemed to come from under my elbow. (K. Mansfield) 4. A fuel leak is now admitted to have been the cause of the trouble. 5. Never once had she been seen to cry. Never by a living soul. (K. Mansfield) 6. Though once there was believed to be little political sense in pushing environmental policies in elections, ‘green’ political parties with policies geared towards saving the environment are supported by a significant number of electors whose views can therefore make a lasting difference. 7. I always do seem to be late for simply everything. 8. The building was now rumoured to be honeycombed with secret entries, passageways and hidden chambers. 9. Except for what is provided for in section 3 of the general conditions of sale, the contract is understood to be concluded and signed after three days from the receipt by the buyer of the seller’s order confirmation.
Ex. 15. Use the infinitives in brackets in the correct form. Translate into Russian.
1. You seem (look) for trouble. 2. It seems (rain) for a week. 3. The book is likely (publish) and (appear) on sale pretty soon. It is sure (sell) well and (sell) out in no time. 4. The committee is said (revise) the programme and (work) out a plan of its realization. 5. The translator is supposed (work) at the translation for two years, but is said not (translate) anything. 6. The book was believed (lose) until the students happened (find) it under the table. 7. The strength of the Eastern Bridge proved (overestimate) by the designers. 8. A young woman was standing in the doorway, a woman of such breathtaking beauty that the room seemed (become) strangely airless. 9. From the look on his face he appeared (tell) already the worst of it.
Ex. 16. Paraphrase the sentences so as to use the Complex Subject with the infinitive.
1. Nobody ever saw him smile or look happy. 2. We know Leonardo da Vinci to have been a very clever man. 3. John did not allow anybody to take books from his library. 4. Visitors consider the climate in Vanuatu to be very healthy. 5. I heard a truck pull up at the curb. 6. Nothing can make me change my mind. 7. We suspect Mr Grubbly to have stolen the mayonnaise. 8. Everybody heard her reiterate these words. 9. We saw his sly sabertoothed smile widen. 10. It is expected that nobody will pass the exam in Theoretical Grammar. 11. It was announced that the conjurer was arriving next week. 12. It is said that Geoffrey Chaucer’s books are popular with all the students. 13. It is believed that the portrait was painted by an unknown artist. 14. It is supposed that that the students are preparing for their test. 15. It is reported that the tsunami has caused much damage to the country. 16. I have never seen you look such a picture. Look at yourself! 17. It was expected that Santa Claus would return in a year. 18. It has been found that green tea is very good for health. 19. It seems that Neanderthals, the closest species to modern humans, disappeared some 50,000 years ago. 20. It seemed that nobody had lived in the university for a long time. 21. It happened that I was present at the lecture on History of English. 22. It proved that my prediction had been correct. 23. It seemed there was nothing to do. 24. They believe the victim has been poisoned. 25. It is likely that the government policies which threaten the environment will come under ever-increasing scrutiny. 26. This was not how we supposed it to be. 27. It was certain that they will come to understanding. 28. They say I am the best student at university.
Ex. 17. Express your despair, annoyance, cynicism or warning. Use the Complex Subject with the infinitive.
E.g. – Tell me when dinner is ready. – But it is not likely ever to be ready.
1. Tell me when it’s stopped raining. 2. Will you take me out when you’ve passed your driving test? 3. Give me the text when you’ve finished with it. 4. The guests are leaving soon. 5. When you go to America, bring me an opossum. 6. When you’ve been in outer space, tell me what it is like. 7. Tell me when you pass your exam.
Ex. 18. Complete the sentences using the Complex Subject with the infinitive.
1. Scylla and Charybdis are known to _____. 2. Minotaur is said to _____. 3. King Arthur is believed to _____. 4. Don Quixote is known to _____. 5. Odysseus is said to _____. 6. King Midas is believed to _____. 7. Diogenes is considered to _____.
Ex. 19. Translate into English using the Complex Subject with the infinitive.
1. Вы, случайно, не говорите по-английски? – Нет, мы не говорим по-английски. 2. Ничто, казалось, не нарушало тишины. 3. Предполагалось, что мы встретимся в два часа. 4. Кажется, вы уже бывали в Куала-Лумпуре. 5. Вы, как будто, меня не слушаете. 6. Слышно было, как болельщики поддерживали команду на протяжении всего матча. 7. Несомненно, вам понравится этот фильм. 8. Некоторые пассажиры, оказалось, были зайцами. 9. Он, наверняка, всё перепутает. 10. Известно, что В.А. Моцарт был великим композитором. 11. Кажется, вы учите грамматику уже три дня, и ничего ещё не выучили. 12. Кажется, вода кипит. 13. Говорят, что третьекурсники уже учатся на третьем курсе пять с половиной лет только на отличные оценки. 14. Сообщают, что аргентинский футбольный арбитр Ариэль Монтеро проспал матч третьего дивизиона чемпионата страны между командами «Алумни» и «Рэсинг». 15. Как известно, долгопяты (tarsiers) — небольшие зверьки, их рост составляет от 9 до 16 см. 16. Оказывается, вы большой знаток архитектуры. 17. Эта пьеса, непременно, вам понравится. 18. Слышно было, как вдалеке гудит большой адронный коллайдер (Large Hadron Collider). 19. Был седьмой час вечера – время, когда белая акация и сирень пахнут так сильно, что, кажется, воздух и сами деревья стынут от своего запаха. (Чехов) 20. Сообщают, что космический корабль был отправлен с космодрома Байконур. 21. Было видно, как с дерева на дерево перелетают летучие собаки. 22. Вы, кажется, уже давно здесь сидите. Вы ждёте трамвай номер десять? 23. Известно, что длинными холодными зимами жители Москвы любят играть на балалайках, мастерить матрёшки и охотиться на медведей неподалёку от Красной Площади. 24. Сообщают, что матч отборочного турнира чемпионата мира по футболу 2010 года между сборными Мексики и Сальвадора был прерван из-за нашествия пчел. На третьей минуте встречи рой пчел спустился к воротам команды Сальвадора, и работникам стадиона потребовалось шесть минут, чтобы разогнать насекомых. 25. Известно, что Таракан этот болотистый остров, площадью 303 кв. км, расположенный в западной части моря Сулавеси, к северо-востоку от острова Калимантан. 26. Известно, что тверская «Волга» вышла в четвертьфинал Кубка России по футболу. 27. По ночам, когда было тихо, не горел свет, можно было услышать, как мыши вылезают из своих дыр и бегают по деревянному полу на кухне, и, если прислушаться, как следует, было слышно, как они пищат – это было так здорово. 28. Говорят, что в некотором царстве, некотором государстве, в тридевятой галактике на спиральном витке, у далёкого созвездия Гончих Близнецов жили-были инопланетяне.
Ex. 20. Translate into English using the Complex Subject with the infinitive.
1. Известно, что косматый зайцеобразный кенгуру (the wurrup = the rufous hare wallaby (Lat. Lagorchestes hirsutus)) впервые был описан европейскими учёными в начале XIX века. 2. Известно, что другим источником этимологических дублетов были заимствованные через французский язык слова германского происхождения. 3. Сообщают, что все древовидные рододендроны украли из дендрария. 4. Предполагается, что в нашем городе построят новую атомную электростанцию. 5. Считается, что Баба Яга живёт на опушке леса, в избушке на курьих ножках, без окон, без дверей. 6. Говорят, что мистер Грин лучший переводчик в нашем колхозе. 7. Известно, что Москва была основана в 1871 году и находится в штате Айдахо. 8. Вы, кажется, устали. Не хотите ли отдохнуть? 9. Его, наверняка, об этом спросят. 10. Известно, что 5-я симфония – одна из самых громких симфоний Шостаковича. 11. Всем известно, что слово «Арктика» происходит от греческого ἄρκτικος, что примерно означает «располагающийся около медведя» (ἄρκτος по-гречески – это «медведь»). 12. Говорят, что Париж – столица Франции, но я не верю. 13. Видели, как мистер Блэк купил колбасу и начал её есть. 14. Многие студенты, по-видимому, были отличниками. 15. Маловероятно, что бомба два раза упадёт в одну и ту же воронку. 16. Сообщают, что средняя температура мая в этом году будет на 8 градусов ниже чем обычно. 17. Известно, что чёрный цвет поглощает солнечные лучи наиболее интенсивно. 18. На экзамене оказалось, что студенты знали теорграмматику как свои пять пальцев. 19. Ходят слухи, что российские учёные-бананотехнологи сделали важное и удивительное открытие. 20. Известно, что в одном году 31 557 600 секунд.
Ex. 21. Translate the Latin sentences with the construction Nominativus cum Infinitivo into English using the Complex Subject with the infinitive.
1. Romulus Romae condĭtor fuisse tradĭtur. 2. Romani vincere dicuntur. 3. Intellegĕre videor. 4. Vidēris aeger esse. 5. Dicĭtur Homērus caecus fuisse. 6. Qui tacet, consentire videtur. 6. Intellegĕre vidēntur. 7. Intellegĕre vidēris. 8. Pons trans flumen effectus esse nuntiabatur.
Ex. 22. Say what the following geographical objects used to be called. Use the expression used to.
E.g. Tver used to be called Kalinin from 1931 to 1990.
1. Myanmar; 2. Iran; 3. Burkina Faso; 4. Kaliningrad; 5. Zimbabwe; 6. Oslo; 7. The Democratic Republic of Congo; 8. Samara; 9. Thailand; 10. Mexico City.
Ex. 23. Translate into English using the Complex Subject with the infinitive.
Известно, что …
… хорьки спят до 20 часов в сутки.
… французы называют голубя «летучей крысой».
… у жирафов абсолютно черный язык, длина которого может доходить до 45 см.
… самый длинный из зарегистрированных полётов курицы длился 13 секунд.
… в древнем Египте главными вредителями полей считались не жуки и даже не саранча, а гиппопотамы.
… блоха может прыгать на 33 см за один прыжок. Если бы люди имели такую же прыгучесть, человек мог бы совершать прыжки на 213 метров!
… зоопаpк в Токио каждый год закpывается на 2 месяца, чтобы звеpи могли отдохнyть от посетителей.
… животное, котоpое дольше всех может не пить – кpыса.
… у мотылька нет желyдка.
… кpокодилы глотают камни, чтобы глyбже ныpнyть.
… слоны и люди - единственные млекопитающие, которые могyт стоять на голове.
… у yлитки около 25 000 зyбов.Больше, чем у акулы
… около 70 процентов живых существ Земли - бактерии.
… ленивцы проводят 75 % жизни во сне.
… европейцы, приехав в Австралию, спрашивали у аборигенов: «А что это тут у вас за странные прыгающие звери?» Аборигены отвечали: «Кенгуру», - что значило: «Не понимаем!»
… 99 % живых существ, обитавших на Земле вымерли.
… полярные медведи могут бегать со скоростью 40 км/ч.
… у собак есть локти.
… у морской звезды нет мозга.
Ex. 24. Translate into Russian paying attention to for-phrases with the infinitive. State their functions.
1. You waited for the red moon to crash like a thunderous gong. (White) 2. “That’s easy for you to say,” began Gordon, his eyes narrowing. 3. Theodora waited for the clear glaze of morning to split. (Salinger) 4. In a minute it would be fitting for me to take my leave. 5. In their shrill laughter he found a terrible dissonance that made him pray for the twilight to come. 6. “It’s not for me to disagree,” said Jolyon, “but that’s all quite beside the mark.” 7. The lady was speaking too fast for me to catch what she said. (A. Christie) 8. It was better for me to live in a place like that. (A. Christie) 9. And we are only waiting for you to finish eating and thinking.
