UNIT II


UNIT II. PART 1. FROM THE HISTORY OF LAWVOCABULARY LIST
to sign
to seal
to grant liberties
to proclaim
to limit monarch’s powers
principle of limited government
principle of representative government
protection against unjust punishment
protection against the loss of life, liberty, and property
a fair trial
to keep in prison
to imprison
imprisonment (n.)
to levy taxes
taxation
with Parliament’s consent
ant. – without Parliament’s consent
to quarter soldiers on subjects
martial law
to declare legal
ant. – to declare illegal
to dispense with law
suspension of laws
to eliminate interference in parliamentary matters
to have complete freedom of speech
free elections
to prevent from abusing one’s authority
parliamentary supremacy over the Monarch
Magna Carta
syn. – the Great Charter
the Petition of Right
the Bill of Rights
subjectsDeveloping Skills
1.1. Match the halves
death penalty представление доказательств
an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth детальные древние своды законов
tribal customs правила и законы
to outlaw погашение долгов
compensation for bodily injuries лишать законной силы
to kidnap смертная казнь
rules and laws в соответствии с кодексом
immutable око за око, зуб за зуб
settlement of debts племенные обычаи
detailed ancient legal codes непреложныйpresentation of evidence компенсация за телесные повреждения
under the code похищать
1.2. Use the English word combinations from 1.1 in the following sentences. Change the verb / noun form where necessary.
______ – and the conventions or customs from which they are descended – have been a part of human life ever since our ancestors first began to live in large and settled groups.
The earliest known legal text was written by Ur-Nammu, a king of the Mesopotamian city of Ur, in about 2100 B.C.; it dealt largely with ______, and with the penalties for witchcraft and runaway slaves.
One of the most _____ was drawn up in about 1758 B.C. by Hammurabi, a king of Babylonia. The entire code, consisting of 282 paragraphs, was carved into a great stone pillar, which was set up in a temple to the Babylonian god Marduk so that it could be read by every citizen.
The laws laid down by Hammurabi covered crime, divorce and marriage, the rights of slave owners and slaves, the _____, inheritance and property contracts; there were even regulations about taxes and the prices of goods.
______ punishments were often harsh: not only murderers but also thieves and false accusers faced the ______.
Hammurabi’s code based on the cruel principle of revenge: ______.
Many modern readers would probably be shocked by the severity of some of the laws, such as the one which prescribes death for robbers, but the code also set a precedent for presuming innocence and for the _______ in legal trials.
The code _____ private blood feuds and banned the tradition by which a man could ______ and keep the woman he wanted for his bride.
Hammurabi undoubtedly set his code in stone with the expectation that it would endure for centuries, and that it would be viewed as _______.
Hammurabi's laws represented an advance on earlier _______, because the penalty could not be harder than the crime.
2. Guess the term by its definition.
compensation; ancestor; convention; penalty; contract; bodily injuries; inheritance
an accepted social custom or practice;
a written or spoken agreement, especially one concerning employment, sales, or tenancy, that is intended to be enforceable by law;
money or property received from someone who has died;
a punishment imposed for a violation of a law or rule;
payment for damage or loss, restitution;
damage done to a person's body;
one from whom a person is descended
3. Fill in the table providing noun-agent and noun-concept forms where possible. Memorize the new words.
Verb Noun
concept agent
to violate violation violator
to offend to accuse to inherit to appeal to pay 4. All the words in each of the following lines are synonymous except one. Consult a dictionary to find the odd ones.
prohibition – ban – taboo – permission – veto;
to violate – to observe – to infringe – to break;
rehabilitation – penalty – sentence – punishment;
wrongdoing – crime – reward – offence;
to draft – to draw up – to make – to set up;
strict – humane – harsh – severe;
case – trial – hearing – proceeding
5.1. Scan the extract choosing the correct variants.
The ancient Greeks were among the first to develop a concept / term of law that separated everyday law from religious beliefs. Before the Greeks most civilizations attributed their laws to their gods or goddesses / monarchs. Instead, the Greeks believed that laws were made by the people / gods for the people.
In the seventh century B.C., Draco / Socrates drew up Greece's first written code of laws. Draco / Socrates was the first recorded legislator of Athens in Ancient Greece. He replaced the prevailing system of oral law and blood feud by a written code to be enforced only by the lawgiver himself / a court. So that no one would be unaware of the laws, they were posted on wooden tablets.
The laws were very harsh / humane. For example, any debtor / creditor whose status was lower than that of his debtor / creditor was forced into slavery. Under the code death was the award / punishment for most offenses. Thus, the term draconian usually applies to extremely harsh / humane measures.
