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ESL & Applied Linguistics Professional Series
Eli Hinkel, Series Editor
A Practical Guide for English
Language Teachers
Adam Brown
First published 2014
by Routledge
711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017
and by Routledge
2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN
© 2014 Taylor & Francis
The right of the editor to be identi ed as the author of the editorial material, and of the
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilized in any
SECTION 2
SECTION 3
A list of the sounds of Standard Southern British English (SSBE) and General


















(SSBE)




(SSBE)
(SSBE)

(GenAm)
(GenAm)

*
/: /


GenAm pronunciation of
is transcribed /
/ in this book, although the two vowel plus /
sequences may be realized only by r- colored vowels.
The purpose of this book is to equip readers with what they need in order to teach the
pronunciation of English. The intended readership is trainee English language teachers, and
in- service teachers wanting to increase their expertise in teaching English pronunciation.
The book is divided into three sections.
If you can speak, you can do anything.
Sir Winston Churchill (1874–1965), British prime minister
Learning objectives
At the end of this chapter, you will be able to
 de
ne the terms
Written medium
Spoken medium

: When we speak to someone, there are three distinguishable phases of
 For the [
Figure 1.1

� The components of pronunciation.
8
Introduction
Segments do not occur by themselves.
Connected speech processes
(see
chapters 15
,

�16
and
�17
as a result of the context of surrounding sounds.
Some readers may be surprised by the left- to-right order of the elements in
Figure 1.1
. Speakers of a language may be more aware of individual vowel and
spelling is a more conscious process. Traditionally, English language courses have
of suprasegmentals. This ordering is followed in this book, too, for the purposes of
explanation. It is impossible to explain voice quality without 
rst having described
the tongue, lip and vocal cord positions for vowels and consonants. Similarly, syllable
structure and connected speech processes depend on a previous understanding of vowel
and consonant sounds.
However, since the 1980s, researchers have emphasized that it is the suprasegmentals
that cause the major problems of overall intelligibility. While segmentals are of obvious
importance too, teachers should not overlook the contribution of suprasegmentals
A hierarchy of components
Having brie
y introduced the components of pronunciation, we can now show how the
functional units of pronunciation can be arranged in a hierarchy (
Figure 1.2
). The
Figure 1.2

� A hierarchy of pronunciation features.
(see
chapter 14
). These are aspects of pronunciation
Further reading
On the whole process of speaking, see Levelt (1989). For more on the—often very
There is no such thing as ‘the Queen’s English.’ The property has gone into the hands of
a joint stock company and we own the bulk of the shares!
Mark Twain (1835–1910), US author,
(1897)
Learning objectives
At the end of this chapter, you will be able to:
脠 explain the unique place of English as a language of the world
 list problems in the 摥Ḁ
nition of the terms
and
cial language
 de
ne English as a native, second and foreign language.
English as a world language
English is a—or, more probably,
—major world language nowadays. It is the major
Virtually all the remaining countries of the world (excluding native- language and
second- language countries) are foreign- language environments, since English is taught
A further complicating factor is the existence in many countries of of
cial languages.
This confers of cial recognition on the languages. However, the term
cial language
is
cial languages:
脠 may or may not be the languages used in the law
脠 may or may not be the medium of instruction in schools
脠 may differ in different regions of a country
脠 may be the languages of former colonizers, as is often the case with English and
 may be minority languages
脠 need not be spoken by everyone in the country.
Many countries have more than one of cial language, and some countries have no of
Crystal (1997) gives the  gures of 320–380 million native speakers of English,
150–300 million second- language speakers, and 100–1,000 million foreign- language
speakers. These  gures are necessarily imprecise, because of the problems of de
In short, English is not a homogeneous monolith. There is a lot of accent variation
(for example,
It is impossible, in a book this size, to cover the pronunciation of all the major accents
The US accent is known as General American (GenAm), and ‘is what is spoken by the
The British accent used to be referred to as
, a term conceived
importantly, it helps the teacher- reader to understand some of the problems that foreign

