Guide-final(2007)


Active Listening
 
A Guide to Developing Listening Comprehension Skills
Irina V. Ermakova
Nikita V. Malyshev

Министерство образования и науки
Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшегопрофессионального образования
«Ивановский государственный энергетический
университет
имени В.И. Ленина»
И. В. Ермакова, Н.В. Малышев
I.V. Ermakova, N.V. MalyshevАктивное аудирование. Пособие по развитию навыков аудированияActive Listening. A Guide to Developing Listening Comprehension Skills
Учебное пособие
Study Guide
Иваново 2013
Ivanovo 2013

Ермакова И.В., Малышев Н.В. Активное аудирование. Пособие по развитию навыков аудирования: Учеб. пособие/ ФГБОУ ВПО «Ивановский государственный энергетический университет имени В.И. Ленина».— Иваново, 2013. — 128 с. 

Данное учебное пособие создавалось для курса «Активное аудирование» программы «Переводчик в сфере профессиональной коммуникации». Курс назван «Активное аудирование», так как в процессе обучения тренируются навыки восприятия англоязычной речи на слух и навыки конспектирования (note-taking), когда студенты не пассивно слушают, а производя смысловой анализ информации, делают необходимые записи. Кроме note-taking, внимание уделено формированию и активизации таких микронавыков, как predicting, discourse markers recognition, summarizing, making inferences and conclusions.
Пособие состоит из 20 разделов и в рамках этого курса предполагается их последовательное изучение. При этом раздел 18 выносится для самостоятельной работы, а задания 20 раздела рекомендуются использовать в качестве зачетного материала. С тематикой дополнительных аудио,-видеоматериалов можно ознакомиться в приложении 2. В приложении 3 излагаются требования к уровню усвоения курса «Активное аудирование». Студенты оценивают содержание курса, отвечая на вопросы анкеты (приложение 4).
Пособие может быть рекомендовано всем тем, чей уровень владения английским языком можно определить как Upper-Intermediate или Vantage (B2) и кто хочет совершенствовать свои навыки аудирования. В этом случае выбор раздела пособия может быть произвольным.
Авторы надеются, что материалы учебного пособия будут способствовать развитию у студентов навыков аудирования англоязычной речи, расширят их кругозор и помогут лучше ориентироваться в современном деловом мире.
Печатается по решению редакционно-редакторского совета ФГБОУ ВПО «Ивановский государственный энергетический университет имени В.И.Ленина»
Научный редактор доц. кафедры ИИАЯ ИГЭУ Н.А.ДудареваРецензент кафедра интенсивного изучения английского языка (Ивановский государственный энергетический университет)
“The mediocre teacher tells.
The good teacher explains.
The superior teacher demonstrates.
The great teacher inspires.”
(William Arthur Ward, an American writer)
Dedicated to Tatyana V. Smirnova,
the great teacher who possessed
the art of teaching English.
She was my friend, advisor and
colleague who encouraged me
through my career and who
still travels in my heart.
Acknowledgements
To Nikita Malyshev for coauthoring me, for his commitment to our project, for the creative suggestions and designs and for preparing audio/video materials for our guide;
to Elena Sokolova for her assistance in typing and useful advice;
to Natalya A. Dudareva for initiating me into creating the course of Active Listening, for her constructive criticism while proofreading and for the confidence that I gained because she believed in me;
to Jill Willeke for lecture recordings and bringing the scripts to life;
to all my students for video and audio materials provided and invaluable feedback on completion of the course;
to all the friends, colleagues and students who have been such an important part not only of the ideas for the book but also of making my life as an English teacher so enjoyable and special;
I also owe a debt of gratitude to Marina M. Bolshakova for giving me the original inspiration to become an English teacher.
Irina V. Ermakova

Contents
Preface. What and why? ………………………………………………….......... 5
Unit 1. An Introduction to Listening and Note-Taking………………………… 6
Unit 2. What Makes a Good Listening Text?.......................................................10
Unit 3. Homonyms……………………………………………………………… 12
Unit 4. The United Nations: The Promise of Peace…………………………….. 18
Unit 5. The Grand Canyon: One of Nature's Finest Monuments………………. 24
Unit 6. Life Science…………………………………………………………….. 29
Unit 7. Languages in Conflict: Irish and English………………………………. 31
Unit 8. The Panama Canal: A Great Engineering Achievement……………….. 37
Unit 9. History of the Nobel Prize……………………………………………… 42
Unit 10. The End of Empire: Montezuma and Cortes………………………….. 44
Unit 11. Т. Е. Lawrence: Lawrence of Arabia………………………………….. 49
Unit 12. Rulers and Leaders…………………………………………………….. 54
Unit 13. Business……………………………………………………………….. 56
Unit 14. Personality Formation…………………………………………………. 59
Unit 15. John F. Kennedy: Promise and Tragedy………………………………. 61
Unit 16. “JFK” Movie…………………………………………………………... 67
Unit 17. Listening for Fun and Enjoyment………………….……….…………. 70
Unit 18. Assertive Communication Skills for Professionals……………………. 75
Unit 19. Introduction to International English Language Tests………………... 83
Unit 20. Robert T. Kiyosaki’s Cashflow Quadrant …………………………….. 95
Recording Scripts and Answer Key…………………………………………….. 98
Appendix 1. CD Tracklist…………………………………………………….… 118
Appendix 2. Supplementary Video and Audio Materials List………………..… 121
Appendix 3. Требования к уровню усвоения программы по курсу «Активное аудирование» …………...………………………………………… 125
Appendix 4. Course Evaluation Questionnaire….……………………………… 126
References and Online Resources………………………………………………. 127
Preface. What and why?
Three people were on train in England. As they approached what appeared to be Wemberly Station, one of the travelers said, “Is this Wemberly?” “No,” replied a second passenger, “it’s Tuesday.” Whereupon the 3rd person remarked, “Oh, I’m too, let’s have a drink.” So, motivation is very important in listening activity.
Animals listen either to stay safe or to get food. Frogs can hear predators and other frogs but nothing else. Kangaroos can hear the scales of a rattlesnake scraping on sand. Bats find their dinner by squeaking and listening to the echoes bouncing off nearby insects. Humans, on the other hand, listen not only for the sound of lions growling in the night and babies crying for food, but also to lectures, grand speeches of all lengths (Fidel Castro’s used to go on for hours, apparently), idle chit-chat, radio broadcasts, airport announcements, instructions and, of course, foreign languages. We listen primarily because there are things we need to know. We learn to listen and we listen to learn. But humans also listen to Beethoven and the Beatles, bedtime stories and jokes. Why? Because, unlike animals, humans have another reason to listen: sounds can stimulate the imagination and enrich our lives.
The primary purposes of human listening, then, are information-gathering and pleasure, though there are other reasons, such as empathy, assessment and criticism.
One of the problems of teaching EFL learners is the development of listening comprehension skills. To teach students to listen effectively is very important since listening occupies from 45% to 52% of our communication activity. In class we are usually concerned with focused or active listening: we expect the students to listen closely and remember afterwards what they heard.
Speaking on Where and for whom active listening may be important, we should identify different educational situations and groups of learners.
As for Intensive English Language Department, we teach translators in professional communication and the importance of active listening skills for them is quite obvious.
We also deliver Business English course for the students of the above-mentioned speciality and other students at our university. The following business situations such as telephone talks, meetings, interviews, negotiations are effective when their participants are active listeners.
Active listening is a must for the students who get an opportunity to continue their education in American or European colleges and universities, and who are to take the TOEFL, IELTS or other tests. Listening comprehension is a part of these tests format. And since college students are generally tested on the material presented by professors during class lectures or discussions, good listening and note-taking skills become really a question of survival for them.
One of the major techniques for developing active listening is note-taking. Although some authors use the term note-taking and note-making interchangeably, there is a clear distinction between them in connection with summary writing.
In summary writing, minor details must be deleted. Nevertheless, the summary must be accurate and objective account of the text without reader’s reaction to it. So, if we record the information as we perceive it — we take notes; and we make notes when we write our reaction to what we perceive. Hence, note-taking quite often can be supplemented by note-making.
Franklin Roosevelt once greeted guests murmuring, “I murdered my grandmother this morning.” The typical responses were “Thank you”, “How kind of you”. And only one who actually listened responded, “I’m sure she came back”. We believe you don’t belong to such an audience and will do your best to become active listeners. You have a good precondition for that, “you have two ears and one mouth so that you can listen twice as much as you speak.” (Epictetus).
Unit 1. An Introduction to Listening and Note-Taking
Listen to the introductory lecture and summarize the main stages in note-taking.
Remember the following steps in note-taking!
The first requirement is that students must have a reason for taking words.
Second, we need to write only what is really important, that is to make semantic analysis.
Third, we should have our own set of meaningful abbreviations and symbols.
The fourth step is to try and make a synonymic replacement.
The fifth requirement is to be alert to those cues that precede the information that should be noted down. You should pay attention to such signals as pauses, raising of the voice to make an important point, or using words describing a process or sequence of events (first, next, subsequently, etc), describing the causal relationship between events (due to the fact, that, because of, if, etc).
Sixth, you must try and predict what will be heard.
Finally, don’t forget to show predicative relations and use the vertical arrangement of your notes.
This is how the notes of the phrase given below may look:
2476 учстнкв + 322 апрт →
Phrase: «В работе конгресса принимают участие 2476 делегатов и наблюдателей, кроме того, технический аппарат конгресса включает 322 человека».
How were the steps mentioned above applied in this case?
1.2 Here are some symbols that are often used in lecture note-taking. Look at the list.
re about; concerning
e.g. for example
i.e. that is, for example (also)
$ money
% percent
+ and
w with
w/o without
= is, are, means, refers to, like, is called
≠ different, not
# number
X times
→ result in, cause, produce, therefore
← come from, is derived from
@ at
1,2,3 first, second, third
< less, smaller
> more, larger
btw between
/ of, for, per
: say, report, inform
OK approve
ОК disapprove, vote down
↑ increase, improve, future (↳)
↓ decrease, decline, past (↲)
→← collusion
? problem
[ ] include
] [ exclude
○ meeting
○ important meeting, congress
□ country
□→ export
→□ import
N2 plural
N3 the most

1990 since 1990

1990 before 1990
♂ man
♀ woman
Cover the left side of the list looking only at the meaning of symbols and abbreviations. Can you recollect what signs may be used for these words?
Remember! Note-taking is an individual thing and you must develop a method that works for you. With practice you will develop your own system. The only requirements are that the symbols make sense to you and that you use them consistently.
1.3 Sometimes it is faster to represent an idea with a symbol or a diagram than it is to write notes in words. This is especially true of relationships. Look at the way notes may be taken.
Definition
A menu is a list of computer functions that appears on the screen.
Menu = list/functions on screen
Classification
This chapter explores four highly specialized forms of fungus, which include molds, yeasts, lichens, and mycorrhizae.

Sequence
The Roman Empire was built in three stages, which consisted of the conquest of Italy, the conflict with Carthage and expansion into the Western Mediterranean, and, finally, the domination of the Greek kingdoms and the Eastern Mediterranean.
Roman EmpireConquest ItalyConflict Carthage + expansion W Med
Domination Greek + E Med
Comparison and Contrast
Cirrus clouds are the highest at altitude between 17,000 and 50,000 feet, but they don’t produce rain, in contrast with cumulonimbus clouds, which also penetrate the upper atmosphere, but cause lightening storms, rain, and tornados.
Cirrus Cumulonimbus
17-50,000 ftupper atmosø rain rain-lightning-tornados
Cause and Effect
Mercantilism is an economic concept that assumes that the total volume of trade is unchangeable and, therefore, that trade causes conflict.
Mercantilism = total volume trade unchangeable
Trade → Conflict
When the temperatures on Earth dropped below the melting point of the rocks on the surface, the outer crust gradually solidified.
Temp Earth < melt pt rocks → crust solid
Problem and Solution
Because employees can begin to expect incentives simply for doing their jobs, and this can become a problem, it is better to reserve incentive for occasions that require exceptional effort.
Expect incentives/job → Reserve incentives/exceptional
The problem is that most populations of ginseng in Canada are too small to survive unless they are completely protected from harvesting by humans.
Ginseng survive → ø human harvesting
1.4 The teacher or your desk-mate will read two short passages to you. Exercise in note-taking. Share your ideas with your group-mates.
The three largest states in the US are Texas, Alaska and California. Texas is located in the southern part of US and on the border of Mexico. Alaska is located to the north-west of Canada and California is on the western coast of the continental US.
The demand for oil has increased greatly in the past 100 years, so the price has also risen.
1.5 Listen to some sentences from college lectures. Take notes as quickly as you can.
Unit 2. What Makes a Good Listening Text?
2.1 What factors do you think influence listening comprehension? Share your ideas with a partner.
2.2 Listen to four passages on the topic “Food”. What are the differences in level, speed, complexity, density, vocabulary and authenticity?
2.3 Look at the list of features. Which are typical of scripted dialogues and which are usually found in authentic speech?
No background noise
3901440122555Overlaps and interruptions between speakers
Loosely packed information, padded out with fillers like um and erStructured language, more like written English
Normal rate of speech delivery
Complete sentences
Relatively unstructured language
Background noise and voices
Little overlap between speakers
Slower (maybe monotonous) delivery
Densely packed information
Incomplete sentences, with false starts and hesitation
2.4 Listen to five passages. Which are authentic? Which are scripted? What features tell us this?
Authentic or scripted? Features
Passage 1 Passage 2 Passage 3 Passage 4 Passage 5 2.5 Read three situations in which students have problems in listening. What strategies would you suggest?
1.
A Brazilian economist on a lecture tour in the UK thought he needed to learn a lot more English, and came for one-to-one lessons. My first reaction was: ‘I can’t improve this man’s English in a dozen lessons over two months. Why does he want lessons?’
A brief interview revealed that his set-piece lectures went fine. The trouble came at question time. He felt he did not understand the question. I gave him a cassette recorder to tape his next post-lecture question session.
At our next meeting he plays back the cassette: it was clear to both of us that he was not letting the questioner finish the question. He leapt in with the answer, regularly cutting the questioner short. He then admitted to me that he had a card-index in his mind of about 40 economic or political categories into which questions neatly fitted. If he heard a question he thought was coming from category 28, he immediately came in with stock answer 28. Working in English, he would often miscategorise, and so give a brilliant answer to the wrong question and the wrong mindset. In so doing, he would frequently antagonize the questioner.
(from Davis, P, Garside, B and Rinvolucri, M (1998) Ways of Doing, Cambridge University Press, page 125)
2.
A student in a private language school wanted to understand news broadcasts in English, which he accessed from the Internet. He was a high-level student, and very motivated, but the broadcasts were just too difficult. He found that the newsreaders spoke very fast and he couldn’t keep up. Also, the changes of topic as the newsreader went from one news story to the next were difficult because suddenly you ‘needed to activate a whole new vocabulary’. He asked me what he could do.
3.
I was training a student for a general proficiency exam. In all other respects she was at the right level for the exam — her speaking, writing, vocabulary and grammar were OK — but she kept failing the practice tests we did for the listening part of the exam. We looked closely at where she was failing and found that she would always get the first question correct but then her performance would tail off. By the time she got round to the final questions for each passage, she barely wrote any answers.
Listen for the solutions.
Unit 3. Homonyms
Homonyms can be subdivided into homographs and homophones. Homographs are words which are written in the same way but have different meanings. Compare bow in “He took a bow /bau/ at the end of the concert” and 'He was wearing a bow /bəu/ tie'. Homophones are words which are pronounced in the same way but are spelt differently, e.g. bow as in “He took a bow” and bough, “the bough of a tree”.
Here are some more examples of homographs:
I live in the north of England, /lıv/
Your favourite pop star is singing live on TV tonight. /laıv/
336804043180I read in bed each night. /ri:d/
I read War and Peace last year. /red/
The lead singer in the group is great. /li:d/
Lead pipes are dangerous. /led/

The wind blew the tree down. /wınd/
Don't forget to wind your watch. /waınd/
I wound my watch last night. /waund/
He suffered a terrible wound in the war. /wu:nd/
Some students at Oxford spend more time learning to row well than studying. /rəu/
They shared a flat for ages until they had a row over money and split up. /rau/
This book is called English Vocabulary in Use. /ju:s/
You must know how to use words as well as their meaning. /ju:z/
They lived in a large old house. /haus/
The buildings house a library and two concert halls as well as a theatre. /hauz/
The sow has five piglets. /sau/
The farmers sow the seeds in the spring. /səu/
I bathed the baby this morning. /ba:θt/
We bathed in the sea every day when we were on holiday. /beıðd/
Here are some of the many examples of homophones in English:

air/heirfaze/phasegroan/grownmight/mitepane/painpray/preyright/rite/writesent/scentsteak/staketire/tyreweather/whetheraloud/allowed
floe/flowhoarse/horsemown/moanpeal/peel
raise/raysrough/ruffsight/sitetea/teetoe/towwhine/winedough/doeflu/flew
its/it's
our/hour
place/plaiceread/reedsale/sailsole/soulthere/their/they'rewaist/wastefare/fairgrate/greatlays/lazepale/pailpractise/practicerein/rainscene/seen
sought/sortthrough/threw
wait/weight3.1 How would you pronounce each of the underlined words in the sentences below? Choose a word with a similar sound from the brackets.
The girl I live with knows a good pub with live music. (dive/give)
The main house houses a collection of rare stamps. (mouse/rouse)
They bathed the children after they had bathed in the sea. (lathe/path)
You sow the seeds while I feed the sow. (cow/glow)
The violinist in the bow tie took a bow. (allow/flow)
He's the lead singer in the group 'Lead piping'. (head/deed)
What a row from the last house in the row! (plough/though)
Does he still suffer from his war wound? (found/mooned)
I wound the rope around the tree to strengthen it against the gale. (round/tuned)
It's quite hard to wind in the sails in this wind. (find/tinned)
3.2 Write the word in phonetic script in the correct spelling for the context.
Example: I really must do some more exercise or I'll never lose /weıt/ weight.
Watching sport on TV is such a /weıst/ of time.
There is a hole in the /səul/ of my shoe.
He broke a /peın/ of glass in the kitchen window.
The eldest son of the monarch is the /eə/ to the throne.
You are not /ə'laud/ to talk during the test.
Let's /'præktıs/ our swimming together this evening?
He's going /θru:/ a rather difficult /feız/ at the moment.
Don't throw away that orange /pi:l/. I need it for a recipe.
3.3 Write one sentence using both of the words corresponding to the phonetic script.
Example: /peıl/ She was quite pale after the exertion of carrying such a heavy pail of water.
1 /ðeə/ 3 /'præktıs/ 5 /waın/ 7 /saıt/ 9 /hɔ:s/
2 /ıts/ 4 /greıt/ 6 /sɔ:t/ 8 /preı/ 10 /reız/
3.4 Homophones and homographs are at the root of many jokes in English. Match the first part of each of these children's jokes with the second part and then explain the play on words involved in each.
1. What did the big chimney say to the little chimney? a) Because it’s got a tender behind.
2. What did one lift say to the other lift? b) I think I’m going down with something.
3. What did the south wind say to the north wind? c) A nervous wreck.
4. Why did the man take his pencil to bed? d) He wanted to draw the curtains.
5. Why is history the sweetest lesson? e) Because it’s full of dates.
6. Why can't a steam engine sit down? f) Let’s play draughts.
7. What's pale and trembles at the bottom of the sea? g) You are too young to smoke.
3.5 These riddles will be answered by two one-syllable words that sound the same but have different meanings.
Example: If four couples went to a restaurant, how many people dined? (eight/ate)
What would we do if we found bad plants ruining our lawn?
What is a reddish vegetable that is all worn out?
What do you say at night to a soldier in shining armor?
Who is married to Uncle Beetle?
What are groups of sailors on an ocean pleasure trip?
What is a group of musicians that is not allowed to play?
If they are not here, where are they?
What is a great accomplishment using the ends of your legs?
What do you call a bucket that has seen a ghost?
What coins can detect odors?
3.6 Do the Oxford Placement Test. Look at the example below. Listen to the tape. You will hear the example once only. Decide which word you hear, ‘soap’, or ‘soup’.
a) Will you get me some soap/soup at the supermarket?
The word was ‘soup’, so ‘soup’ is ticked. Now look at these examples, and listen to the tape again. This time, you tick the words you hear. For example, if you hear ‘shorts’ tick ‘shorts’.
b) The team need new shirts/shorts.
c) They’ve recently developed a new kind of vine/wine around here.
The words on the tape were ‘shorts’ and ‘vine’, so the correct answers look like this:
b) The team need new shirts/shorts.
4920615125730c) They’ve recently developed a new kind of vine/wine around here.
Now the test will begin. Listen to the tape and tick (V) the words you hear.
1. What do you think of the Bell School teachers/T-shirts? I really like them. 1___
2. He asked if it could be given in a bit late and I said yes, today/yesterday was OK. 2___
3. I think Agassi’s winning it to love/two-love. 3___
4. I’d have lied/liked to help him. 4___
5. At least/last you understand what I mean. 5___
6. I think she lives at No. 68/60A. 6___
7. He was lapped/rapped by his team-mates because he hadn’t trained hard enough. 7___
8. Seals are culled/killed each summer off the Newfoundland coast. 8___
9. They asked if I was sending anybody and I said Mike or myself/I might go myself. 9___
10. I’m afraid we’ve only fifty/fifteen left in stock. 10___
11. She likes/lacks that little extra bit of class. 11___
12. He’s just become a member of the Hockey/Jockey Club. 12___
13. They’re going to Wrexham/Wroxham for their holidays. 13___
14. What do you think those ships/shapes on the horizon are? 14___
15. Did you realize he slept/slipped out last night? 15___
16. It’s an amazing/amusing story, isn’t it? 16___
17. The roads were absolutely impossible/impassable last week. 17___
18. Sooner or later we’ll have to chuck/check them out. 18___
19. Is it ready for typing/taping yet? 19___
20. Most of the new wavebands/new-wave bands sound really good. 20___
21. We need a cork/chalk board in our classroom. 21___
22. Do they have many orchids/orchards in Tunisia? 22___
23. I see Oxford University is advertising the chair in metaphysics/matter physics. 23___
24. Can you help Bridget/Richard to get it finished? 24___
25. It’ll be difficult to keep within these perimeters/parameters, but you must try. 25___
26. I think they now give the weather report from the new/news studio. 26___
27. He’s working on a new model/module at the moment. 27___
28. I must say I quite fancy/fancied going to see his latest film. 28___
29. She’s one of the most evil-/even-tempered people I‘ve ever met. 29___
30. His house is really tidy/tiny. 30___
31. The bathroom’s small, but it’s got a flush/flash loo. 31___
32. Iran has been particularly successful in reducing its dependence on American experts/exports. 32___
33. Is lamb/land cheaper in Australia than it is here? 33___
34. Do you think he feels a bit better/bitter about it now? 34___
35. In the late sixties neo-colonialist attitudes could have posed a real threat to the Kenyan Asian/Kenyan nation. 35___
36. We just can’t get our gardener to cut the hedges/edges neatly. 36___
37. If you add soda/cider, it’ll make it nice and fizzy. 37___
38. She said that as far as she was concerned we’d been/be no trouble at all. 38___
39. The longer we went on, the hotter/harder it became. 39___
40. If you’re looking for John I think he’s in the lab/lav. 40___
41. He’s teaching the computer to play a new game – not chess but something similar/simpler. 41___
42. Did you know your real offside light’s on/gone? 42___
43. I’m leaving! I’m not going to let you run/ruin my life. 43___
44. That was the first of a series of dramatic/traumatic events that took place in his teens. 44___
45. My son got a new pair of flippers/slippers to take on holiday with him. 45___
46. If only one could test learners’ attitudes/aptitudes, it’d be a lot easier to group them. 46___
47. I’m told there are a lot of tigers/Thai girls in the north of the country. 47___
48. I wish that guy/I could be given more help at times. 48___
49. The main advantage of this material is that it’s expendable/expandable. 49___
50. Do you know if this text is copyright/copied right? 50___
51. Have you had/heard the results yet? 51___
52. Is Susie’s horse ready for shoeing/showing? 52___
53. Do you know if he’s gone aboard/abroad yet? 53___
54. To get accurate results you need use a wide range of text-/test-types. 54___
55. She’s a member of the National/Natural Childbirth Trust. 55___
56. She bought him a Bulova/pullover for Christmas. 56___
57. He was best known for his work in musicals/music halls in the fifties. 57___
58. I understand the Prime Minister is back in/backing Britain. 58___
59. Several teams have paid dearly for underestimating the Brazilians/their resilience. 59___
60. I think he said he wouldn’t be back till eight/late. 60___
61. Are we going to be able to send him the remainder/reminder in time? 61___
62. I don’t really think she has any intention of leaving/living with him. 62___
63. Seeing that has made me feel really angry/hungry. 63___
64. Let’s eat/heat that stew up tomorrow. It seems a pity to waste it. 64___
65. Have you tasted/tested it yet? 65___
66. I honestly thought you were joking/choking. 66___
67. I don’t know if he hurt/heard her or not. 67___
68. Mansell left the pits fast/first, but Senna was soon after him. 68___
69. Do you have any idea what the prize/price is? 69___
70. I can’t put anything in this bucket/pocket because there’s a hole in it. 70___
71. You know I/I’d like to see you whenever possible. 71___
72. The only way to get there in winter is by the old route up the mountain pass/path. 72___
73. Are you going to help us get the vote/boat out? 73___
74. Have you seen those bills/pills I was looking for? 74___
75. I believe Peter’s chairman/German, isn’t it? 75___
76. He won several Grand Prix races in the Surtees/thirties before he retired. 76___
77. Was the Mini/money recognizable afterwards? 77___
78. He works for the highlands/islands tourist board. 78___
79. James was one of the Stuarts/stewards, wasn’t he? 79___
80. The finance committee were told that the extra house/hours would cost £40,000. 80___
81. They’d be surprised if they realized what people like Caroline/Carol and I have to do. 81___
82. AJ/HA Foyt is the only driver to have won the ‘Indi 500’ three years in a row. 82___
83. The conference is scheduled for Friday the 13th/30th of May. 83___
84. I’m afraid I’ve no idea if they/they’ve finished. 84___
85. I could do with an ice-cold/a nice, cold drink. 85___
86. He’s recently become an MB/MP. 86___
87. Farmers in the north and in Scotland lost a lot of lambs/rams last winter. 87___
88. This pen/pan is no use – it keeps leaking. 88___
89. It was several hours before they phoned/found us. 89___
90. Cambridge is about 60 miles from Norwich and 60 also/or so from London. 90___
91. The police said they would fine/find the offender immediately. 91___
92. If you like the style, there’s a wide choice of colours/collars available. 92___
93. The race/rice was ruined by the rain. 93___
94. He ran/rang off before we could ask his name. 94___
95. That was quite a flight/fright we had, wasn’t it? 95___
96. Import restrictions on Catalan/cattle and sheep are now likely to be lifted. 96___
97. I’ve strained/sprained my wrist, so I won’t be able to play tomorrow. 97___
98. What he said was true in either/neither case. 98___
99. Norwich/Knowledge grew faster that ever before after the Renaissance. 99___
100. This election/selection doesn’t give one much of a choice, doesn’t it? 100___
Unit 4. The United Nations: The Promise of Peace
4168140-311785
4.1 Lecture. The United Nations: The Promise of Peace
A. Pre-listening Activities
Preview of Content
Many people already know what the United Nations Organization is and where it is located, but how many know when and why it was first planned?
In this lecture, the answers to these questions are explored, and some recent statistics about its operating budget are given.
Preview of Vocabulary
Before you listen to the lecture on the United Nations, it will be helpful to preview some of the vocabulary and sentences that are used in the lecture. You will first be given several vocabulary items in isolation. Below each group of items are sentence definitions for each. You are to fill in the blanks with the appropriate vocabulary items from the list. Use your dictionary if necessary to select the correct item for each sentence definition. After you have worked through the Preview of Vocabulary, you will be given the Preview of Sentences. The highlighted vocabulary words are presented in the same context in which they are used in the lecture.
pledge headquarters charter
The main office of an organization is its _______________________ .To promise sincerely is to ___________________.
The constitution of the United Nations Organization is known as its _____________.
lend philanthropist nuclear weapons budget
To give money on the condition that it be repaid at a later date is to _____________ money.
A __________________ is a very rich person who gives money for good causes, such as education and medical research.
A __________________ is a list of income and expenses for a certain period of time.
Instruments of war that use atomic energy are known as __________________ .Preview of Sentences
Here are some of the sentences you will encounter in the lecture.
The United Nations headquarters is in the United States, in New York City.
In 1944 twenty-six countries pledged to continue to fight against Germany and Italy in World War II.
The charter of the U.N. was formally signed by fifty countries in October of 1945 in San Francisco, California.
In 1950 John D. Rockefeller, Jr., the well-known oil millionaire and philanthropist, gave the United Nations Organization a section of land in New York City.
The United States government lent the U.N. $65 million to construct a building to house the international organization.
The United Nations budget now totals more than $450 million per year.
It is so vital, so really necessary, that countries settle disputes or disagreements in this day of world-wide nuclear weapons.
B. Listening Activities
Note-taking Model
Now you are going to listen to a lecture about the United Nations. While you listen, look at the Note-Taking Model. It is a model of the way you might want to organize your notes on the lecture if you were taking notes on it. Remember, this is just one way in which the notes can be organized and written down. You must develop your own method of taking notes on lectures in English. You must be sure, however, that you write down all the important words, numbers, dates, names, and so forth.
Notice that the model contains only the most important words, numbers, dates, and names in the lecture. The model also contains many abbreviations and several symbols.
After you have listened to the lecture once while looking at this model, you will have a chance to take notes on the information. Now, just listen and look at the model.
The United Nations: The Promise of Peace
U.N. – 141 cos. purp. – orig. purpose – peace + coop. hdqtr. – NYC branch – Paris, Rome, Geneva’44 – 1st planned ” – 26 cos. fight Germ. + Italy– WW II
chart. – 10/45 – 50 ”– S.F. Calif.’50 – Rockefeller – oil phil. land (NYC)
– U.S. govt. – $65 m. – building
today – 73 hect. (18 acres) – NYC budget – +$450 m./yr. U.S. 25% USSR 12.9% Japan 7.15% Fr. 5.86% no-str. U.N. co. joins U.N. – prom. – settle disp. peacefully ” – n. easy – keep ” – nec. – nuc. weap. Note: The + symbol, of course, meant and – “international peace and international cooperation.” The use of an apostrophe (’) before two numbers indicates a date, a twentieth-century date. ’44 is, therefore, 1944. The ditto sign (”) was used to indicate that the number above it was being repeated. Several other symbols were used. Circle three other symbols that were used in the model. What do the symbols mean? Did you also note the use of the dash (–) in the model? It can help you show a relationship between words or groups of words. It indicates that certain words have been omitted, words such as prepositions, and so forth
Note-taking Exercise
You are now going to hear the lecture again, and you will practice taking notes on what you hear. Be ready to restore the information of the lecture. Remember, write down only the important words. Use symbols and abbreviate as many words as you can. Before you begin, look at the Word Guide. These are examples of words that the lecturer might write on the blackboard before or during the lecture.
Word Guide
the United Nations / New York City / Paris / Rome / Geneva / Germany / Italy / San Francisco, California / John D. Rockefeller, Jr. / the Soviet Union / Japan / France
C. Follow-up Activity
In the Internet find the following information about the United Nations, present it in class and ask your groupmates to take notes while you are speaking, then ask them questions on the information they have listened to.
The United Nations background and main bodies
The United Nations General Assembly
The United Nations Secretariat
UNESCO
UNICEF
4.2 a) Read the text about the United Nations in 5-7 minutes.
In one very long sentence, the introduction to the U.N. Charter expresses the ideals and the common aims of all the peoples whose governments joined together to form the U.N.
'We the peoples of the U.N. determined to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold suffering to mankind, and to reaffirm faith in fundamental rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small, and to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained, and to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom, and for these ends, to practise tolerance and live together in peace with one another as good neighbours, and to unite our strength to maintain international peace and security, and to ensure, by the acceptance of principles and the institution of methods, that armed force shall not be used, save in the common interest, and to employ international machinery for the promotion of economic and social advancement of all peoples, have resolved to combine our efforts to accomplish these aims.'
The name 'United Nations' is accredited to U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and the first group of representatives of member states met and signed a declaration of common intent on New Year's Day in 1942. Representatives of five powers worked together to draw up proposals, completed at Dumbarton Oaks in 1944. These proposals, modified after deliberation at the conference on International Organization in San Francisco which began in April 1945, were finally agreed on and signed as the U.N. Charter by 50 countries on 26 June 1945. Poland, not represented at the conference, signed the Charter later and was added to the list of original members. It was not until that autumn, however, after the Charter had been ratified by China, France, the U.S.S.R., the U.K. and the U.S. and by a majority of the other participants that the U.N. offficially came into existence. The date was 24 October, now universally celebrated as United Nations Day.
The essential functions of the U.N. are to maintain international peace and security, to develop friendly relations among nations, to cooperate internationally in solving international economic, social, cultural and human problems, promoting respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms and to be a centre for co-ordinating the actions of nations in attaining these common ends.
No country takes precedence over another in the U.N. Each member's rights and obligations are the same. All must contribute to the peaceful settlement of international disputes, and members have pledged to refrain from the threat or use of force against other states. Though the U.N. has no right to intervene in any state's internal affairs, it tries to ensure that non-member states act according to its principles of international peace and security. UN members must offer every assistance in an approved U.N. action and in no way assist states against which the U.N. is taking preventive or enforcement action.
b) Select the answer which is most accurate according to the information given in the passage.
The first stated aim of the U.N. was
to supervise peace treaties.
to revise international laws.
to prevent a third world war.
to assist the ' third world' countries.
Under its Charter, the U.N. guarantees
never to use arms.
to employ international machines.
better standards of life.
to promote economic and social advancement.
President Roosevelt
probably devised the name 'The United Nations'.
was given the name 'The United Nations'.
established 'The United Nations'.
was a credit to 'The United Nations'.
Dumbarton Oaks was the place where
the U.N. first met.
representatives of five powers formulated basic suggestions.
the final proposals were agreed on and the Charter signed.
50 countries signed the U.N. Charter.
The U.N. came into existence fully in
1942.
1944.
1945.
1940.
United Nations Day it celebrated on
24 October.
24 April.
26 October.
26 June.
The essential functions of the U.N.
are limited to discussions and debates.
include co-ordinating actions where necessary.
are only concerned with human rights.
are economic and cultural.
Large member countries like China and the U.S.have precedence over small countries like Poland.
have more freedom in the U.N. than Poland.
provide 75% of U.N. running costs.
have the same rights and duties as other members.
A country's domestic policies
cannot be forcibly changed by the U.N.
are often investigated by the U.N.
are often enforced by the U.N.
are not allowed to benefit from U.N. advice or assistance.
A member country cannot ally itself with
other U.N. member countries.
other countries not members of the U.N.
countries defying the U.N.
states against which the U.N. has ever taken preventive or enforcement action.
c) Select the meaning that is most likely to correspond the meaning of the words given in italic:
1. succeedinga) followingb) successfulc) pastd) struggling2. obligations
a) dutiesb) thanksc) resultsd) politeness3. save
a) rescueb) exceptc) preserved) even4. common
a) usualb) lowc) ordinary
d) shared5. intent
a) concentrationb) hopec) purposed) anxiety6. powers
a) countriesb) strengths
c) armiesd) delegates7. deliberation
a) debateb) freedomc) purposefulnessd) private agreements
8. ratified
a) challengedb) made official
c) distributedd) attacked9. ends
a) meansb) stopsc) conclusionsd) objectives10. pledged
a) agreedb) obligedc) supposedd) refused4.3 There are many organizations and agencies that function to work on particular issues. Translate their names into Russian.
International Atomic Energy Agency
International Civil Aviation Organization
International Fund for Agricultural Development
International Labour Organization
International Maritime Organization
International Telecommunication UnionFood and Agriculture Organization
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
United Nations Industrial Development Organization
Universal Postal UnionWorld Bank
World Health Organization
World Intellectual Property Organization
World Meteorological Organization
4.4 After listening to short presentations of your groupmates be ready to answer the following questions:
When was the U.N. founded?
What organization did it replace and why?
What was the original and what is the present purpose of the organization?
How many state-members are there at present?
What are its administrative bodies?
Where is the headquarters located?
Who is the current Secretary General?
What are the U.N. official languages? What working languages does the Secretariat use?
How is the U.N. financed?
What is the main deliberative organ of the U.N.?
What voting is required on important issues of the General Assembly?
How are all other questions decided?
What are the functions of the U.N. Secretariat?
What does UNESCO stand for?
Where is it located?
What projects does it sponsor?
What does UNICEF stand for?
How did the idea of UNICEF originate?
Name some unions and agencies working within the U.N.?
4.5 For more practice use the video “The Girl Who Silenced the U.N.”. To check your understanding answer the following questions:
What is E.C.O.?
Where did the children come from?
What problems did Severn Suzuki mention in her speech?
What did a poor Brazilian boy tell her one day?
What does her father always say?
Unit 5. The Grand Canyon: One of Nature's Finest Monuments
5.1 Lecture. The Grand Canyon: One of Nature's Finest Monuments
A. Pre-listening Activities
Preview of Content
327660017780The following lecture is about the Grand Canyon National Park, located in the southwestern part of the United States, in northern Arizona.
The lecturer begins by describing the Canyon's location, dimensions, and climate variations. She then touches upon the geology of the area and the plant and animal life found in the Grand Canyon Park. After this, she mentions the discovery of the Canyon by Spanish soldiers, and then she talks about the various tribes of Native Americans who presently inhabit the area around the Canyon. The lecture ends with her citing the reason the president of the United States decided to establish the area as a national park. He wished to protect the plants and animals of the area, and to provide people with a view of one of Nature's finest monuments to be found in the United States.
Preview of Vocabulary
These are some of the vocabulary items contained in the lecture. Fill in each blank with one of the words listed. Use your dictionary to look up any items you are not familiar with.
fossils Hopi Navajo Havasupai
The remains of a plant or animal preserved in the earth from ages past are called ____________________.
The names of three Indian tribes or groups that live in the Grand Canyon area are _________________, __________________, and_________________.
rim spectacular expedition gorge
A journey or trip to explore an area or region is referred to as an ______________.
The outer edge or border of the Grand Canyon is known as its _______________.
The Grand Canyon is sensational: it is really _____________________.
A very large, narrow, and deep valley with high walls is a _________________ .mammals abundant reservations geologic
__________________ change is change that results from the history of the earth as seen in the rocks and stones of an area.
Public lands that have been set aside for the Indians to live on and to use are designated as ___________________.
Animals that feed their babies with milk are classified as ______________.
There is plentiful plant life in the Canyon; there is also _________ animal life in the area.
Preview of Sentences
These are some of the sentences you will hear in the lecture. After having worked through the previous exercise, you should be familiar with the meanings of the italicized items.
The Grand Canyon is a spectacular sight to see.
The Grand Canyon is really a huge gorge which was cut by the Colorado River.
The north rim of the Grand Canyon is 1,000 feet higher than the south rim.
The Grand Canyon walls hold a long record of geologic change.
You can see many plant and animal fossils in the Grand Canyon rock walls.
Plant and animal life in the Canyon is quite abundant and varied.
There are about sixty-seven species or varieties of mammals in the Grand Canyon area.
The first Europeans to see the Grand Canyon were Spaniards. They were members of Coronado's expedition of 1540.
The Navajo, the Hopi, and the Havasupai live on reservations in the Grand Canyon area.
Symbols Used in the Note-Taking Model
Before you start the tape, study the four symbols used in the Note-Taking Model.
5,000’ five thousand feet – 10 less than 10
26’’ twenty-six inches in order to
B. Listening Activities
Note-taking Model
Now you will hear the lecture. As you listen to it, look at the note-taking model. It is brief. It is in outline form. It contains only the main ideas of the lecture and only the essential details. After you have listened to the lecture once while looking at the model, you will listen to it again. Then, you will take your own notes on the lecture. For now, just listen and look at the model.
The Grand Canyon: One of Nature's Finest Monuments
G.C. – Colo. R. – 1,000s visit no. AZ dimen. 217 mi. l. +1 ” d. 4 – 18 mi. w. 5,000 – 10,000’ h. no. rim – 1,000’ higher – so. rim ” ” colder than ” ” rain ” ” = 26” rain – ” ” 16” rain Can. Fl. = -10” ” Can. walls – Colo. R. = geo. Change – pl. & anim. fossils – 1,000 plants p. & anim. + 200 birds 67 mammals 1st Europ. – see G.C. – Sp. – Coronado– 1540 – by Hopi Ind.Today Navajo – 15,000,000 acre res. – east – Hopi – 631,000 ” ” – center – 200 Havasupai – 518 ” ” – near ’19 – Pres. Wilson estab. G.C. Nat. Park prot. land & wildlife Today – Amer. & for. visit G.C. Note-taking Exercise
Now take out a piece of paper for notes or use the blank space on this page and listen to the lecture again. As you listen, take your own notes on the lecture. You should try to take notes similar to those found in the model. Be brief. Use outline form. Use symbols and abbreviations. Write down only the main points of the lecture and only the essential details.
To help you with the note-taking, some of the important information will be repeated for you, but before you begin, look at the Word Guide. These are examples of words that the lecturer might write on the blackboard before or during the lecture.
Word Guide:
The Grand Canyon / Colorado River / geologic change / Spaniards / Coronado / Hopi / Navajo / Havasupai / President Woodrow Wilson5053965120015C. Post-listening Activity
Multiple-choice Questions
Now you are going to hear ten questions about the information you heard in the lecture. Each question will be spoken two times, but it will not be written out for you. You must listen very carefully to each question. After you hear a question, read the four possible answers which are printed in your book. You should then check your notes and decide which of the four choices best answers the question you have heard. Mark your answer by putting an X next to the letter (a), (b), (c), or (d) – whichever is the correct choice.
Listen to the following example:
You will hear: "In what part of Arizona is the Grand Canyon located?"
You will read in your book: in ____________________ Arizona.
X (a) northern (b) southern (c) eastern (d) western
You should have looked at the notes you took on the lecture and found an abbreviation or other indication that the Grand Canyon is located in northern Arizona; therefore, choice (a) is the correct answer.
1. (a) 207 6. (a) 67
(b) 217 (b) 133
(с) 270 (c) 200
(d) none of the above (d) 1,000
2. (a) 4 7. (a) 1415
(b) 18 (b) 1450
(c) neither of the above (c) 1514
(d) both of the above (d) 1540
3. (a) 10 8. (a) Hopi
(b) 16 (b) Navajo
(c) 20 (c) Pap ago
(d) 26 (d) Havasupai
4. (a) animals 9. (a) fifteen million
(b) fossils (b) five hundred eighteen
(c) mammals (c) six hundred thirteen thousand
(d) plants (d) none of the above
5. (a) 67 10. (a) two hundred
(b) 200 (b) five hundred eighteen
(c) 2,000 (c) six hundred thousand
(d) none of the above (d) fifteen million
Compare your answers with your groupmates.
True-False Statements
In this exercise, you will read twelve statements about the Grand Canyon. First read the statement carefully. After checking your notes, decide whether the statement is true or false. If it is true, place a T in the blank space next to the number of the statement. If it is false, place an F in the blank. Remember to use your notes to help you answer the questions.
____ The Grand Canyon's narrow valley is 207 miles long.
____ The Canyon is from four to eighteen miles deep.
____ The Canyon's south rim is 1,000 feet lower than its north rim.
____ The average amount of rainfall for the south rim of the Canyon is about twenty-six inches.
____ On the floor of the Canyon no more than ten inches of rain fall in a year.
____ There is a long record of geographic change in the walls of the Grand Canyon.
____ At least sixty-seven kinds of animals that feed their babies with milk live in the Grand Canyon Park.
____ The first Europeans to see the Grand Canyon were guided to it by the Navajo Indians.
____ White men first saw the Grand Canyon in the fifteenth century.
____ Today the Hopi Indians live on a 631,000-acre reservation.
____ The Hopi have more land than the Havasupai Indians do.
____ President Woodrow Wilson established the Grand Canyon.
Compare your answers with your groupmates.
D. Follow-up Activity
Topics for Discussion
l. The Grand Canyon may be Nature's Finest Monument in the United States, but what is Nature's Finest Monument in your country? Describe the natural wonder. Where is it located? What are its dimensions?
2. Do you feel that the establishment of National Parks would help to protect and preserve the wild animals and the virgin land in your country?
3. What is your country presently doing to protect and preserve its natural wonders from exploitation and overdevelopment?
4. Has the industrial development of your country ruined some of its beautiful natural wonders and land? Explain what has happened, giving specific examples of areas in your country that have suffered from industrial pollution, overcrowding, overbuilding, and so forth.
5.2 For more practice use the video about Statue of Liberty. Check your understanding answering the following questions:
Whom was it originally designed?
What is its second common name?
What does ‘she’ carry in her right and left hands?
How many feet is it in height?
When and where was it ultimately opened?
Why was it closed to tourists in 2001?
Unit 6. Life Science
6.1 Listening A. Read the questions and answer the ones that you can. Then listen to the conversation again and answer the rest of the questions. Compare answers with a partner. Listen again if necessary.
What do some pets do before an earthquake?
What is infrasound and who can pick it up?
How long ago were animal premonitions of earthquakes documented?
How do elephants know that there are other elephants miles away?
What are two ways we make use of dogs’ sense of smell?
Where do seismologists in China get information about unusual animal behavior?
Thinking and Speaking
Discuss these questions in pairs or small groups.
What unusual animal behavior have you seen or heard about?
What are some ways that animals’ senses are being used to serve people?
Do you think it is ethical to use animals to serve humans? Why or why not?
6.2 Listening B. Read the questions and answer the ones you can. Then listen to the program again and answer the remaining questions. Compare answers with a partner. Listen again if necessary.
40201857620What do bower birds do that the speaker finds so special?
What do birds do to other birds’ bower?
Note some words that the speaker use to describe the birds.
What are some examples of behavior birds use to attract a mate?
What two types of bowers are described?
Who actually raises the young or chicks?
How are maypole bowers constructed?
List some objects bower birds might use to decorate their structures.
How do experts think the birds learn to build these structures? And how long does it take to develop this skill?
Why does the speaker describe bower birds as thieves?
Thinking and Speaking
Discuss the questions in small groups.
What about the birds’ behavior is surprising. Why?
How do some other animals attract mates?
6.3 For more practice use the video “How Marine Mammals Survive”. Check your understanding answering the following questions:
How deep can they dive? How long can they stay at this depth?
Do they make a huge breath before dive?
Why can they survive so long without air? ( Name 3 reasons)
How can they slow down a heart beat?
How can they make use of cold?
457200021590Unit 7. Languages in Conflict: Irish and English
7.1 Lecture. Languages in Conflict: Irish and English
A. Pre-listening Activities
Preview of Content
In the small country of Ireland, two languages are used by the people: Irish, which is the native language, and English, which is the language that was brought to Ireland by the invading armies of England in the twelfth century. While English is the dominant language of the country today, some Irishmen have struggled to keep alive their national language. In this lecture, you will learn something about the historic struggle and conflict between Ireland's two languages: Irish and English.
The lecturer opens up his presentation by giving some information about the location, size, and population of the tiny country. He also alludes to the political and national division that exists between Northern Ireland, which is part of the British Commonwealth, and the Republic of Ireland, which is not.
The rest of the lecture is organized chronologically. First, mention is made of Ireland's cultural importance in the early Middle Ages. After this, the lecturer jumps ahead to the Norman-English invasion of the country in the twelfth century. In the sixteenth century, the country was subjugated and brought under English domination. Hard times followed up through the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Failure of the potato crop due to poor weather conditions brought death from hunger to the population and forced a million Irishmen to leave their homeland for the U.S., Canada, and other countries. The lecturer notes that in the nineteenth century, use of the native language declined drastically, with only a small proportion of the Irish people speaking the national language. An effort was made, however, in the early twentieth century to reestablish use of the national language in the country. The speaker will give specific examples of these attempts and will finish up his presentation with the remark that, perhaps because of these measures, Ireland's national language will continue to exist in that small country.
Preview of Vocabulary
Fill in each blank with the appropriate item.
exploitation barbarians The Norman-English
Invaders of the ancient Roman Empire, whose way of life is considered primitive, are known as __________________.
__________________ is the unfair use of someone or some country for personal or national profit.
__________________ were the French people who conquered the island of Ireland in the twelfth century.
persecution coffin Great Potato Famine clergy
The religious officials who conduct Christian services are referred to as the ______________.
A __________________ is a box or case in which a dead body is placed.
__________________ is the term that describes the refusal to permit people to act and believe as they want to.
The period of great hunger and death in Ireland resulting from the failure of the potato crop, which was the major source of food for the Irish, is termed the __________________.
starvation decree extinction lack
__________________ entails causing something to be destroyed or done away with.
To be without or to need is to __________________ that which is needed.
To issue an order which must be obeyed is to ___________________ something.
Death from hunger is ______________.
Preview of Sentences
These are some of the sentences you will hear in the lecture:
When the barbarians conquered the continent of Europe, it was Ireland that kept alive culture and learning.
In the twelfth century – that is to say in the 1100s – the Norman-English conquest of Ireland began.
Throughout the eighteenth century – that is, throughout the 1700s – the Irish suffered from economic exploitation, political and religious persecution.
In the four years after the potato crop failure, more than one million people died of starvation.
The ships were called "floating coffins" because of the large number of people who died on board during the journey.
The Great Potato Famine occurred in 1847.
English was the language of the politicians, the clergy, and the landlords.
The government decreed that knowledge of the Irish language was required for all elementary school teachers.
By 1949 only 8.2 percent of the teachers lacked a certificate to teach Irish to the school children.
The nеаr-extinction of a language spoken for more than two thousand years has, perhaps, been slowed down, or even stopped altogether.
B. Listening Activities
Note-Taking Model
457200055245Let's get ready to hear a lecture about the Republic of Ireland and the preservation of its national language. While you listen to the lecture, you should be looking at the Note-Taking Model, which is brief, which is in outline form, and which contains only the necessary facts and information contained in the lecture. Notice that the lecture information has been greatly condensed or reduced to its most important, information-carrying words. Of course, after you have listened to the lecture once while looking at the Note-Taking Model, you will be expected to take your own notes on the lecture. For now, just listen and look at the model.
Languages in Conflict: Irish and English
Rep. of Ire. – nw. Eur. – land area = 26,600 sq. mi. – pop. = 3 m. No. Ire. – Br. Commonwealth – sep. – Rep. of Ire. Mid. Ages – 5th and 6th c. = prin. cult, center Eur. – kept alive – West. cult. & learn. – when barbs, conqd. 12th с – (late 1100s) – Norm. Eng. conquest began
’’ controlled Ire. 16th c. 16th с – lands taken – given to Eng. + Scot, settlers – rebellions put down 18th с – (1700s) – econ. exploit. + pol. & rel. persec. – people – poverty late 1840s – potato crop failed bad weather – (pot. prin. food)
1830s – pop. = 9 m. 4 yrs. later = +1 m. died – starv. = +1½ m. left – Canada, U.S., others – floating coffins
early 19th c. – Irish spoken everywhere – Ire. after GPF – 1847 – dec./Eng. replaced Irish – 1870 – only 20% spoke nat. lang. lat. ½ 19th с – (1850-1900) – Eng. lang. of schools, pol. clergy, & landlords
– Eng.– lang. of rulers – Irish – lang. of ruled
1922 – self-gov't. '49 – free repub. movement Irish nat. lang. – know Irish – elem. teachers by '49 – only 8.2% – no certific. – teach Irish – children
today – Irish – req. subj. coll. matric. since 1913 (except
Trinity – Dublin)
– gov't. papers – 2 lang– newspapers – Irish – pol. must speak Irish – ext. lang. spoken + 2,000 yrs. – slowed, stopped
Note-Taking Exercise
This time listen to the lecture and take your own concise notes on the information you hear about Ireland and its language. Remember that your notes should contain only the important facts found in the lecture. Some of these facts and figures will be repeated for you to make sure you have enough time to get them down. Are you ready to begin?
Word Guide
the Republic of Ireland / Europe / Northern Ireland / England / the Middle Ages / Norman-English / Scottish / Irish / the Great Potato Famine / Trinity College / Dublin199199563500C. Post-listening Activity
Multiple-choice Questions
You are going to hear twelve questions about the lecture. Each question will be spoken two times, but it will not be written out for you. After hearing a question, you should read the four possible choices that are printed in your book. You should then check your notes and decide which of the four possible choices is the best answer to the question you have heard. You will then mark your answer by putting an X next to the letter (a), (b), (c), or (d) – whichever is the correct choice.
1. a little less than: 7. during the
(a) 1,000,000 (a) first half of the 18th century
(b) 1,500,000 (b) latter half of the 18th century
(c) 3,000,000 (c) first half of the 19th century
(d) 9,000,000 (d) latter half of the 19th century
2. in the 8. in(a) 5th century (a) 1922
(b) 6th century (b) 1927
(c) both (a) and (b) (c) 1942
(d) neither (a) nor (b) (d) 1949
3. in the 9. ______ it achieved self government.
(a) 13th century (a) the same year
(b) 14th century (b) seven years after
(c) 15th century (c) seventeen years after
(d) 16th century (d) twenty-seven years after
4. 10.
(a) economic exploitation (a) the clergy
(b) political persecution (b) the teachers
(c) religious persecution (c) the landlords
(d) all of the above (d) the politicians
5. 11. since
(a) 1,000,000 people starved to death (a) 1903
(b) 1,500,000 people left England for Ireland(b) 1913
(c) 9,000,000 people left Ireland on floating coffins (c) 1930
(d) none of the above (d) 1933
6. in 12.
(a) 1807 (a) 2 centuries
(b) 1840 (b) 10 centuries
(c) 1847 (c) 12 centuries
(d) 1870 (d) 20 centuries
True-False Statements
In this exercise, you are given eleven statements about the lecture on Ireland and its first and second languages. Read each statement carefully, check your notes, and then come to a decision as to whether the statement is true or false according to the information presented by the lecturer. If the statement is true, place a T in the blank space next to the number of the statement. If it is false or inaccurate, place an F in the blank. Remember to refer to your notes before coming to your decision.
____ Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland occupy the same island, but they are two separate nations today.
____ Learning and culture flourished in Ireland between 400 and 500 A.D.
____ When England gained control of Ireland, the Irish fought at first, but then accepted English rule peacefully.
____ Throughout the eighteenth century, the Irish suffered from economic exploitation, but they did have religious and political freedom.
____ The failure of the potato crop brought starvation to the people who left Ireland in the eighteenth century.
____ The English language began to replace the Irish language because Englishmen, not Irishmen, held power in government, in the church, and on the economic front.
____ The people of the southern part of the island of Ireland elected to separate politically from England.
____ Before the mid-1940s, knowledge of the national language was not a requirement for teacher certification in Ireland.
____ Today the Irish government still prints all of its documents in English only.
____ The Irish people must understand the English language in order to read newspaper articles in their country today.
____ The Irish language has been spoken in Ireland for just a thousand years.
D. Follow-up Activity
Topics for Discussion
Are there any foreign languages used in your country? What are they? Are they, for example, used for trade, education, international relations, and so on?
State several reasons why you are studying English as a second language.
Give several examples of foreign words that are commonly used in your native language. State the languages the words have been borrowed from. Group the foreign words into categories, such as business, food, clothing, science, and so on.
7.2 For more practice use the videos “Kigeki Comedy” and “The History of English in Ten Minutes”. Check you understanding, answering the following questions:
a) “Kigeki Comedy”
What country did the story take place?
What did books symbolize after script was invented? What did they do with them?
How old was the girl when all of this happened?
How far from the village did the Black Forest lie?
What was the name of the ruins?
Who lived there? What did he look like? What were his uncommon features?
What did she plead him for?
b) “The History of English in Ten Minutes”
Vocabulary:
Doomsday book – книга страшного суда (English legal history)
toff – франт, барин, джентльмен
indecipherable – не поддающийся расшифровке
What days of the week were named in honor of Anglo-Saxon gods?
How did the Romans contribute to the development of Britain?
What useful vocabulary did the Anglo-Saxons bring to the English language?
How many words did the Vikings give English?
Who invaded Britain in 1066 and brought such new concepts as the French language and Doomsday book?
Which words came from the French speaking toffs thus bringing a long running trend for restaurants having completely indecipherable menu?
How many words were invented by Shakespeare?
Can you give at least one Shakespeare’s catch phrase?
Who taught that “A leopard can’t change its spots” and “A hand in the hand is worth two in the bush”?
When were new science words created? What does the Latin word “pomum” mean in English?
Give examples of words and phrases which the British acquired during their “world tour”?
How long did it take Dr Samuel Johnson to write his dictionary? How many entries did it contain?
Who arrived in America selling “pretzels”?
What is the American word for what the English call “nappies”?
When was the first e-mail sent? When did the Internet arrive and how did it influence the language?
How many people speak English today? How many of them are its native speakers?
Unit 8. The Panama Canal: A Great Engineering Achievement
8.1 Show the Panama and the Suez Canals on the map and say what they connect. Explain the difference between the words “canal” and “channel”.
8.2 Lecture The Panama Canal: A Great Engineering Achievement
A. Pre-listening Activities
Preview of Content
410146587630
The Panama Canal is located in the Central American country of Panama. It connects the Atlantic with the Pacific Ocean. Although it was constructed in the early 1900s, it is still a busy waterway through which thousands of ships pass each year. When it was first built, it was considered a wonder of technology.
The lecturer starts off with a description of the location and size of the Canal. She then gives an example of the way in which the Canal stimulated East-West trade by shortening the travel time between the East and West Coasts of the United States. There are a lot of facts in this section of the lecture that need to be gotten down. Next she turns to giving a brief history of the early, and unsuccessful Spanish attempt to construct a Canal in the Panama region in the sixteenth century. She then brings the talk around to the French and then the American attempts to build the Canal. Here again she cites quite a few dates, names, and figures to back up what she says. She also discusses the difficulties faced by the engineers and workers in the actual construction of the Canal. At this point, she changes topic and starts to describe the actual working of the Canal. She describes the dimensions of the Canal's locks and makes note of the inadequacy of the Canal in terms of the locks small size. The lecture ends with brief mention of the dispute that arose between Panama and the United States concerning control of the Canal and the Canal Zone.
Preview of Vocabulary
Fill in each blank with one of the words listed below. Use your dictionary to check the meaning of an item you are not familiar with.
survey toll fame
Money that is paid for the privilege of using a highway, bridge, or a canal is a ________.
The Panama Canal is not famous because it is so large; the ____________ of the Panama Canal is not in its size, but in its engineering excellence.
The king ordered his engineers to make a careful examination of the Panama area to learn whether or not a canal could be built there. He ordered a _________ of the area.
concession to abandon the undertaking lock
An enclosed area in a canal which has gates at each end and which is used to raise and lower ships from one level to another is a _____________.
To stop working on a project is ____________.
When a government or controlling authority grants a privilege or right to a company, it grants a _____________.
dispute Inca Empire strategic
The South American civilization established in Peru in the 1400s before the Spanish Conquest began is known as the ___________.
A __________________ involves a disagreement, quarrel, or fight.
That which is especially important to the national defense or economy of a country is ______________ for that country.
Preview of Sentences
These are some of the sentences that you will hear in the lecture.
Let me say that the fame of the Panama Canal is not in its size.
The early Spaniards needed a more efficient way to ship the treasures of the Inca Empire and their other South American colonies back to Spain.
King Charles I of Spain ordered a survey of the Panama area to determine whether or not it was possible to construct a canal in the area.
Disease and what some have called mismanagement forced the French company to abandon the undertaking.
In June of 1902, the United States bought the French company's concession.
I might add that this certainly was a very profitable investment for the United States because recent figures show that the Panama Canal Company collected $ 134 million in tolls on the Canal in one year alone.
As for the actual working of the Panama Canal, it has three sets of water-filled chambers or what are more commonly called locks.
Before I finish up, I'll say a word or two about the dispute that arose in the 1960s concerning the control of both the Canal and the Canal Zone.
The treaty provided for Panama to gain full control of the strategic waterway by the year 2000.
B. Listening Activities
Note-Taking Exercise
Now listen to the lecture, take your notes on the information you hear. Check the Word Guide before the lecture begins.
Word Guide
the Atlantic Ocean / the Pacific Ocean / North and South America / King Charles I of Spain / the Inca Empire / the Suez Canal / Ferdinand de Lesseps / Dr. William Gorgas / Colonel George Goethals
213360021590C. Post-listening Activity
Multiple-choice Questions
Now you will be able to check whether you: (1) understood the lecture; (2) understand questions about the lecture content; and (3) took sufficient notes to find the answers to the questions you will hear. All right, let's begin this exercise. You will hear twelve questions about the information you heard in the lecture. You are to select from the choices–(a), (b), (c), or (d)–the phrase or statement that correctly answers the question you hear. You should, naturally, refer to your notes when making the choices, so keep your notes handy. Are you ready?
1. (a) 50.72 miles7. (a) $1,000,000
(b) 70.52 miles(b) $10,000,000
(с) 63.81 kilometers(c) $11,000,000
(d) 83.61 kilometers(d) $100,000,000
2. (a) 2,930 8. (a) $18,000,000
(b) 13,000 (b) $30,000,000
(c) 20,000 (c) $308,000,000
(d) 20,930 (d) $380,000,000
3. it shortened the trip by 9. (a) 3,000 (a) $10,000,000
(b) 7,800 (b) $134,000,000
(c) 8,700 (c) $246,000,000
(d) 13,000 (d) $380,000,000
4. to transport the treasures of the 10. (a) Inca Empire to Spain(a) 300 feet(b) Spanish Empire to England(b) 300 meters(c) Panamanian Empire to Spain(c) 1,000 meters(d) Inca Empire to its other South American colonies (d) none of the above
5. 11. (a) 340 (a) 110 feet(b) 344 (b) 340 meters(c) 348 (c) 110 meters(d) 352 (d) none of the above
6. because of 12. (a) money problems (a) 21 meters(b) the lack of workers (b) 33 meters(c) engineering difficulties (c) 300 meters(d) disease and mismanagement (d) none of the above
True-False Statements
Read the following statements. Determine, with the help of your notes, whether the statements are true or false. Some of the statements require that you make inferences about the information you were given during the lecture.
____ The Panama Canal cuts through the Central American country of Panama.
____ The Suez Canal is not as long as the Panama Canal.
____ Because of the Panama Canal, ships traveling from Europe to Japan did not have to travel around the tip of South America.
____ There had been a good deal of interest in building a canal in the Panama region three centuries before one was ever constructed there.
____ Reports to King Charles I of Spain indicated optimism about the possibility of constructing a canal in the Panama area.
____ The early Spaniards attempted to build a sea-level canal to connect the Atlantic with the Pacific Ocean.
____ Advances in engineering made it possible to attempt the construction of a canal in the Panama area in the early twentieth century.
____ The engineer who built the Suez Canal directed the construction of the unsuccessful attempt by a French company to build a canal in the Panama region.
____ Hospital records indicate that construction of the Canal went smoothly.
____ The United States did not realize a profit from building the Canal.
____ Each Canal lock is longer than it is wide.
____ Each lock is about seventy meters deep.
____ By the year 2000, no ships will be traveling through the Panama Canal because the locks are so small.
____ Panama is in full control of the Panama Canal at this time.
Check your answers.
D. Follow-up Activity
Topics for Discussion
When the Panama Canal opened, it changed the trade routes of the world and dramatically increased international trade. What other technological developments have had a great impact on international travel, communication, and trade?
Why are both the Panama and the Suez Canal considered strategic waterways? For which countries and for what reasons are they strategic?
Compare the dimensions of the Panama Canal (including the dimensions of the locks) with those of the Suez Canal. (You can find this information in the Internet).
8.3 For more practice use the video “Viking First Views of Mars”. Check your understanding answering the following questions:
How many space ships to Mars were launched in 1975?
What were they launched for?
What moments are unforgettable for Gentry Lee?
Was Viking the first to give humanity the possibility to see the real surface of the planet?
How long did Viking work?
Were the goals of the mission attained?
What were the main achievements of further expeditions?
Unit 9. History of the Nobel Prize
40252651384309.1 Listen to the student presentation. Then answer the questions.
Vocabulary:
posthumously – посмертно
DNA – deoxyribonucleic acid
double helix of DNA structure – двойная спираль ДНК