Ex. 25. Paraphrase the sentences so as to use for-phrases with the infinitive and state their functions.
1. It is impossible that he should have let us down. 2. It is quite natural that she should act like that. 3. The ice has become too thin, so the students can’t go fishing. 4. He closed the window lest the papers be scattered by the wind. 5. The main thing is that we all should work in close cooperation. 6. Let us wait till the train arrives. 7. I’ll leave the magazine that you may read it. 8. This is a lesson which you shall remember for the rest of your life. 9. The plumber is just the man whom you should have consulted. 10. That anyone of this age should not know verbals and their syntactic functions is something extraordinary.
Ex. 26. Complete the sentences so as to use for-phrases with the infinitive.
1. The best thing for you _______. 2. I am very anxious for ________. 3. I have arranged for _________. 4. It took a moment for _________. 5. It would be much easier for _______. 6. It’s not for me _________. 7. It was bad experience for me ________. 8. It would be more sensible for ________. 9. It’s time for me ________.
Ex. 27. Translate into English using for-phrases with the infinitive.
1. Нам необходимо было пройти ещё пять вёрст, чтобы добраться до главного корпуса университета. 2. Премьер-министр смеялся слишком заразительно, чтобы всем не засмеяться. 3. Не время нам сейчас ссориться. 4. Лучшее, что вы могли бы сейчас сделать, это постараться забыть обо всех неприятностях. 5. Вам лучше подождать здесь. 6. Не ждите, пока гром грянет. 7. Решать вам. 8. Вам, конечно, легко говорить. 8. Вы говорите слишком быстро, чтобы я мог понять. 9. «Спой, Колобок, только сядь на мой нос, чтобы мне лучше тебя слышать!» – сказала лиса.
Ex. 28. Write all possible forms of the gerunds.
1. to sew; 2. to sink; 3. to forbear; 4. to cast. 5. to wind. 6. to hold, 7. to deteriorate.
Ex. 29. Use the verbs in brackets in the correct forms of the gerund. Translate into Russian.
1. Miss Moss gave no sign of (hear) this. (K.Mansfield) 2. Then you were supposed to make your way back, preferably without (see). 3. Now what’s the good of (cry); you’ll only make your nose red. 4. He certainly could not remember ever (feel) arrogant or ever (please) that he had slighted or offended anyone. (Saroyan) 5. One of them even reported his (see) off the coast of the British Zone on a red yacht – perhaps so painted to confound the Soviets. 6. (find) the key in the dark could prove time-consuming. 7. I don’t like (condescend) to. 8. After (reject) by a dozen magazines, my story was published in The Times. 9. On (tell) the news she gave a gasp of surprise. 10. Excuse me for (give) you so much trouble. 11. He tried to avoid (see). 12. He liked to do things without (disturb) anyone or (disturb). 13. This work needs (do). 14. Your shoes want (clean). 15. The matter is not worth (speak) about.
Ex. 30. Express your opinion. Pay attention to the time reference of the gerund.
E.g. 1. – What does she keep doing? – You know she is never silent. She keeps on talking.
2. – What do you regret? – It is such a boring book. I regret having wasted so much time on it.
1. What do you avoid doing when it is raining? 2. What do restless children enjoy doing? 3. I know you wish you had told the truth. What do you regret? 4. What does the president risk doing? 5. What do greedy people hate doing? 6. It is late. What do you keep on doing at university? 7. I did nothing wrong. What do I deny doing? 8. You are a student who doesn’t work. Do you know what you risk?
Ex. 31. Answer the questions using the active form of the gerund in the passive meaning.
1. What does a piano require if it is out of tune? 2. What does a classroom need if it is stuffy in it? 3. What is a dress worth if it is well made? 4. What does a TV-set need if it is out of order? 5. What does a sock require if there is a hole in it? 6. What does a picture deserve if it is painted well?
Ex. 32. Confirm the statements. Speak on the favourite occupation of the people, using the gerund as predicative.
E.g. – Benny is fond of animals. – You are right. His favourite occupation is playing with his hedgehog.
1. Betty is fond of books. 2. Mr Sandford is a doctor. 3. Mr White is a gardener. 4. Ann is a housewife. 5. Lizzie’s father is fond of mathematics. 6. My group mates are fond of astronomy. 7. Our friend cannot help buying a new stamp. 8. My uncle is a great fan of bandy. 9. Jane goes to Moscow every year. 10. Mr Brown is a plumber.
Ex. 33. Answer the questions, giving reasons why you stopped doing that. Use the gerund.
E.g. – Do you play cards? – No, I stopped playing cards long ago. It does nobody any good.
1. Do you smoke? 2. Do you give lame excuses? 3. Do you go in for figure-skating? 4. Do you give your friends a reprimand? 5. Do you read newspapers in bed while eating? 6. Do you do morning exercises every day? 7. Do you speak with your mouth full? 8. Do you go to University by tram? 9. Are you absent from your English classes?
Ex. 34. Express your opinion. Use the gerund as adverbial modifier of manner. Give the reason.
E.g. – In what way would you spend your time if you went to Paris? – In Paris I’d spend the time in visiting the theatres. That would perhaps be the best thing to do. I am a great theatre fan.
In what way would you spend your time if you went … 1) to London? 2) to Rome? 3) to India? 4) to Greenland? 5) to the seaside? 6) to Tver State University?
Ex. 35. Express the cause of the fact, using the phrases for, through, owing to, for fear of + gerund. Try to continue the chain.
E.g. George was punished. He was late for classes yesterday. – George was punished for being late for classes yesterday. George was late for classes yesterday for having overslept. George overslept for having forgotten to set his alarm clock. George didn’t set his alarm clock for being afraid of disturbing his parents. Etc.
1. My uncle knows much about the flora and fauna of Magadan. He traveled a lot. 2. The girls didn’t notice the lesson finish. They talked too much. 3. Mr Black is a bad driver. He has so many accidents. 4. I learn languages so easily. I have a very good ear for them.
Ex. 36. Say what this kind of person does and what he doesn’t. Use without + gerund.
E.g. What person do we call absent-minded? – He leaves his flat without turning off the gas.
1. What person do we call selfish? 2. What person do we call impolite? 3. What person do we call a stick-in-the-mud? 4. What person do we call a bore? 5. What person do we call unbearable? 5. What person do we call cruel? 6. What person do we call a good student?
Ex. 37. Develop the situation using instead of + gerund.
1. In the morning I have to get up at seven o’clock. Today instead of _______. 2. I’m used to reading a newspaper in the morning. Yesterday instead of ________. 3. Ann complains of a sore throat. But instead of _______. 4. Nick came to London for the first time. Instead of _______.
Ex. 38. Answer the question using instead of + gerund.
1. Why have you failed your English exam? 2. What does your cat usually do when your telephone is ringing? 3. Why do you look so tired? 4. Why are you always late? 5. What do you do at lectures?
Ex. 39. Characterize your neighbour. Complete the sentences using preposition + gerund / preposition + gerundial complex.
I don’t consider my neighbour an ideal person. He/she is notorious ______. He/she is clumsy ______. He/she is a wretched hand ______. He/she has a habit ______. Though his/her family object ______, he/she can’t help ______. He/she has no experience ______. That’s why he/she is always concerned ______.
But you shouldn’t think I find him/her a good-for-nothing person. He/she is good ______. He/she is skilful ______. He/she has always had an interest ______. When he/she was young he/she found he/she had a special ability ______ and he/she concentrated seriously _____. Though he/she had a lot of difficulty ______. He/she is used ______. I feel very thankful to my neighbour ______.
So you see every cloud has a silver lining.
Ex. 40. Insert correct prepositions in gaps. Translate into Russian.
Life consists not ___ holding cards, but ___ playing those you hold well. (Josh Billings)
I have suffered ___ being misunderstood, but I would have suffered a hell a lot more if I had been understood. (Clarence Darrow)
The key ___ being a good manager is keeping the people who hate me away from those who are still undecided. (Casey Stengel)
But beware ___ coming near that planet again.
Andrew Meyer is his name – persisted ___ asking a question in a forum with Senator John Kerry.
General Casey, associates say, had once reckoned ___ rotating back to the States himself by January. Now he realizes he'll need to stay through 2011, even as he waxes positive about the future.
Yet the use of Biodiesel in the West, until recently, was largely limited to hobbyists who brewed the fuel at home and people who prided themselves ___ not using oil.
Sam Stone, the squad's youngest detective, looked puzzled. He took pride ___ being well informed.
At one point the political group, which advocates for the freedom of garden gnomes, was accused ___ stealing 150 statues over a year's time, according to news accounts.
He then enumerated what his responsibilities were, which amounted ___ taking care of those in need
After a while, finding that nothing more happened, she decided ___ going into the garden at once, but, alas for poor Alice! when she got to the door, she found she had forgotten the little golden key, and when she went back to the table for it, she found she could not possibly reach it: she could see it quite plainly through the glass, and she tried her best to climb up one of the legs of the table, but it was too slippery.
Finally, Browning is mistaken ___ saying that the report makes a limited number of practical policy recommendations.
And truth be told, I'm sure he understood exactly what she meant, but delighted ___ having her repeat it.
And I didn't have to bother ____ breaking my legs because my parachute canopied over the tops of the trees.
He seemed disinterested ___ winning any hospitality awards.
Ms. Sterner said the growing catalog of state and federal aid programs was essential but still confusing to the various counselors and lenders charged ___ implementing them.
Joshua was known for his propensity ___ seeking out the appropriate game for any occasion.
A new USA Today/Gallup poll finds that Americans largely disapprove ___ spending more money rescuing companies such as automakers and banks.
It's been nearly fifteen years since a Republican Congress and a Democrat in the White House, President Bill Clinton, agreed ___ making sweeping changes in the country's welfare system.
Ex. 41. Insert correct prepositions in gaps. Translate into Russian.
I just want to know so I don't have to bother ___ seeing to it later.
Some who prided themselves ___ knowing old legends told the men standing next to them about the keys; word began to spread through the ranks.
Note that the notary took pride ___ being well-versed in ancient history, and in the town he passed for being one of the most enlightened men in the Empire.
The New York Review of Books of January 13, 2005, carried a long analysis by Mark Danner to the effect that the voters of Florida had been frightened ___ voting for Bush.
Kerr and the various incarnations of his board were not timid, and they took risks ___ making controversial recommendations in a world of shrinking higher education resources and, arguably, a hardening within the academy against new experiments and notions of reform.
The smugglers decided that an oceangoing sailboat offered the best chance for success in the future. Their first voyage under sail almost ended ___ their undoing.
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which is charged ___ protecting the nation's waters, land, air, and many aspects of human health, was the object of special outrage.
They congratulated me ___ persuading Burton to run the ad, but they didn't come to me for advice much in those final hours.
I think he's making up for a lot of lost time ___ being with his family.
Lamar Alexander used to say Republicans were guilty ___ talking in short hand.
A drunk driver had pleaded guilty ___ operating a motor vehicle while impaired.
Treatments are aimed ___ stopping or slowing the overactive immune response to help control symptoms of the disease.