is not a homogeneous concept. The concept is often referred
nowadays.
 The concept of
is a dif cult one to maintain.
脠 English- speaking countries around the world are often categorized into English as a
Foreign Language (EFL) situations.
脠 Non- native speakers of English far outnumber native speakers.
脠 English is not a superior language to learners’ native languages.
The UK New Zealand Barbados Fiji
The USA India South Africa Kenya
Canada The Philippines Cameroon Pakistan
Australia Ireland South Africa
Canada New Zealand The USA
England Scotland Wales
Further reading
Spoken language is merely a series of squeaks .
Alfred North Whitehead (1861–1947),
English mathematician and philosopher
Learning objectives
At the end of this chapter, you will be able to:
 explain the pulmonic egressive airstream
 de
ne the terms
and
.
All English speech sounds are made using air from the lungs. That is, the same apparatus
ed in various ways in order to create
, and since it travels outwards, it is known as
16
Airstreams and the vocal cords
The vocal cords
The vocal cords are two  aps of skin and muscle located behind the Adam’s apple, the
point at the front of the throat. Men’s Adam’s apples stick out further than women’s or
children’s, because their larynxes (the whole voice box containing the vocal cords) are
larger. They grow larger at puberty, and are the reason why men’s voices are generally
lower in pitch than women’s and children’s.
Notice the spelling of the term
vocal cords
. The second word is
cords
, not
chords
.
folds
, which is probably a more accurate term for
ἀ aps of skin and muscle.
Figure 3.1
shows a diagrammatic representation of the vocal cords and surrounding
muscles, as seen from the left (that is, the left of the diagram represents the Adam’s
apple, the front of the throat).
Figure 3.1
The vocal cords as viewed from the left side.
By the action of the muscles surrounding the vocal cords, they can adopt a number
of positions. Four will be described here, as they are important for English.
1 Voice
By the action of the muscles that move the small arytenoid cartilages, the two vocal cords
passing through. However, they are held at a light tension, and the airstream forces them
apart. Because the air pressure from below is momentarily lost, the vocal cords then
This vibration occurs at a frequency of about 110–130 times per second (or hertz,
Hz) on average for men, and about 200–230 Hz for women. Because women have
This vibration is known as
, and sounds involving this vibration are known as
. It is this voicing that gives sounds their carrying power. All vowels and most
There are various ways of checking if a sound is voiced. Make a loud, strong [
 put your Ḁ
ngers lightly on your Adam’s apple and feel the vibration
 put your Ḁ
ngers in your ears, and hear the booming sound
脠 put your hand on the top of your head, and feel the vibration (which is essentially
your skull vibrating)
 produce a [
] on a rise in pitch; that is, go from a low pitch to a high pitch.
2 Voicelessness
The muscles that move the arytenoid cartilages can pull the vocal cords apart. This, of
Sounds made with the vocal cords apart like this are called
. All English
speech sounds can therefore be classi ed as either voiced (with vocal cord vibration) or
lating the  ow of air through them, voiceless sounds may have a greater force of air than
Sixteen English sounds occur in eight pairs of voiced and voiceless equivalents. That
chapter 8
, we will
, and to resulting sounds as
. The important
 the [
] sound as in
 the [
] sound as in
 the [
] sound as in
 the [
] sound as in
.
[. . . ] Daniel Jones proposed a series of eight cardinal vowels, evenly spaced around
the outside of the possible vowel area and designed to act as  xed reference points for
Cardinal vowels
21
mouth. Since the mouth is a relatively large cavity, and the tongue can adopt any number
of positions within it (that is, it is a continuum), the description of vowel sounds is more
complex than for consonants.
A reference system for describing the tongue position for any vowel in any accent of
any language (that is, any humanly possible vowel sound) was devised by the British
cardinal vowels
. The system takes the shape
of a trapezium (
Figure 4.1
)
and depends on two well-

摥Ḁ

ned anchor points. For the

rst, Cardinal Vowel 1 [
i
], the tongue is as high and as front as possible. For the second,
Cardinal Vowel 5 [

], the tongue is as low and as back as possible. Since these are extreme
vowel sounds on the edge of the trapezium, the tongue is as high/low/front/back as
possible, consistent with it still being a vowel sound. That is, for instance, if we raised the
tongue in the [
i
] position, a hissing noise (called frication; see
chapters 6
and
8
) would
start to be caused against the hard palate.
Three other vowels (Cardinal Vowels 2 [
e
], 3 [
ε
] and 4 [
a
]) are de ned as having the
tongue as front as possible, and in equidistant steps from [
i
] to [

]. Three more (Cardinal
Vowels 6 [

], 7 [
o
] and 8 [
u
]) are de ned as having the tongue as back as possible, and
in equidistant steps from [

] to [
i
].

These eight cardinal vowels are shown in
Figure 4.1
,
where front vowels are on the
left, and back vowels on the right. Since these are extreme vowel sounds, they lie on
the periphery of the trapezium, which represents the area in which the highest part of
the tongue must be in order to produce a vowel sound. Cardinal Vowels 6, 7 and 8 have
rounded lips, and the other 
ve are unrounded, because these are the combinations of
rounding and tongue position that occur most commonly in languages of the world.
The purpose of this trapezium is, after all, as a convenient tool for describing vowel
sounds in languages.
Figure 4.1

� Cardinal vowels.
cardinal vowel sounds and  xing them in the brain. A vowel sound in any language can
then be described by plotting the tongue position on the cardinal vowel trapezium chart,
by reference to the eight cardinal vowels. For instance, a vowel may be described as being
like Cardinal Vowel 2, but with a somewhat lower and more central tongue position.
e ] symbol to show this: [ë
Playing ‘bop’ is like playing Scrabble with all the vowels missing.
Duke Ellington (1899–1974), US jazz musician
Learning objectives
At the end of this chapter, you will be able to:
 list the vowel sounds of English
24
Vowels
5.
Monophthong versus diphthong

:
A monophthong is a vowel sound that does not
change during its production. For instance, the [

] vowel as in
spa
starts and ends
the same. The tongue and lips do not move during the vowel. In contrast the [

]
diphthong vowel as in
boy
has different starting and ending sounds. Most obvi-
ously, the lips are rounded at the beginning of
boy
, but unrounded at the end. Less
obviously, the tongue starts at the back of the mouth and moves towards the front.
We will use these two dimensions to organize the description of the vowel sounds of
English into three categories: short monophthongs, long monophthongs, and diphthongs
(which are also long). A reference checklist of the vowel symbols for both SSBE and
GenAm is given in the Symbols for English
Sounds section
at the beginning of this book.
Short monophthongs
There are seven short monophthongs in SSBE:

� [
i
] as in
sit

[

] as in
plot

[
e
] as in

[

] as in
foot


� [

] as in
mat

[
ə
] as in

a
bout


� [

] as in
shut

Their tongue positions on the vowel chart are given in
Figure 5.1
.
Figure 5.1

� Tongue positions for SSBE monophthong vowels.
The main sound- to-spelling correspondences (from Carney, 1994) are given in
Table 5.1
. Carney’s  gures relate speci cally to SSBE. However, they are unlikely to vary
SSBE sounds, or British and American spelling.
Since the [
ə
] vowel is intimately connected with the placement of stress in English, it
will be covered in
chapter 19
. It can be represented by a very wide range of spellings.
Long monophthongs
There are  ve long monophthongs in English. Their symbols contain a colon, to indicate
[
] as in
� [
] as in
� [
] as in
� [
] as in
� [
] as in
Their tongue positions on the vowel chart are also given in
Figure 5.1
. The main sound-
Table 5.2
.
Lip rounding
Four of the long and short SSBE monophthongs are rounded:
[
] as in
[
] as in
[
] as in
[
] as in
% of the time in
connected speech
Example words
i ] e 16 become a, aCe 2
e ] ea 6
଀ ] a 100 bad u 63 mud [ ሀ ]
8
ഀ ] a 6
Table 5.2
Sound- to-spelling correspondences for SSBE long monophthong vowels
Sound Spelling
% of the time in
connected speech
Example words

nal
38
nal
i ࠀ ]
nal
5

nal
2
༈ ] a 34 father others 6 a (+ l) 29 halt or, ore, ar 25 cord, core, war au 9
ఈ ]
9
8
6
‘empty’
5
� u, rule, blue
u ࠀ ] o, oCe, oe 15 who, move, shoe ew 9
7
จ] or(r) 17 word ur(r) 15 turn ear 8
and
. These accent differences are discussed in
chapter 13
.
There are eight diphthongs in SSBE, but only  ve in GenAm. In three of them, the tongue
i ]: [
] as in
[
] as in
[
] as in
In two diphthongs, the tongue moves towards a high back position, and the
਀ ]: [
] as in
[
] as in
Vowels
27
Wells (2008) uses the symbol [
o


] to represent the GenAm diphthong in
home
. This
represents the fact that the starting point of this diphthong is much further back in GenAm
than in SSBE. However, in other respects, SSBE [

] and GenAm [
o


] are the same.
The Ḁ
position, and the
second part
of the symbol is therefore [
ə
]:
[
܉
] as in
beard
[
e

ə
] as in
cared
[

] as in
pure

In GenAm, these words have a vowel followed by an [
r
] consonant: [
b

i

r

d

,

kerd

,

p

j



r
].
This difference in rhoticity is discussed further in
chapter 11
.
Three important points should be noted about diphthongs:
脠 Although the diphthongs are represented by two- part symbols, they represent
single sounds (phonemes: see
chapter 12
).
脠 Diphthongs are long. That is, they are as long as the long monophthongs. For
example, the word
spy
[
spa

i
] is as long as the word
spa
[
s

p


]. A colon is not needed
in the symbol for diphthongs as the two- part symbol implies length.
 Since diphthongs, by 摥Ḁ
nition, involve a movement in tongue position, they
cannot be represented by a point on the vowel diagram. Instead, the beginning
point (circle) and end point (arrow) are indicated.
The tongue positions of the eight SSBE diphthongs on the vowel chart are given in
Figure 5.2
.
Figure 5.2
Tongue positions and movement for SSBE diphthong vowels.
The main sound- to-spelling correspondences (from Carney, 1994) are given in
Table 5.3
.

[

i

]
and
[

u

]

Two other symbols are often used nowadays by dictionaries. One relates to the under-
lined sound in words like
eas

y


y

, r

e

act
and
glor

i

ous
. Many speakers feel this is the
Table 5.3
Sound- to-spelling correspondences for SSBE diphthong vowels
% of the time in
connected speech
Example words
e i ] Ḁ
nal

nal

nal
80
a i ]
nal
2
ఇ ] oy 39 boy o, oCe, oe 75 go, hope, toe [ ऊ ]
4

nal
a ਀ ] pre- consonantal
6
܉ ]
4
e ə ]
+ /
/ in suf
x
�₆

+ /
/ in stem
ਉ ] oor ₆ poor our ₆ tour ure ₆ sure *
As Carney (1994, p. 190) says, [
] ‘is very divergent’ in terms of sound- to-spelling correspondences.

As Carney (1994, p. 194) notes, many of these words are pronounced with [
] by many speakers. For this
ਉ ].
(and therefore can transcribe
[
] with two identical
(thus [
Both [
] and [
] may be considered a compromise solution to an intractable problem
chapter 12
脠 Vowel sounds are made without any great obstruction to the airstream.
脠 All English vowels are voiced and oral.
脠 English vowels can be divided into long and short vowels.
脠 Long vowels comprise long monophthongs and diphthongs.
脠 The production of monophthongs can be described by stating the vertical height of
the tongue, its horizontal position and the position of the lips.
i , e , ଀ , ሀ , ਀ ]. Say the words out loud and decide which vowel they contain.
any deaf lump miss skull touch

nglish mash pull stood w
cat friend mer
ngue sank test would
i ࠀ , ༈ , ఈ , u ࠀ ,
]. Say the words out loud and decide which vowel they contain.
rtesy feel moon park shirt
car door heart more piece steal
ther June new pol
e i , a i , ఇ , a ਀ , ऊ / o ਀ ]. Say the words out loud and decide which vowel they contain. boil blown �
ght hate note sigh
brain brown go kite now stay
break choice ground my show toy
dummy. However, some sounds are particularly dif cult for ventriloquists. Can
you work out which vowel sounds of English cause particular problems, and why?
Further reading
The tongue of man is a twisty thing. There are plenty of words there of every kind.
Homer (8th century BC),
Learning objectives
At the end of this chapter, you will be able to:
脠 name the main parts of the mouth, nose and throat used in pronunciation
脠 name the places and manners of articulation used in English.
The vocal organs
Before embarking on a description of how consonant sounds are made, we need to
Figure 6.1
shows the vocal organs viewed from the side (technically known as a
). As you read the following section, you might like to look in a mirror,
feel with your tongue and/or  ngers, in order to appreciate the various parts.
The roof of the mouth
The most obvious parts of your vocal organs are your
(9). Behind your upper lip are
The vocal organs and consonant classiÞ
cation
31
Figure 6.1

� The vocal organs.
middle of the palate, and air escapes into the nose, giving the person’s speech a nasal
quality. Cleft palates can be cured by surgery at an early age.
Use the tip of your  nger and feel back from your hard palate. Can you feel where it
stops being hard and becomes soft? The hard palate is hard because it has bone above it
(part of your skull). The soft palate or
velum
(12) is soft because there is no bone.
Instead, it contains muscles and can move to block or open the passage to the nose or

nasal cavity
usually referred to as the
velum
and, as a result, the hard palate is often simply called
the
palate.
The soft piece of  esh hanging down in the middle of the velum is called
the
uvula.