Several decades passed before Solon – poet, military hero, and Athens’ lawgiver – devised a new code of laws. Nothing of Draco's codification survived except for a law relating to slavery / homicide. Trial by jury, an ancient Greek tradition was retained, but enslaving debtors was prohibited / allowed as were most of the harsh / humane punishments of Draco's code. Under Solon's law citizens of Athens were eligible to serve in the assembly and courts were established in which they could appeal / criticize government decisions.
Solon’s reforms failed in the short term, yet he is often credited with having laid the foundations for Athenian despotism / democracy.
What the Greeks may have contributed to the Romans was the concept of “natural law / society”. In essence, the concept was based on the belief that certain basic principles that arise from the nature of people are above / subject to the laws of a nation.
The development of the first true legal systems and the concept of natural law had a profound effect on the modern world.
5.2. Answer the questions:
In what way did the ancient Greek concept of law differ from the previous ones?
Who was the first to draw up Greece's first written code of laws?
Why is Draco’s code an important milestone in the history of law?
What does the term ‘draconian’ usually apply to and why?
What did Draco’s code and Hammurabi’s code have in common?
What was Solon's contribution to ancient law?
In what way did Draco’s and Solon’s codes differ?
What is the essence of the concept of ‘natural law’?
6. Translate the following extracts into English paying special attention to the words and expressions in bold type. Use the active vocabulary of the unit.
I. Кодекс Хаммурапи
В 1901 году французские археологи обнаружили каменный столб среди руин персидского города Сузы. Текст, высеченный на столбе, был древнейший сводом законов. Он был составлен Хаммурапи, царем Вавилона, в XVIII столетии до н.э. Кодекс Хаммурапи состоит из 282 статей. Выставленный в храме вавилонского бога Мардука, «столб законов» должен был служить правосудию и одновременно напоминать: законы непреложны, их должны знать все.
Кодекс охватывал все сферы жизни. Он ставил вне закона кровную месть, убийство, похищение невесты. Наказания за них были суровы.
В основе Кодекса лежит идея талиона: наказание должно быть «равным» преступлению – “око за око, зуб за зуб”. В соответствии с кодексом, если человек, обвинивший другого в краже, не мог привести свидетелей, подтверждающих его слова, ему грозила смерть как клеветнику.
Кодекс также рассматривал вопросы имущества и наследства. Хаммурапи устанавливал денежный штраф, при назначении которого учитывалось как само правонарушение, так и социальное положение граждан.
II. ДраконтДраконт – афинский законодатель, чьи крайне суровые законы предусматривали только одно наказание – смерть – за незначительные нарушения и тяжкие преступления, совершенные в Афинах. Его имя теперь связывают со всем жестоким и безжалостным – “драконовские меры”, “драконовы законы”, “драконовский кодекс”.
Кодекс Драконта, который принято датировать 621 г. до н.э., не был первым записанным сводом афинских законов, но он, возможно, был первым всеобъемлющим кодексом или переработкой предыдущих законов.
Позднее Солон отменил драконтовы законы и издал новые, оставив лишь прежнее наказание за убийство.
FROM THE HISTORY OF LAW (Grades 8/10)
Rules and laws have always been a part of human life. But our knowledge of laws that were in effect before the invention of writing in about 3500 B.C. is vague. The earliest known legal text was written by Ur-Nammu, a king of the Mesopotamian city of Ur, in about 2100 B.C. It dealt largely with compensation for bodily injuries, and with the penalties for witchcraft and runaway slaves.
One of the most detailed ancient legal codes was drawn up in the 18th c. B.C. by Hammurabi, a king of Babylonia. The code was carved into a great stone pillar, which was set up in a temple to the Babylonian god Marduk so that it could be read by every citizen and would be viewed as immutable. Hammurabi’s code covered crime, divorce and marriage, the rights of slave owners and slaves, the settlement of debts, inheritance and property contracts; there were even regulations about taxes and the prices of goods.
Punishments under the code were often harsh: not only murderers but also thieves and false accusers faced the death penalty. The cruel principle of revenge was observed: an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth. The code outlawed private blood feuds and banned the tradition by which a man could kidnap and keep the woman he wanted for his bride. The new laws took account of the circumstances of the offender as well as of the offence. Thus, Hammurabi's laws represented an advance on earlier tribal customs, because the penalty could not be harder than the crime.
The first to develop a concept of law that separated everyday law from religious beliefs were the ancient Greeks. Before the Greeks most civilizations attributed their laws to their gods or goddesses. Instead, the Greeks believed that laws were made by the people for the people.