Why did Alfred Nobel establish the Nobel Prizes?
Which of the statements is not true?
Many winners don’t keep the prize money.
Candidates usually know they’ve been nominated.
The prize given in the field of economics is not really a Nobel Prize.
When and where was A. Nobel born?
What else is he famous for?
How many candidates for an award are usually nominated?
What disciplines are awards given in?
When and does the ceremony take place?
Who was among the 1st Noble Prize winners?
Why do some people believe that Rosalind Franklin’s name should have been added to those of Watson, Crick, and Wilkins for the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine?
She cannot receive the award posthumously.
Without looking at her work, Watson, Crick, and Wilkins would not have
discovered the structure of the DNA double helix.
She alone was responsible for identifying the DNA double helix.
Can you give the names of the Nobel Prize winners in different fields?
What do you know about Ig Noble Prize?
9.2 Speakers will often restate what they just said in different words in order to explain what they mean. When they restate something using different words, it helps to make the meaning clearer for their listeners. Here are some expressions that show that a speaker is going to say something again in a new way.
That is, … What I mean is …
In other words, … What I’m trying to say is…
Listen and read an extract from the presentation. Write the expressions that the speakers use to restate what they have said in a new way.
In his last will, Alfred Nobel left more than 90% of his estate — (1) ________, almost his entire fortune — to establish the Nobel Prizes for “those who, during the preceding year shall have conferred the greatest benefit on mankind.” (2) ________, he wanted to give awards each year to people who had done something important and good for the world. The awards are given in the following disciplines: medicine, chemistry, literature, peace, and physics. There’s also a prize for economics that carries Nobel’s name, but it was established much later and is not truly a Nobel Prize. (3) ________, it was not one of the prizes that Alfred Nobel himself founded.
Thank you, Robbie. The process for determining the recipients begins more than one year before the awards are actually handed out. (4) ________, a committee begins to think about possible candidates each fall, and then the prizes are finally handed out to the winners in the 1524041910winter of the following year. There are sometimes as many as 250 candidates for a particular award; however, the nominees have no idea that they have been nominated, and they are often surprised to find out that they have won. Each winner receives a certificate and a medal. Each winner is awarded a little over 1 million dollars, as well. Winners often donate the money to projects or causes that are important to them, but this isn’t required. (5) ________, they can keep the money if they want to. Another interesting fact is that it’s not customary to make awards posthumously. (6) ________, Nobel Prize winners must still be living at the time that the awards are announced.
9.3 For more practice use the video about Nicola Tesla. Check your understanding answering the following questions:
Enumerate Nicola Tesla’s inventions.
What did he invent in 1882?
What trip did he undertake in 1884? What for?
Who came to see his high-voltage laboratory demonstrations and who didn’t?
What did Edison do with animals? Why?
At what country events did Tesla have a smashing success?
What else, besides science, was Tesla good at?
What was the purpose of creating Wardenclyffe? Why wasn’t it completed?
What did he suffer from?
At what age did he die?
Why do you think some of Tesla’s inventions were not recognized during his life?
Unit 10. The End of Empire: Montezuma and Cortes
10.1 Lecture. The End of Empire: Montezuma and Cortes
A. Pre-listening Activities
Preview of Content
5029200134620
The Aztec Empire of Mexico was one of the most powerful, culturally advanced empires of the fifteenth and sixteenth century world. And yet, in slightly less than two years, this mighty empire was conquered by a small band of treasure-seeking Spanish adventurers. Why did this happen? What factors entered into the downfall of this mighty empire and led to the destruction of such a sophisticated New World culture? In a few minutes we'll take a look at some of the most obvious factors that led to the fall of the great empire of Montezuma.
Lecture Outline – A Topic Outline
I. Extent and Power of the Aztec Empire
A. Subjugation of area Indians
B. Extension of empire from Mexico City to GuatemalaC. Human sacrifices to Aztec gods
D. Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan1. Largest city in sixteenth-century world
2. Military fortress
3. Effective military intelligence system
II. Conquest of Aztec Empire
A. Forewarning of Spanish invasion
1. Appearance of white, bearded men
2. Legend of Aztec god Quetzalcoatl
3. Cortes thought to be Quetzalcoatl by Montezuma
4. Spanish gathering of Indian allies
B. Defeat of the Aztecs
1. Invasion of the city and capture of the king
2. Aztec rebellion against the conquerors
3. Death of Montezuma
4. Destruction of the capital
5. Slaughter of the Indians
III. Factors in the Downfall of the Aztecs
A. Fear of the supernatural
B. Role of La Malinche, the Indian woman
C. Cortes's use of Indian allies
D. Spaniards' superior weaponry
E. Spaniards' greed
IV. Fusion of Indian and European Cultures Creating the Republic of MexicoPreview of Vocabulary
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate items.
ruins subjugate assumes altar
The raised place in a temple, church, or other place of worship on which sacrifices are offered, or at which religious practices are held, is designated an __________________.
When one supposes something to be true, or takes something for granted, one _______ something.
To conquer by force and to bring under complete control is to ____________.
__________________ refer to the remains of something that has been destroyed, such as a building, a city, or a temple.
military fortress immobilized negotiations prophecy
To be _______________ is to be prevented from taking action on a situation.
____________ are discussions for the purpose of reaching an agreement in some matter, such as politics, war, or business.
A secure place protected by an army or a band of soldiers is known as a _____________.
A _____________ is a declaration that an event will happen before it happens or is supposed to happen.
intrigue fusion
A secret plan of disruption or a program of hostile action revolves around _____________ of some kind or other.
A combining or union of different elements into a unified whole may be termed a ________.
Preview of Sentences
These are some of the sentences that you will hear in the lecture.
431101548260The Aztecs had subjugated and dominated the entire area that is today Mexico City.
On the altars of the pyramid-temples, thousands of human sacrifices to the Aztec gods were made.
The capital city of the Aztec Empire, Tenochtitlan, was a military fortress filled with soldiers.
Montezuma mistakenly assumed that Cortes, the leader of the soldiers of Spain, was the Aztec god, Quetzalcoatl.
Cortes founded Mexico City on the ruins of the Aztec capital.
The prophecy of a returning god completely immobilized the leader of the Aztec Empire.
The Indian woman La Malinche was a great help to Cones in his negotiations with the Indians.
The tool of political intrigue turned Indian against Indian.
After the fall of the Aztec Empire, there was a fusion of Indian and European cultures.
B. Listening Activities
Note-Taking Exercise
As usual before you begin the exercise, you should check the Word Guide below. You will, of course, want to abbreviate as many words as possible. O.K., let's go on with the lecture and with your note-taking.
Word Guide
(When you use these items in your notes, remember to abbreviate them.) Montezuma/ Cortes / the Aztecs / Tenochtitlan / the Gulf Coast / Quetzalcoad / la noche triste I La Malinche / Dona Marina / the Mayan Indians / the Republic of Mexico2034540167005
C. Post-listening Activity
Multiple-Choice Questions
In the following exercise, you will hear thirteen questions about the information contained in the lecture. You are to select from the choices (a), (b), (c), or (d) the correct answer to the question you have heard.
1. 5. (a) 1403 and 1420 (a) He gathered together many Indian allies.
(b) 1423 and 1440 (b) He prepared for war with the Spanish.
(c) 1443 and 1520 (c) He asked for the advice of La Malinche.
(d) none of the above (d) He allowed the Spaniards to approach his capital.
2. 6. in (a) 30,000 (a) September of 1518
(b) 60,000 (b) November of 1519
(c) 330,000 (c) June of 1520
(d) none of the above (d) August of 1521
3. 7. in (a) 30,000 (a) June, 1520
(b) 60,000 (b) July, 1520
(c) 300,000 (c) August, 1520
(d) 600,000 (d) September, 1520
4. 8. (a) 20 years (a) 40,000
(b) 30 years (b) 46,000
(c) 40 years (c) 52,000
(d) 50 years (d) 58,000
9. 12. (a) 2 months (a) 553
(b) 2½ months (b) 70,000
(c) 3 months (c) 70,553
(d) 3½ months (d) 75,000
10. 13. (a) 503 (a) Montezuma's fear of the supernatural
(b) 553 (b) the advanced weaponry of the Spaniards
(c) 5,003 (c) the tool of political intrigue
(d) 5,553 (d) all of the above
11. (a) He spoke both the Mayan and Aztec languages.
(b) He was kind to the Indians he met.
(c) The Aztecs were hated by their Indian neighbors.
(d) all of the above
True-False statements
T = The statement is accurate according to the information presented in the lecture.
F – The statement is inaccurate according to the information presented in the lecture.
NG = The accuracy or inaccuracy of the statement cannot be determined from the information presented in the lecture.
____ In the fifteenth century the Aztecs built the most powerful empire ever known.
____ Guatemala was the southern border of the Aztec Empire in the fifteenth century.
____ The Aztecs were opposed to the concept of human sacrifice.
____ Indian prisoners of war were imprisoned somewhere in the pyramid-temples before they were sacrificed.
____ In the 1500s London had about 80 percent fewer people than the Aztec capital had.
____ Montezuma knew that the Spaniards were approaching his capital city long before they ever arrived there.
____ The Spaniards killed most of the Indians they met on their journey to the capital of Tenochtitlan.
____ The Aztecs were a dark-skinned, beardless people.
____ Quite erroneously Montezuma assumed that Cortes was the returning god Quetzalcoatl.
____ The Spaniards sent presents of gold and silver to Montezuma.
____ The Aztecs rebelled seventeen months after their emperor was imprisoned.
____ It is uncertain that Montezuma was killed by his own people.
____ Montezuma received excellent care during his imprisonment.
____ Military superiority benefited the cause of the Indians.
____ Montezuma had prepared for war as soon as he learned of Cortes's arrival in his kingdom.
____ The Aztecs had never seen guns before Cortes's arrival, but they had seen horses before.
____ Many of the non-Aztec Indians rejoiced at the fall of the Aztec Empire.
____ La Malinche spoke Aztec, Mayan, and undoubtedly, Spanish.
____ A small band of only 553 Europeans, alone and single-handedly, brought down the mighty Aztec Empire.
____ Tenochtitlan was rebuilt within fifty years of its total devastation.
D. Follow-up Activity
Topics for Discussion
1. Discuss the roles that the following played in the defeat of the Aztecs by the Spaniards:
a. superior weaponry
b. fear of the supernatural
с. Montezuma s indecisive leadership
2. List several characteristics or traits of the Spanish conquistadors. Use as many descriptive adjectives as possible: for example, many conquistadors were greedy men.
3. In the sixteenth century, Spain brought colonial rule to Mexico. Say what you know about foreign influences in your country in the past and today.
10.2 For more practice use the video “Ancient Mysteries — Nazca Lines”. Check your understanding answering the following questions.
Who were the first eyewitnesses of Nazca Lines?
When did it happen?
What lines are more remarkable?
What was suggested by a Swiss writer Erich von Däniken?
When did scientific studies begin? Who started them? What idea did she suggest?
When did an archaeologist Jacquetta Hawkes came to Nazca? What did she find out?
Unit 11. Т. Е. Lawrence: Lawrence of Arabia11.1 Lecture. Т. Е. Lawrence: Lawrence of Arabia
A. Pre–listening Activities
Preview of Content
571548260The lecture you are going to hear is narrative in form. It is the story of Т. Е. Lawrence's life told against the background of the start and finish of World War I. The speaker starts off with a word or two about Lawrence's background–about where and when he was born; where he went to school; and what courses of study he pursued in college. He then leaves off talking about Lawrence and begins to talk briefly about the political situation in the Middle East at the outbreak of World War I. He here explains why Lawrence was sent to help with the Arab revolt (to help incite Arab rebellion against the Turkish Empire). He goes on to draw a picture of Lawrence and his Arab comrades fighting a guerilla war to defeat the Turkish forces. Here the lecturer jumps to the end of the war and discusses Lawrence's inability to promote Arab independence from France and Great Britain. He describes Lawrence as a man who feels that he has betrayed his former comrades. The last section of the lecture covers the period in Lawrence's life from his leaving the Colonial Office in 1922 until his death in mid–1930. He says that the war hero withdrew from the public and avoided all fame and glory he might have received because of his excellent fighting record. The lecturer draws his narrative to an end with some words about the controversy that surrounds this Englishman. Some people, he says, consider Lawrence a saint. Others believe he was a devil. The lecturer points out that, above all, he was a colorful, complex personality.
Preview of Vocabulary
Fill in the blank with one of the appropriate items.
pseudonym Hejaz archaeology guerilla–type tactics
___________________ are procedures of warfare carried on by members of a small, independent band of fighters who attack the enemy in sudden, surprising raids.
__________________ is the western section of Saudi Arabia.
The study of an ancient civilization and culture by digging up and studying its remains is __________________.
A name adopted by a person who wishes to hide his or her real identity or name is referred to as a ___________________.
a living legend intelligence section to weld scattered
The __________________ of the army is the branch of the army that collects and studies information that will help the army to attack the enemy or to protect itself.
The term __________________ is applied to a person whose extraordinary actions bring him or her publicity, fame and admiration while he or she is still alive.
To join closely is ________________.
Saying that the Arab forces were disunited and separated is saying that the forces were __________________ .Ottoman Empire Allies tank corps
During World War I, the __________________ were Great Britain, Russia, Belgium, Serbia, Japan, and Italy.
The section of the army that uses armored, slow–moving vehicles that are armed with powerful guns and that can attack an enemy over very rough ground is the _________________.
The Turkish empire founded in 1300 A.D. and replaced in 1922 by the Republic of Turkey is designated the ______________. At the height of its power, it included Turkey, the Barbary states, Egypt, Arabia, and the Balkan Peninsula.
seclusion anonymity ironic
The state of being alone or living apart from people is called _________________.
The state of being unknown by name is _________________.
Irony is a condition that is opposite to what would usually be expected. It is __________________ that so many rich people are so unhappy.
Preview of Sentences
Here are some of the sentences taken from the lecture.
While he was at Oxford, Lawrence became keenly interested in archaeology.
Т. Е. Lawrence was attached to the intelligence section of the British army at the outbreak of World War I.
Lawrence helped to organize the Arab revolt against the Ottoman Empire.
Lawrence welded the scattered Arab forces into a fighting unit.
By using guerilla–type tactics instead of conventional warfare, he and a few thousand Arabs succeeded in tying down the Turkish forces.
Under his leadership, the guerillas sabotaged the supply trains in Hejaz.
The defeat of the Turkish forces led to victory for both the Arabs and the Allies.
After the war, Lawrence enlisted in the Royal Air Force, and later in the tank corps.
He enlisted in the Air Force and the tank corps under pseudonyms.
Lawrence sought seclusion and anonymity after the war.
It seems ironic, indeed, that after all the dangers Lawrence had faced, and all the battles he had fought during the war, he was killed in a motorcycle accident.
Lawrence was an unusual, strange, and complex Englishman, a living legend of the early 1900s.
B. Listening Activities