The �
oor of the mouth
Behind the
lower lip
(9) are your
(8). Again, these extend round the sides of
the mouth in a U shape. The rest of the  oor of the mouth is taken up by the tongue.
Unfortunately, as can be seen in a mirror, the tongue has no natural divisions on it, apart
Voiced versus voiceless
We have already discussed this, in
chapter 3
. For voiced sounds, the vocal cords are
vibrating; for voiceless, they are not.
Place of articulation
The air coming from the lungs can be obstructed at various places in the oral cavity. The

The lower lip is the active articulator and the upper lip is the passive, as for
p ]. (While the upper lip can move somewhat, it moves less than the lower lip,
which is attached to the jaw.)
†脀
The active articulator is the lower lip, and the passive is the upper
†脀
One articulator comes towards the other. However, it does not touch (it
†脀
The active articulator comes towards the passive, but without
These three broad divisions can be sub- divided for English sounds.

As for [
] as in
the articulators prevent air from escaping through
脠 The various parts of the vocal apparatus need to be named in order to discuss them.
脠 The only technical terms that are likely to be new or cause confusion are the
of the tongue, and
 Consonants are typically classi
ed by using three- term labels: voiced versus voice-
less, place of articulation and manner of articulation.
dummy. However, some sounds are particularly dif cult for ventriloquists. Can
and why?
 plosives, e.g. [
] as in
 nasals, e.g. [
] as in
 fricatives, e.g. [
] as in
 approximants, e.g. [
] as in
 vowels, e.g. [
] as in
.
Further reading
7

Plosives and
nasals

Graf
�ti
Learning objectives
At the end of this chapter, you will be able to:
 de
ne the terms
plosive
and
nasal

脠 list the main sound-spelling correspondences of these sounds in English
脠 explain the main variants of plosive and nasal sounds.
Plosives
As we saw in the previous chapter, plosives and nasals are similar in that they both
the mouth. They are both stops. However, plosives (oral stops) also involve a velic
escaping through the nose. In short, air does not escape until one of the two closures is
released. We can show this in
Figure 7.1
,
which traces the movement of the lips through
time for a [

b
] sound, as in
abbey
[


b

i
]. In this, and all subsequent diagrams in this
chapter, time goes from left to right. Such diagrams are called
because they
If we de ne the plosive [
b

rst dotted line to the second (the
hold
phase). Before the  rst dotted line is the [

]
come towards each other at the end of this vowel. This is known as the
approach
to the
Figure 7.1

� Basic movement of articulators for stops.
Table 7.1
Sound-to-spelling correspondences for [

Sound Spelling % of the time in
connected speech
Example words
p ]
5
b ]
others 2
i ] vowel is
There are six plosives in English. They divide into three pairs. The pairs are tradition-
The sound [
] is a voiceless bilabial plosive, and [
] is a voiced bilabial plosive. The
Sound Spelling % of the time in
connected speech
Example words

96
t ] tt 3
others 1
d ]
98
2
Table 7.3
Sound-to-spelling correspondences for [

Sound Spelling % of the time in
connected speech
59
21
k ] ck 6
others 14
92
3
ʃ ] gg 2
others 3
The sound [
] is a voiceless alveolar plosive, and [
] is a voiced alveolar plosive. The
The sound [
] is a voiceless velar plosive, and [
] is a voiced velar plosive. The tongue
38
Plosives and nasals
Figure 7.2

� Aspiration (
pit, spit, bit
).
Aspiration

In fact, we have already described aspiration, in
chapter 1
.
Aspiration is the burst of
voiceless air that occurs on release of a stressed [
p
] sound as in
pit.
However, aspiration
does not occur where the [
p
] follows an [
s
] sound as in
spit.
Nor does the voiced equiva-
lent [
b
], as in
bit,

pit
(aspirated), and
spit
and
bit
(both unaspirated). It similarly distinguishes
tie
and
cold

(both aspirated) from
sty, die, scold
and
gold
(all unaspirated). This is represented in
Figure 7.2
for
pit, spit
and
bit,
where the wavy line represents voicing, and [

h

] aspiration.
As is clear from the diagrams, voicing is not a major clue here, as [
b

,

d

,

ʃ
] seldom have
much voicing. Since plosives, by de
nition, involve air trapped in the mouth, and since
voicing requires air to be forced through the vocal cords making them vibrate, it is dif
-
cult to continue to force air through the vocal cords, when it is not travelling anywhere,
but building up pressure in the mouth. This is especially true of velar [
ʃ
], where the
Plosives and nasals
39
Syllable-Þ
nal plosives
Vowel length
p

,

t

,

k
] on the one hand and [
b

,

d

,

ʃ
]
on the other, in syllable-
nal position after a vowel. Compare the words
seed
and
seat.