Only the French persisted ___ requiring yellow headlamps, at least until they joined the European Union and standardized their traffic laws to match the rest of Europe.
The group has created a guide for chefs. It suggests replacements chefs can use for popular fish that may be threatened ___ overfishing; for instance, catfish for orange roughy.
You based each case on different facts. Do you now believe, looking back, that you were clearly mistaken ___ doing so?
The 1982 Gallagher Amendment is a badly conceived law that we were bamboozled ___ thinking was a good thing at the time to cap residential property taxes during a period of rising property values.
Ex. 42. Insert correct prepositions in gaps. Translate into Russian.
And, when complimented ___ his singing, he replies very, very quietly, "That's always strengthening to hear."
All the pharmacies are restricted ___ selling standard medication and nothing else.
Lonergan shows that each of these has its own place and legitimacy in the journey of human knowing and that instead of losing time ___ opposing them, it is much more fruitful to recognize the values and limits of each of them.
In spite of sobriety checkpoints like this, a recent study by the federal government showed that 15 percent of adult drivers actually admitted ___ driving under the influence at least once in the past year.
They decided ___ making clay bowls for a fund-raiser.
And Bendele kept a sunny attitude and refused to be annoyed by even the crankiest customers – whom she always coaxed ___ smiling.
The growth ___ the number of tourists visiting Ethiopia and the number of Ethiopians traveling abroad has resulted ___ increasing opportunities for cultural exchange.
They stepped out to the back parking lot, and Devlin consented ___ having his truck searched.
Adults have always delighted ___ asking children: "What do you want to be when you grow up?" But there's a rising trend in schools toward pushing students at younger and younger ages to narrow their career choices. To that end, kids as young as grade seven and eight are slogging through thick course manuals or complex online curricula, to select the courses they think they'll need and drop the ones they won't.
And the final blow came in April 1555, when Siena was starved ___ surrendering to a Spanish and Florentine force led by Gian Giacomo dei Medici of Florence.
She and John had once been sweethearts – at least they'd played ___ being sweethearts, children that they were.
Junior thought of how Carrie persisted ___ calling him Arthur, not Art.
The last time there was a penalty shootout that decided the World Cup was 1994 when Brazil played Italy, and that game was notorious ___ being uneventful and not very full of action.
The private groups also are hindered ___ releasing the results of their collaborations. That means potentially valuable information that could help patients pick a hospital or nursing home stays locked in the groups' computers.
Not all Democrats were entirely satisfied. Some in the House objected ___ cutting proposed aid to states and schools by nearly half to $54 billion in the latest bill.
Why then have we been bamboozled ___ accepting the usual tale without questioning? I suspect two primary reasons: we love a sensible and satisfying story, and we are disinclined to challenge apparent authority (such as textbooks).
Ex. 43. Insert correct prepositions in gaps. Translate into Russian.
We expected foreigners simply to become more like us, to speak our language, buy our technology, watch our movies and TV programs. We adopted their culinary traditions but could grow annoyed when they stubbornly persisted ___ speaking their own language.
I'd always been clumsy ___ putting things into words, and little by little I was getting used ___ keeping things to myself.
If he could only be coaxed ___ waiting a bit longer, their trouble would pass entirely of its own accord.
The New York Governor David Paterson succeeded ___ negotiating with the legislation to finally change some of the country's strictest sentencing guidelines for low-level drug offenders.
I've been guilty ___ just buying a plane ticket to a random place I've never been.
He has now pleaded guilty ___ jumping bail and has admitted he faked his own death.
They still haven't got round ___ solving the basic problem of housing.
While one performer reads from the script, others are occupied ___ rendering the sights and sounds described in the play's interior monologues.
Invited for Sunday lunch in Bollne, I sounded indignant ___ having been offered chicken and roast beef!
Yet Vaillant seems largely unaware of the way his defenses apply to his own case – even though he is aware ___ being unaware; he regularly told me that he would not be a good source of information about his own life, because of distortion.
He gave a sign of dissatisfaction, showing that he wasn't going to be bamboozled ___ getting up in the night to say sorry.
He'd always wanted to be a high-end dealer, but Carl shrank ___ risking $6,000 for a cherry cupboard.
Bob Ewegen is mistaken ___ suggesting that the Joint Transportation Committee hearing on Tuesday will be slanted against RTD's FasTracks proposal.
Gioioso certainly had a knack ___ making anyone he talked feel as if his head were as transparent as glass.
Perhaps she was gratified ___ being chosen at last for the very usefulness she had cultivated so long.
The region's mysterious qualities provided the backdrop to one of the greatest horror stories ever written, "Dracula." But in an area famous ___ being the home of a monster, it's not the fictional ghoul that scares some Transylvanians.
There was no obvious reason ___ being cagey.
Continued political instability will surely prevent Japan ___ being actively engaged ___ making its economic and financial systems more liberal and open.
Ex. 44. Insert correct prepositions in gaps. Translate into Russian.
Tech-prep students will be hindered ___ entering a baccalaureate program.
He laughed. I remember feeling gratified ___ being able to make Noah Danzig, himself no mean comedian, laugh.
And so how to balance creating a process that adheres to rule of law, habeas corpus, basic principals of Anglo-American legal system, but doing it in a way that doesn't result ___ releasing people who are intent on blowing us up.
Stewart explained that the world's largest lizard, formally known as Varanus komodoensis, was justly famous ___ being one of a handful of predators big and fearless enough to prey on human beings on a somewhat regular basis.
He was nervous but still confident ___ having been in the right.
We've had fiction that has warned us ___ attempting to manipulate nature.
It was an amazing accusation, one no other presidential candidate had ever made. It was all the more remarkable ___ being true.
Hopeless ___ managing money, he dined on oysters and cognac even when heavily in debt.
This could help allay fears, particularly in Washington, that developing countries might use civilian nuclear energy programs as a pretext ___ developing nuclear weapons.
Ironically, much of scientists' current understanding of El Niño stems from their embarrassment ___ not being able to predict it in 1982.
It's not my decision. If it was mine, I'd be in there every day regardless ___ being tired.
Administration officials said they were mistaken ___ saying that McNulty consulted his predecessor, James B. Comey, about some of the U.S. attorneys before they were fired.
Proponents are apparently unfazed by the possibility that liberals, who are notorious ___ being far less organized than conservatives, will seize on this legislation to promote their own agenda.
I have no difficulty ___ solving this problem.
But I would hope that you would not be averse ___ this happening again.
His work had been consuming huge amounts of electric power lately, but I refrained ___ questioning him.
In his apparently desperate drive to be president he doesn't have any scruples ___ calling the government an "arrogant empire" that has replaced the Soviet Union as a threat to our liberty.
Their number one reason ___ being there is safety.
Ex. 45. Insert correct prepositions in gaps. Translate into Russian.
In most cases, the critics' objections sound like a strangely inverted version of the old morality tales that once warned us ___ animating machines.
I headed for the hideously overpriced concession stand, intent ___ grabbing a hamburger, fries, and a Coke.
He didn't sound delighted ___ being woken up in the middle of the night.
My argument is meant to show that Thomas is mistaken ___ concluding that at any one time a person's will must be directed to a single ultimate end in willing whatever it wills.
There was nothing she could do, beyond fainting, and she was hopeless ___ acting.
A few of these starlets actually did something (for example, Dasha Zhukova opened an art gallery); almost all were beneficiaries of powerful fathers and/or significant others. Like Paris Hilton, they were famous ___ being famous. Now the oil boom is over, and the economic kreezis has tossed oligarchs off Forbes's annual list of billionaires, halted skyscrapers mid-storey, and sparked Communist demonstrations in Vladivostok and Moscow.
She was a large, sporty woman and was shoveling in forkfuls of food, intent ___ getting her money's worth out of the buffet.
The primary victims of the virus are howler monkeys, which are chimp-sized and notorious ___ being heard rather than seen.
They fear that Pakistan's notorious intelligence agencies, known for their propensity ___ making inconvenient people disappear, could move against him.
Is this administration suggesting it is exempt ___ being held accountable to its own "get tough on corporate fraud" standards?
The human capacity ___ making meaningful letters and words is the esoteric secret behind the everyday, taken-for-granted conventionality of language.
Physicians remain individually responsible ___ diagnosing each patient regardless ___ advertising and ___ helping each patient make an educated treatment decision in light of the risks and benefits of a drug.
Wolfe covered his embarrassment ___ being talked to in this way by his old friend.
While government regulation is part and parcel of Australian independent school life, irrespective ___ funding, there is a considerable administrative burden attached ___ funding that relates primarily to financial accountability.
The defeat meant that Wrexham dropped two places to 18th in the League table and again proved how consistent they are ___ being inconsistent.
Jess had always had a knack ___ getting into mischief. Ideas came fast and furiously with her.
The historian who does not write is not engaged ___ doing history.
This last mention of his father had reminded him that there was something he had been looking forward ___ asking Lupin.
Ex. 46. Translate into English using correct prepositions before the gerund.
1. Искусство быть скучным состоит в том, чтобы всегда говорить всё. (Вольтер) 2. Я не возражаю против того, чтобы меня оставили в покое. 3. Студенты настаивали, чтобы их пустили в университет. 4. Я не привык, чтобы со мной так разговаривали. 5. Больной не соглашался, чтобы его отправили на флюорографию (photofluorography). 6. Настаиваю на том, чтобы меня выслушали. 7. Не полагайтесь на то, что купите билеты на спектакль. 8. Студентов поздравили с переходом на восьмой курс. 9. Я расстроен, что не получил письмо. 10. Никогда не пытайтесь найти предлог, чтобы не делать домашнее задание. 11. Архимед гордился тем, что открыл Закон Архимеда. 12. Он был расстроен, тем что пришлось начинать всё снова. 13. Долгое время члены Хунты подозревали Риверу в том, что он шпионит за ними. 14. С нетерпением жду встречи с вами. 14. Мне редко представляется случай повидать вас всех вместе. 15. У него есть способности к изучению языков. 16. И если вы уже что-то выполнили, не теряйте время на раздумья о мудрости вашего решения. 17. Мы были заняты приготовлением праздничного обеда.
Ex. 47. Translate into English using the gerund in the correct form.
1. Жила-была четвероногая ворона. Собственно говоря, у нее было пять ног, но об этом говорить не стоит. (Д. Хармс) 2. Не стоит повторять всё сначала. 3. Президент признался, что его неправильно проинформировали. 4. Бесполезно звонить премьер-министру. В это время его никогда не бывает дома. 5. Спорить с вами – это только понапрасну терять время. 6. Он вышел из зала, не дожидаясь окончания спектакля. 7. Услышав, новость, прохожие поспешили по своим делам. 8. Первое, что вам стоит сделать по приезде в Париж – это заглянуть в журнальный киоск и купить путеводитель по Парижу. 9. Не могу не согласиться полностью с этими словами. 10. Остап был огорчен, что до него эти стихи уже придумал какой-то А.С.Пушкин. 11. Ловить рыбу в Арафурском Море – не простое дело.
Ex. 48. Complete the sentences using the gerund in the correct form. Use your active vocabulary.
1. The students couldn’t help _______. 2. I have given up ________. 3. There is nothing like _______. 4. I don’t feel like _______. 5. It’s no use _______. 6. I can see no sense in _______.
Ex. 49. Use the verbs in brackets in the form of the gerund or the infinitive. Translate into Russian.