Note-taking Exercise
This time you are to take notes on the lecture about Lawrence of Arabia as you listen to it. Make sure that you have checked the Word Guide before we begin the exercise. You will listen to the entire lecture without interruption. This will test your ability to listen and take notes on a great deal of information.
Word Guide:
Thomas Edward Lawrence / Wales / Oxford / Germany / Turkey / the Ottoman Empire / the Arabian Peninsula / the Ahab / the Fetah / Feisal al Hussein/ the Paris Peace Conference/ the Colonial Office/ the Royal Air Force / The Seven Pillars of Wisdom
204089012065C. Post-listening Activity
Multiple-choice Questions
In the following exercise, you will hear ten questions. You are to select from the choices (a), (b), (c), or (d) the phrase or statement that correctly answers the questions. You should refer to your notes when making your choice.
1. in the 6. (a) summer of 1888 (a) He returned to Arabia(b) fall of 1888 (b) He became an archaeologist.
(c) winter of 1888 (c) He sought fame and glory.
(d) spring of 1888 (d) He enlisted in the Royal Air Force.
2. from 7. in
(a) 1916 to 1917 (a) August, 1888
(b) 1916 to 1918 (b) August, 1922
(c) 1916 to 1920 (c) March, 1923
(d) none of the above (d) May, 1935
3. 8. (a) Turkish forces (a) the Paris Peace Conference
(b) Turkish communications (b) Т. Е. Lawrence's Arabian exploits
(c) the supply trains (c) a soldier's life in the Turkish army
(d) all of the above (d) the rise and fall of the Ottoman Empire4. 9. He was almost
(a) the Arab (a) 45 years old
(b) the British (b) 47 years old
(c) the Turkish (c) 49 years old
(d) none of the above (d) 51 years old
5. in the 10. as a (a) division of the Royal Air Force (a) hero and a saint
(b) intelligence section of the British (b) confused and weak man
army (c) courageous leader of men
(c) Middle East Division of the (d) all of the above
Colonial Office (d) British delegation to the Paris Peace Conference Check your answers.
True-False Statements
T = The statement is accurate according to the information presented in the lecture.
F = The statement is inaccurate according to the information presented in the lecture.
NG = The accuracy or inaccuracy of the statement cannot be determined from the information presented in the lecture.
____ Lawrence led a very happy childhood.
____ Lawrence first studied Arabic while he was in Arabia.
____ Lawrence lived in at least three countries during his youth.
____ British leaders wanted an Arab rebellion against the Turks to break out mainly for the benefit of England.
____ Lawrence was probably sent to Arabia because he could speak Arabic.
____ Feisal al Hussein visited England after the war.
____ Lawrence and his Arab comrades were effective guerilla warriors.
____ Lawrence was able to secure the formation of independent Arab nations after the war.
____ The Paris Peace Conference was held five years after the start of the war.
____ The supply trains in Hejaz were Turkish supply trains.
____ Lawrence worked with some of his old college friends in the Colonial Office.
____ Lawrence left the Colonial Office a happy man.
____ After the war Lawrence sought fame and glory by enlisting in the RAF.
____ Lawrence's motorcycle crashed into an oncoming car.
____ People differ in their opinions of Lawrence.
____ "Lawrence of Arabia" is the pseudonym of Thomas Edward Lawrence.
____ Lawrence is a living legend of our time.
D. Follow-up Activity
Topics for Discussion
Both conventional and guerilla–type tactics have been used in fighting wars. Give an example of the use of each type of warfare by countries at war.
Was Т. Е. Lawrence a hero or a traitor? Did Lawrence help or hinder the cause of Arab liberation and independence? Explain your position.
When did your country secure its independence? How was this achieved?
Give a short profile of a controversial military leader.
11.2 For more practice use the video “Alexander the Great”. Check your understanding answering the following questions:
Vocabulary:
MacedoniaPhilip II
OlympiasBucephalus — Буцефал
Aristotle
Hephaestion — ГефестионDionysus — Дионис
High priestess of a cult devoted to God Dionysus — верховная жрица культа бога Диониса
Where and when was Alexander born?
Who were his parents?
What education did Alexander get and who was his teacher?
Characterize Alexander’s mother.
Retell the legend about Alexander and Bucephalus.
Who is Hephaestion?
What 3 messages came to Philip II in summer 356?
Unit 12. Rulers and Leaders
441579030035512.1 You are going to hear a college lecture about a ruler of ancient Egypt. Before listening, read the following facts about ancient Egypt.
The king of Egypt was called pharaoh.
Brothers and sisters sometimes married to continue the royal bloodline.
Rulers of ancient Egypt built elaborate monuments.
Women enjoyed many of the same rights as men did.
Egyptians believed in an afterlife.
Are any of the facts surprising to you? If so, which ones? Discuss your answers with a partner.
12.2 Listen to the college lecture. Choose the correct ending for each statement.
Hatshepsut was a ________.
queen
pharaoh
While Hatshepsut was in power, Egypt ________.
prospered
declined
Hatshepsut’s death _______.
was the result of murder
is still a mystery
12.3 Read the questions and answer the ones you can. Then listen to the lecture again and finish answering the questions. Compare answers with a partner. Listen again if necessary.
Who did Hatshepsut marry?
After she came to the throne, what did she slowly start doing?
How did she explain her right to be pharaoh?
Name two projects that she carried out.
What is located at Deir el-Bahri?
Why is this building important?
What happened to many of Hatshepsut’s images?
What did ancient Egyptians believe about the afterlife?
What happened to Hatshepsut?
When was the Red Chapel built?
12.4 Work with a partner and discuss these questions.
Why do you think Hatshepsut’s image was destroyed?
What women politicians do you know of? What positions do they hold?
Are there any differences between male and female leaders? If so, what are they?
12.5 a) Suggest your own ideas for the following very short course in leadership, then listen to the recording and write down what you hear.
The six most important words:
………………………………….
The five most important words:
………………………………….
The four most important words:
………………………………….
The three most important words:
………………………………….
The two most important words:
………………………………….
The most important word:
………………………………….
The least important word:
………………………………….
8. The best thing you can do before entering your office:
………………………………….
b) Discuss various human qualities suggested by each of the sentences and words above.
c) Measure someone you know in your business or private life against these various qualities.
200596529591012.6 For more practice use the video “How to Start a Movement”. What steps does the author recommend to start a movement?
Unit 13. Business
13.1 Look at the following list of characteristics. Which do you think are the most important characteristics of a good boss or manager? Are any of these negative characteristics for a boss or manager?
370141569850
A good manager or boss…
is a positive role model
is a leader
knows the strengths of the employees
closely observes the performance of employees
sets high standards and does not tolerate mistakes
has good communication skills
devotes all his or her time to work
openly criticizes employees

Compare your choices with a partner. Are they the same? If not, discuss the differences.
13.2 Read the questions and answer the ones you can. Then listen to the lecture again and note your answers as you listen. Compare answers with a partner.
Listen again if necessary.
Who are most of the people in the audience?
What are two examples of managers who are good role models?
How does a good manager know the strengths of his or her employees?
How should managers support employees?
How do good managers deal with mistakes?
What is the speaker’s feeling about managers and a personal life?
What suggestions does the speaker offer for workers who have bad managers?
13.3 a) Read the passage below, paying attention to the words and expressions in bold.
-419101380490My first teaching experience was wonderful because I had a great supervisor. At first I was intimidated by her because she was such an experienced, dedicated, and energetic teacher. However, she turned out to be the perfect role model for me. I learned so much just by watching her teach and interact with her students. She also did a wonderful job of mentoring me. For instance, we would often discuss the challenges I was facing at work, and she would give me advice about how to overcome and learn from those challenges. One thing I really appreciated is how she helped me set objectives for myself and my students, and then she helped me stay focused on those goals. In our weekly meetings, she would always ask thoughtful questions. She would also provide feedback on my performance. I always appreciated this because I wanted to know whether or not I was doing a good job.
Some of the other new teachers weren’t so fortunate. I remember one had a supervisor who was always micro-managing his teachers. He basically tried to control everything the teachers did in the classroom and didn’t allow them any opportunity to experiment or try new ideas. Another was matched with an aggressive supervisor who could only be described as a bully. She would put unnecessary pressure on teachers and sometimes even yell at them.
I’m just glad I had Mrs. Henderson because she had a truly positive impact on the development of my teaching skills. She taught me to patiently guide my students and co-exist with my colleagues - the other teachers. She also taught me specific skills that are useful in any job. For instance when I first started teaching, I tried to do too much of the departmental work on my own. Mrs. Henderson trained me to delegate some of those tasks to others, so I wouldn’t have to do them all myself. She also helped me develop important time management skills, and this has helped me tremendously throughout my career. Because of her, my first experiences as a teacher were positive ones, and I can truly say that she motivated me to be the teacher I am today.
b) Match each word or expression with the correct definition
1. mentor a. someone who uses their power to hurt or frighten others
2. delegate b. try to control every little detail of employees’ work
3. set objectives c. connected with a department
4. micro-manage d. identify goals
5. role model e. teach a person the skills for a job
6. colleagues f. make someone want to do something
7. bully g. goal, objective
8. departmental h. someone in charge of other employees in a workplace
9. motivate i. give part of your work to someone else
10. train j. person you admire and try to copy
11. provide feedback k. people you work with; co-workers
12. time management 1. advise and help somebody with less experience
13. supervisor m. the ability to use time wisely and get tasks done efficiently
c) Work with a partner. Tell your partner about your experiences or thoughts on the topic.
Someone who was an important role model for you
An example of someone you know who micro-manages
The effect or impact a bully can have on someone
Experiences you’ve had mentoring someone
13.4 For more listening practice use video “The Man Who Walked Around the World”. Check your understanding answering the following questions:
Vocabulary:
a glint in smb’s eye — блеск в глазах
fire in belly — вдохновение, пламенное сердце
bereavement — тяжелая утрата
wee lad — юнец
single malt — односолодовое виски
backroom art — увлечение
thrive — процветать
get smb’s hand on — приобрести
mantra — слоган, девиз
What was the lad’s name? What was his origin?
Why and when did he begin his walk?
What did he do with the farm? And how did he spend the money?
What did he do in order to get a unique product?
What did Robert and Alexander buy and why?
How did captains from Glasgow connect with the company?
What was the shape of the bottles?
What are the names of labels? (5)
Who created a well-known label for the company?
What is the brand’s mantra?
What was the conclusion of the speaker?
Unit 14. Personality Formation
14.1 a) Describe a person who has influenced you. Say how long you have known her/him, why she/he is special, how she/he differs from other people and how she/he influenced you.
b) Describe a person you would most like to meet. State why you would like to meet him or her. What effect would the meeting have on you?
426339015557514.2 People define success in different ways:
Some people get a sense of achievement from raising a family.
For others, success is defined by wealth or status.
Success is to rise to the top in the chosen profession.
Success is the result of hard work.
Success in any field requires long-term planning and effort.
What is your idea of success?
14.3 Listen to Steve Jobs’ Commencement Speech to the graduates of Stanford University in 2005, take notes and then answer the following questions:
355854083185What are the three stories Steve Jobs told the alumni?
What was the only class he took at college? How did he use it in future?
How old was he when he was fired from Apple?
What is the name of the 1st computer animated feature film?
What was he diagnosed with in 2004?
What question did he ask himself every morning for the last 33 years of his life?
What was the most important tool that helped Steve to make big choices?
What was written on the back cover of the final issue of “The Whole Earth Catalog”? How do you understand these words?
14.4 Now listen to the last lecture given by Randolf Frederick Pausch (1960-2008), an American professor of computer science at Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Answer the questions.
Randolph Frederick Pausch (October 23, 1960 – July 25, 2008) was an American professor of computer science at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Vocabulary:
Elephant in the room is a problem that everyone knows very well but no one talks about because it is taboo, embarrassing, etc.
Pancreatic cancer – рак поджелудочной железы
Tigger and Eeyore – Тигра и Иа-ИаWhat tradition do they have at CMU?
What was Randolph’s elephant in the room?
What childhood did he have?
What were his dreams? Did he fulfil them?
Why is it good when someone makes you do a hard job well?
What did he say about “experience”?
What did Randy’s mother discover going through his father’s things? How did it characterize him?
What did he learn from his mother?
What recollections does he have about his parents?
What did parents let him do in his room? Why?
What did he do with his car one day? What for?
What should you do to live in integrity with others?
Why and whom did he give his speech for?
14.5 Can you compare two lectures? What is in common in the views of these two personalities?
Unit 15. John F. Kennedy: Promise and Tragedy
15.1 Lecture. John F. Kennedy: Promise and Tragedy
A. Pre-listening Activities
Preview of Content
342900046990Millions of words have been written about the life and death of the young American president, John Fitzgerald Kennedy. Much of the writing has been emotional, with rather little regard for the actual facts. In the following lecture, you will hear an attempt at an objective assessment of President Kennedy's virtues and his faults; his strengths and his weaknesses; his idealism and his lack of realism. The lecturer organizes the talk around the following themes: Kennedy, the person; Kennedy, the international politician; Kennedy, the domestic politician; Kennedy, the social reformer. A topic outline of the organizational structure of the talk might take this form:
Lecture Outline – A Topic Outline
I. Kennedy's Personal Life
A. A place in legend
B. A surprising person
Did things earlier than most people
1. Elected to Congress at 29
2. Elected to the White House at 43
C. Mishaps and tragedies
1. Assassination at 46
2. War injury and surgery
3. Death of newborn son
II. Kennedy's Decision Making
A. Question of how he made final decisions about:
1. Invasion of the Bay of Pigs2. 1962 Russian attempt to install missiles in Cuba3. Deeper involvement of the U.S. in Vietnam4. 1963 atomic test ban treaty
B. Idealism versus Realism
1. Vision of a strong, interdependent NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
2. The Alliance for Progress
III. Kennedy the International Diplomat versus Kennedy the Domestic Politician
A. Effectiveness in the world of international diplomacy
B. Successes in domestic programs – Congressional approval of:
1. Creation of the Peace Corps
2. Raising of the minimum wage
3. Increase of social benefits
4. Support for space flights
C. Failures in domestic programs – Congressional disapproval of:
1. Free medical care for people over 65
2. Creation of a department of urban affairs for America's cities
3. Federal aid to education
4. Tax reform and tax reduction
IV. Responsibility for Legislation Benefiting Black Americans
A. Bill to prohibit racial discrimination
B. Bill to outlaw school segregation
V. Social Reform in U.S. Resulting from Assassination
Preview of Vocabulary
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate item.
minimum wage assassinated mishap discrimination
An unfortunate accident or a great misfortune is a _______________.
The ______ refers to the least amount of money per hour that an employer can pay for work done.
President Kennedy was ______________ in 1963. He was murdered in Texas.
The unfair treatment of a person because of his or her particular race, religion, politics, or sex is termed _____________.
envision chit-chat social security benefits segregation
The forced separation of black and white people is racial _______________.
To make small-talk or to have light or informal conversation with someone is to _________.
To _____________ something is to picture mentally some future event or happening.
_____________ refer to the services and money the U.S. government provides to American citizens who are sixty-five years or older.
Preview of Sentences
Here are some of the sentences that you will encounter in the lecture.
At the age of forty-six, Kennedy was assassinated.
Kennedy suffered a series of mishaps and tragedies.
In his handling of American foreign policy, Kennedy envisioned a strong, interdependent Atlantic world.
To make small-talk – to chit-chat – with self-important American congressmen bored Kennedy.
Congress raised the minimum wage.
Congress also increased social security benefits.
Kennedy was responsible for the bill that prohibited discrimination in employment, and in public facilities.
Kennedy was responsible for the bill that outlawed school segregation.
B. Listening Activities
Note-Taking Exercises
All right, now that you have some idea of the topics that are covered in the lecture and the vocabulary that is used, you should be able to take some pretty good notes on the material. Remember, check the Word Guide before you begin.
Word Guide
John Fitzgerald Kennedy / Congress / the White House / Robert Kennedy / the Bay of Pigs / Cuba / Vietnam / the North Atlantic Treaty Organization/ NATO / the Alliance for Progress / President Lyndon Johnson / the New Frontier
2117725-3175С. Post-listening Activity
Multiple-Choice Questions
In the following exercise, you will hear eleven questions on the Kennedy lecture. You are to select from the choices (a), (b), (c), or (d) the correct answer to the question you have heard. Be sure that you use your notes for reference.
1. 6. (a) 20 (a) England(b) 24 (b) France(c) 30 (c) the United States(d) 34 (d) the Soviet Union2. 7. (a) 10 (a) the Peace Corps
(b) 14 (b) the Alliance for Progress
(c) 20 (c) increased social security benefits
(d) 29 (d) die North Atlantic Treaty Organization
3. 8. in (a) 40 (a) 1963
(b) 42 (b) 1964
(c) 44 (c) 1965
(d) 46 (d) 1966
4. 9. in (a) 1951 (a) 1963
(b) 1953 (b) 1965
(c) both of the above (c) 1967
(d) neither of the above (d) 1969
5. 10. (a) 3 (a) establishment of the Peace Corps
(b) 5 (b) the outlawing of school segregation
(c) 7 (c) the raising of the minimum wage
(d) 9 (d) the increasing of social security benefits
11. (a) Black Americans (b) Indian Americans (c) Mexican Americans (d) American women True-False Statements
T = The statement is accurate according to the information presented in the lecture.
F = The statement is inaccurate according to the information presented in the lecture.
NG = The accuracy or inaccuracy of the statement cannot be determined from the information presented in the lecture.
____ It is unusual for a man or woman younger than thirty to be elected to Congress.
____ Kennedy's murder took place in the spring of 1963.
____ Kennedy was assassinated by a lone assassin.
____ Because Kennedy was young, well-educated, and rich, things went smoothly in his life.
____ Kennedy's newborn son died in 1961.
____ Kennedy's advisers took part in the entire process of his decision making.
____ Kennedy had such an acute sense of history that he kept very careful records of what led up to his political decisions.
____ There was friction among the members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) during Kennedy's presidency.
____ Latin American countries benefited little from the Alliance for Progress.
____ Kennedy was less effective in the role of domestic politician than in the role of international diplomat.
____ The "New Frontier" refers to the western boundary of the United States during Kennedy's term in office.
____ Increasing social security benefits provided extra money for America's "senior citizens."
____ Under Kennedy the U.S. space exploration program expanded.
____ Kennedy's plan to provide free medical care for people over sixty-five was rejected by the American Congress during his time in office.
____ Kennedy is famous for the remark that Americans should not ask what they can do for their country, but what their country can do for them.
D. Follow-up Activity
Topics for Discussion
Make a chronological outline of the important events in Kennedy's political life. Begin the outline with 1947.
Illustrate how Kennedy's life was a mixture of political triumph and personal misfortune.
One of Kennedy's most famous statements was "Ask not what your country can do for you. Ask what you can do for your country." Discuss how this statement applies to you in relation to your country. What do you hope to do for it in the future?
"Kennedy was killed by alone assassin named Lee Harvey Oswald." State whether you agree or disagree with this statement. Back up your discussion by giving alternate theories of the assassination.
15.2 Listen to a part of President Barack Obama’s Address to Congress (February 2013) filling in the blanks with the precise information.
PRESIDENT OBAMA: Mr. Speaker, Mr. Vice President, Members of Congress, fellow Americans:
__________ years ago, John F. Kennedy declared to this Chamber that “the Constitution makes us not rivals for power but partners for progress…It is my task,” he said, “to report the State of the Union – to improve it is the task of us all.”
Tonight, thanks to the grit and determination of the American people, there is much progress to report. After __________ of grinding war, our brave men and women in uniform are coming home. After years of grueling recession, our businesses have created over __________ new jobs. We buy more American cars than we have in __________ years, and less foreign oil than we have in __________. Our housing market is healing, our stock market is rebounding, and consumers, patients, and homeowners enjoy stronger protections than ever before.
Together, we have cleared away the rubble of crisis, and can say with renewed confidence that the state of our union is stronger.
But we gather here knowing that there are __________ of Americans whose hard work and dedication have not yet been rewarded. Our economy is adding jobs – but too many people still can’t find full-time employment. Corporate profits have skyrocketed to all-time highs – but for more than __________, wages and incomes have barely budged.
It is our generation’s task, then, to reignite the true engine of America’s economic growth – a rising, thriving middle class.
It is our unfinished task to restore the basic bargain that built this country – the idea that if you work hard and meet your responsibilities, you can get ahead, no matter where you come from, what you look like, or who you love.
It is our unfinished task to make sure that this government works on behalf of the many, and not just the few; that it encourages free enterprise, rewards individual initiative, and opens the doors of opportunity to every child across this great nation.
The American people don’t expect government to solve every problem. They don’t expect those of us in this chamber to agree on every issue. But they do expect us to put the nation’s interests before party. They do expect us to forge reasonable compromise where we can. For they know that America moves forward only when we do so together; and that the responsibility of improving this union remains the task of us all.
Our work must begin by making some basic decisions about our budget – decisions that will have a huge impact on the strength of our recovery.
Over the last few years, both parties have worked together to reduce the deficit by more than __________ – mostly through spending cuts, but also by raising tax rates on the wealthiest __________ of Americans. As a result, we are more than halfway towards the goal of __________ in deficit reduction that economists say we need to stabilize our finances.
Now we need to finish the job. And the question is, how?
………………………………………………………………
Our actions will not prevent every senseless act of violence in this country. In fact, no laws, no initiatives, no administrative acts will perfectly solve all the challenges I’ve outlined tonight. But we were never sent here to be perfect. We were sent here to make what difference we can, to secure this nation, expand opportunity, and uphold our ideals through the hard, often frustrating, but absolutely necessary work of self-government.
We were sent here to look out for our fellow Americans the same way they look out for one another, every single day, usually without fanfare, all across this country. We should follow their example.
We should follow the example of a New York City nurse named Menchu Sanchez. When Hurricane Sandy plunged her hospital into darkness, her thoughts were not with how her own home was faring – her mind was with the twenty precious newborns in her care and the rescue plan she devised that kept them all safe.
We should follow the example of a North Miami woman named Desiline Victor. When she arrived at her polling place, she was told the wait to vote might be __________ hours. And as time ticked by, her concern was not with her tired body or aching feet, but whether folks like her would get to have their say. Hour after hour, a throng of people stayed in line in support of her. Because Desiline is __________ years old. And they erupted in cheers when she finally put on a sticker that read “I Voted.”
We should follow the example of a police officer named Brian Murphy. When a gunman opened fire on a Sikh temple in Wisconsin, and Brian was the first to arrive, he did not consider his own safety. He fought back until help arrived, and ordered his fellow officers to protect the safety of the fellow Americans worshiping inside – even as he lay bleeding from __________ bullet wounds.
When asked how he did that, Brian said, “That’s just the way we’re made.”
That’s just the way we’re made.
We may do different jobs, and wear different uniforms, and hold different views than the person beside us. But as Americans, we all share the same proud title:
We are citizens. It’s a word that doesn’t just describe our nationality or legal status. It describes the way we’re made. It describes what we believe. It captures the enduring idea that this country only works when we accept certain obligations to one another and to future generations; that our rights are wrapped up in the rights of others; and that well into our __________ century as a nation, it remains the task of us all, as citizens of these United States, to be the authors of the next great chapter of our American story.
Thank you, God bless you, and God bless the United States of America.
Unit 16. “JFK” Movie
16.1 Study the following information before you see the film.