The 
rst,
seed,
has a long version of the [
i


] vowel, while the second,
seat,
has a shorter
version. It is the same vowel—it has not become [
i
]. The pronunciation of the 
nal [
d
]
and [
t
] consonants is quite similar—neither the voiceless [
t
] nor the so-called voiced [
d
]
has voicing. Instead, the main clue is the effect the consonant has on the length of the
preceding vowel. Since the length of
seed
is similar to that of
see
(which has no 
nal
consonant), the effect is that a  nal voiceless consonant shortens the vowel.
The same is true of the other plosives, for example [
b

,

p
] as in
rib, rip,
and [
ʃ

,

k
] as
in
league, leak.


We can represent these relationships as in
Figure 7.3
.

Figure 7.3
The effect of following consonants on vowel length (
see, seed, seat
).
Inaudibly released plosives
English syllable-
nal plosives, such as the [
d
] in
seed,
are often dif cult to hear, and this
may be one reason why foreign learners often drop them. As we have just seen, a voice-
less syllable- nal plosive has a shortening effect on the preceding vowel, as in
seat.
And
this is true even when there is an intervening nasal or [
l
], as in
bent
versus
bend,
or
kilt

versus
killed.

The problem often lies, however, not in the approach or hold phases, but in the
release. The release is often impossible or dif cult to hear. Some writers refer to this as
an unreleased plosive. However, this seems an inappropriate term, as, for instance, the
tongue does come away (that is, is released) from the alveolar ridge at the end of the [
d
]
in
seed.
It does not remain there forever. A more appropriate term is therefore inaudibly
released plosive. The plosive is released but there is insuf cient air pressure behind the
[
Inaudibly released plosives always occur in syllable- nal position, in two main cases:
脠 where they are followed by another consonant, either within the same syllable (e.g.
[
]) or in the following syllable (e.g.
Sound Spelling % of the time in
connected speech
Example words
96
m ]
3
others 1
97
n ]
1
others 2
✓ ]
These Ḁ
gures do not include the common -
楮ἀ
�ection.
Nasal approach and release
For a plosive such as [
42
Plosives and nasals
Notice that, in both
amber
and
submerge,
the nasal [
m
] is at the same place of articu-
lation (bilabial) as the plosive [
b
]. Two sounds that have the same place of articulation
are called
homorganic,
from
homo
- ‘same’ and
organ.

Anticipatory nasalization
For nasals, the velum must be open, to allow air to escape through the nose. The timing
of the opening of the velum may not coincide precisely with other articulatory events.
For example, take the word
ram
[
r



m
]. For the [

] vowel, the lips are open, and
the velum is closed. For the [
m
] that follows, the lips are closed, and the velum is open.
The changes in position of these two articulators may not coincide. It is common for the
velum to open slightly earlier than the closing of the lips. In other words, in the latter
part of the vowel, air may escape through both the mouth and nose (see
Figure 7.6
).
This
is known as a nasalized vowel, and is symbolized thus: [
r

଀ἀ


m
].
Since English, unlike other languages such as French, does not have distinct nasalized
vowels, most English speakers are unaware of this natural process. It is a form of assimi-
lation (see
chapter 16
).


Figure 7.4

� Nasal approach (
amber
).
Figure 7.5

� Nasal release (
submerge
).
Plosives and nasals
43
Summary
from escaping through the nose. Air does not escape.
脠 They are analyzed as having three phases: approach, hold, release.
脠 There are six plosives in English: [
p

,

b

,

t

,

d

,

k

,

ʃ
].
escape through the nose.
脠 There are three nasals in English: [
m

,

n

,


].
脠 Plosives preceded by homorganic nasals have nasal approach (closing the velum).
Those followed by homorganic nasals have nasal release (opening the velum).
Exercises

1
.



Do the following words start with a plosive or nasal? If so, which one?

build

done


part

quiche


chaos

gas

khaki

physics

quick


chef

germ

knife

PM

term


chest

gnaw

MP

pneumatic

think


court

GP

NB

pterodactyl

Thomas


2
.



Do the following words end with a plosive or nasal? If so, which one?

bag


bring


herb


OK


sick




herd

panic

sponge


barge

climb

liked

ripe

start


blurred

GP

monarch

rode

wrong


3
.



Explain the following mishearings (known as mondegreens and discussed further
in
chapter 16
):
Figure 7.6

� Anticipatory nasalization (
ram
).
 When I Ḁ
rst heard the name of the 1920s jazz musician Bix Beiderbecke, I
thought it was Bick Spiderbecke.
脠 Many people misheard the lyrics of the Jimi Hendrix song
not as
but as
Further reading
She sells seashells by the seashore.
Tongue twister, believed to refer to Mary Anning (1799–1847),
discoverer of ichthyosaur fossils
Learning objectives
At the end of this chapter, you will be able to:
 explain the terms
and
脠 illustrate the nine fricative and two affricate sounds of English
 list the main sound- spelling correspondences of these sounds.
We have already discussed fricatives in some depth. For instance, in
chapter 3
, we
Table 8.1
� Sound- to-spelling correspondences for [

Sound Spelling % of the time in
connected speech
Example words
11
f ]
4
others 1
[
]
Table 8.2
� Sound- to-spelling correspondences for [

Sound Spelling % of the time in
connected speech
Example words
θ ]
100
 ]
100
Table 8.3
� Sound- to-spelling correspondences for [

Sound Spelling % of the time in
connected speech
Example words
79
s ]
15
others 6
z ]
5
others 2
The sound [
] is a voiceless dental fricative and [
] is a voiced dental fricative. The
Table 8.4
� Sound- to-spelling correspondences for [

Sound Spelling % of the time in
connected speech
Example words
37
1
∫ ] others 55 Palatalization,
others 7
→ ]
4
others 5
is the process of an original [