She can hardly have envisaged (find) herself stuck in the village.
And I think that the basic fundamentals of the economy remain strong, and I wouldn't anticipate (see) an enormous falloff in employment.
If he wrote, on the other hand, his letter might yellow with age before his grandfather's secretary deigned (give) it any attention.
Who am I to begrudge (carry) home a few parasites?
The American car dealers who stand (lose) the most from the new U.S. sanctions against Japan made an urgent trip to Washington today.
He has also started reading, practised (print) all his letters; learned how to add and subtract by ones; paddled a canoe; and signed up for soccer. In other words, his life is quite similar to that of many five-year-olds out there.
The editorial board had opted (take) the bull by the horns and make the most of the literary excellence that permeated every corner of the newspaper.
He was not sure what he wanted (write), he said, only that it would be profound and truthful, and that everybody would be surprised to learn the passion and astuteness with which he perceived the world, since, always the quiet type, he had never ventured (express) any of his imaginings out loud.
I risked (take) a quick look at them, but when I did so there was nothing to see.
There, the leaders of a small community comprising no more than 5 percent of the Tibetan people as a whole undertook (construct) a wholly new idea of Tibetan identity – and hugely succeeded.
I think that what were all challenged (do) is to fight the good fight.
The officials also may have been reluctant to admit (make) a mistake with regard to the modified terms and thereby cause themselves additional work remedying that mistake.
I slid a page into the typewriter and without pausing I proceeded (squeeze) out everything I had inside me.
"Disgusting idea," she muttered. "I abhor (eat) outside."
But he acknowledged that much remained (be) done, and he said it would take five more years for the C.I.A. to rebuild the "clandestine service," its global network of spies, which he said had been in "disarray" when he arrived at the agency.
So many of us nowadays just adore (go) out to yard sales and flea markets.
I do not profess (have) a definitive answer.
Los Angeles and Boston were clearly the two best teams in basketball, and each yearned (prove) so by beating the other.
Spencer Baird loved oysters and ice cream but loathed (have) his picture taken.
After Rodriguez stressed how much he loved being on stage in New York and how much he relished (get) to pursue vindication against Boston, he vilified himself for not delivering a championship.
Ex. 50. Use the verbs in brackets in the form of the gerund or the infinitive. Translate into Russian.
The videotape study, which the Senate intelligence committee demanded (see) in 2005 but did not receive until last year, assessed the legality of interrogations that occurred between April and December 2002.
I can arrange (have) you enrolled at the University of Hawaii for courses in the geology of the islands, the migrations of the Polynesians, to say nothing of an unusually fine special course in the history of the reign of King Kamehameha the Great.
I couldn't go back very far with much detail or sureness because my grandparents disliked (talk) about anything before the war, when everything stopped for four years.
In recent weeks, health-care-industry leaders have pledged (cut) their own costs by $2 trillion over the next 10 years.
I mean, the United States is counting it as progress that the Saudis have deigned (send) their foreign minister. This is considered a good sign.
Mr. Syron, said one person who has talked to him, has been assuring firms that he was working on things and asking them to defer (take) any precipitate action. Now they know what he had in mind.
Through a spokesman, Mr. Walker declined (comment) on the case.
When he practised (count) to 100 and stumbled over 97, he'd start at the beginning.
During the session debate on these points, some of the social scientists ventured (put) forward for consideration a slight shift in emphasis.
I am uncomfortable. I abhor (be) close to any kind of fire....
As I fixed (dart) down the stairs, the skinny stranger grabbed me roughly by the back of my dirty white T-shirt.
He condemned any human attitude that purported (have) achieved complete understanding.
Environmentalists and others welcomed the news, but said much remained (be) done.
‘We don't profess (have) any prophetic abilities to call the economy any better than the folks who do it for a living,’ said Stephen Quinn, Wal-Mart's chief marketing officer.
Members of Francisco Vasquez de Coronado’s expedition first described the settlement Acoma in 1540, characterizing it as “one of the strongest places we have seen,” a city built upon a rock so high “that we repented (have) gone up to the place.”
But pocket universes, higher dimensionality. Yes. I admit (have) difficulty believing it.
He yearned (become) the first person on Mars.
Tourists have long since quit (come). The vast estate, recently seized by the government, is falling rapidly into disrepair.
And it's hard to go against that and say no, because you risk (lose) everything.
Should Congress decide to curb the use of Thomson and Gearhart's method, all of them stand (lose) millions of dollars.
Ex. 51. Use the verbs in brackets in the form of the gerund or the infinitive. Translate into Russian.
However – I ventured (insinuate) – there are those who think that beyond these waters there is absolutely nothing.
If you're a sports fan who abhors (fly) during the holidays, don't panic. This airport has several pay television sets in the main terminal.
Problems still remained (be) solved.
Students might have been titillated by the recent writings of Dawkins and others who profess (give) a biological, evolutionary explanation of why people believe in God.
He yearned (talk) to them – (ask) them important questions.
It is an offence under the laws of the Territory to profess (practice) sorcery but it is on the rarest occasions that a native will lay an official complaint against a sorcerer.
And, in fact, you know, there's research that says if there's something you've always yearned (do) since you were a child, you probably have a skill that you may not have realized.
He politely declined (talk) about his legal troubles.
This past year, the Gulf Council deferred (make) recommendations for the 2007 red snapper fishing year while waiting for updated data on red snapper status.
The silence may be attributed to the important role of the idea of "spirit" in Newton's alchemy and in the overall construct of Newton's philosophy of nature. In contrast, Albert Einstein did not endeavor (establish) a general philosophy of nature.
China's top leaders have repeatedly pledged (take) a harder line on corruption, and they have targeted several high-ranking political and business leaders in recent years, including the former mayors of Shanghai (上海) and Shenzhen (深圳).
Once in high school or college when these students begin (take) Advanced Placement (AP) classes and the curriculum becomes challenging to them, their self-esteem can become shattered, with the fear of failure, they quit (take) risks and can become underachievers.
Shun (make) important decisions during this time as some crucial piece of information, or component, has gone astray or awry.
Rather than risk (get) caught with counterfeit documents, experts say criminals and terrorists prefer to get their hands on stolen blank passports, the kind they can fill out themselves.
It's not our job to say who gets into the country or not, we're just saying if businesses knowingly employ illegal workers, they could stand (lose) their license to operate here.
His interrogator disdained (offer) a name. Sigmund chose (think) of him as Astyanax.
Cornwall is a place time forgot; steeped in folklore, myth, and legend; and purported (be) inhabited by pixies, fairies, and elves.
Does anyone stand (gain) if Ethiopia and Eritrea can not resolve their differences and go to war again?
Gorbachev knew that Russia was falling well behind other countries and sought (correct) the command economy and its socialist underpinnings.
I think we're very close to achieving what it is we set out (do) five years ago.
Ex. 52. Use the verbs in brackets in the form of the gerund or the infinitive. Translate into Russian.
Policeman Zhao Liang demanded (see) the reporter's credentials and warned him to "be very careful what you say, don't just say whatever you like."
And so, since the silence continued to grow, she finally ventured (fill) it.
Financially this month, you stand (gain) a great deal by agreeing to whatever terms are offered, but until Mercury turns direct on the 31st, it will prove impossible to finalize even ironclad deals.
And then she just carried on (play) whatever she was doing, totally undistressed.
It gave us a start to get up, to get up and try (do) something for ourselves and quit (have) somebody do it for us.
We couldn't risk (get) lost in those passageways, so we had to wait and follow the crowd into the arena.
It is the large incumbent technology companies that stand (lose) the most during the economic downturn.
A student may arrive late for a concert, anxious (to be/about being) late, and breathless - not a promising way to dive into a program.
He appeared anxious (to keep/about keeping) the conversation going, now that the long silence between them had at last been broken.
The resolution authorizes nations to seek (stop) suspect North Korean shipments on the high seas, but they do not authorize forcible boarding or inspections.
The cat purred thunderously, but disdained (speak).
Do you fancy (go) for a swim this morning?
I don’t need you, I’m used (to do/to doing) things for myself.
Federal law charges the House Banking Committee with holding oversight hearings on the RTC every six months, and there's a lot at that agency that needs (look) into.
And so I can enjoy (watch) myself more than I could before.
Australian humor is self-deprecating and iconoclastic and, therefore, can't resist (have) a bit of fun at the expense of Olympic organizers.
Tom stopped (think) about it for a moment, but found he couldn't remember just how tall the robot was.
I remember (interview) him a few years back about merpeople rights.
He stopped (walk), leaned against a wall, and tried (decide) what to do.
Do you mind (show) us your invitation?
Ex. 53. Use the verbs in brackets in the form of the gerund or the infinitive. Translate into Russian.
Why should we deny ourselves the one pleasure the government forgot (take) from us.
His time was up, but he still went on (talk).
She loathed (be) outperformed in something.
Although Harry offered (share) his book with both of them, Ron had more difficulty deciphering the handwriting than Harry did, and could not keep (ask) Harry (read) aloud or it might look suspicious.
Once again, Lord Voldemort fails (grasp) that there are more terrible things than physical injury.
“This isn’t how we imagined (hand) over our present,” said George grimly, putting down a large wrapped gift on Ron’s bedside cabinet and sitting beside Ginny.
Harry felt rather jealous watching them all get ready to go into the village; he missed (make) trip there, and it was a particularly fine spring day, one of the first clear skies they had seen in a long time.
Harry could tell that he was regretting (enter) into the conversation at all.
Harry was about (put) his book away again when he noticed the corner of a page folded down.
“Lucky there was one in the room,” said Harry, who kept (turn) cold at the thought of what would have happened if he had not been able to lay hands on the little stone.
Oh, Myra, please quit (nag) me about it!
Thereafter he was often seen at the Chatham Road Presbyterian Church, but it is recorded that he avoided (shake) hands with the pastor at the door.
Well, folks, do you think you could stand (break) the law a little?
I don’t remember (be) very cowardly about other things but I just couldn’t help this.
Percy and I were in the vicinity – working, you know – and he couldn’t resist (drop) in and (see) you all.
As Hermione predicted, the sixth years’ free periods were not the hours of blissful relaxation Ron had anticipated, but times in which to attempt (keep) up with the vast amount of homework they were being set.
So, you see, it’s a very important job, and I tell him it’s just silly to miss (deal) with spark plugs and toasters and all the rest of that Muggle rubbish.
He was, after all, the Prime Minister and did not appreciate (be) made to feel like an ignorant schoolboy.
But he said he couldn’t risk (get) dirty.
He used to handpick favorites at Hogwarts, sometimes for their ambition or their brains, sometimes for their charm or their talent, and he had an uncanny knack for choosing those who would go on (become) outstanding in their various fields.
Ex. 54. Use the verbs in brackets in the form of the gerund or the infinitive. Translate into Russian.
When I speak English at our lessons, people open their mouths and forget (close) them.
We cannot avoid (say) something about the meaning of grammatical forms under accidence.
Atlanta Constitution published an editorial that conceded that many whites could not countenance (refer) to Walden as "sir" or "mister," as they did white lawyers.
We discourage (smoke) on the premises.
Although not classic, this 90-minute video is worth (watch).
The frequent Italian expression antenna parabolica shows that the right technical term antenna peraboloidica sometimes tends (be) substituted by a shorter improper term.