Greece's first written code of laws was drawn up by Draco in the 7th century B.C. Draco's laws were so shockingly severe that they were said to have been written not in ink but in blood. Death seems to have been the penalty for almost all criminal offenses.
A new code of laws that was much more humane was devised by the Athens’ lawgiver Solon several decades later. Nothing of Draco's codification survived except for a law relating to homicide. Trial by jury, an ancient Greek tradition, was retained, but enslaving debtors was prohibited as were most of the harsh punishments of Draco's code. Besides, courts were established in which citizens could appeal government decisions.
The philosophers of ancient Greece also laid the foundation of the concept of “natural law”. They considered that there was a kind of perfect justice given to man by nature and that man's laws should conform to this as closely as possible. The concept was based on the belief that certain basic principles that arise from the nature of people are above the laws of a nation.
The development of the first true legal systems, such as the codes of Hammurabi, Draco, Solon, had a profound effect on the modern world.
FROM THE HISTORY OF LAW (Grades 6/7)
We know little about the laws that were in effect before the invention of writing. The earliest known legal text was written by Ur-Nammu, a king of the Mesopotamian city, in about 2100 B.C. It dealt largely with compensation for bodily injuries, and with the penalties for witchcraft and runaway slaves.
One of the most detailed ancient legal codes was drawn up in the 18th c. B.C. by Hammurabi, a king of Babylonia. The code carved into a great stone pillar was set up in a temple; so the laws could be read by every citizen.
Hammurabi’s code of laws covered crime, family matters, the rights of slave owners and slaves, property contracts, taxes, and other important issues. Punishments were often harsh: murderers, thieves and false accusers faced the death penalty. Besides, the cruel principle of revenge was observed: an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth. But the penalty could not be harder than the crime. The new laws also took account of the circumstances of the offender and of the offence.
The first to develop a concept of law that separated everyday law from religion were the ancient Greeks. The Greeks believed that laws were made by the people for the people. Greece's first written code of laws was drawn up by Draco in the 7th century B.C. Draco's laws were very severe: death seems to have been the penalty for almost all criminal offenses.
A more humane code of laws was drawn by the Athens’ lawgiver Solon. Most of the harsh punishments of Draco's code were revised, except for a law relating to homicide. Trial by jury, an ancient Greek tradition, was retained. Besides, appellate courts were established.
The philosophers of ancient Greece introduced the concept of ‘natural law’. The concept was based on the belief that certain basic principles that arise from the nature of people are above the laws of a nation.
Thus, the development of the first true legal systems, such as the codes of Hammurabi, Draco, Solon, had a profound effect on the modern world.
FROM THE HISTORY OF LAW (Grades 4/5)
Rules and laws have always been a part of human life. The earliest known legal text was written by Ur-Nammu, a king of the Mesopotamian city. It dealt with compensation for bodily injuries, and with the penalties for witchcraft and runaway slaves.
One of the most detailed ancient legal codes is the Code of Hammurabi, a king of Babylonia. It was drawn up in the 18th c. B.C. and set up in a temple to the god Marduk. So the laws could be read by every citizen.
Hammurabi’s code covered crime, family matters, property contracts, taxes, and other important issues. Punishments were often harsh. The cruel principle of revenge was observed: an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth. At the same time, the penalty could not be harder than the crime.
The ancient Greeks were the first to separate everyday law from religion.
Greece's first written code of laws was drawn up by Draco in the 7th century B.C. It was very severe: death was the penalty for almost all criminal offenses. A more humane code of laws was drawn up by Solon several decades later. Most of the harsh punishments of Draco's code were prohibited. Trial by jury was retained, and appellate courts were established.
Thus, the development of the first true legal systems had a profound effect on the modern world.
Questions on the topic:
Why is it difficult to judge about the earliest laws?
What is the earliest known legal text? When was it written? What issues did it deal with?
When was Hammurabi’s code drawn up?
Why did Hammurabi decide to have his laws carved into a pillar?
Why was the pillar set up in a temple to the Babylonian god Marduk?
What spheres of human life were covered by Hammurabi's code?
What does the principle “an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth” mean?
Why did Hammurabi's laws represent an advance on earlier tribal customs?
What traditions were outlawed and banned by the Code?
In your opinion, were punishments under Hammurabi's code always fair?
Why do you think people of different ranks were treated differently by Hammurabi's code?
Why were the first laws mainly attributed to divine powers?
Did the Babylonians separate everyday law from religious beliefs?
What civilization was the first to separate everyday law from religion?
What does the ancient Greek concept of law comprise?
What is the origin and the meaning of the word “draconian”?
What did Draco's and Hammurabi's codes have in common?What was Solon's contribution to ancient law?
In what way did Solon’s code change the Greek laws?