] coalescing with
i\b ,
)] to give the palato- alveolar sounds [



], eg
.
Table 8.5
� Sound- to-spelling correspondences for [
Sound Spelling % of the time in
connected speech
Example words
h ] h 99* home wh 1* whole *
Estimates (percentages not given by Carney)
For the two affricates in English ([

]), a large area of the tongue, comprising parts of
The sound [
] is a voiceless palato- alveolar affricate and [
] is a voiced palato-
alveolar affricate ( sound-to-spelling correspondences in
).
Table 8.6
� Sound- to-spelling correspondences for [

Sound Spelling % of the time in
connected speech
Example words
t∫ ]
others 25
Palatalization, eg
搃 ] g, ge, dge 71
脠 Fricatives involve frication, the hissing noise caused by air escaping through a small
s ,
] when lisping, that is, as a speech
has a character named
may represent lisped versions of [

] or may
θ ,
‘Hey, man,’ Kok Sean nudged Chung Kai. ‘Check it out. That’th the famouth
Red lorry, yellow lorry.
Tongue twister, and name of a 1980s British rock band
Learning objectives
At the end of this chapter, you will be able to:
 de
ne the terms
and
脠 list the main sound-spelling correspondences of these sounds in English
脠 explain the main variants of approximant and lateral sounds.
The [
] and [
] sounds
These two sounds are well known as pronunciation problems for learners from Japan,
in the way these two sounds are pronounced in English.
The [
] sound
Of all the consonant and vowel sounds, [
] is generally considered to have the greatest
r ] in syllable-
(thus [
]), while others, including the SSBE accent,
f ༀ ࠀ m ə ]). However, this relates to the function of [
] in particular positions
What we are interested in here is the way [
] is pronounced, not the way that it func-
r ] as a voiced post-alveolar central approximant in SSBE
. In some textbooks, the place of [
] is given as the
∫ ,


]. However, it is clear that they involve very different tongue
Table 9.1
Sound-to-spelling correspondences for [

Sound Spelling
% of the time in connected
Example words
(= [
]) 27
w ] wh 5
4
for it. However, as we have
u ࠀ ] vowel) and can therefore be called velar too. The most precise word for its place is thus the two-part term labial-velar , meaning that it involves approximant gestures at both
52
Approximants
In many American accents, including GenAm, the tongue is curled further back than
the symbol is [
ʃ
].
The main sound-to-spelling correspondences (from Carney, 1994) are given in
Table 9.2
.

Figure 9.1
Tongue position for [
r
].
Table 9.2
Sound-to-spelling correspondences for [
r
]
Sound Spelling % of the time in
connected speech
Example
words

r

94

real

[
r
]
rr
4

carry

others 2
shapes and positions. The vocal cords are vibrating. The symbol for explicitly this kind
of [
r
] is [
ɹ
]. The position of the tongue, as seen from a front-to-back perspective (called
a

coronal

section) is shown in
Figure 9.1
.

Types of [
r
]
While the description of [
r
ex (GenAm)
central approximant is accurate, many other pronunciations of [
r
] are found in accents
of English.
A trilled [
r
] is stereotypically associated with Scottish speakers. The sound is produced
by holding the tip of the tongue near the alveolar ridge and at such a muscular tension
that the airstream causes it to vibrate aerodynamically against the alveolar ridge. It
produces a series of rapid taps, usually only three or four in normal speech. In fact, it is
more usual in Scottish, Welsh, South African and Indian speech, not to produce a series
of taps, but a single tap in this way (symbol [
ɾ
]).
In certain northeast England accents, instead of a post-alveolar approximant, a
uvular approximant is used. This is produced by raising the back of the tongue towards
Approximants
53
the uvula, the soft piece of 
esh hanging in the middle of the velum, without causing
frication. If frication is caused, a uvular fricative is produced. The symbol for both
sounds is [
ʁ
].
In a similar way to the alveolar trill, a uvular trill is produced by holding the back of
the tongue close to the uvula, which then vibrates against it as an aerodynamic move-
ment (symbol [
r
]).
As can be seen, [
r
] is a sound that has probably the greatest amount of variation in
accents of English. The above are the common variants, but the discussion does not
exhaust all the possibilities.
The [
l
] sound
The [
l
] sound, being a voiced alveolar lateral approximant, is produced by touching the
alveolar ridge with the tip of the tongue. However, this contact only occurs in the center
of the vocal tract. The sides of the tongue are not touching, allowing air to escape over
the sides. Since there are two sides to the tongue, air can escape over both sides at the
any great change in the sound. The vocal cords are vibrating. The position of the tongue,
as seen from a front-to-back perspective is shown in
Figure 9.2
.

Figure 9.2
Tongue position for [
l
].
Table 9.3
Sound-to-spelling correspondences for [
l
]
Sound Spelling % of the time in
connected speech
Example
words

l
75

lamp

[
l
]
ll
18

follow


le
8

castle


Comparing
Figure 9.2
with
9.1
,

l

] and an [

r

] sound is
clear. For [
l
], the tongue tip touches the roof of the mouth; for [
r
] it does not.
The main sound-to-spelling correspondences (from Carney, 1994) are given in
Table 9.3
.
54
Approximants
In GenAm, [
l
vowels, as in
jelly
.
Vocalic and absorbed [
l
]
We have already noted that approximants share many characteristics with vowel sounds.
l
] and a high back vowel is that the tip of the tongue
touches the alveolar ridge for [
l
]. In some accents of English, this tongue tip contact is
lost, leaving only a high back vowel tongue position, usually symbolized by [

]. Thus,
the word
kill
is pronounced as [
k

i


] instead of [
k

i

l
]. The pronunciation is now totally
vowel-like, and is known as vocalic [
l
as do high back vowels in English.
This vocalic pronunciation of what would otherwise be a dark [
l
] is becoming increas-
ingly common in English accents in Britain and the USA (Scobbie and Wrench, 2003).
As a further step, where dark or vocalic [
l
] follows a rounded back vowel, especially
[