There is something wrong with my alarm clock. Could you arrange (repair) it?
It remains (try) (see) what constitutes, in any permanent sense, the underlying norm of the “good short story.”
I’ve given a great deal of thought to what I am about (say).
And I thought perhaps you wouldn’t mind (give) me some information.
I didn’t seem (be) able (stop) (talk), not till I finished (tell) what I thought was all of it.
I don’t know how you expect (work) after eating heavy things like chops.
When she condescended (be) good-humored she was nervously amusing.
They sought (reassure) the public.
I can’t remember (enjoy) commentary more.
I disdain (answer) your rude remarks.
I will endeavor (pay) the bill as soon as possible.
We might try (invite) them to dinner, some evening.
I can’t stand (annoy) people.
The driver did not anticipate (have) an accident, but his theory of driving was incorrect.
Ex. 55. Use the verbs in brackets in the form of the gerund or the infinitive. Translate into Russian.
1. The president summoned her, too, but she simply let him say whatever he wanted and then went on (do) what she was doing. 2. Captain Sullenberger went on (earn) two master's degrees and (become) a safety expert who served on panels for the National Transportation Safety Board, among others. 3. The short-lived Colt 45s (1962-1964) baseball team went on (become) the Houston Astros. 4. Our new roomer, Sol shook his head and went on (watch) TV and (eat) popcorn. 5. She demanded (tell) the hole truth and nothing but the truth. 6. And he went on (become) a reporter, not just for The New York Times, later he did, as well, but for other publications and worked as a reporter for The Times and later on the business side of the paper, as well. 7. I rather think he dreads (face) me. 8. He didn’t mind people (notice) him much. 9. Then we found out that the thing needs (look) after. 10. Some claimed (understand) what the runes meant, but Ramus knew that they were all but unreadable, the forgotten language of a vanished civilization. 11. A woman smoking stops (be) a woman. 12. Where did you learn (speak) English so well? – At Tver State University. 13. I recall (ask) her that question. 14. The prime minister favors (introduce) a new tax on air. 15. Thelma was pretending (read) a rented novel wrapped in cellophane. 16. She put off (buy) a new jacket. 17. Jack forgets (take) out the cat. (He regularly forgets.) 18. Jack forgets (take) out the cat. (He did it, but he doesn't remember now.) 19. Finding a needle in a haystack would be easier than what we're trying (do). 20. They neglected (pay).
Ex. 56. Use the verbs in brackets in the form of the gerund or the infinitive. Translate into Russian.
1. I longed (know) why he sat alone, why he carried the bag, what he did all day. (K. Mansfield) 2. I regret (say) I am not coming. 3. I regret (miss) the lesson. 4. I incline (take) the opposite point of view. 5. Because she was nervous, she hesitated (speak). 6. The law approved by the predominantly pro-Kremlin city legislature sought (appease) opponents by decreasing the amount the city will pay to about 25 billion rubles. 7. Julia denied (eat) my sandwiches. 8. His time was up, but he went on (talk). 9. After saying a few words about the author himself, the lecturer went on (speak) of his works. 10. This agrees perfectly well with what the Saxon Chronicle relates about the English being inferior to the heathen in ship-building, until King Alfred undertook (construct) a new kind of war-ship. 11. You know how much I enjoy (interfere) in other people’s business. 12. It’s no use (argue) when the matter is settled. 13. They could not afford (risk) their secrecy by making their whereabouts known. 14. Science needs (survive) its own blunders at any cost. For everyone’s sake. 15. “I don’t mean (be) rude …” he began, in a tome that threatened rudeness in every syllable.
Ex. 57. Translate the following sentences into English using the gerund or the infinitive. (The verbs in brackets are to be used as predicates).
А). (to remember, to forget): 1. Вы не забыли отправить бандероль, которую я вам дал? 2. Сунув руку в карман, я обнаружил бандероль, которую я забыл отправить. 3. Едва я прочёл первую строчку книги, я вспомнил, что уже читал её. 4. Я совсем забыл, что одолжил вам учебник Аракина.
B) (to suggest, to offer): 1. Видя наши затруднения, премьер-министр предложил подвезти нас до остановки метро. 2. Джордж Сорос предложил создать новые мировые деньги. 3. Президент США Барак Обама предложил помощь Гаити, где во вторник произошло землетрясение магнитудой 7,3 баллов. 4. МИД Российской Федерации предложил созвать в Бейруте конференцию по ближневосточному кризису.
C) (to go on): 1. В восемьсот девяносто восьмой главе автор продолжает описывать экономическое положение Российской Федерации. 2. В восемьсот девяносто девятой главе, после краткого описания экономическое положение Российской Федерации, автор описывает современную политическую обстановку.
D) (to propose): 1. Экскурсовод предложил начать осмотр выставки с буфета. 2. Я намереваюсь вылететь в Абу-Даби (Abu Dhabi = ظبى أبو) во второй половине дня.
Ex. 58. Find gerundial and half-gerundial constructions. State their syntactic functions. Translate into Russian.
1. This effectively stopped Zacharias wondering loudly whether the Weasleys were there. 2. If she knew half the things he knew, Cochran would say darkly, or if she understood half of the facts about the uglier side of human nature, she wouldn’t talk so much about this or that being permitted or else not permitted. 3. I didn’t know about the train arriving at night. 4. It’s no use their complaining about it. 5. Harry, who thought it most unlikely that Rufus Scrimgeour was a vampire, but who was used to Luna repeating her father’s bizarre views as though they were fact, did not reply. 6. We can’t make a decision without this being cleared up. 7. Later that afternoon the police were informed, but Gilbert wasn't found and there were no reports of his having been seen anywhere. 8. My being a writer was a good “cover” for what I was asked to do.
Ex. 59. Use the verbs in brackets in the correct form of the gerund in gerundial and half-gerundial constructions. Translate into Russian.
1. I shudder to think of my mistakes (do) in the day of cell phone cameras. 2. What can be the possible use of Larry’s (learn) dead languages? 3. Well, Ellen, I’m so afraid of you (be) angry. 4. The director of the library insisted on the books (bind) before they were given to the readers. 5. He hated their (contradict) by any of us. 6. When a small boy, he liked their (take) out fishing. 7. He imagined himself (demote) back to his place in the social strata. 8. We were distressed at her (spoil) all the fun by one silly remark. 9. It was no good your (do) things by halves. 10. I am sick of my doings (notice and discuss).
Ex. 60. Change the sentences so as to use gerundial and half-gerundial constructions.
1. That he had been away for so many years made him feel quite a stranger in that big city. 2. I couldn’t bear the idea that anybody should interfere with what I thought to be my personal affair. 3. We were all surprised that the project had not yet been put into practice. 4. The writer confessed that he had never dreamt his book would be so successful with the general reader. 5. Did he say anything of the kind? I don’t remember. 6. We will be terribly disappointed if Harry does not get the job. 7. My whole future depended on whether I should not lose possession of myself at that moment. 8. Do you mind if I make mistakes. 9. We objected that he would apply his method into practice. 10. They do not appreciate when I sing.
Ex. 61. Translate into English using gerundial and half-gerundial constructions.
1. Мы можем положиться на то, что вы сделаете работу к четвергу? 2. Мы не смогли спокойно поговорить с фокусником, не проходило и пяти минут, чтобы его не вызывали к телефону. 3. Профессор предложил нам взять новую тему для курсовой работы. 4. Декан настаивал, чтобы кого-нибудь отправили в Сингапур. 5. Не помню, чтобы вы упоминали об этом. 6. Мы рассчитываем, что получим важные сведения вовремя. 7. Я осознаю, что нас ввели в заблуждение. 8. Все знают, что ректор очень добрый человек. 9. Не полагайтесь на то, что трамвай придёт вовремя. 10. Я очень расстроился, что почтальоны потеряли письмо на почте. 11. Вы не возражаете, если я сегодня поработаю подольше? 12. Если честно, я удивлён тем, что Хунтелаар так редко играет в составе «Милана». 13. Но я просто не могу себе такого представить, чтобы две английские команды отказались бы от открытого футбола.
Ex. 62. Define whether the italicized words are gerunds or participles. Translate sentences into Russian.
1. He lay on the sleeping-porch and watched the winter sun slide along the taut curtains, turning their ruddy khaki to pale blood red. 2. "Two hundred rubles!" His hands trembling with rage, Mandelstam brought his walking stick crashing down on the table. 3. Walking sticks are herbivorous, feeding mostly on the leaves of trees and shrubs. 4. Being the boss made Jeff feel uneasy. 5. Colliding particles is the key to understand the building blocks of the universe. 6. His round head would be the perfect resting place for a hard hat. 7. "Mr. McCall's a walking miracle," the doctor said. 8. For classroom activities requiring the use of writing instruments such as mathematics assignments or practicing writing alphabet letters, a number of different writing utensils could be provided. 9. Feeling the gap in his education, he used to go into the Public library and read anything that came to hand. At one point he "specialized" in psychology – so much so that he became a laughing stock among his friends as "Mr Psycho." 10. Ever seen a flying dog before?
Ex. 63. Define whether the gerund or participle is used in each case by transforming the phrases.
E.g. a reading child a child who is reading Participle I
A reading lamp a lamp for reading Gerund
a resting worker, a dancing ball, a freezing river, boiling water, a boiling pot, a freezing point, a resting place, a writing table, a dining room, a writing girl, walking shoes, a walking encyclopedia, a swimming pool, a flying bird, a washing basin, a closing time, a thrilling story, a publishing house, a burning forehead, wrapping paper, an embarrassing situation, a living wage, a developing country, drinking water, writing utensils, an ironing board, a smiling child, an exasperating tone, a laughing stock.
Ex. 64. Use the verbs in brackets in the correct forms of participle I. Translate into Russian.
1. I saw myself (drive) through Eternity in a timeless taxi. (K.Mansfield) 2. (read) and (reread) Shakespeare, one is perpetually struck by how casually he tosses off some of his best phrases. 3. (learn) English grammar, I’ll start learning Welsh grammar. 4. (translate) long ago, the novel is likely to be re-translated. 5. (wound) so many years ago, Captain Cook felt quite well now. 6. (live) in Uganda for many years, I can speak Luganda perfectly. 7. Langdon felt the eerie horror of the situation (seep) back into his mind. 8. (see) so little of the country? I am afraid I cannot give exhaustive answers to all your questions. 9. (know) him from school, I have never heard anyone speak of him without respect. 10. (ask) what he thought of the innovation the engineer said he approved of it. 11. (examine) by the customs, the goods were let through. 12. The student (earn) the highest grade point average will receive a special award. 13. The cat slept fitfully, (chase) dream mice. 14. (reject) by the editorial board, the story was returned to the author for revision. 15. (reject) by publishers several times, the story was accepted by a weekly magazine.