Released: 1991
Directed by: Oliver Stone
Runtime: 189 min.
Awards: 2 Oscars
Plot Outline: New Orleans District Attorney Jim Garrison is highly suspicious of the official
story presented by the FBI to explain JFK’s assassination. When he takes it upon
himself to investigate, he unearths a conspiracy that may go deeper than he could
have ever imagined.
233934010795
Characters: Jim Garrison
Lee Harvey Oswald
Abraham Zapruder Bill Broussard
David Ferrie Senator Long
Lee Bowers
Clay Shaw (Bertrand)
Dean Andrews
Willie O’Keefe
Key words: to guard against acquisition
an unwarranted influence
upheaval to provide air cover for Cuban exiles
to cut a secret deal
to come to the brink of nuclear war
to be soft on
to quarantine
Jacqueline Bouvier a narrow election victory
Kennedy-assassination
Castro-regime
a homosexual
courtroom trajectory a hitman perjury conspiracy coup-d’etat a patsy
a snitch
a pimp
a footsoldier an epileptic seizure (fit)
a spotter
a triangulation fire
the Texas School Book Depository
Dealey Plaza motorcade underpass to refurbish smth16.2 See the movie and be ready to discuss it in class using the following questions:
Try to understand as much as you can from the introduction. In class give its detailed information in Russian. Follow the plan:
Quotation by E.Wilcox President Dwight Eisenhower’s farewell speech
JFK’s election
1961, 1962 events
Kennedy’s attitude to war in VietnamHis vision of a new world
Why do you think the film starts with the documentary introduction?
What was the political situation in the country?
Who were the witnesses of “unnecessary” details of the tragedy and what happened to them?
How did they threaten Jim Garrison and his family?
What were the results of the autopsy? Were the results of civilian and military autopsy in Washington the same? What formalities were not observed during the autopsy?
Speak about negligence during the investigation?
Why was Abraham Zapruder’s film ignored by official investigators? What evidence did it contain?
Whom did Jim Garrison meet with in Washington? What important information did the person give the attorney?
What evidence Jim Garrison bring to court?
How did he prove that there was the triangulation fire?
How did a shooter and a spotter of A-Team manage to get into the Texas School Book Depository just before Kennedy’s motorcade appearance?
What other due security measures were not taken in Dallas?
What facts prove that Lee Harvey Oswald was a patsy? What do you know about alternative theories of the assassination?
What was the verdict for Clay Shaw? What was found out about him later?
Why was Kennedy dangerous to the establishment?
What did a Congressional Investigation from 76-79 find in the assassination of JFK? What happened to the files of the House of Representatives Select Committee on Assassination (HSCA)?
State some quotations from the film. Comment on them.

Dealey Plaza from the bird’s eye view. You can see that the original route of the President’s motorcade would have been much safer. The dotted line shows the final route which exposed JFK to a triangulation fire.4572000-92075Unit 17. Listening for Fun and Enjoyment
17.1 a) The teacher will divide students into two groups and read a story each. Then each group have to choose a person who will retell the story to the other group. The students of the second group have to decide who will retell the joke they’ve heard (now in Russian) to the first group who check their groupmates’ understanding of the story. After that the groups switch the roles.
***
Jack Hawkins was the football coach at an American college, and he was always trying to find good players, but they weren’t always smart enough to be accepted by the college.
One day the coach brought an excellent young player to the dean of the college and asked that the student be allowed to enter without an examination. "Well," the dean said after some persuasion, "I'd better ask him a few questions first."
Then he turned to the student and asked him some very easy questions, but the student didn't know any of the answers.
At last the dean said, "Well, what's five times seven?"
The student thought for a long time and then answered, "Thirty-six."
The dean threw up his hands and looked at the coach in despair, but the coach said earnestly, "Oh, please let him in, sir! He was only wrong by two."
***
495300010795Mr. Grey was a biology professor, and he had a big collection of extremely rare bones which he was very proud of.
Then one year he managed to get a new and better job at another university.
Because Mr. Grey was very busy, his wife made the arrangements for all their possessions to be taken in a moving van to their home while he was away at work.
The following week three men started taking the things out of Mrs. Grey’s house and loading them into the van, when one of them brought out a large wooden box.
He was just about to throw it into the van with all the other things when Mrs. Grey ran out of her house and said, “Please treat that box very gently! That one has all my husband’s bones in it.”
The man so surprised that he nearly dropped the box on his feet.
***
An artist who did not have much money, but was a very kind man, was coming home by train one day.
He gave his last few coins to a beggar, but then he saw another one, and forgot that he did not have any money.
He asked the man if he would like to have lunch with him, and the beggar accepted, so they went into a small restaurant and had a good meal.
At the end, the artist could not pay the bill, of course, so the beggar had to do so.
The artist was very unhappy about this, so he said to the beggar, "Come home with me in a taxi, my friend, and I'll give you back the money for lunch."
"Oh, no!" the beggar answered quickly. "I had to pay for your lunch, but I' m not going to pay for your taxi home too!"
***
571541910A Frenchman was once travelling in England. He could speak English, but not very well, his vocabulary was not large. One day he was eating in a small country hotel and he wanted to order some eggs, but he couldn't remember the word for eggs. Suddenly, through the window, he saw a rooster walking in the yard. He immediately asked the waiter what the bird was called in English. The waiter told him that it was called a rooster. The Frenchman then asked what the rooster's wife was called. The waiter told him that she was called a hen. The Frenchman then asked what the hen's children were called. The waiter told him that they were called chickens. The Frenchman then asked what the chickens were called before they were born. The waiter told him that they were called eggs. “Fine!”, said the Frenchman, “Please bring me two and a cup of coffee.”
***
Mr. Thompson did not learn to drive a car until he was almost thirty, because he was a very nervous person who always had the convenience of someone else to drive him, first his mother and then his wife.
But at last he decided to take lessons and managed to pass his driving test on the second attempt, although he still wasn’t very good at parking.
A week later he drove into town by himself and was trying to park between two other cars when he damaged one of them slightly.
When he wrote to the insurance company about the accident, they sent him a form to fill in describing it. And one of the questions on the form was, “How could the driver of the other car have prevented the accident from happening?”
Mr. Thompson thought for a minute and then wrote: “He could have parked his car on another street”.
***
When George Jones finished college, he became a clerk in a big company, hoping to advance to higher positions as time went on.
He did his work reasonably well, but he wasn’t very smart, so when the older employees retired from higher positions, it was never Jones who was promoted.
After he had been with the company for fifteen years without ever being promoted, a smart young man, straight from college, came to work in the same department, and after a year, he was promoted above Jones.
Jones was angry that he hadn’t been promoted instead of this young man.
So he went to his manager and said, “I’ve had sixteen years’ experience on this job, yet a new man has been promoted over my head after having been here only one year.”
“I’m sorry, Jones,” answered the manager patiently, “but you haven’t had sixteen years’ experience: you’ve had one year’s experience sixteen times.”
b) Listen to two stories. Be ready to retell them one by one: one student begins, the other continues and so on.
17.2 The concept of humor is different in different cultures. That is why the response to humor differs too. What is funny and O.K. in one country, may not be in another. Watch the following three videos doing the activity offered by the teacher. Check your understanding answering the questions and say if they made you laugh or smile.
a) The students make practice Vision off/Sound on activity. The screen is covered or the students turn their backs and listen to the sound. The students might be asked to say what is happening, who the speakers are and name 6-8 objects they expect to see on the screen. Then they check their guesses watching the video.
“Goodbye to the Normals”
What news did the boy tell his father at the very beginning of the movie?
Where to and for how long?
Was it his firm decision?
How did his father try to persuade his son to change his mind?
What means of transport was he going to travel?
What did his mother offer him to take?
What were his parents’ last words?
Why did the boy come back?
b) The students are given the transcript of a scene without being told anything about the characters. In groups they act out the scene. After this they view the filmed version of the scene to compare. (See the script in “Recording Scripts and Answer Key”.)
Vocabulary:
run out of juice — сок вышел = зарядка кончилась
be frozen — зависать
an application issue — проблема в обращении
desktop — «рабочий стол»
mess up — испортить
date — дата = финик
a little bit on the small side — очень маленький
make head or tail of — разбираться в чем-либо
Blackberry: a line of smartphones developed and designed by Canadian company “Research In Motion” (RIM)
Orange: a mobile network operator and internet service provider in the United KingdomApple: a corporation that designs and markets the Macintosh line of computers, the iPod, the iPhone and the iPadDongle: a small hardware device that plugs into the serial or USB port of a computer
Booting: a self-sustaining process that proceeds without external help. Xbox 360: a video game console produced by Microsoft
“My Blackberry Is Not Working”
What was the customer’s problem?
Where did the customer store his Blackberry?
Where did the seller advise to launch the Blackberry from?
What did the customer do with the date?
What was his second problem?
What did the customer ask the seller for in the end?
How much did it cost?
c) “Vincent” by Tim Burton
How old is Vincent Malloy?
Who is his idol?
What does he want to do to his aunt?
What is his dog’s name?
Why does he like to experiment on it?
Who is his favorite author?
What made Vincent pale while reading a gruesome tale?
What was her grave in real life?
What did he say to his mother when she let him play outside?
What poem did he quote at the end of the story?
17.3 a) Listen to the song “Anything You Can Do” by Bernadette Peters and say what she can do better than he can.
Vocabulary:
sparrow – воробей
partridge – куропатка
cartridge – патрон
flicker – молния
hurdle – препятствие, барьер
girdle – пояс, ремень
3834765240665b) Listen to the song “Lodi” by “Credence Clear Water Revival” group two or three times filling in the script gaps.
Just _________ a year _________
I _________ out on _________ road
Seeking my _________ and _________
Looking for a _________ of _________
_________ got _________ and _________ got _________
I _________ you _________ the tune
Oh, Lord, _________ in old Lodi _________
I _________ in on _________ Greyhound
I’ll _________ walking out _________ I _________
I was _________ passing _________
Must be _________ months or _________
Ran _________ of time _________ money
Looks like _________ took my _________
Oh, Lord, _________ in old Lodi _________
A _________ from a _________
Said _________ was on my _________
_________ I lost _________
I ran _________ of _________ to _________
I _________ into _________ a one-night _________
Looks like _________ plans _________ through
Oh, Lord, _________ in old Lodi _________
If I _________ had a _________
For _________ song I’ve _________
Every time _________ had to _________
While _________ sat _________ drunk
You _________ I’d _________ the next _________
Back to _________ I _________
Oh, Lord, _________ in told Lodi _________
Oh, Lord, _________ in told Lodi _________
Unit 18. Assertive Communication Skills for Professionals
-156210167005An introduction to the program. “Assertive Communication Skills for Professionals” is a career track presentation by Carol Price. Carol Price is unquestionably one of the most highly regarded communication trainers in the United States. You will see why she’s so popular the minute you tune into this program. In the program Carol shows how to strike the balance between being “too nice” and coming on “too strong”. And she does it with a warm, yet high-energy style that will keep you involved throughout the program.
Carol Price has extensive experience in both corporate and small-business settings. She has helped thousands of professionals become more valuable to their organizations and more visible in their positions. And now in “Assertive Communication Skills for Professionals” she is ready to help you do the same.
The guide’s authors’ note: We advise you to listen to the program at home practicing your listening comprehension and note-taking skills and come to class ready for the discussion. Use the vocabulary from the program in your speech. Let the questions serve you as a plan for the discussion. On completion of the program you are supposed to take a test on program vocabulary.
Track 1 (25:30) and track2 (26:35). What Is Assertiveness?
Understanding the 4 communication styles:
Passive – self-protection through avoidance
Aggressive – uses anger to get results
Passive-aggressive – avoids direct confrontation
Assertive – expresses thoughts directly, but in a way that respects the opinions and feelings of others
1. Vocabulary
receptionistsubordinatesto be overwhelmed
to be powerless
to be embarrassed
to be out of control
to get even
supportivedrivelamong peers
sweatyshakya welcome team member
to sound defensive
to feel low
to be incompetent
to say smth in the heat of emotion
to be dogged
to violate the rights
to be entitled to do smthto pout
to endow smthunalienable rights
to demean
vocal cues
the defeated
to sound apologetic
a whining tone
threatening words
to sound inflammatory
2. Listen to track 1 and 2 to answer the following questions:
What does the man say introducing the program and its author?
What are the situations through which four types of communication style are examined?
Describe the behavior of people in them?
What are assertive techniques?
Give four definitions of assertiveness.
What rights does a person have?
Characterize vocal cues of four styles.
What does assertiveness give people?
Track 3 (25:55) and track 4 (26:21). Building Your Foundation.Roadblocks to assertiveness
Picking and planning your battles
How to assess what’s a “reasonable risk”
5 “must ask” questions to defuse tensions in a conflict
Analyzing and planning: what to say and do before you confront anyone
How to get in an assertive mind-set
Simple exercises to help calm yourself (master these and you can prevent a lot of blowups)
1. Vocabulary for track 3
roadblockvegetarianto be environmentally friendly
senderreceiverto encode
to decode
to fit one’s norm
to be misinterpreted
to yell
intentto match
to take the hit
societal norms
tunnelto behave in certain patterns
to keep smb from doing smthto be biased against
pleaser behavior
societal expectations
to look gorgeous
to make a point of smthbarrierto implement the techniques
to reclaim the rights=to take back the rights
to take the consequences
to embrace new ways of thinking
to go beyond the blocks
to be worthwhile
battles to fight and battles to walk away from
to assess the risk
to weigh factors
self-approvalgame plan
foreback plan
resentfulhumiliatedsupreme
2. Listen to track 3 to answer the following questions:
What is encoding?
Why can the sender and the receiver understand the message differently?
Who is responsible for matching the intent to the outcome? Who is going to take the hit if they don’t match?
Name some personal blocks and explain what they mean.
What are the 3 steps we must take to break out of the tunnels we don’t like?
Which battles are worthwhile?
What is the difference between an assertive person and an aggressive one?
What should you consider in assessing the risk?
What five questions should you ask yourself once you decided to take the risk?
Comment on the behavior of the dialogue participants.
Act out the situation applying four types of behavior in it.
Track 4 (26:21).
1. Vocabulary for track 4:
the ACID process
(to) acknowledge(ment)
counterintercepta minor blip in one’s life
factual (valid) criticism
non-factual (not valid) criticism
crankyto deem
to accept an error
to dwell on smthto confront smthaccountabilitydeep breathing
to breathe in
to breathe out
impending doom
to tense one’s muscles
a lame tone
a whining tone
to plead for sympathy
to read one’s mind
to figure out
a musical box
to alienate
2. Listen to track 4 to answer the following questions:
What is the ACID process?
Interpret Elisabeth’s behavior through the 4 steps of this process?
How to deal with criticism?
What are the two choices in dealing with factual (valid) criticism?
What are the two ways of dealing with non-factual criticism?
How can a person confront criticism?
Speak about physical techniques which help a person to calm down.
Describe “Say what you want” technique using examples from the lecture.
Track 5 (26:00) and track 6 (26:22). Your Assertiveness Toolbox.
The most effective way to ask for what you want
5 key assertiveness skills and how to use them:
- The declarative statement
- Assertive confrontation
- Compromise
- Camouflage
- Accountability
1. Vocabulary:
to escalate
escalationto look below the surface
to be caught off guard
be bogged down in smthbe specific
to assign the consequences
to stick to the facts
overheads=overhead transparencies
backlogpaperworkunderstaffedto meet the deadline
camouflageto stoop to an inappropriate level
team-matesto move the conflict out of public view
to disarm smbcloudingbizarreto humiliate
to cross the “t”s and dot the “i”sto be nailed
to back smbto withdraw from
2. Listen to track 5 and 6 to answer the following questions:
List the five assertiveness skills.
How do people sound in the declarative statements?
Should you give a reason or an explanation of what you ask for in them?
What are the three components of assertive confrontation?
How are they observed in the example with John?
What is the key point of assertive confrontation?
What was John’s goal in his confrontation?
What is the essence of compromise?
What three things did Elisabeth do in the example of the effective compromise?
What were Arnie’s concerns?
What solutions to Arnie’s problems did Elisabeth offer?
What vocal cues did Elisabeth use?
What are the three levels of camouflage?
What is “clouding”?
When is “clouding” not the best technique to be used?
Can you give your own examples of “clouding”?
When may the “accountability” technique be not the best one?
Why do you think the “accountability” technique is the best in the situation with Michael and Sandra?
What was the second technique used by Sandra?
Why are the other three techniques not effective in the situation?
Track 7 (25:09) and track 8 (29:41). Putting Assertiveness to Work.Getting passive people to come out of their shells: ways to get them to be openly responsive and keep their promises
Drawing the line with aggressive people: how to set limits that prevent destructive escalation
Unmasking passive-aggressive people: ways to flush them out into the open and safely blunt their hostility
1. Vocabulary:
an inevitable question
reluctanceto be reality based
to violate people’s rights
to keep score
insecure people
to run over smbto bull smbto hand over the document
to step out of the car
to draw the line in the sand
to diminish chances
to be a sniper
to pedal back
to become bolder
to blow up the cover
A good run is better than a bad stand.
to be a victim
a supple person
to embrace life fully
to dread smth (doing smth)
vehicleto perceive
to stand one’s ground
to have the guts
down to the ground
to take grand slams
to be in the driver’s seat
entity2. Listen to track 7 and 8 to answer the following questions:
Summarize characteristics of passive people.
What are the things to be remembered about passive people?
Why are passive people passive?
How can you characterize Peter’s behavior?
Which technique(s) was (were) the best in dealing with Peter?
Could you think of possible responses to Peter using some other techniques (compromise,
limited response, clouding)?
What does aggressive behavior invite?
What might happen when two aggressive people get in the conflict? Apply these outcomes to Peter’s situation?
Recollect what passive-aggressive people are like.
What are the best techniques in dealing with Tom?
What are some useful “accountability words”?
What options does a person have interacting with passive-aggressive people?
When is the decision to leave better than to confront?
Read and translate Jim Martin’s poem “The Choice”. Compare it with “Thinking” by Walter Wintle.
If you think you're beaten, you are.If you think you dare not, you don’t.If you like to win, but think you can'tIt is almost certain you won't.
If you think you'll lose, you're lostFor out in the world we findSuccess begins with a fellow's willIt's all a state of mind
If you think you're outclassed, you are.You've got to think high to rise.You've got to be sure of yourself beforeYou can ever win a prize.
Life's battles don't always goTo the stronger or faster man.But sooner or later the man who winsIs the man who thinks he can.
Case Study A
Choose the assertive skill (s) that best allows you to handle the following situation to your advantage. After you have chosen, write three to four lines of dialogue for the skill(s) that you have chosen.
Declaration
Confrontation
Compromise
Camouflage
Accountability