], it may be totally absorbed into that vowel. Thus
fault
may be pronounced
Figure 9.3
Tongue positions for clear and dark [
l
].
Source: Wells & Colson, 1971
Clear and dark [
l
]
The three-term label
voiced alveolar lateral approximant
only tells us what the tip of the
tongue is doing. It says nothing about the rest of the tongue. In many accents of English,
including SSBE, two positions of the body of the tongue may be distinguished.
In syllable-initial position, as in a word like
lick
[
l

i

k
], the body of the tongue is
bunched upwards and forwards towards the hard palate, giving a light or clear quality to
the sound. In contrast, in syllable- nal position, as in a word like
kill
[
k

i

l
], the body is
bunched upwards and backwards towards the velum, giving a dark quality. This varia-
tion has nothing to do with surrounding sounds ([
i
] for both the above words), but with
the position in the syllable. The symbols for these types of [
l
] are [
l

] for clear [
l
] and [
l
i
]
for dark [
l
]. Since the upward and forward bunching of the tongue corresponds to its
position for high front vowel [
i
], and since the upward and backward bunching corre-
sponds to its position for a high back vowel [
u
], alternative symbols for these sounds are
[
l

i



,


l

u


]. The tongue positions are shown in
Figure 9.3
.

Approximants
55
identically to
fought
: [
f





t
]. Historically, this is precisely what has happened to words
like
walk, talk
and
chalk
. Original [
l
] sounds have been absorbed into the preceding [



]
vowels. The
l
Lateral approach and release

In
chapter 7
,
we discussed nasal approach and release. This is the situation where
a plosive is preceded or followed by its homorganic nasal, e.g. [
m

p

,

p

m
]. In order to
form or release the [
p
] plosive, the lips do not need to move because they are also in
m
]. The change is therefore effected by closing or opening
the velum.
A similar situation applies to plosives preceded or followed by the lateral [
l
]. Since [
l
]
is the only lateral in English, and is alveolar, the plosive must be [
t

,

d
]. In short, we are
talking about [
l

t

,

t

l

,

l

d

,

d

l
] sequences, as in
alto, atlas, elder
and
sadly
. For the lateral [
l
],
not at the sides. For the plosives [
t

,

d
at the sides. In going from an [
l
] to a [
t

,

d
], the tongue tip is already in the right position
against the alveolar ridge—only the sides of the tongue need to be raised and make
contact. And vice versa for [
t

,

d
] followed by [
l
], only the sides need to be lowered
and lose contact.
Figure 9.4
shows the movements of the tip and sides of the tongue
for
alto
.
Figure 9.4

� Lateral approach (
alto
).
The consonant inventory of English
classi

ed (
chapter 6
), and the 24 consonants of English: plosives and nasals (
chapter 7
),
fricatives and affricates (
chapter 8

and approximants (this chapter). For easy reference,
the consonants of English are typically shown in a table (
Figure 9.5
),
where the columns
represent the places of articulation, and the rows the manners of articulation. Voiceless
consonants are conventionally shown on the left of any cell in the table, and voiced
consonants on the right.
Figure 9.5
The consonant chart of English.
I always feel so ugly when I speak German.
Oscar Wilde (1854–1900), Irish playwright
Learning objectives
At the end of this chapter, you will be able to:
 list some non-English categories of sound
 list some non-English sounds.
found in some languages. Such sounds are normally put in a separate chart.
Incompatibility of categories
Some pigeonholes cannot be  lled, because the two categories cannot combine. For
Likewise, [
] is a high back rounded vowel. If the tongue is kept in the same high
Ḁ ]. It
Syllables govern the world.
John Selden (1584–1654), English jurist and writer
Learning objectives
At the end of this chapter, you will be able to:
脠 explain why the syllable is an important unit of speech
脠 describe the structure of the English syllable
脠 give some syllable structure rules of English
 show how loanwords are integrated into borrowing languages.
It is intuitive to think that the word is the most important unit in language. However,
脠 Everyone, regardless of their native language and its writing system, seems to be
able to identify how many syllables words contain.
). After the vowel, there may also be one or more consonants, e.g.
[
[
]. This position is known as the coda (also called
or
syllables, while
syllables have 
nal consonants.
Maori C
V O (only V and CV syllables)
Cantonese C
V C
(no clusters)
Spanish C
V C
(initial clusters but no 
nal clusters)
Arabic C
V C
(Ḁ
nal clusters but no initial clusters)
Russian C
V C
Note the [
] of
and
, the [
] of
, and the [
] of
,
and
 The [
] consonant is never syllable- nal (in the coda) in English. Other languages,
nal [
 The [

] sounds cannot occur in the coda.
 The [
] sound does not occur at the beginning of words in English, apart from
. Similarly, it does not occur at the end
. In short, it only occurs

ə ]: As we will see in chapter 16, [ ə ] may be lost in certain environments, e.g. comfortable [
] (four syllables) or [
] (three).
†脀
The word
is one unit of meaning (
) in
) in
†脀

The syllable [
] is both regular and occurring—it is
. Since the syllable structure rules are generalizations based on the
vocabulary of English, it is not surprising that occurring syllables are also regular.
†脀
The syllable [
] is also regular in that it does
s l ] is a
. The [
] consonant can be followed by the [
i r ] (GenAm), as in
. However, [
] happens not to
syllable.
†脀
The syllable [
] is not occurring. It is also not
s θ ] is not a permissible initial cluster in English. There are, for
s θ ]. This does not mean to say that English speakers
s θ ] sequence – it occurs in words like
脠 Where the loanword contains clusters that are not permissible in the
, with its [
] and [
] clusters, is borrowed into Japanese,
s i k o r u d o r a i b a ]. Note that, because vowels have been added, there
v ] sound, and [
] has
been substituted.
[
s u p a a m a a k e t t o ] [
b u r a n k e t t o ] [
r i m u d → i n ] [
s a a m o s u t a t t o ] [
o o s u t o r a r i a ] [
m a k u d o n a r u d o ] [
] [

[
] [

p,








]. Notice that it does not have a number of consonants
b,

], any affricates, any of the fricatives
f ,
], the approximants [

]. Maori does not allow any clusters or 
purposes of this task, you can ignore any problems with vowels.)