Ex. 65. As a rule, participle II of intransitive verbs is not used independently. There are a few exceptions, such as arrived, collapsed, come, departed, faded, fallen, gathered, gone, grouped, risen, retired, returned, seated, vanished, etc. Translate the sentences into Russian,
1. Arrived at the ship, the passengers were shown their cabins. 2. They followed the route of the recently departed party. 3. I remember him stretched out on the Cavanaughs' steep roof after it was damaged by a fallen tree, his head downslope, a hammer between his teeth, reaching with his left hand to start a nail by stabbing it into a rafter until it stuck there. 4. It is my pleasure to introduce to you, retired Captain James Kennedy. 5. On the edge of a deserted village, several children are gathered around a well. 6. Under the newly risen moon, two horses hitched to a closed wagon breathed transparent vapors into the chilly air. 7. She wore what might have been a costume from ‘Gone with the Wind’ and looked ancient enough to have worn it during a real Civil War cotillion. 8. The faded beauty of European master artists' creations holds no fascination for Twain; on the contrary, he finds the masters' work less impressive than the “perfect" copies of modern, journeymen artists. 9. They were hunting for an escaped prisoner. 10. The gathered guests breathed again, and time rolled on once more. 11. Stay with us for more on the Los Angeles earthquake, including the dramatic effort to find survivors inside a collapsed building. 12. Early in the spring, I found some withered flowers on that rock. 13. I had not expected to see such a learned man perform a conjuror's trick, but it was well done, and I applauded politely. 14. Hotels routinely offer newly arrived guests a cup of coca leaf tea (the same stuff cocaine is made from), which improves the body's oxygen-carrying capacity. 15. Bessy was the only person yet risen. (Brontë) 16. Yet the crazed throng coursed through the galleries, shooting, grabbing, smashing, and plundering as if they were in a junk shop. 17. The house was made of unpainted plank gone gray now and had a strange unfinished look. 18. Easter Island, celebrated for the giant statues left by its vanished civilization, is unique in archaeology because of its isolation from its neighbors.
Ex. 66. Participle II of transitive verbs has passive meaning, while participle II of intransitive verbs has active meaning. Use the verbs in brackets in the correct forms of participle I or II. Translate into Russian.
1. Many people were under the impression that I owned a badly (behave) rabbit. 2. His lightheartedness was short-(live). 3. I really, really, really want them to have normal experiences and to be well-(adjust) and well-(travel). 4. Her help was well-(mean), but it just made the job take longer. 5. Eventually, of course, the empire crumbled, as empires have a habit of doing, and Britain was left with a well-(speak), gentlemanly nostalgic ruling class, trained to a knightly role that no longer existed – and, with few exceptions, without the faintest notion of what to do next. 6. Today, like similar small towns on that much-(travel) mid-century road, it's desolate, the last gas station abandoned within the past year. 7. The authorities were searching for an (escape) prisoner who had been held under light guard at the English king's palace of Westminster. 8. There was nothing better in life, after all, than being well-(read). 9. He shrugged and went to stand at the window that looked out across the rain-(sweep) city toward the Willamette River. 10. We know that Saddam Hussein is a (practice) liar. There's no doubt about that. 11. From there the much-(travel) Flemish painter went to England where he delineated the court of Charles I with bravura elegance. 12. We prided ourselves on being well-(adjust), fully-(integrate) Indians. 13. He's softly (speak) with a wide smile and seems to be more open than others within Hamas to talks with Israel. 14. Next to the rotary-dial telephone was a well-(read) copy of the Paris Review, its cover (mark) with greasy black fingerprints. 15. HM Coastguard is not responsible for the disposal of time (expire) pyrotechnics and accepts them at its own discretion and subject to storage availability. 16. She ordered the drawbridge (raise) and all of the entrances to the castle (seal). 17. I mean, is this a real process or is this a (forego) conclusion? 18. All of the (forego) analysis leads up to the need to develop a new energy policy. 19. We will keep you (inform) on anything that happened and will happen. 20. The hope is that bailouts will keep the current economic recession short-(live) and shallow. 21. The children were very well-(behave) on the train. 22. Once (arrive) at the quay alongside which lay the big transatlantic liner, Poirot became brisk and alert. (A. Christie) 23. Jack Olcott, the (retire) president of the National Business Aviation Association, is one of the few people to have ever actually flown a hybrid airship, having served as the Aereon 26's test pilot. 24. The path was very narrow, very up-and-down, and with the old (fall) leaves so wet – damp and matted after three days of cold March rain – it was slippery.
Russia is a riddle (wrap) in a mystery inside and enigma. (Churchill)
Ex. 67. Translate into English using participle I in the function of attribute, if possible, or attributive clauses. Mind that the perfect form of participle I (showing priority) is not used in the function of attribute.
1. Пациенты, ожидающие врача, уже сидят в коридоре около четырёх часов. 2. Пациенты, ожидавшие врача около четырёх часов, уже ушли. 3. Мы подошли к полицейскому, стоявшему на углу, и спросили, как пройти в музей. 4. Научная конференция, проходящая в нашем университете, посвящена вопросам полихлорвинил-лингвистики. 5. Научная конференция, прошедшая в нашем университете, до сих пор вызывает огромный интерес учёных во всём мире. 6. Российский сухогруз (dry cargo ship) «Летучий Нидерландец», четыре месяца сидевший на мели в Анапской бухте, снова отправился в плавание. 7. При входе Сони Разумихин, сидевший на одном из трёх стульев Раскольникова, сейчас подле двери, привстал, чтобы дать ей войти. (Достоевский) 8. Бэзил Холлуорд — художник, написавший портрет Дориана Грея. 9. Выйдя, я украдкой бросил в траву кусок рыбы, но марабу схватить его не успел – другой марабу, сидевший на заборе незаметно и неподвижно, оказался проворнее, и пришлось в утешение первому принести кусок булки. 10. Дым, наполнивший комнату, помешал моему противнику найти шашку, лежавшую возле него. (Лермонтов) 11. Лётчик, выпрыгнувший из самолёта, приземлился на парашюте.
Ex. 68. Translate into English using participles.
1. «Не моё», - сказал буфетчик, отпихивая шпагу и быстро надевая шляпу. 2. То же делал и кот, соскочивши с табурета, шаркая правой задней лапой, он уронил коня и полез за ним под кровать. 3. Пытаясь доплыть до Индии, мореплаватель чуть было не замёрз в Арктике. 4. Своё название колбасное дерево (kigelia) получило за плоды, похожие на крупную ливерную колбасу длиной до 60 см, свешивающиеся с ветвей. 5. Оставив вещи в камере хранения, вы больше их никогда не увидите. 6. Пассажир – это физическое лицо, которое, во исполнение договора перевозки (публичного договора), заключенного от его имени или им самим, перевозится за плату или по предъявлению документа, дающего право на льготный проезд, перевозчиком. 7. Выйдя из себя, он обнаружил, что его представления о себе в себе не совпадают с действительностью его самого вне себя. 8. Кот, не расставаясь с примусом, ухитрился махнуть по воздуху и вскочить на люстру, висящую в центре комнаты. (Булгаков) 9. Но судя по грохоту кастрюль, доносившемуся из кухни, можно было допустить, что Бегемот находится именно там, валяя дурака, по своему обыкновению. (Булгаков) 10. Семён Семёнович, сняв очки, смотрит на сосну и видит, что на сосне никто не сидит. (Д. Хармс) 11. Сдавая экзамен, студенты почти не пользовались шпаргалками. 12. Сдав экзамен на отлично, студенты поехали на каникулы в Бужумбуру. 14. На одной из тренировок своей команды вратарь бельгийского клуба «Вирли Спорт» Том Йанссенс сильным ударом выбил мяч, который попал в пролетавший над стадионом воздушный шар. 15. Однажды Чернышевский видел из окна своей мансарды, как Лермонтов вскочил на коня и крикнул: «В Пассаж!». (Д.Хармс) 15. Однажды по дорожке; Я шел к себе домой; Смотрю и вижу: кошки; Сидят ко мне спиной. (Д. Хармс) 16. Проезжая мимо станции и выглядывая в окно, с меня слетела шляпа. (Чехов) 17. Вытираясь утиральником, он опять взглянул в зеркало. (Гоголь)
Ex. 69. Translate into English using the Complex Object with the participle.
1. Но я успел взглянуть на берег и увидел, как сотни лиц расплылись в немой улыбке, когда я начал падать вниз. 2. И я хотел уже закрыть свое окно, но вдруг увидел я летящих в никуда Крылатых розовых слонов. 3. Он не увидел никого, кто бы двигался по улицам или выглядывал из окон. 4. Потом я увидел самого Набонидуса (Nabonidus), сидевшего в своем кресле. 5. Надеюсь, не заставил вас долго ждать. 6. Мы не хотим, чтобы здесь что-нибудь менялось. 6. Нет ничего хуже, чем слышать, как растёт трава. 7. Вы слышали, как шепчутся снежинки, о чём они друг другу говорят? 8. Вы слыхали, как поют олигархи? 9. Стражники Азкабана не раз слышали, как во сне Блэк бормотал: 'Он в Хогвартсе... Он в Хогвартсе'. 10. Мы видели, как уезжает последний трамвай, ездит такси, но нам нечем платить. 11. Лишь два процента россиян не заметили, что всё дорожает. 12. Астрономы, использующие космический телескоп «Хаббл», впервые наблюдали, как экзопланета (Extrasolar planet) быстро теряет свою атмосферу. 13. Телезрители увидят как Новый год «шагает по стране». 14. А вы видели, как цветёт колбасное дерево (kigelia)? 15. В Красноярск на гастроли приезжают цирковые артисты из Екатеринбурга с программой «Бамба-Карамба». Горожане увидят, как медведи ходят по канату и выполняют сложнейшие трюки под куполом цирка, козы играют в футбол, а серый волк ловит тарелки.
Ex. 70. Translate into English using the Complex Object with Participle II.
1. Пальто мне нравится, но мне бы хотелось укоротить один рукав. 2. Вам сахар в чай положить или завернуть? 3. Я наблюдал, как разгружали пароход, и завидовал грузчикам. 4. Я нахожу, что вы сильно изменились. 5. Вы всё уладили? 6. Вы сфотографировались на паспорт? 7. Вы слышали, как назвали вашу фамилию? Проходите. 8. Это просто грубо и сомнительно с моральной точки зрения — фотографировать людей, которые не хотят, чтобы их фотографировали. 9. Они быстро ушли мерить давление. 10. Мы будем сопровождать вас шаг за шагом и постоянно держать в курсе дела. 11. Я хочу, чтобы все мои указания точно выполнялись. 12. Ненавижу, когда меня постригают. 13. Дориан Грей хотел, чтобы нарисовали его портрет. 14. Где здесь можно починить пылесос? 15. Пока мистер Браун гостил в Москве, у него украли галоши.
Ex. 71. Paraphrase the sentences so as to use the Complex Subject with the participle.
1. We heard a TV set amusing itself in the next room. 2. From the window one could see saber-toothed tigers roaming the yard. 3. They kept me waiting in the queue for a full twenty minutes. 4. Through the open window they heard bagpipes being played. 5. We left the breakfast untouched. 6. It was heard how the pilot was singing faintly. 7. Whom do you consider responsible for it? 8. The local residents often saw Ken wandering through the streets. 9. We distinctly saw the postman entering the house. But nobody saw him leaving it. 10. Can you hear
Ex. 72. Translate into English using the Complex Subject with the participle.
1. В читальном зале была полная тишина, было только слышно, как шуршали страницы. 2. Видели, как над Красной Площадью пролетел самолёт. 3. Было слышно, как мысли в голове ворочаются. 4. Видели, как студенты списывали контрольную работу по грамматике. 5. Иногда слышно как кто-то ходит за стенкой, или разговаривает этажом выше. 6. Было видно, как большая аудитория скучала от просмотра кинофильма. 7. На берегу было слышно, как солнце шумит. 8. Почему в кинотеатрах такой громкий звук? Чтобы не было слышно шуршащих, жующих, болтающих и ржущих зрителей по соседству.