What is the essence of the concept of “natural law”?
Comment on the following articles from Hammurabi's Code of Laws:
If anyone breaks a hole into a house (break in to steal), he shall be put to death before that hole and be buried.
If anyone fails to meet a claim for debt, and sells himself, his wife, his son, and daughter for money or gives them away to forced labour, they shall work for three years in the house of the man who bought them.
If a man breaks another man's bone, his bone shall be broken.
If a builder builds a house for someone, and does not construct it properly, and the house which he built falls in and kills its owner, then that builder shall be put to death.
1.2 1) ______ - и конвенции или обычаи, с которых они произошли, - были частью человеческой жизни с тех пор, как наши предки впервые начали жить в больших и оседлых группах.
2) Самый ранний известный юридический текст был написан Ур-Намму, королем месопотамского города Ур, примерно в 2100 г. до н.э .; это касалось в основном ______ и с наказаниями за колдовство и беглых рабов.
3) Один из самых _____ был составлен примерно в 1758 году. Хаммурапи, царем Вавилонии. Весь код, состоящий из 282 абзацев, был вырезан в большой каменный столп, который был установлен в храме вавилонскому богу Мардуку, чтобы его могли прочитать каждый гражданин.
4) Законы, установленные Хаммурапи, охватывали преступление, развод и брак, права рабовладельцев и рабов, _____, договор о наследовании и имуществе; были даже положения о налогах и ценах на товары.
5) ______ наказания часто были резкими: не только убийцы, но и воры и ложные обвинители столкнулись с ______.
6) Код Хаммурапи, основанный на жестоком принципе мести: ______.
7) Многие современные читатели, вероятно, были бы потрясены серьезностью некоторых законов, таких как тот, который предписывает смерть для разбойников, но этот код также создает прецедент для предполагаемой невиновности и для _______ в судебных процессах.
8) Кодекс _____ частной кровной мести и запретил традицию, с помощью которой мужчина мог ______ и держать женщину, которую он хотел для своей невесты.
9) Хаммурапи, несомненно, поставил свой код в камне с ожиданием, что он будет существовать на протяжении веков и что он будет рассматриваться как _______.
10) Законы Хаммурапи представляют собой аванс на более раннем _______, поскольку наказание не может быть тяжелее преступления.
5.1 Древние греки были одними из первых, кто разработал концепцию / термин закона, который отделял повседневный закон от религиозных убеждений. Перед греками большинство цивилизаций приписывали свои законы своим богам или богиням / монархам. Вместо этого греки считали, что законы были сделаны людьми / богами для народа. В седьмом веке Б.С., Драко / Сократ разработал первый в Греции кодекс законов. Драко / Сократ был первым зарегистрированным законодателем Афин в Древней Греции. Он заменил сложившуюся систему устного права и кровной мести письменным кодексом, который будет применяться только самим законодателем / судом. Чтобы никто не знал о законах, они были размещены на деревянных планшетах. Законы были очень суровыми / гуманными. Например, любой должник / кредитор, чей статус был ниже, чем у его должника / кредитора, был принужден к рабству. Под кодом смерть была присуждена / наказана за большинство правонарушений. Таким образом, термин драконов обычно применяется к чрезвычайно жестким / гуманным мерам. Прошло несколько десятилетий, прежде чем Солон - поэт, военный герой и законодатель Афин - разработал новый свод законов. Ничего из кодификации Драко не сохранилось, кроме закона, касающегося рабства / убийства. Судебное разбирательство со стороны жюри, древнегреческая традиция была сохранена, но порабощающие должники были запрещены / разрешены, как и большинство суровых / гуманных наказаний кодов Драко. По закону Солона граждане Афин могли участвовать в собрании, и были созданы суды, в которых они могли обжаловать или критиковать решения правительства. Солонские реформы потерпели неудачу в краткосрочной перспективе, но ему часто приписывают основу для афинской деспотии / демократии. Греки, возможно, внесли вклад в римлян, была концепция «естественного права / общества». По сути, концепция основывалась на убеждении, что некоторые основные принципы, которые возникают в природе людей, выше / подчиняются законам нации. Развитие первых истинных правовых систем и концепции естественного права оказало глубокое влияние на современный мир.
5.2 1) Каким образом древнегреческая концепция права отличается от предыдущих?
2) Кто первым разработал первый в Греции кодекс законов?
3) Почему код Драко является важной вехой в истории права?
4) Как обычно применяется термин «драконов» и почему?
5) Что имел код Драко и код Хаммурапи?
6) Каков вклад Солона в древний закон?
7) Каким образом коды Драко и Солона отличались?
8) В чем суть понятия «естественного права»?

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