You're the customer service manager for a well-established, family-owned food supplement company. The orders come in by phone, mail and fax. The company has two fax machines, one in the sales department and the other in customer service. Inquiries to customer service almost always turn into sales, but with the customer service fax running at capacity, orders are being delayed.
In order to avoid problems, you call the sales manager and say that you need to use the sales fax machine for three hours during that afternoon. You inform the sales manager that you will be up at noon to pick up the machine. The sales manager, after passing along a quick "No way!" hangs up before you can finish.
It is now 11:00 am. What preparation can you make to ready yourself for this confrontation with the sales manager, and which skills should be used?
Case Study B
Holly has worked for a major telephone company for 15 years in an ever-increasing executive role. Holly has received six promotions and is managing a territory of 43 sales reps.
Today, just before lunch, Holly was called into her director's office and offered a "dream" promotion. The new position would include an increase in salary, benefits and stock options of an additional $27,000. In this new job, Holly would be managing a territory of 87 reps. She and her family would have to move to this new territory, which is 2,000 miles from her home.
Here are some of the variables that Holly is faced with:
Her husband of 22 years has only a year and a half left in his Ph.D. program.
He is heavily involved in community issues.
They have lived in the same home all of their married life.
Their only daughter is a junior in high school and is looking forward to graduation with the rest of her class.
Both sets of parents live only minutes away, and they are not in the best of health.
Holly knows that if she takes the job and is successful (and she believes she will be) it would assure her family of financial security.
She really does want the job, but she must give an answer in three days.
How could Holly persuade her husband that the move is in the family's best interest?
Follow your assertiveness development plan!
Week 1
Keep a journal of interactions you had that did not have your desired outcome. Each night, before you go to bed, analyze your role in those outcomes. Did you behave passively, aggressively or assertively? What could you have done differently?
Week 2
Choose a situation that's been bothering you for a long time. Work through a copy of the assertiveness practice worksheet (we've included an extra copy; make as many copies as you like). Practice how you'd like to confront the person, in front of a mirror and with a tape recorder. Listen to yourself. Do you sound the way you want to sound?
Week 3
Go through with it! Confront the situation as you've practiced it. Afterward, do the post-assessment. Did you get what you wanted? How could you do better the next time?
Each week, repeat all three steps of this process. The more you consciously assert yourself, the more proficient you'll become at it. Don't get discouraged if you don't always get what you want. The most important outcomes of assertiveness are feeling free to ask for what you want, taking an active role in your life and respecting yourself for trying.
Unit 19. Introduction to International English Language Tests
TOEFL
3657600115570Since 1963, the TOEFL has been used by scholarship selection committees of governments, universities, and agencies such as Fulbright, the Agency for International Development, AMIDEAST, and Latin American Scholarship Programs as a standard measure of the English proficiency of their candidates. Some professional licensing and certification agencies also use TOEFL scores to evaluate English proficiency. The admissions committees of more than 4500 colleges and universities in the United States, Canada, Australia, Great Britain, and many other countries worldwide require foreign applicants to submit TOEFL scores along with transcripts and recommendations in order to be considered for admission.
The Listening section tests your ability to understand spoken English that is typical of interactions and academic speech on college campuses. During the test, you will respond to conversations and lectures. There are long and short formats for the listening section. On the long format that lasts 90 minutes you will respond to three conversations and six lectures. After each listening passage, you will answer 5-6 questions about it. Only two conversations and four lectures will be graded. The other conversation and lectures are part of an experimental section for future tests. Because you will not know which conversations and lectures will be graded, you must try to do your best on all of them. On the short format, lasting 60 minutes, you will respond to two conversations and four lectures. After each listening passage, you will answer 5-6 questions about it.
You will hear each conversation or lecture one time. You may take notes while you listen, but notes are not graded. You may use your notes to answer the questions.
Choose the best answer for multiple-choice questions. Follow the directions on the page or on the screen for computer-assisted questions. Click on Next and OK to go to the next question. You cannot return to previous questions. You have 20-30 minutes to answer all of the questions. A clock on the screen will show you how much time you have to complete your answers for the section. The clock does not count the time you are listening to the conversations and lectures.
Listening 1. “Professor’s Office”
1. Why does the man go to see his professor?
A. To take a makeup test for a class that he missed
B. To explain why he has been absent from class
C. To turn in an extra credit project to the professor
D. To ask the professor how to bring up his grade
2. Why did Ernie get a low grade on the last test?
A. He does not understand the material.
B. He is not a very good student.
C. He did not have time to finish it.
D. He was in a hurry to leave the class.
3. What do we know about the test?
A. There were 100 questions on it.
B. It was worth 25 percent of the final grade.
C. The test was an extra credit assignment.
D. The questions were very difficult.
4. Why does the professor say this:
A. Because she doesn't understand what the man wants her to do
B. Because she has finished the discussion about the man's problem
C. Because she wants the man to be more specific about his plan
D. Because she does not want to do what the man suggests
5. What can be inferred about the professor?
A. She tries to be fair to all of her students.
B. She is not very flexible about her policies.
C. She does not have very many students.
D. She is not sure what she wants to do.
Listening 2. "Anthropology Class"
6. Which of the following is the main topic of the lecture?
A. A progressive view of agriculture
B. The conditions for the development of agriculture
C. A comparison of hunter-gatherers and farmers
D. The negative effects of agriculture on early farmers
7. What are two key characteristics of hunter-gatherers mentioned in the lecture?
Click on 2 answer choices.
A. They were taller than farmers.
B. They ate less well than farmers.
C. They lived longer than farmers.
D. They were less physically fit than farmers.
8. Why does the professor say this:
A. To emphasize the point that he has just made
B. To indicate that another point will be made
C. To demonstrate that the point is his opinion
D. To regain the students' attention for the next point
9. How does the professor organize his lecture?
A. He contrasts older theories of agriculture with newer ones.
B. He makes an argument for the revisionist view of agriculture.
C. He defines revisionism by giving examples of early farmers.
D. He provides a chronological account of early farmers.
10. Which of the following statements best summarizes the position of the revisionists?
A. The agricultural revolution affected all human activity.
B. The development of agriculture had a positive influence on nutrition.
C. Agriculture contributed to the health risks for early farmers.
D. Agricultural people had to move from place to place to plant crops.
11. In the lecture, the professor describes the relationship between health and agriculture. Indicate whether each of the following is true or false. Click in the correct box for each phrase.
Yes No
A Epidemics were spread by crowded towns and trade. B Crop failure threatened the entire population. C Wars with invading hunter-gatherers devastated them. D Unbalanced diets contributed to malnutrition. E Hard labor damaged their bones. Listening 3. “Business Class”
12. What is the lecture mainly about?
A. Commercials on television
B. Marketing brand-name products
C. A book by Rob Frankel
D. Selling Aunt Ruby's chicken
13. Why does the professor say this:
A. To emphasize the importance of commercials
B. To correct something that he said earlier
C. To identify the time limits for most commercials
D. To relate new information to a previous example
14. According to the professor, why do consumers develop brand loyalty?
A. They have a relationship with the personality that the product projects.
B. They are able to recognize the brand easily when they see it.
C. They tend to make decisions based on recommendations by friends.
D. They find a product that they like and continue to buy it.
15. How does the professor emphasize his point about branding?
A. He uses Aunt Ruby's chicken as an example.
B. He defines it by contrasting it with related concepts.
C. He refers to a book that he has written.
D. He shows a familiar commercial in class.
16. Why does the professor mention laundry detergent?
A. To give an example of price wars
B. To show that consumers buy different brands
C. To name an industry that introduces new brands
D. To explain the concept of brand loyalty
17. According to the professor, what would be a good way to sell a product?
A. Design a good logo to present the product to the public
B. Hire a celebrity that customers like and relate to
C. Make it easy for consumers to recognize the packaging
D. Increase the customer service for the product
Listening 4. “Students on Campus”
18. What is the purpose of this conversation?
A. The man wants to borrow the woman's lab notes.
B. The woman is helping the man to write a report.
C. The man asks the woman to study for their test with him.
D. The woman and the man are performing an experiment.
19. What is the study about?
A. Reaction times for drivers drinking alcohol in comparison with those of nondrinkers
B. The effects of drinking beer as compared with those of drinking gin and tonic
C. The time that it takes to stop a car going 35 miles per hour when the brakes are applied
D. The problems of riding bicycles on college campuses that have 35 mile-per-hour speed limits
20. According to the man, why is it important to mention that the subjects were randomly selected?
A. The random selection explains why the results were so general.
B. This information allows another researcher to repeat the experiment.
C. The lab assistant included it in the example that the students received.
D. Randomly selected subjects assure researchers of an accurate outcome.
21. Why does the woman say this:
A. She is not sure about her observation.
B. She is insulting the man with this comment.
C. She is certain the man agrees with her.
D. She is asking for the man's opinion.
22. Which section includes the conclusions?
A. Discussion
B. Results
C. Chart
D. Introduction
IELTS
3949065100330
IELTS stands for International English Language Training System. It is designed to assess the language ability of candidates who are non-native English speakers and wish to study in Canada, Great Britain or Australia, who want to increase their chances of admission to an international university or who are professionals, looking to work overseas.
Listening Module
Section 1. A conversation between two speakers in a social or semi-official context.Section 2. A talk by a single speaker based on a non-academic situation.
Section 3. A conversation with up to four speakers based on academic topics or course-related situations.
Section 4. A university-style lecture or talk.The listening test is the first part of the IELTS examination. It consists of four recorded sections, each section and each question carries one mark.
As you hear each recording once only it is very important to understand exactly what you are being asked to do in each question. You are given time to read the questions in each part, before you listen. The question types vary; for example, some questions involve completing a form, chart or diagram, others may require you to complete some notes or match some things in a list to what you hear about them. In addition there may be note-taking exercises and multiple choice questions.
You write all your answers on the question paper as you listen. The Listening part of the test takes about 30 minutes. After the recording has finished, you have ten minutes to transfer your answers onto the answer sheet.
Section 1. Questions 1-10.Complete the form below. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR NUMBERS for each answer.
HOST FAMILY APPLICANT
Example: Answer
Name: Jenny Chan
Present address: Sea View Guest House, 1…………………
Daytime phone number: 2237676
NB Best time to contact is 2…………………
Age: 19
Intended length of stay: 3 …………………
Occupation while in UK: student
General level of English: 4 ………………….
Preferred location: in the 5 ………………….
Special diet: 6 …………………………..
Other requirements: own facilities
own television
7 ………………
to be 8 ……………..
Maximum price: 9 £ ……………… a week
Preferred starting date: 10 ……………………………….
Section 2. Questions 11-20.Questions 11-14
Complete the sentences below. Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER for each answer.
Train Information
11. Local services depart from ………………… railway station.
12. National services depart from the …………. railway station.
13. Trains for London depart every ………… each day during the week.
14. The price of a first ticket includes ……………… .Questions 15-17
Complete the table below. Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER for each answer.
Type of ticket Details
Standard open no restrictions
Supersavetravel after 8.45
Special travel after 15 …………. and at weekends
16 …………. buy at least six days ahead
limited numbers
17 ……… essential
Questions 18-20
Choose THREE letters, A-G. Which THREE attractions can you visit at present by train from Trebirch?
a science museum
a theme park
a climbing wall
a mining museum
an aquarium
a castle
a zoo
Section 3. Questions 21-30.Question 21-23
Complete the notes below. Write ONE WORD ONLY for each answer.
Differences between individuals in the workplace
Individuals bring different:
ideas
21 …….
learning experiences
Work behavior differences are due to:
personality
22 …….
Effects of diversity on companies:
Advantage: diversity develops 23 ……..
Disadvantage: diversity can cause conflict
Questions 24-27
Choose the correct letter. A, B or C.24. Janice thinks that employers should encourage workers who are
A. potential leaders.B. open to new ideas.C. good at teamwork.25. Janice suggests that managers may find it difficult to
A. form successful groups.
B. balance conflicting needs.
C. deal with uncooperative workers.26. Janice believes employers should look for job applicants who
A. can think independently.
B. will obey the system.
C. can solve problems.
27. Janice believes managers should
A. demonstrate good behavior.
B. encourage co-operation early on.
C. increase financial incentives.
Questions 28-30
Complete the sentences below. Write ONE WORD ONLY for each answer.
28. All managers need to understand their employees and recognize their company’s ….. .
29. When managing change, increasing the company’s …….. may be more important than employee satisfaction.
30. During periods of change, managers may have to cope with increased amounts of …………..
Section 4. Questions 31-40.Questions 31-37
Complete the table below. Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for each answer.
Period Situation
1st-4th centuries Produce from the area was used to 31 ……. the people of London.
5-th-10th centuries New technology allowed the production of goods made of 32 …….. and ……… .
11th century Lack of 33 …….. in the East End encouraged the growth of businesses.
16th century Construction of facilities for the building of 34 ……. stimulated international trade.
Agricultural workers came from other parts of 35 …….. to look for work.
17th century Marshes were drained to provide land that could be 36 …….. on.
19th century Inhabitants lived on conditions of great 37 ……… with very poor sanitation.
Questions 38-40
Choose THREE letters. A-G. Which THREE of the following problems are mentioned in connection with 20th century housing in the East End?
A. unsympathetic landlords
B. unclean water
C. heating problems
D. high rents
E. overcrowding
F. poor standards of building
G. houses catching fire
BEC
411480013970BEC stands for Business English Certificate.BEC examinations offer an English language qualification for learners who want to use English for international business. All the material in the examinations is based on real-world business situations. There are three levels: BEC1, BEC2, and BEC3.
The Listening test uses different kinds of spoken texts with a business theme, e.g. messages, monologues, interviews, conversations and discussions. You hear each text twice. In the examination, at the end of the test, you are given 10 minutes to transfer your answers on to the OMR sheet.
For the Listening test, you have to:
find the information from three short spoken texts and fill in three gapped texts
match 10 (2 x 5) short texts to a set of items
answer eight multiple choice questions on a longer spoken text.
Each correct answer is given 1 mark. There are no half marks.
Below you will find BEC2 listening test.
Approximately 40 minutes (including 10 minutes transfer time)
Part One. Questions 1-12.You will hear three recorded telephone messages.
Write one or two words or a number in the numbered spaces on the forms below.
After each message, rewind the tape and listen again.
Message One
Questions 1-4
Look at the form below.
You will hear a man leaving a message for his bank.
Caller: Lewis Bradfield
Firm: Collings (1) ……….. Company
Date: Tuesday, 14 February
Time of call: (2) ………………
Has received his (3) ………… with several
(4) …………… he is unsure about.
Please ring him as soon as possible.
Message Two
Questions 5-8
Look at the form below.
You will hear a hotel manager leaving a message for Mr Lacey.
Caller: The Mandarin Court Hotel, ShanghaiDate and time: 8.6.98 @ 8 a.m.
Hotel confirms booking for Mr Lacey. Expect him to arrive on 12 June. Reservation is until (5) ………………… .He has been out in a (6) ………………. room on the 14th floor as requested.
Room rate offered $ (7) ………………………
Fax/phone no. 86 21 (8) ………………………
Message Three
Questions 9-12
Look at the form below.
You will hear a man from a computer rental company leaving a message.
Caller: Computer Rental Services
Date and the time of message: 10.30 a.m., 27 November
Confirms that a (9) ……………….. computer is available for rent.
Cost: $ (10) …………… per month plus insurance. (Taking out of country?)
Please advise on (11) ……………… date.
Call Jim Darma on (12) ……………. today, if possible.
Part Two. Questions 13-22.Section One
Questions 13-17
You will hear five people talking about different items.
For each piece, decide which item A-H the speaker is talking about.
Write one letter A-H next to the number of the piece.
Do not use any letter more than once.
At the end of question 17, rewind the tape and listen again.
13 ……………
14 ……………
15 ……………
16 ……………
17 …………… A photocopier
B hotel booking
C expenses claim
D meeting
E fax machine
F advertisements
G report
H business plan
Section Two
Questions 18-22
You will hear another five short pieces.
For each piece, decide who the speaker is.
Write one letter A-H next to the number of the piece.
Do not use any letter more than once.
At the end of question 22, rewind the tape and listen again.
18 ……………
19 ……………
20 ……………
21 ……………
22 …………… A secretary
B telephone engineer
C security guard
D hotel receptionist
E bank manager
F builder
G conference delegate
H waiter
Part Three. Questions 23-30
You will hear a woman giving advice on how to give a good presentation.
Choose the best phrase to answer or complete questions 23-30.
Mark one letter A, B or C for the sentence you choose.
At the end of the talk, rewind the tape and listen again.
23. How should you stand when giving a presentation?
A keep your knees straight
B keep your head still
C keep your feet apart
24. What happens if you stick your neck forwards?
A your throat will get sore
B your voice will sound strange
C your head will feet light
25. What should you do if you are nervous?
A examine your feelings
B make detailed notes
C go for a message
26. What can you do to make your presentation sound more interesting?
A speak loudly and clearly
B sound enthusiastic
C ask the audience questions
27. Which body type might an audience find irritating?
A passive
B aggressive
C assertive
28. What is characteristic of an aggressive body type?
A playing with hair
B swinging leg
C clear voice
29. What should you avoid doing before a presentation?
A drinking coffee
B eating too much
C smoking
30. If you have a cold, remember to
A clear your throat before speaking.
B use your tongue and lips more.
C drink small amounts of alcohol.
Unit 20. Robert T. Kiyosaki’s Cashflow Quadrant
4168140109855Robert Toru Kiyosaki (born April 8, 1947) is an American investor, businessman, self-help author, motivational speaker, financial literacy activist, and occasional financial commentator. Kiyosaki is perhaps best known for his Rich Dad Poor Dad series of motivational books and other material published under the Rich Dad brand. He has written over 15 books which have combined sales of over 26 million copies. Although beginning as a self-publisher, he was subsequently published by Warner Books, a division of Hachette Book Group USA. His new books appear under the Rich Dad Press imprint. Three of his books, Rich Dad Poor Dad, Rich Dad's CASHFLOW Quadrant, and Rich Dad's Guide to Investing, have been on number one on the top 10 best-seller lists simultaneously on The Wall Street Journal, USA Today and the New York Times. Rich Kid Smart Kid was published in 2001, with the intent to help parents teach their children financial concepts. He has created three "Cashflow" board and software games for adults and children and has a series of "Rich Dad" CDs and disks.
As a devout global financial literacy advocate, Kiyosaki has been a staunch proponent of entrepreneurship, business education, investing, and that comprehensive financial literacy concepts should be taught in schools around the world.
(from Wikipedia)
Track 1(41:49)
I. Introduction
Whom is this program intended for?
Who was the rich and the poor father for the author?
What did both dads advise the author to do?
Render the story which the rich dad told a 12 year old Kiyosaki.
Compare it with the cartoon “Pablo and Bruno: the Parable of the Pipeline”. What is the moral of these two stories?
II. Why don’t you get a job?
In what situation did Kiyosaki and his wife find themselves in 1985? Describe it.
Why didn’t they want to get a self-secured job?
Were they sure they had chosen the right road?
What happened to them in 1989? How old were they at that time?
Robert Kiyosaki thinks “It takes money to make money, doesn’t it?” What does it take it then?
What does RICH DAD’S CASH FLOW QUADRANT represent? Can you draw the quadrant?
Describe the methods by which “e”, “s”, “b” and “i” earn their income. What do different methods of income generation depend on?
Do all people have a potential to generate income from all four quadrants? Give an example with a doctor.
Why did R.K. choose working for “b” quadrant?
What was Kiyosaki's rich and poor dad’s attitude to money?
What lesson did Kiyosaki experience as a young boy?
What did Kiyosaki’s real dad’s banker advise him to do?
What happened to his dad in the 1970-s? Why did he make this decision?
What jobs could he get since the failure? Why didn’t he even succeed in “s” quadrant?
What is in common in human beings? And what is different? How did they act when both face the same fear of losing money and failing?
III. What are the differences?
How can one tell that people are in “e”, “s”, “b” or “i”?
What can the word “risk” cause?
What is the difference between “e” and ‘s” people?
What is the motto of the ‘b” people?
What is the hardest part in business? (technical skills or working with people)
What is the difference between “s” and “b” types of business?
Why is Mc Donald’s one of the best businesses?
Where do rich, poor and middle-class people receive their income from?
What is the difference between “being rich” and “being wealthy”?
Give the definition of wealth.
What is wealth measured in? Give an example.
Name some forms of investing money. Which form was popular in industrial age?
What kind of investment does “i” quadrant focus on?
Track 2 (37:39)
Why aren’t most people investors?
What four categories does the fear of losing money divide people into?
What was Kiyosaki’s educated dad’s attitude to risk?
What should one who wants to move from industrial age retirement plans to information age pension plans learn?
What does R.K. compare learning to invest with?
What does information age mean for people?
Why do people choose security over freedom?
Describe how an average well-educated man gets into the money trap.
What is financial intelligence?
What is “home-based business’?
Who pays most of taxes?
What is the difference between job security, financial security and financial freedom?
What was financial security for Kiyosaki’s highly educated dad?
What are the patterns for job financial security?
What paths to financial freedom does Kiyosaki recommend?
Why does he recommend “b”?
What are the three types of businesses commonly used today?
Why didn’t the rich dad let Kiyosaki buy a franchise of his business?
What is the difference between managers and leaders according to the rich dad?
Where can you find yourself if you do smth your own way in franchise?
What are the synonyms for “net-work marketing”?
What do people need to be successful in business?
Track 3 (39:43)
What organizations does Kiyosaki support and why?
In what way was the process of creating a successful system beneficial for Kiyosaki and his wife?
What are the reasons so many people are stuck on the left side of the quadrant?
What has reduced the risks involved in becoming a business owner?
Why are franchises and network marketing a good bridge to the right side of the quadrant?
What is John Boolie?
List 7 levels of investors.
Characterize level 0, 1 and 2.
Give the general characteristic of level 3 and speak about 3 main categories at this level?
What are the other names for investors of the 3rd category at level 3?
Characterize level 4 investors and enumerate things that can make you a long-term investor.
At what age is it better to try and become a long-term investor?
Why are investors of level 5 called sophisticated ones? How else are they called?
What place do level 6 investors take in business world?
What is the difference between level 5 and 6 investors?
Why do capitalists in bad times become richer?
What differentiates level 6 investors from other people?
What is the favorite capitalists’ game?
What lesson did Kiyosaki’s Rich Dad teach him when Kiyosaki decided to buy a condominium in 1974?
Why do 9 out of 10 investors do not make money?
What is the 1-st step in training your brain to see money?
What is the 2-nd step in training your brain to see money?
What is risky according to Rich Dad?
What advice do financial advisors give depending on the kind of investors?
How did Rich Dad recommend to deal with bankers? Why?
What is Rich Dad’s definition of an asset and liability?
What differentiates people on the left side from the right side of the quadrant taking into account this definition?
On what balance sheet is your house an asset and on what is a liability?
Can your house become an asset if you pay it off? What are the reasons for you answer?
Show with an example that most people really don’t know what their interest is?
Explain why savings are a liability to the bank?
Track 4 (37:56)
Listen to track 4. Summarize the information you will hear writing a paragraph of 200-250 words.