Ex. 73. Find and define Absolute Constructions. State their syntactic functions. Translate into Russian.
1. His attention caught, Harry examined the picture more carefully. 2. He set off, his destination not the black door, but the doorway he remembered on the left hand side, which opened onto the flight of stairs down the court chambers. 3. The dark passage outside the courtrooms was packed with tall, black-hooded figures, their faces completely hidden, their ragged breathing the only sound in the place. 4. Heart beating in his throat, Harry opened his eyes. 5. In the first place the lumber-room was large and dimly lit, one high window opening on to the forbidden garden being its only source of illumination. 6. It was a little, brown squirrel running in lovely undulating bounds over the floor, its red tail completing the undulation of its body – and then, as it sat up, furling and unfurling. (D.H. Lawrence) 7. Simply in its physical presence, the steam locomotive, its stack belching black smoke by day, its firebox door glaring at night, its pounding drivers reeling off more miles a day than a man could travel on horseback in a week, was the most impressive man-made object that most people had ever seen. 8. Roger, the frozen and imbecile grin of civilized intercourse on his face, tried to get a word in; without result. 9. But when he looked out at Third Avenue – shabby, rain-swept, deserted, watery yellow light spilling across the black pavement in front of the tavern – he felt heavily depressed. 10. Eyes still watering and head still throbbing, he drew his wand, careful not to disarrange the cloak, and waited, breath held. 11. Old Berhman, with his red eyes plainly streaming, shouted his contempt and derision for such idiotic imaginings. (O. Henry) 12. Harry nodded, his mouth so full of porridge that he could not speak. 13. His mouth now full of bread, Harry shrugged and gave a noncommittal jerk of the head. 14. With half an hour of the game gone, Gryffindor were leading sixty points to zero, Ron having made some truly spectacular saves, some by the very tips of his gloves, and Ginny having scored four of Gryffindor’s six goals. 15. So, with the basketball season obviously over, McMurphy decided fishing was the thing. 16. The Tarawa Cup football tournament came to an end last Saturday with Tarawa Motors taking the Cup and the prize money after defeating Flying Tigers in a very close match – between two rivals in South Tarawa.
Ex. 74. Change the sentences so as to use Absolute Constructions.
1. William got up and went through the French windows into the garden, and as he stood there in the shadow he heard the bather coming up the sandy road, their voices rang through the quiet. 2. As there was no further business, the meeting was closed. 3. Through the building crawled the scrubwomen, yawning, their old shoes slapped. 4. Cottages stood on either side of the narrow road, Christmas decorations were twinkling in their windows. 5. “Now,” he removed a tottering pile of papers from an armchair and sat down, his Wellingtoned legs were crossed, “how may I help you, Mr Potter?” 6. As of 1979, only about 3000 meteorites were known, 1000 of them had been found in Antarctica in the preceding 10 years. 7. It was then almost impossible for an American writer to make a living, Webster was a notable exception. 8. Crookshanks trotted after Hermione, his yellow eyes were fixed upon Arnold. 9. The students were seen to learn grammar rules, their brains rattled. 10. He still can't see worth a damn, his glasses were found by a pedestrian, bent and useless, on the sidewalk. 11. As that was the entirety of the conversation, the guard spun on his heel and marched off down the hall. 12. He turned now, his face revealed nothing. 13. As there was in fact nothing to wait for, we got down to work.14. When the novel was translated, Mr Green put it aside. 15. As the basin was circular and the room he was observing was square, Harry could not make out what was going on in the corners of it. 16. In China, the terms "yǔhángyuán" (宇航员, "sailing personnel in universe") or "hángtiānyuán" (航天员, "sailing personnel in sky") have long been used for astronauts, while the phrase "tàikōng rén" (太空人, "spaceman") is often used in Taiwan and Hong Kong. 17. Germans call cockroaches ‘Frenchmen,’ while the French call lice ‘Spaniards.’
Ex. 75. Complete sentences using Absolute Constructions.
1. _______, a strange calmness settled upon us. 2. _______, work went on more briskly, 3. It is not half a bad idea, _______. 4. Night became day, _______. 5. _______, something did not feel right. 6. Time seemed to contort in the darkness, ______. 7. Harry Potter ran away, ______. 8. The students studied Old English grammar, ______.
Ex. 76. Translate into English using Absolute Constructions.
1. Нет ненужных людей; но нет и людей очень нужных. (Ралф Уолдо Эмерсон) 2. Так как работа срочная, вам надо поторопиться. 3. Из дверей, ведущих во двор, боязливо появляются Тофсла и Вифсла с чемоданом в руках. Озираются, принюхиваются. (Туве Янссон) 4. Студенты скользили в университет к первой паре, а в тёмном небе над головой мерцали звёзды. 5. В январе 31 день, а в феврале только 28. 6. Если условия позволят, мы сдадим экзамен. 7. Мы вымокли до нитки, а дождь всё лил и лил. 8. Так как оставалось ещё три минуты до урока, мы решили сходит в буфет. 9. Так как терять было нечего, он решился на отчаянный шаг. 10. Дело было вечером, делать было нечего. 11. Как только часы на деревянной ратуше пробили полночь, в Стране Дураков закипела работа. 12. Второй силуэт с чемоданом в руке стал более расплывчатым, темнота в комнате все смелее стала разрывать его на куски, и он исчез. 13. Так как отсутствовал футбольный мяч, матч чемпионата Росси по футболу был отменён. 14. Так как делать было нечего, студенты пошли в университет. 15. Тут ворона от обиды рассыпала кофе, а лиса прочь побежала. (Д. Хармс) 16. Рон догнал их у портретного проема, его уши были ярко-красные, а выражение лица – раздраженное. 17. Рон уронил свой стакан; он перегнулся на своём стуле и упал; его конечности непроизвольно дёргались. 18. Без сомнения, через заснеженный двор шел Перси Уизли, его очки переливались на свету. 19. Было тихо, а в коридоре Филч играл на аккордеоне Токкату и Фугу до-минор Баха. 20. По людной, кишащей машинами улице Лондона, немного хромая, шёл человек в плаще и шляпе, шляпа была надета набекрень и закрывала почти пол-лица. 21. Да, Гарри Поттер! — воскликнул Добби, его огромные глаза засияли от восторга. 22. – Ему оставили дом? – жадно выпалил Дядя Вернон, его маленькие глаза сузились, но ответа он так и не дождался. 23. Мистер Уизли ворвался в гостиную; его лысина блестела от пота, очки сидели на носу криво. 24. Переломление (breaking) в древнеанглийском языке представляет собой дифтонгизацию кратких гласных перед определёнными сочетаниями, при этом переломлению подвергаются гласные æ и е. 25. Было поздно, и горел лишь каждый второй фонарь, а каждый первый спал стоя. (Б. Виан) 26. Жила была очень умная собака, звали ее Бубубу. (Д. Хармс)
Ex. 77. When we begin a sentence with a participle, we must make sure the next thing that comes along can be modified by that participle. When a participle improperly modifies something, it is called a "dangling participle." This often happens with beginning participial phrases, making "dangling participles" an all too common phenomenon. In the sentence below, we can't have a car changing its own oil.
Changing the oil every 3,000 miles, the car was kept in excellent condition.
The correct sentence is:
Changing the oil every 3,000 miles, we kept the car in excellent condition.
More examples:
Flying around the room, I saw a bird. (The bird is flying around the room, not "I.")
Freshly painted, visitors can now go to the reopened museum. (Freshly painted is a modifier that modifies museum, not visitors.)
Correct the following sentences avoiding dangling participles.
1. Spending way too much money on his old car, Fred's salary just wasn't enough. 2. Feeding the animals, the lion suddenly attacked. 3. Singing in the shower, the thief was able to sneak in unnoticed. 4. While reading the novel, the pages that contain important information should be marked. 5. Walking down Main Street, the trees were beautiful. 6. Having finished the assignment, the TV was turned on. 7. Relieved of your responsibilities at your job, your home should be a place to relax. 8. Located at a considerable distance from the coast, the town’s commercial importance was unrivaled within the colony. 9. Looking out of the window, the mountains seemed very close. 10. Driven to drink by her problems, we see how Janet will come to a sticky end. 11. Driving down the road, a deer leapt out in front of me. 12. Running through the neighborhood last Saturday afternoon, his nose detected the delectable aroma of barbecued steak on someone’s backyard grill. 13. Hanging by their tails from the branches, the children watched the monkeys. 14. Walking home last night, a banana fell on John’s head.
Ex. 78. Some of the following sentences contain dangling participles. Find the sentences that do contain dangling participles.
1. a) Stuck in the mud, Tim could see a man waving.
b) Stuck in the mud, the man tried to free himself.
c) Stuck in the mud, the man called for help.
d) Stuck in the mud, the rescue services rushed to the man's assistance.
2. a) Soaring high above the fields, the eagle is a majestic bird.
b) Soaring high above the fields, we could see the eagle clearly.
c) Soaring high above the fields, the eagle can spot its prey easily.
d) Soaring high above the fields, we watched the eagles for hours.
3. a) With every limb aching, the runner crossed the line.
b) With every limb aching, he finished the race just ahead of his rival.
c) With every limb aching, the crowd roared him towards the finish line.
d) With every limb aching, the spectators cheered as he crossed the line.
4. a) Rushing to catch the bus, the old man slipped and fell.
b) Rushing to catch the bus, the old man's wallet fell out of his pocket.
c) Rushing to catch the bus, the old man's face was covered in sweat.
d) Rushing to catch the bus, the old man cursed his advancing years.
5. a) Having finished my homework, dad said I could go out.
b) Having finished my homework, my sister wanted me to play football with her.
c) Having finished my homework, I could relax and watch the television.
d) Having finished my homework, mum was very pleased with me.
6. a) Sizzling on the barbecue, I waited to eat the sausages.
b) Sizzling on the barbecue, the sausages looked delicious.
c) Sizzling on the barbecue, we watched the sausages cooking.
d) Sizzling on the barbecue, my uncle smelled the delicious sausages.
7. a) Giving an important speech, the chairman made a number of grammatical errors.
b) Giving an important speech, we couldn't help laughing at the chairman's grammatical errors.
c) Giving an important speech, the building was full of the chairman's supporters.
d) Giving an important speech, the chairman began to shake uncontrollably.
8. a) Exploding in bright colours, the crowd loved the fireworks.
b) Exploding in bright colours, the rockets looked beautiful.
c) Exploding in bright colours, everyone cheered as the fireworks went off.
d) Exploding in bright colours, the fireworks lit up the night.
Ex. 79. What would you say if you were …
– an excellent student? – a lazy bones? – a teacher? – a heavy smoker? – a hockey fan? – the dean? – the prime minister?
E.g. An excellent student: A) I’d rather not sleep at night at all than (to) go to University with the report unprepared. I’ll read much of English this night even if allowed not to do it.
Ex. 80. Write a report on the latest events in the world. Use in your report: The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction, The Nominative Absolute Construction, The Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction, The Prepositional Absolute Construction, The Complex Object with the Infinitive, The Complex Subject with the Infinitive, The Complex Object with the Participle, The Complex Subject with the Participle, The For-Infinitive Construction, Gerundial and Half-gerundial Constructions.