4187190-154940Recording Scripts and Answer Key
Unit 1
1.1 Introductory lecture
Note-taking is a common practice at colleges and universities where English is the language of instruction. Taking notes on lectures is an accepted part of European and American college scene. It is quite usual to see college students entering the class carrying notebooks in which to take notes on material presented there. Taking notes while listening to a lecture benefits students in several ways. First, the notes provide a record of the information discussed by the professor in class, information that the professor believes is especially important for students to learn. Very often the professor points out or highlights certain information contained in an assignment which the students have to read outside class. It is important to have this highlighted information available to study before an examination. So, in many ways, your class notebook stores the information as a computer does. It holds the information for you until you need it for study or review. This is often called the "recording and storing information" function of note-taking. It is one of the important reasons for learning to take good notes on lectures.
Another advantage of taking notes while listening in class is that it forces you to pay closer attention to the class lecture or discussion. If you listen passively to a professor who is talking on and on for an hour or so, your mind will often wander and your attention lessen. You are sitting in class and listening, but that may be all you are doing; however, when you listen actively — that is, when you are listening and taking notes on what you are listening to — you have to pay more careful and constant attention to what is being said. This is because you are trying to transform what you hear into an understandable, abbreviated written form. As a foreign student, you may find it very difficult to listen and write notes in English at the same time. It is difficult at first, but you will learn how to do so with practice. You may be afraid you will forget what you are listening to because you are listening and writing at the same time, but the studies of researchers such as Andrea Weiland and Steven Kingsbury, and David Berliner, on the value of note-taking in learning lecture material have shown that learners remember information they have reproduced in some note form much better than lecture information they have listened to but did not take down in a note form. So doing two things at the same time — listening and taking notes — is better than doing one thing at a time. We do not say it is easier; we say it is better.
Of course, there is no one method of taking notes that is best for everybody. Note-taking is an individual thing, and you must develop a method that works for you. With practice, you will develop your own system. Now, how do you begin to learn to take good lecture notes in English? First, of course, you must know English well enough to understand what the professor is saying. Then you must pick out the most important points of the information presented. After that, you must quickly write down these main points in your notebook. You may ask how you do all this at once, and in a foreign language. Practice will help you develop this ability. Remember, just as it takes time and exposure to learn a foreign language, it also takes time and practice to learn how to take notes in that foreign language.
Now, let's talk about what note-taking is really all about. It is extremely important in note-taking to know what you need to write down and what you don't need to write down. You should write down only the most important words; the words that carry the most information; words like nouns, verbs, numbers, statistics, dates, and names of places and people. We call these words content words. In general, you don't need to write down articles, such as the, an, and so forth, and most prepositions, unless they signal an important time change. For example, you would have to note the prepositions in the expression, "before 1950" and "after World War II." Prepositions and articles are called structure words.
In lecture note-taking, you must also learn to ignore, or not to write down, information that is repeated by the lecturer. A professor will often repeat the same information with different words. It is good to hear the information presented in two ways, but it is not a good idea to write down the repeated information. Remember, write down only the information-carrying or content words, and ignore repeated items.
As for selecting the most important words, how do you determine what the most important words are? Listen to the following piece of information:
"The President of the United States arrived back in Washington, D.С. late in the evening of Monday, July 6th. His trip took him to the Middle Eastern country of Saudi Arabia where he took part in several meetings about the price of oil and world-wide inflation."
It is quite obvious that you cannot write down every word that you just heard. Not only would it be impossible to do so, but also it would not be necessary. The entire message can be reduced to the following key words:
President United States arrived D.C. Monday July 6.
Trip Saudi Arabia meetings about price oil world inflation.Notice that the pronouns, articles, most prepositions, and obvious words have been omitted in the written form. This is very important to do when you are taking notes because you don't have the time to write down every word that you hear.
Now, let's consider that same message again:
President United States arrived D.C. Monday July 6.
Trip Saudi Arabia meetings about price oil world inflation. It would take quite a while to get even key or content words down on paper just as they are. What can be done to shorten the time it takes to write down these key words? You can use abbreviations and symbols.
Take a minute to note the abbreviations and symbols we have used for the same message:
Pres. U.S. arriv. D.C. Mon. 7/6 .Trip - S.A. meetings re pr. oil + world infl.Notice the symbol "re". It is a common symbol for the prepositions about and concerning. There are several common symbols that can be used effectively in taking notes. Other such symbols are the "plus" sign (+) or the "and" sign (&).
You may want to develop your own set of symbols to use when taking notes. The only requirements are that the symbols make sense to you and that you use them consistently.
1.5 Sentences from college lectures:
1. The Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution gave women the right to vote, beginning with the elections of 1920.
19 women vote/1920
2. In a suspension bridge, there are two towers with one or more flexible cables firmly attached at each end.
Suspension = 2 towers w/flex cables @ ends
3. A perennial is any plant that continues to grow for more than two years, as for example, trees and shrubs.
Perennial = plant 2+ yrs ex. Trees, shrubs
4. Famous for innovations in punctuation, typography, and language, Edward Estlin Cummings, known to us as e.e. cummings, published his collected poems in 1954.
ee. cummings innovations punctuation, typo, language 1954 poems
5. Absolute zero, the temperature at which all substances have zero thermal energy, and thus the lowest possible temperatures, is unattainable in practice.
absolute zero = temp. all substances 0 thermal energy lowest temps
6. Because Columbus, Ohio, is considered a typical metropolitan area, it is often used for market research to test new products.
Columbus, O = typical metro market research new products
7. The cacao bean was cultivated by the Aztecs not only to drink but also as currency in their society.
cocao bean Aztecs = currency
8. The blue whale is the largest known animal, reaching a length of more than one hundred feet, which is five times its size at birth.
Blue whale = largest animal 100' = 5x birth size
9. Ontario is the heartland of Canada, both geographically, and, I would say, historically as well.
Ontario = heartland Canada geograph + hist10. Nuclear particles called hadrons, which include the proton and neutron, are made from quarks – very odd particles that have a slight electrical charge but that cannot exist alone in nature.
nuclear particles = hadrons = proton + neutron quarks = particles slight electric charge 0 nature
Unit 2
2.1 The ideas may be:
Members (the more … the more difficult)
Accents
Topic (the more familiar the topic, the easier)
Density of ideas
Task familiarity
Speed of speech
Amount of repetitions
Kind of spoken speech (lecturing, international communication, which is more difficult)
Quality of the recording
Level of support given in the task
Background knowledge (those who have, for them it is easier)
Level of complexity connected with authenticity
Length of the passage
Number of listenings2.2 Four passages on the topic “Food”:
1.
In the 16the century, a famous Spanish explorer, Hernan Cortes, brought chocolate back from the Americas to Spain. Drinking chocolate soon became very popular in Europe. Three hundred years later, a scientist in Holland learned how to make chocolate into candy. Today chocolate is one of the most popular and best-loved foods in the world.
(from Abbs, B, Barker, C, Freebairn, I and Wilson, J (2008) Postcards 2 (2nd edn), Teacher’s Edition, Pearson Education, page 14)
2.
MALE: How much rice do you buy each week?
FEMALE: I usually buy two kilos of rice.
MALE: And how many tomatoes do you eat?
FEMALE: About six.
MALE: How much coffee do you buy?
FEMALE: I buy about 250 grammes of coffee?
MALE: How many pineapples do you get?
FEMALE: Oh, only one.
(from Foley, M and Hall, D (2005) Total English Elementary, Pearson Education, page 152)
3.
Q: Is it true, Lisa, that you always have bacon and eggs for breakfast?
LISA: Well, it used to be true, but it isn’t true any more. People often have toast and cereal, jam, yoghurt, things like that, but not many have time to cook bacon and eggs. It’s only in hotels when you get bacon and eggs — what we call a cooked breakfast or an English breakfast.
(from Greenall, S (1997) Reward Elementary, Heinemann, page 117)
4.
I: Michael, you’ve had the opportunity to taste some of the more unusual dishes from around the world. Can you tell us something about them, and in particular, what they taste like?
M: Yes, well, I’ve just come back from Thailand and in the winter, sackloads of grasshoppers and locusts are brought into Bangkok from the countryside because the Thais love them. They make a really crisp and tasty snack. In fact, fried grasshoppers are tasty to most people, provided they don’t know what they’re eating. They eat crickets in parts of North America, and they taste just the same.
I: Hmmm. I’m not sure I’d like to eat insects.
(from Kay, S and Jones, V (2000) Inside Out Intermediate, Macmillan Heinemann, page 156)
2.4 Five passages:
1.
WOMAN 1: Your, um, your tapas meal ... was it with sort of Spanish friends - is that why you went for tapas or was it just for...
WOMAN 2: Um, we were in Camden - it was one of those moments where you think where shall we go, what shall we do? And I’ve just got this thing about tapas.
WOMAN 1: I just wondered because I know that Amy sometimes goes for sort of special, you know, sort of Argentinian things ... with her Arg ... she gets a group of people who’ve got Argentinian connections - who either come from there or studied there and and they go for Argentinian meals, so ...
WOMAN 2: Well, I just always go for tapas and my friend who I was with, he doesn’t actually like tapas …
WOMAN 1: So you just made him eat it! Oh, so nice!
WOMAN 2: And he just kind of watched, but, you know, I said
WOMAN 1: Did he not eat anything?
WOMAN 2: Hmm, meatballs ... and that’s all. And I was like getting in there, really enjoying it. I just love the fact that you go in, you look at a menu, and you can choose so many different things ... rather than making one decision ...WOMAN 1: And it’s OK if there are vegetarians with you or people who ... vegans or... ’cos they can just choose, right...
WOMAN 2: Exactly.
WOMAN 1: But how can you not like tapas? That’s like not liking Italian food or something ... it’s just.
WOMAN 2: I know. It’s like bog standard, basic food ...2.
With regard to professional development for teachers, we often talk about the three Cs. The first of these is courses. In order to get qualified to become a teacher, we usually need to take a course of study. These vary in length and type. Some may last a week; others take place over several years. The second C is conferences. Attending conferences is a great way to hear about new developments in the profession and meet colleagues. Presenting at conferences is another good way to develop your knowledge of the field and to share your ideas.
The third C is perhaps the most important: colleagues. Unlike conferences and courses, our relationships with colleagues last for the whole of our working life. We can learn so much by talking, observing and being observed by them. These are the three topics I will be discussing today.
3.
MAN: Hiya.
WAITRESS : Hiya.
MAN: Could I have, um, a a cup of tea and, um, er, a slice of cake?
WAITRESS: Yes.
MAN: Oh, er, no could I have, er, a coffee ... and, er, a cheese sandwich?
WAITRESS: Cheese sandwich. So you want coffee, tea and cheese sandwich, yeah?
MAN: Um, yeah, er, a coffee, a tea, a cheese sandwich and a slice of cake.
WAITRESS: Could I have one tea and one coffee, please? Anything else?MAN: Um ... Oh, I don’t know. Er, no, no, I think that’s it. Yeah.
WAITRESS: That’s Ј3.50 altogether, please.
MAN: Thanks.
WAITRESS: Thank you. Your change.MAN: Thanks a lot.
WAITRESS : Thanks.
MAN: Cheers.
4.
A: Excuse me, can you tell me the way to the nearest post office?
B: Yes, it’s not too far. You need to go left here.
A: OK, go left.
B: Then go to the end of the street.
A: OK.
B: And you’ll find it on the right, opposite the bank. You can’t miss it.
A: OK, so I need to go left, go to the end of the street and it’s opposite the bank.
B: That’s right.
A: Thank you very much.
B: You’re welcome.
5.
TEACHER: OK, listen up, everybody. I’d like you to open your books at page 52, get into pairs and we’re going to be looking at three questions, and I want you to look at each of these questions and discuss it with your partners and, er ... settle down, I haven’t finished, settle down, now. Yes, I want you to get into pairs ... no, sit over there. Yes, right now, what have I just said?
2.5 Possible solutions:
1.
I suggested that he simply count slowly to three after hearing the end of the question. He tried this and our work together was over.
2.
I suggested he prepare himself very thoroughly before listening. I told him to read the stories in his own language first, which was Italian. This way, he would already know the content and the names of the people involved. I also told him to read the story in English before listening. This would give him a good idea about what vocabulary he could expect to hear. Finally, I told him to simplify his expectations. Instead of thinking about what he couldn’t understand, I tried to get him to think about everything he did understand.
3.
I observed her doing a practice test, and realised she was writing full sentences to answer the early questions. This meant she was missing the rest of the passage because she couldn’t write and listen at the same time. I taught her to write notes for the answers and to concentrate on
listening rather than writing. In the end, she passed her exam.
Unit 3
3.1
The girl I live (give) with knows a good pub with (dive) music.
The main house (mouse) houses (rouse) a collection of rare stamps.
They bathed (path) the children after they had bathed (lathe) in the sea.
You sow (glow) the seeds while I feed the sow. (cow)
The violinist in the bow (flow) tie made a bow. (allow)
He's the lead (deed) singer in the group 'Lead (head) piping'.
What a row (plough) from the last house in the row!( though)
Does he still suffer from his war wound? (mooned)
I wound (round) the rope around the tree to strengthen it against the gale.
It's quite hard to wind (find) in the sails in this wind. (tinned)
3.2
1. waste2. sole3. pane4. heir5. allowed6. practice7. through, phase
8. peel3.3 Possible answers:
They're going to take their aunt to have dinner there this evening.
It's the first time the car has left its garage this year.
Let's practise with these grammar exercises first and then do some vocabulary practice.
It's great to see such a lovely fire burning in the grate.
Don't whine so much, just because the wine's finished.
He has sought a job of this sort for ages.
The archaeological site was a marvellous sight at sunset.
Let us pray that we may never be prey to evil thoughts.
Although she was a little hoarse, it did not put her off horse riding in the snow.
The beautiful sight of the moon's rays reflected in the lake did a great deal to raise her spirits.
Note: Most sentences in 'real' English avoid using homophones as they are confusing.
3.4
1. You're too young to smoke.
This is a play on words on the two meanings of smoke - to smoke a cigarette and a fire or chimney smokes (i.e give out smoke).
2. I think I'm going down with something.
This is a play on words on two meanings of going down. There is the literal meaning go down (descend) and then there is the expression, 'go down with an illness', which means be at the start of an attack of that illness.
3. Let's play draughts.
This is a play on words on the two meanings of draughts. One is the game played with round counters and a chess board and the other is a current of air as in 'There's a terrible draught coming from under the door'.
4. He wanted to draw the curtains.
This is a play on words on two meanings of draw. The first means make a picture and the second means pull.
5. Because it's full of dates.
This is a play on words on the two meanings of dates. One refers to 1066, 1892 and all that and the other to a sweet fruit coming from a kind of palm tree or to an evening spent together by two people (usually romantic).
6. Because it's got a tender behind.
This is a play on words on two meanings of two words - tender and behind. Tender can mean either susceptible to pain, or a wagon for fuel and water behind a steam locomotive. Behind is normally, of course, a preposition but it can also be an informal noun meaning 'bottom', as in the part of the body that a person sits on.
7. A nervous wreck.
A wreck is a boat or ship that, for example, hits a rock and sinks to the bottom of the sea. A nervous wreck, however, is an expression commonly used to describe someone who is extremely nervous.
3.5
1. we’d / weed
2. beet / beat
3. night / knight
4. aunt / ant
5. crews / cruise
6. band / banned
7. they’re / there
8. fit / feet
9. pail / pale
10. cent / scent
Unit 4
4.2 b) 1c, 2a, 3a, 4b, 5c, 6a, 7b, 8d, 9a, 10d
c) 1a, 2a, 3c, 4d, 5c, 6a, 7a, 8b, 9d, 10a
Unit 5
5.1 Multiple-choice Questions:
How many miles long is the Grand Canyon? (b)
How many miles wide is the Grand Canyon at its widest point? (b)
How many more inches of rainfall does the north rim of the Canyon get than the south rim does? (a)
What can be seen in the walls of the Grand Canyon? (b)
How many kinds of plants can be found in the Grand Canyon Park? (d)
How many more species of birds than mammals are there in the Grand Canyon Park? (b)
In what year did the first Europeans see the Grand Canyon? (d)
Which group of Indians occupies the largest amount of land in the Grand Canyon area? (b)
How many acres of land do the Hopi Indians occupy? (d)
How many Havasupai Indians live near the Grand Canyon? (a)
True-False Statements:
1. F It is 217 miles long
2. F It is four to eighteen miles wide.
3. T
4. F The north rim gets twenty-six inches of rain, while the south rim gets sixteen inches.
5. T
6. F There is along record of geologic (not geographic) change in the walls of the Grand Canyon.
7. T
8. F They were guided by Hopi Indians.
9. F They saw it in 1540 – which is in the sixteenth (not the fifteenth) century.
10. T
11. T
12. F He established the Grand Canyon National Park in the early twentieth century – in 1919.
Unit 7
7.1
Multiple-choice Questions:
What is the current population of Ireland? (c)
When was Ireland one of the principal cultural centers of Europe? (c)
When did England gain control over the whole of Ireland? (d)
What did the Irish people experience throughout the eighteenth century? (d)
When the potato crop failed, what happened in Ireland? (a)
In exactly what year did the Great Potato Famine occur? (c)
When was it that English was the only language taught in Ireland's schools? (d)
When did Ireland achieve self-government? (a)
When did Ireland become a republic? (d)
In the 1940s which group was required to know Irish? (b)
Since what year has Irish been required for college matriculation in every college in Ireland except in Trinity College? (b)
How long has the Irish language been spoken in Ireland? (d)
True-False Statements:
1. T
2. T
3. F The Irish continually rebelled against the English down through the ages.
4. F The Irish suffered from economic exploitation, and religious and political persecution.
5. F The failure of the potato crop brought starvation to those who remained in Ireland.
6. T
7. T .
8. T
9. F The government prints all its documents in both English and Irish.
10. F Newspaper articles are printed in both English and Irish today.
11. F It has been spoken in Ireland for over a thousand years – it has been spoken in one form or another for more than two thousand years.
Unit 8
8.2
Multiple-Choice Questions
How many miles long is the Panama Canal? (a)
Before the Canal existed, how many kilometers did a ship going from New York to San Francisco have to travel? (d)
By how many miles did the Canal shorten the trip from New York to San Francisco? (b)
Why did the early Spaniards want a canal in the Panama region? (a)
How many years after King Charles I ordered his survey was construction of a canal in Panama begun? (c)
Why did the French company abandon the construction of a canal in Panama? (d)
How much did the United States government pay the Panamanian government in 1902? (b)
How much did construction of the canal cost the U.S.? (d)
What is the difference in the amount of money it cost the U.S. to build the Canal and the amount of money the United States received in tolls in one year alone? (c)
How long is each Canal lock? (b)
How wide is each Canal lock? (a)
How deep is each Canal lock? (a)
True-False Statements
l. T
2. F The Suez Canal is longer than the Panama Canal.
3. T
4. T
5. F They indicated pessimism about the possibility.
6. T
7. T
8. T
9. F Thousands of workers died during construction. This must have disrupted the work.
10. F The Canal was a profitable investment for the U.S. Notice the amount of revenue that is received in one year in tolls.
11. T
12. F Each lock is seventy feet deep or twenty-one meters deep.
13. F The larger ships will not be able to pass through, but smaller ships should still be able to sail through.
14. F By the year 2000, Panama will be in full control.
Unit 10
10.1
Multiple-Choice Questions
Between what years did the Aztecs build the most powerful empire ever known in the Americas? (b)
What was the population of Tenochtitlan during the sixteenth century? (d)
From the information given, what was the population of London, England in the sixteenth century? (b)
For how long did Montezuma rule the Aztec Empire? (c)
How did Montezuma react when he first learned that Spanish soldiers were approaching his capital? (d)
When did the Spaniards take Montezuma prisoner? (b)
When did the Aztec rebellion against the Spanish occupation occur? (a)
According to Cortes, how many Indians were killed in the battle for the Aztec capital? (d)
How long did the battle for the capital last? (b)
How many Spanish conquistadores were there in Cortes's expedition when it first started out in the New World? (b)
Why was Cortes, in all probability, successful in gathering Indian allies to fight against the Aztecs? (c)
How large an army finally attacked the Aztec capital? (d)
What factors led to the downfall of the Aztec Empire? (d)
True-False Statements
1. F They built the most powerful empire in what is today Mexico.
2. T
3. F They believed in offering human sacrifices to their gods.
4. NG Nowhere in the lecture is it mentioned where the prisoners were housed.
5. T
6. T
7. F If the Spaniards had killed most of the Indians they met, they would have had no allies.
8. T One can assume this because they were so surprised to see white, bearded men.
9. T Erroneously = mistakenly. Cortes was no god.
10. F Montezuma sent gold and silver to the Spaniards.
11. F They rebelled seven months later.
12. T
13. NG One might imagine that he did, but there is no way of knowing whether he did or did not receive good treatment from the Spaniards.
14. F Military superiority benefited the cause of the Spaniards.
15. F He was immobilized with fear that Cortes was a god, so he did nothing at first.
16. F They had never seen guns or horses before.
17. T One can assume so since the Aztecs captured area Indians and used them for sacrifices.
18. T This is no doubt why she could negotiate between the Spaniards, the area Indians, and the Aztecs.
19. F The small band of 553 Europeans had grown to a fighting force of more than 75,000 fighting men. Many area Indians fought against the Aztecs.
20. NG This is nowhere stated or implied in the lecture information.
Unit11
11.1
Multiple–Choice Questions
When was Т. Е. Lawrence born? (a)
When did Lawrence help organize the Arab revolt against the Ottoman Empire? (b)
What did Lawrence and the Arab guerillas sabotage in Hejaz? (c)
After World War I, with what delegation did Lawrence go to the Paris Peace Conference? (b)
From 1921 to 1922 where did Lawrence serve as an adviser on Arab affairs? (c)
What did Lawrence do after he resigned from the Colonial Office? (d)
When did Lawrence enlist in the tank corps? (c)
What is The Seven Pillars of Wisdom primarily the story of? (b)
How old was Lawrence when he was killed in a motorcycle accident? (b)
How did Lawrence's critics describe him? (b)
True–False Statements
1. NG We are told where he spent his childhood, but nothing about whether
it was a happy or unhappy one.
2. F He first studied Arabic when he was in college in England.
3. T Wales; France; England.
4. T
5. T
6. NG Very little is said about Feisal, and nothing is said about what he did after the war.
7. T
8. F He was not able to do so.
9. T
10. T
11. NG We are told nothing about Lawrence's co–workers in the Colonial Office.
12. F He was a deeply disappointed and frustrated man.
13. F He sought seclusion and anonymity after the war.
14. NG We are told that he had a motorcycle accident, but not given the details
of the accident.
15. T
16. F A pseudonym is a name adopted by one who wishes to hide his or her
identity. The lecturer does not indicate what pseudonym Lawrence adopted.
17. F Lawrence was a living legend of his time.
Unit 15
15.1
Multiple-Choice Questions
How many months did John Kennedy serve as President of the United States? (d)
How many years passed between the time Kennedy won his first Congressional election and the presidential election? (b)
How old was Kennedy when he was assassinated? (d)
In what years did Kennedy undergo major back operations? (d)
How many years after Kennedy was killed was his brother assassinated? (b)
Which of the following countries did not sign the atomic test ban treaty of
1963? (b)
In his handling of American foreign policy, which of the following was not a major concern of John Kennedy? (c)
In what year did France withdraw from the military affairs of NATO? (d)
When did the first man land on the moon? (d)
Which of the following Kennedy proposals was not passed by Congress when he was alive? (b)
For whose benefit did John Kennedy introduce the most radical legislation in the United States in the twentieth century? (a)
True-False Statements
l. T
2. F Kennedy's murder took place in the fall of 1963.
3. NG The lecturer did not touch upon this point.
4. F The lecturer stated that "although Kennedy was young, well-educated, and rich, things did not always go smoothly for him."
5. NG It was mentioned that his newborn son died, but no date for the death was given.
6. F Kennedy apparently spent very little time talking to even his closest advisers about how he made final decisions.
7. F Kennedy had such a keen (acute) sense of history, but he was really quite disorderly about keeping records of what influenced and led up to his political decisions.
8. T
9. T
10. T
11. F The "New Frontier" refers to Kennedy's administration, his term in office.
12. T "Senior citizens" are people over sixty-five years of age.
13. T .
14. T
15. F Kennedy is famous for the remark that Americans should not ask what their country can do for them, but what they can do for their country. This is just the opposite of the remark in the true-false statement.
Unit 17
17.1
b) An anecdote
After a ten-hour journey from London I was really happy to have arrived at my host family’s house in Colombia. They were extremely friendly even though I spoke only a little Spanish, and they plied me with lemonade and made me comfortable. After a while, the mother asked me: “Estas casado?” I thought she was asking me if I was tired, so I said: “Si, un poco,” which means, “yes, a little”. Suddenly everyone laughed. Later I found out that “casado” means “married”, and “cansado” means “tired”. So she’d asked me if I was married and I’d said: “Oh, a little”!
(from Clare, A and Wilson, J (2007) Total English Advanced Workbook, Pearson Education, page 12)
A joke
A couple owned a cat, but the man hated it. So one day he decided to get rid of it. He drove ten blocks and threw the cat out of the car window. But when he got home, there the cat was, lying on the doormat. So the next day he drove twenty blocks and threw the cat into a river. But, on entering his driveway, the cat was there again, fast asleep by the door. So the next day he drove fifteen blocks, took a left, took a right, went down the motorway, crossed a couple of bridges and threw the cat into a large hole in the ground. After driving a while, he called his wife. “Is the cat there?” he asked. “Yes,” she said. “Why do you ask?” “OK, put the cat on the phone. I’m lost and I need directions home.”
(from Clare, A and Wilson, J (2007) Total English Advanced Workbook, Pearson Education, page 24)
17.2
b) “My Blackberry Is Not Working” script
Student 1 (Customer): I bought something from you last week, and I'm very disappointed.
Student 2 (Shop-assistant): Oh yeah? What's the problem?
Student 1: Yeah, well, my blackberry is not working.
Student 2: What's the matter, it run out of juice?
Student 1: No, no, it's completely frozen! [knocking on table]
Student 2: Oh, yeah, I can see that. I tell you what: let's try it on orange.
Student 1: That's got a few black spots, you see...
Student 2: Oh, dear, yes. Sorry about that.
Student 1: Well, is there anything I can do to get my blackberry working?
Student 2: Well, could be an application issue. Where'd you store that blackberry?
Student 1: Well, it was on my desktop.
Student 2: Well, you could try using a mouse to drag the blackberry to the trash. Then after you've done that, you might wanna launch the blackberry from the desktop.
Student 1: Well, I've already tried that a few times. I mean, all it did was mess up windows.
Student 2: [clears throat] Well, it might be worth waiting a couple of weeks. They've got the latest blackberries coming in then.
Student 1: Well, could you give me a date?
Student 2: Certainly.
Student 1: Let me put that date in my diary.
Student 2: Anything else I can help you with?
Student 1: Yes, yes. I've also got a problem, to be honest, with my apple.
Student 2: Oh, dear, oh, dear. That is an old apple, isn't it?
Student 1: Yeah.
Student 2: When'd you buy that?
Student 1: Last week.
Student 2: Last week? They've brought out two new apples since then! What's the problem with it?
Student 1: Well, I tried to put my dongle in it... and it won't fit.
Student 2: Oh, yeah. And how big's your dongle?
Student 1: Well, I don't know much about these things, but my wife's seen a few dongles in her time... and she says a little bit on the small side.
Student 2: Well, I'm afraid there's not a lot I can do about that. Tell you what: let me try booting it. Now it's crashed. Anything else I can help you with?
Student 1: Well, funnily enough, yes. My grandson's birthday's soon.
Student 2: Oh, yeah.
Student 1: Now, he's already got an apple and a blackberry. I mean, have you got anything else that he might just like?
Student 2: Well, we're doing a special offer on these. I mean, I can't make head or tail of them, but the kids seem to like them.
Student 1: Oh yeah?
Student 2: "Eggs box," £3.60.
17.3
a) “Anything You Can Do”
ANNIE: Anything you can do I can do better.... I can do anything better than you.FRANK: No, you can't.ANNIE: Yes, I can.FRANK: No, you can't.ANNIE: Yes, I can.FRANK: No, you can't.ANNIE: Yes, I can, yes, I can.FRANK: Anything you can be I can be greater.... Sooner or later I'm greater than you.ANNIE: No, you're not.FRANK: Yes, I am.ANNIE: No, you're not.FRANK: Yes, I am.ANNIE: No, you're not.FRANK: Yes, I am, yes I am.FRANK: I can shoot a partridge with a single cartridge.ANNIE: I can get a sparrow with a bow and arrow.FRANK: I can live on bread and cheese.ANNIE: And only on that? FRANK: Yes.ANNIE: So can a rat.FRANK: Any note you can reach I can go higher.ANNIE: I can sing anything higher than you.FRANK: No, you can't.ANNIE: Yes, I can.FRANK: No, you can't.ANNIE: Yes, I can.FRANK: No, you can't.ANNIE: Yes, I can.FRANK: No, you can't.ANNIE: Yes, I can.FRANK: No, you can't.ANNIE: Yes, I can.FRANK: Anything you can say I can say softer.ANNIE: I can say anything softer than you.FRANK: No, you can't.ANNIE: Yes, I can.FRANK: No, you can't.ANNIE: Yes, I can.FRANK: No, you can't.ANNIE: Yes, I can, yes, I can.FRANK: I can drink my liquor faster than a flicker.ANNIE: I can do it quicker and get even sicker.FRANK: I can open any safe.ANNIE: Without being caught? FRANK: *scoff* too bad.ANNIE: That's what I thought (you crook).FRANK: Any note you can hold I can hold longer.ANNIE: I can hold any note longer than you.FRANK: No, you can't.ANNIE: Yes, I can.FRANK: No, you can't.ANNIE: Yes, I can.FRANK: No, you can't.ANNIE: Yes, I can, yes, I can.FRANK: No, you can't - yes, you can.FRANK: Anything you can say I can say faster.ANNIE: I can say anything faster than you.FRANK: No, you can't.ANNIE: Yes, I can.FRANK: No, you can't.ANNIE: Yes, I can.FRANK: No, you can't.ANNIE: Yes, I can.FRANK: No, you can't.ANNIE: Yes, I can.FRANK: I can jump a hurdle.ANNIE: I can wear a girdle.FRANK: I can knit a sweater.ANNIE: I can fill it better.FRANK: I can do most anything.ANNIE: Can you bake a pie? FRANK: No.ANNIE: Neither can I.FRANK: Anything you can sing I can sing sweeter.ANNIE: I can sing anything sweeter than you.FRANK: No, you can't.ANNIE: Yes, I can.FRANK: No, you can't.ANNIE: Oh, yes, I can.FRANK: No, you can't.ANNIE: Yes, I can.FRANK: No, you can't.ANNIE: Yes, I can.FRANK: No, you can't, can't, can't. ANNIE: Yes, I can, can, can, can.FRANK: No, you can't.ANNIE: Yes, I can.
b) “Lodi”
Just about a year agoI set out on the roadSeeking my fame and fortuneLooking for a pot of gold.Things got bad and things got worseI guess you know the tuneOh, Lord, stuck in old Lodi again.I rode in on the GreyhoundI'll be walking out if I goI was just passing through Must been seven months or more.Ran out of time and moneyLooks like they took my friendsOh, Lord, stuck in old Lodi again.The man from the magazineSaid I was on my waySomewhere I lost connectionI ran out of songs to play.I came into town a one night stand Looks like my plans fell throughOh, Lord, stuck in old Lodi again.If I only had a dollarFor every song I've sungEvery time I had to playWhile people sat there drunk.
You know, I would catch the next train Back to where I liveOh, Lord, stuck in old Lodi againOh, Lord, stuck in old Lodi again.
Unit 18
Track 8
THE CHOICE by Jim Martin
To be brief and brilliant
Or long-lasting and dull,
To be soft and supple
Or hard and rigid,
To be warm and caring
Or cold and indifferent,
To be alive and embrace life fully
Or to exist and dread living,
To be courageous with life taking each day as it comes,
Or cowardly
And plan each move of each day of our lives in the name of security,
To be in the driver’s seat of our life with the vehicle of self under control,
Or a frustrated and pessimistic passenger in the hands of a reckless, unknown, unseen driver,
To be who we are,
Or to be who we are told we must be,
To be as we perceive ourselves,
Or as others perceive us,
To be the unique individualistic self-determining entity that we are,
Or to be a victim at the mercy of the immortal snatcher of self worth?The choice?The choice is simple – you choose!
Possible solutions
Case Study A
As in most real-life situations, there is no easy answer to this situation. There are a couple of points that should be dealt with right away. Throughout this program it has been emphasized that assertiveness is a choice (you choose when and where to be assertive) and that every battle does not need to be fought. By the same token, not every dialogue needs to be turned into a battle. And that's where you, as the customer service manager, made your first mistake. Even though you may have provided the best solution to a problem (borrowing the sales fax machine), you did it in a way that alienated the sales manager, a person whose cooperation you need. Now, if borrowing the sales department's fax is the best solution, what would have been a better way to handle the request? (Remember, you stand up for your own rights, but also respect the rights of others.) Are there mutual benefits here that would be served by a compromise? Does the sharing of the fax machine benefit you, the sales manager and the company? Is there a way to guide the sales manager to this conclusion? How would you incorporate your declarations and "I" statements? And in preparing for this confrontation, how could you physically and mentally prepare yourself so as not to allow it to expand (the ACID process)?
Case Study B
The response to this case study will really depend on the individuals involved, and there is no way to predict how their personalities and interrelationships will be played out. That, of course, will vary from situation to situation. What will remain the same is the choice of "guiding" the others involved. It's clear that Holly wants the new position. However, she (and by extension, her immediate family) must consider all the facts. Is this dream promotion really all that it seems? Is this "dream" still the one she is looking for? What are the unspoken negatives? If Holly is sure of her choice, how can she guide the rest of her family to this same decision?
Unit 19
TOEFL
Listening 1.1. d 2. c 3. b 4. d 5. a
Listening 2.6. d 7. a 8. a 9. c 10. c 11. a, b, d — yes; c, e — no
Listening 3.12. b 13. d 14. a 15. b 16. d 17. bListening 4.18. b 19. a 20. b 21. c 22. aIELTS
Section 1.1. 14 Hill Road2. between 9 and 9.30 / 9-9.30
3. 1 year
4. intermediate5. North-West
6. vegetarian7. (a)(real) garden
8. (the) only guest
9. 100
10. 23rd March / Monday 23rd March
Section 2.11. King Street12. central13. half (an) hour / 30 minutes
14. refreshments15. 10.15
16. Advance
17. (seat) reservations
18-20. CDG
Section 3.21. attitude(s)
22. gender (sex)
23. creativity24. A25. B
26. A27. B
28. culture29. profit(s)30. stress/strain
Section 4.31. feed32. in either order: metal, leather
33. restrictions34. ships35. England36. built37. poverty38-40. in any order: CEF
BEC
Part 1
1. Construction
2. 4.30 p.m. / in the afternoon
3. statement
4. items / things / large sums
5. 18 June
6. non-smoking
7. $ 160
8. 14567682
9. laptop
10. $ 400
11. delivery
12. 6758241 Part 2.
13. C14. F15. D
16. G17. E
18. G19. D
20. C21. A22. E
Part 3.
23. C24. B
25. A26. B
27. A28. B
29. C30. B
Appendix 1
CD TracklistUnit Title
Unit 1 1.1 Lecture “An Introduction to Listening and Note-Taking”
1.5 Sentences from College Lectures
Unit 2 2.2 Four Passages about “Food”
2.4 Five Authentic and Pedagogic Passages
2.5 Possible Solutions
Unit 3 3.6 Oxford Placement Test
Unit 4 4.1 Lecture “The United Nations: The Promise of Peace”
a) without pauses
b) with pauses
4.5 Video “The Girl Who Silenced the U.N.”
Unit 5 5.1 Lecture “The Grand Canyon: One of Nature’s Finest Monuments”
a) without pauses
b) with pauses
5.2 Video “Statue of Liberty”
Unit 6 6.1 A Radio Program about How Certain Animals Are Able to Sense Approaching Earthquakes
6.2 A Program about Bower Birds
6.3 Video “How Marine Mammals Survive”
Unit 7 7.1 Lecture “Languages in Conflict: Irish and English”
7.2 a) Video “Kigeki Comedy”
b) Video “The History of English in Ten Minute”
Unit 8 8.2 Lecture “The Panama Canal: A Great Engineering Achievement”
8.3 Video “Viking First Views of Mars”
Unit 9 9.1 Student Presentation about the History of the Nobel Prize
9.2 An Extract from the Presentation
9.3 Video about Nicola Tesla
Unit 10 10.1 Lecture “The End of Empire: Montezuma and Cortes”
10.2 Video “Ancient Mysteries — Nazca Lines”
Unit 11 11.1 Lecture “T.E.Lawrence: Lawrence of Arabia”
11.2 Video about Alexander the Great
Unit 12 12.2 Lecture about a Ruler of Ancient Egypt12.5 a) A Short Course in Leadership
12.6 Video “How to Start a Movement”
Unit 13 13.2 Lecture on Principles of Good Management
13.4 Video “The Man Who Walked Around the World”
Unit 14 14.3 Video “Steve Jobs’ Commencement Speech to the Graduates of Stanford University, 2005”14.4 Video “The Last Lecture by Randolf F. Pausch”
Unit 15 15.1 Lecture “John F. Kennedy: Promise and Tragedy”
15.2 Video “President Barack Obama’s Address to Congress”
Unit 16 “JFK” movie
Unit 17 17.1 b) Two jokes
17.2 a) Video “Goodbye to the Normals”
17.2 b) “My Blackberry is Not Working”
17.2 c) “Vincent” by Tim Burton
17.3 a) “Anything You Can Do I Can Do Better” song
17.3 b) “Lodi” song
Unit 18 Assertive Communication Skills for Professionals
Track 1 and 2
Track 3
Track 4
Track 5 and 6
Track 7 and 8
Unit 19 TOEFL test
Listening 1. Professor’s Office
Listening 2. Anthropology Class
Listening 3. Business Class
Listening 4. Students on Campus
IELTS test
Section 1.
Section 2.
Section 3.
Section 4.
BEC test
Part 1.
Part 2.
Part 3.
Unit 20. Kiyosaki’s Cashflow Quadrant
Track 1.
Track 2.
Track 3.
Track 4.
Video “Pablo and Bruno: the Parable of the Pipeline”
Appendix 2
Supplementary Video and Audio Materials List
Science and Scientists
Time Travelling
Time Travel Has Already Happened in 1943
Nicola Tesla
Fibonacci and Golden Ratio
Death by Black Hole
Alfred Nobel
Gyroscope
Lemon BatteryViking First Views of Mars
The Evolution of Search (about Google)
Love
Science of Love
True Love
Anything You Can Do I Can Do Better
Christmas
Now It’s Christmas Again
The Yearly TV Address
Looking Like Christmas
Global Problems
Global Warming
Doomsday Asteroid
Lord Browne on University Tuition Fees
The Girl Who Silenced the UN
Global Waste Food (also found in “BBC Learning English”)
History
Ancient Mysteries — Nazca Lines
The Screaming Mummy
Alexander the Great
The History of the Statue of LibertyAnimal Life
How Marine Mammals Survive
Alcoholic Vervet Monkeys
Baboons Know the Secret of Finding Water
Monkeys and Nuts
Dresser Crab Camouflage
Amazing Orangutans
Bird Houses for Purple Martins
Fly Traps
Mexican Jumping Beans
Humor and Cartoons
The One With Ross
My Blackberry Is Not Working
How Much Is That Rabbit in the Window
Ted Bear — How to Survive
Ultimate Dog Tease
Spartans and Athenians
The New Adventure of Winnie the Pooh
Robin IncePeculiar Humor
A Ghost Story
Kigeki Comedy
“Vincent” by Tim Burton
John Morton’s Funeral
Zombies in Plain English
A Gentlemen’s Duel
Languages
Jay Walker on the World’s Mania
EF Oxford, EnglandHistory of English in Ten Minutes
Art
Salvador Dali
Mona Lisa
The True Face of Leonardo Da Vinci
Social Problems
Affluenza (also found in “BBC Learning English”)
What Is Gross National Happiness
Anorexia’s Living Face
Personalities and Philosophical Problems
The Last Lecture
Steve Jobs’ Speech
Before I Die...
Five Minutes with Danny DeVitoKid President Meets the President of the United States of AmericaChristiane Amanpour. My Most Memorable Interviews
Surreal Salvador Dali Interview on “What’s My Line?”
Worth Knowing!
How Is Bubble Gum Made
Bubble Craft
Building on the Museum of Museums on the Web
How Candies Are Made Hard
How to Make Soap
How to Improve Your Memory
How Long Can You Go without Sleep
How to Develop Self-Discipline
Trying Something New in the Next 30 Days
Video about Potato Chips
10 Things You Need to Know about New YorkYour Guide to the New UK Student Visa
Diamond Cutting
Wood Doors
Window Cleaning of the World 39s Highest Building
Paintballs
Newspapers
Business
The Man Who Walked Around the World
How to Start a Movement
A Short Course in Leadership
8 Secrets of Success
Mono Tasking Versus Multi Tasking
Tips on How to Be a Millionaire
3 Powerful Techniques to Beat Procrastination
More Than Money- The Good Life Parable
Film Clips
Twilight (Baseball Scene Shooting)
Goodbye to the NormalsInside
Materials for Practicing Accents, Numbers and Precise Information
21 Accents
Practice with Numbers (recommended for Unit 19)
Commercial about Lotto
Commercial about McDonald’s Business
Guinness World Records
BBC Learning English
The Queen’s Birthday
Blood and Blood Type
Invisible IslandAbout Pain
Global Waste Food
AffluenzaSt Valentine’s Day
About Shopping
Songs
“Lodi” by Creedence Clear Water Revival
“Mama Mia” by ABBA
“Maybe” by Brainstorm
“My Heart Will Go On” by Celine Dion
“The World Is Mine” by David Guetta“Love Me Tender” by Elvis Presley
“I Love You Baby” by Frank Sinatra
“I Will Survive” by Gloria Gaynor
“D.I.S.C.O.” by Ottawan“We Are the Champions” by Queen
“How Do You Do” by Roxette“Listen to Your Heart” by Roxette“Oh, Pretty Woman” by Roy Orbison
“Stop” by Sam Brown
“Still Loving You” by Scorpions
“Wind of Change” by Scorpions
“Yellow Submarine” by the Beatles
Appendix 3
Требования к уровню усвоения программы по курсу «Активное аудирование»
Формы текущего, промежуточного и итогового контроля
Система оценок является накопительной, то есть итоговая оценка складывается из оценок за несколько промежуточных контролей, а также учитывается активность студентов на занятиях. Все виды контроля имеют разный коэффициент значимости:
Посещение и работа на занятиях (работа с лекциями, обсуждениепрограммы “Assertive Сommunication Skills for Professionals”) — 25%
Зачётное занятие по конспектированию лекций — 5%
Лексический тест по лекциям — 5%
Обсуждение фильма “JFK” — 20%
Лексический тест по “Assertive Communication Skills” — 15%
70%
Диф.зачет:
Зачет по аудиокниге “Kiyosaki’s Cash Flow Quadrant” — 20%
Индивидуальное задание — 10%
30%

85-100% - отлично
69-84% - хорошо
50-68% - удовлетворительно
<50% - не зачтено
Требования к зачету
На зачете по материалам аудиокниги “Kiyosaki’s Cash Flow Quadrant” студент должен ответить на 3 вопроса. Каждый пропуск занятия увеличивает количество вопросов вдвое.
В качестве индивидуального задания (5 minute activity) студент может подобрать аудио- или видеоматериал, который он представит аудитории на одном из занятий курса. Материал сообщения может быть на любую тему, но желательно, чтобы он содержал даты, статистику, имена собственные и географические названия. Презентация должна сопровождаться заданиями (вопросы, true/false утверждения), которые предлагается выполнить аудитории после внимательного прослушивания и конспектирования материала.
Активная работа на занятии абсолютно обязательна и учитывается при выставлении итоговой оценки.
По окончании курса студент должен оценить качество курса.
Online resources:
http://www.youtube.com
http://www.bbclearningenglish.com
http://www.ted.com
http://www.podcastingenglish.com
http://www.abc.net.au/worldtoday (Australian Broadcasting Company)
http://www.npr.com
Appendix 4
COURSE EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE
Which of the Course parts did you find most interesting?
Lecture Note-Taking
TOEFL, BEC and IELTS Practice
Material for Self-Study:
Assertive Communication Skills
JFK movie
R. Kiyosaki’s Cash Flow Quadrant
Which of the Course parts did you find most useful?
a) Lecture Note-Taking
TOEFL, BEC and IELTS Practice
c) Material for Self-Study:
Assertive Communication Skills
JFK movie
R. Kiyosaki’s Cash Flow Quadrant
Which parts, in your opinion,
should be studied in more detail? Explain your answer.
should be excluded? Comment on it.
Say, if the complexity of the Course corresponds to your level of English at this stage of language study?
Yes, it’s all right.
It is too simple. Which material exactly?
It’s too difficult. Which material exactly?
The Course has increased or developed
my background knowledge.
my listening comprehension skills.
note-taking skills.
my general knowledge of English.
didn’t do me any good

Evaluate the Course effectiveness in 5 grade scale.
To improve the Course I’d suggest…
8. Miscellaneous…
References and Online Resources
1. Игнатова, Т.Н. Английский язык для общения. Интенсивный курс /
Т.Н. Игнатова. — М.: РТ-Пресс, 2002. — 414 c.
2. Миньяр-Белоручев, Р.К. Как стать переводчиком? / Р.К. Миньяр-Белоручев.—
М.: Готика, 1999. — 176 c.
3. Чужакин, А. Мир перевода – 2 / А. Чужакин. — М.: Р. Валент, 1999. — 168 c.
4. Allsop, J. Practice Tests for the Cambridge Business English Certificate. Level Two / J. Allsop, P. Aspinall. — Cambridge University Press, 1999. — 108 p.
5. Duncan, J. Open Forum. Academic Listening and Speaking / J. Dunkan, A. Parker. — Oxford University Press, 2007. — 112 р.
6. Dunkel, P. Advanced Listening Comprehension. Developing Aural and Note-Taking Skills / P. Dunkel, F. Pialorsi. — Newbury House Publishers, 1982. — 209 p.
7. Kiyosaki, R. Cashflow Quadrant / R. Kiyosaki (n.d.) Retrieved from http://www.ebooksfreedownload.org.
8. McCarthy, M. English Vocabulary in Use. Upper-intermediate and Advanced / M.McCarthy, F. O’Dell. — Cambridge University Press, 1999. — 296 p.
9. Price, C. Assertive Communication Skills for Professionals / C. Price. — CareerTrack, 1994. — 4CDs.
10. Price, C. Assertive Comunication Skills for Professionals. An Audio / Video Workbook / C. Price. — CareerTrack, 1994. — 30 p.
11. Sharpe, P. TOEFL iBT Internet-Based Test 2006-2007 / P. Sharpe. — Barron’s, 2006. — 795 p.
12. Stone, O. JFK Movie / O.Stone. — Warner Home Video, 1992. — 181 mins.
13. Wilson J. How to Teach Listening / J. Wilson. — Pearson / Longman, 2009. —
192 p.14. IELTS 5 with Answers. Examination Papers from University of Cambridge ESOL Examinations. — Cambridge University Press, 2006. — 176 p.
15. IELTS 6 with Answers. Examination Papers from University of Cambridge ESOL Examinations. — Cambridge University Press, 2007. — 152 p.
16. IELTS 7 with Answers. Examination Papers from University of Cambridge ESOL Examinations. — Cambridge University Press, 2009. — 176 p.
17. Oxford Placement Test 2 / Oxford University Press. (n.d.) Retrieved from http://www.oupe.es.18. http://www.en.wikipedia.org
19. http://www.youtube.com
20. hhtp://www.bbclearningenglish.com
21. hhtp://www.ted.com
22. http://www.podcastingenglish.com
23. http://www.abc.net.au/worldtoday (Australian Broadcasting Company)
24. http://www.npr.com
25. http://www.tainy.net26. http://www.airows.com
27. http://www.the-history-notes.blogspot.com
While every effort was made, it was not possible to identify the sources of all the material used, or to trace all copyright holders. If any omissions are brought to our notice, we will be happy to include the appropriate acknowledgements on reprinting.

Ермакова Ирина Витальевна
Малышев Никита Валерьевич
Активное аудирование. Пособие по развитию навыков аудирования
Active Listening. A Guide to Developing Listening Comprehension Skills
Учебное пособие
Редактор Т.В.Соловьева
Формат 60х84 18
Усл.печ.л. 7,44 Уч.-изд.л. 8,94 Тираж 60 экз. Заказ №
Подписано в печать 4.07.2013 г
ФГБОУ ВПО «Ивановский государственный энергетический
университет имени В.И. Ленина»
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