Ex. 81. Read the text. Pay attention to the Absolute Constructions. Invent an ending of the horror story using Absolute Constructions.
AT THE RE-EXAMINATION
Mary takes her seat, a crumpled sheet of paper in her hand, her stomach pulling nervously. She wills herself not to panic. Across the aisle from her sits Ann. She must have flunked her exam too, last year. She is sitting trembling, her fingers gripping a broken pencil, her brow furrowed, her mouth pinched. …………………………………. .
Ex. 82. Define the verbals and state their functions. Translate into Russian.
1. I have other fish to fry. (Latin proverb) 2. What one knows is sometimes useful to forget. 3. It is not enough to run, one must start in time. (French proverb) 4. There was nothing to be astonished at. 5. A rose too often smelled loses its fragrance. (Spanish proverb) 6. Smoke does not make a pot boil. (Turkish proverb) 7. This was not the matter to be easily agreed upon. 8. To run away is not glorious, but very healthy. 9. A penny saved is a penny gained. (Scottish proverb) 10. Mixed with snow they started walking. 11. I am a great thinker with nothing to think about. 12. Uttering a word is like striking a note on the keyboard of the imagination. (Ludwig Wittgenstein, philosopher) 13. The door banged open without being rapped on. 14. She did most of the talking, if not all of it. 15. And another thing. We can’t have everybody talking at once. 16. I don’t think it’s nice to be funny about a matter like this. 17. To have thought this made him more cheerful. 18. Style being a relational concept, the aim of literary stylistics is to be relational in a more interesting sense than that already mentioned. 19. It’s a mistake to take sides. 20. The only way of the dilemma is to suppose that sometimes the photon gets through and sometimes it does not.
Ex. 83. Define the verbals and state their functions. Translate into Russian.
1. They are too big to fly, that’s the trouble. 2. The highest purpose is to have no purpose at all. 3. There being little reality to set forth the surrealist twists of action, it becomes for the most part a farce. 4. I shuddered to think how big the bill would be. 5. There is no escaping the fact that the government has become very unpopular. 6. The surest way to remain poor is to be an honest man. (French proverb) 7. Money lent is an enemy made. (Portuguese proverb) 8. A decade later, at the EU Luxembourg summit, Turkey watched several former communist countries jump the queue, while it was not even considered to be a candidate for accession. 9. But they all went on watching him and waiting for him to speak and at last he seemed to reach some conclusion. 10. Please note: The wolf in this story was a metaphorical construct. No actual wolves were harmed in the writing of the story. 11. Read enough of this stuff and you are likely to end up wondering whether American dialects exist at all. 12. In life as in language, it does not pay to confuse style with substance, or the right accent with right thinking. 13. Sir Stanley Matthews, born in Hanley in 1915, is the first footballer to have been knighted while still player; a brilliant outside-right, he became known as “the wizard of dribble.” 14. People in the street turned round to look at me. 15. To do nothing is sometimes a good remedy. (Hippocrates) 16. Your suggestion was so stupid as to be risible. 17. Most chaiwallahs (tea-makers) bustle about in their stalls seven days a week for 12 to 14 hours, starting as early as four in the morning. 18. That new restaurant is the place to go now. 19. You’ll impress the boss by being the first one in and the last to leave. 20. They seemed underwhelmed by this new evidence of my genius.
Ex. 84. Define the verbals and state their functions. Translate into Russian.
1. Those drinking to forget please pay in advance. 2. It’s time to get a bit of shut-eye.3. Captain Clarence Drum came swinging by, splendid in khaki.4. It’s Christmas, and it’s not a crime to want to go to a party.5. I woke to hear the rain lashing the window panes. 6. I take the expression back. Consider it erased. 7. Then he hurried to Liverpool only to learn that the ship had already gone. 8. The only sound to break the silence was that of Hagrid hiccupping behind his handkerchief. 9. The wailing grew in intensity, but none of the demons paid it any attention. 10. A penny saved is a penny gained. 11. You seem to have been waiting for us to come. 12. They awoke to the danger of the situation too late to do anything about it. 13. Soapy, having decided to go to the Island, at once set about accomplishing his desire. 14. It really turns me off to see women smoking. 15. Langdon fought to focus his thoughts, but the situation was too bizarre to grasp rationally. 16. But of course the place to be in was the kitchen. 17. The tyrannosaurus lurched toward the playground and the earth shuddered under our stomachs. Its shadow dwarfed the trees, and I could see the reflection of its spiny back receding on the glass wall as it stalked across the road between the museum and the playground, hunched forward, its black eyes sweeping the space at its feet. 18. As they approached the end of the hall, the rumble became almost deafening, vibrating up through Langdon’s soles. 19. Mr Weasley burst into the living room, his bald patch gleaming with sweat, his spectacles askew, Fred right behind him, both pale but uninjured. 20. It was a sound to remember.
Ex. 85. Translate into English using verbals correctly if possible.
1. Знать много языков – значит иметь много ключей к одному замку. (Вольтер) 2. Язык дан человеку для того, чтобы скрывать свои мысли. (Макиавелли) 3. Не позволяй твоему языку опережать твою мысль. (Хилон) 4. Объяснённая шутка перестаёт быть шуткой. 5. Полиция Лондона не разрешает фотографировать городской транспорт; – во многих городах и странах запрещена съёмка с крыш высоких зданий и зданий центральных районов города. 6. Читать – значит думать чужой головой вместо своей собственной. (А. Шопенгауэр) 7. Искусство читать – это искусство мыслить с некоторой помощью другого. (Э. Фаге) 8. Люди перестают мыслить, когда перестают читать. (Дидро) 9. Читая авторов, которые хорошо пишут, привыкают хорошо говорить. (Вольтер) 10. Читать не размышляя всё равно, что есть не переваривая. (Э.Берк) 11. Есть люди, которые читают только для того, чтобы находить у писателя ошибки. 12. Быть честным – значит быть одиноким (М. Фриш) 13. Человек, обнаруживший, что он может совершить почти всё, что способен задумать, имеет полное основание огорчиться. (Г.Торо) 14. В каждом из нас заключается два человека, из которых второй порицает то, что делает первый. (Г. Сенкевич) 15. Во мраке, нас окружающем, учёный стукается лбом об стену, тогда как невежда спокойно сидит посреди комнаты. (А.Франс) 16. Что такое человек? Муха, попавшая в бутылку и ударяющаяся о её стены при малейшей попытке взлететь. (Г.Мопассан) 17. Умные люди учатся для того, чтобы знать; ничтожные для того чтобы, их знали. 18. Быть получше худшего ещё не значит быть хорошим. (Публий Сир) 19. Известно, что книга «Путешествие Гулливера в Лапуту, Бальнибарби, Лаггнегг, Глаббдобдриб и Японию» была написана Джонатаном Свифтом». 20. Немедленно наденьте шапку-невидимку, чтобы я вас больше не видел. 21. Очень трудно что-нибудь делать, ничего не делая, но мы будем.
Ex. 86. Translate into English using verbals correctly if possible.
1. Лишённые памяти и надежды, они укоренялись в настоящем, в сегодняшнем дне. По правде говоря, всё в их глазах становилось сегодняшним. 2. Под крылом самолета о чем-то орёт сорвавшийся вниз пассажир. 3. Услыхал Гриша Апельсинов, что звери спорят, и говорит им: – «Эх вы, глупые звери! Зря вы спорите!» (Д. Хармс) 4. Советую вам не следовать моим советам. 5. Лень – привычка отдыхать заблаговременно. 6. Течение реки, казалось, остановилось. «Вот в такую, как эта, ночь …» – пробормотал кто-то в темноте; и тут пробил восьмой удар – глубокий и окончательный, как приговор, и что-то, вспыхнувшее на четверть минуты, угасло совсем. 7. Нужно много учиться, чтобы немногое знать. (Шарль Монтескье) 8. Англичане уходят, не прощаясь, поляки прощаются, не уходя. (Антоний Слонимский) 9. Постыдно, занимаясь много чужими делами, забрасывать свои собственные. (Демокрит) 10. Нельзя жить приятно, не живя разумно, нравственно и справедливо, и, наоборот, нельзя жить разумно, нравственно и справедливо, не живя приятно. (Эпикур) 11. Можно было услышать, как муха летит. 12. Если комары и мошки вьются столбом, будет хорошая погода. Если вечером сильно стрекочут кузнечики — это верный признак хорошей погоды в ближайшее время. 13. Хорошо ничего не делать, а потом ещё отдохнуть.
REFERENCES
Блох М.Я. и др. Практикум по грамматике английского языка. М., 1985.
Верховская И.П., Расторгуева Т.А., Бармина Л.А. Английский глагол. Трудности употребления в речи. М., 1987.
Крутиков Ю.А., Кузьмина И.С., Рабинович Х.В. Упражнения по грамматике английского языка. М., 1971.
Медведева Л.М. Английская грамматика в пословицах, поговорках, идиомах и изречениях. Киев, 1980.
Суон М. Английский язык в современном употреблении. М., 1984.
Ягодникова О.Г., Дрига Л.П., Шамрай Л.А., Батурина Е.А. Грамматика английского языка в таблицах. Неличные формы глагола. Киев, 1989.
Barabash T.A. A Guide to better Grammar. M., 1975.
CONTENTS
VERBALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
FORMS OF VERBALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
MEANING OF VERBALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
NOMINAL AND VERBAL CHARACTERISTICS OF INFINITIVE . . . . . 6
4. NOMINAL AND VERBAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GERUND. . . . . . . . 6
5. ADJECTIVAL/ADVERBIAL AND VERBAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PARTICIPLE I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
6. INFINITIVE WITHOUT THE PARTICLE “TO” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
7. FUNCTIONS OF INFINITIVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
8. INFINITIVE AS ATTRIBUTE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
9. OBJECTIVE INFINITIVE CONSTRUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
10. SUBBJECTIVE INFINITIVE CONSTRUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
11. FOR-INFINITIVE CONSTRUCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
12. FUNCTIONS OF GERUND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
13. GERUNDIAL AND HALF-GERUNDIAL CONSTRUCTIONS . . . . . . . 15
14. FUNCIONS OF GERUNDIAL CONSTRUCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
15. RIGHT-HAND COMBINABILITY OF SOME VERBS
(VERB + PREPOSITION + GERUND) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
16. RIGHT-HAND COMBINABILITY OF SOME ADJECTIVES (ADJECTIVE + PREPOSITION + GERUND) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
17. RIGHT-HAND COMBINABILITY OF SOME NOUNS
(NOUN + PREPOSITION + GERUND) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
18. INFINITIVE OR GERUND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
19. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN INFINITIVE AND GERUND . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
20. GERUND AND VERBAL NOUN COMPARED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
21. FUNCTIONS OF PARTICIPLE I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
22. FUNCTIONS OF PARTICIPLE II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
23. OBJECTIVE PARTICIPIAL CONSTRUCTIONS
(COMPLEX OBJECT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
24. SUBJECTIVE PARTICIPIAL CONSTRUCTIONS
(COMPLEX SUBJECT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
25. PARTICIPLE I AND GERUND COMPARED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
26. ABSOLUTE CONSTRUCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
27. ACTIVE AND PASSIVE INFINITIVE WITH SIMILAR MEANING . . . 30
PRACTICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

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