English word
Pronunciation as a
[
p a h i ] sheep [
k u r a ] bus [
p a r a u ] John [
p i h i k e t e ] plough/plow [
] [
[
f u t u p o ࠀ r o ] Bible [
p i a ] snake [
a r e f a n a ] biscuit [
t o u n a t i ] blackberry [
] [ pe
[
] [ ho
[
[Daniel] Jones’s phoneme concept had the minimum of theory behind it. . . . His
Minimal pairs
You may have noticed a new way of referring to sounds being used. The abstract unit of
. It is put
脠 It is on the basis of minimal pairs that we state that English has 24 consonant
phonemes and 16 (GenAm) or 20 (SSBE) vowel phonemes.
[

] [

] [

[

] [

] [

]
p h ,
] above. This proves that they
 Clear [
] ([
]) occurs before vowels. Dark [
] ([]) doesn’t.
脠 A plosive such as [p] is nasally released ([
]) before its homorganic nasal
m ]), e.g.
. It is orally released elsewhere.
脠 An alveolar plosive such as [
] is laterally released ([
]) before [
], e. g.
but centrally released elsewhere.
Further reading
The classic work on the phoneme is Jones’s (1950)
, and
We have really everything in common with America nowadays, except, of course, language.
Oscar Wilde (1854–1900), Irish playwright
Learning objectives
At the end of this chapter, you will be able to:
 de
ne the four types of accent difference:
and
脠 explain why accent differences are important
脠 distinguish Type 1 and Type 2 accents of English.
In the previous chapter, we discussed the phonological unit known as the phoneme,
Differences of phonemic system have also been called phonological differences.
2 Allophonic realization
The second type of difference does not involve a difference in the number of phonemes
. In SSBE, GenAm, and many other accents, this is pronounced [
], with two diphthong vowels. However, Scottish English speakers, and many
oࠀ k e ࠀ] That is, both accents have the same two phonemic vowel units here: the vowels in pole and
contrast with those in
Impressions of correctness
As Wells (1982, p. 79) argues, ‘Most popular controversies about “right” and “wrong”
The potential for loss of intelligibility is compounded if learners, in the same way as

/, but also do not distinguish
ation of
Differences of phonotactic distribution may be of some limited importance.
/ is the only example of phonotactic distribution that is at all
/ and /
/, because
80
Accent differences
脠 As a result of this, Type 1 accents can be represented diagrammatically by a trape-
脠 In Type 1 accents, long vowels tend to be diphthongal. For instance, in SSBE, [
i


]
and [
u


] are often actually [
i

i
] and [


u
]. However, in Type 2 accents, vowels tend to
be monophthongal, regardless of length, and length distinctions are often not
maintained.
脠 Type 1 unstressed vowels often become schwa, whereas in Type 2, reduced vowels
such as schwa do not occur, [
a
] often being used instead.
 Type 1 is exempli
exempli
ed by the ‘new’ Second Language (ESL) Englishes, but also by Scottish and
Irish English.
脠 The features of Type 2 ‘new’ English accents may mirror the vowel systems of local
languages.
脠 Type 2 may be used in ‘new’ English accents because of negative connotations
Summary
model accent).
脠 There are four types of accent difference: phonemic system, allophonic realization,
phonotactic distribution and lexical distribution.
脠 Differences of phonemic system (where one accent has a distinction that another
does not) probably represent the greatest threat to intelligibility.
Exercises

1
.



tion, phonotactic distribution or lexical distribution.
Figure 13.1
In Liverpool,
and
, and
and
are homophones. In SSBE and
฀ࠀ ( r )] and [
] vowels
In SSBE, the [
] sound is a voiced post-alveolar approximant. In Indian speech,
ɾ ]. c You say [
] and I say [
Many New Zealanders pronounce
and
, and
and
as
i ə ,
] and
e ə ,
] vowels respectively.
In SSBE,
is [
]. For many learners, this is [
f
In Cockney, the urban accent of London,
is pronounced [
], the same as
. In other accents, the initial consonants are different.
g
Some English speakers pronounce the words
and
with the [
i ࠀ ] vowel.
h
In Canada, some speakers pronounce words like
and
with a
ə i ] vowel, while other words like
and
have [
]. In SSBE and
GenAm, all these words have the same vowel.
Most Scots pronounce
and
identically. In SSBE
and GenAm, they have different vowels.
In words such as
, some speakers use [
] for the Ḁ
nal vowel, while others
, or may be af xes which occur before the stems (pre xes such as the negating
- of
) or after the stems (suf
of
, making an ordinal
is thus analyzable into the
- (‘not’) +
- (‘again’) +
(stem) + -
(‘can be . . . -ed’).
The 慦Ḁ
xes
- and -
are always pronounced the same. However, as we will see, the
nal /




/ without an intervening vowel, which is /
/ in some accents. As for the
/
/ is one syllable, while
/ is two.
The rule stating the pronunciation of the plural morpheme thus resembles the one
(i) /
/ after /





(ii) /
/ after other voiceless consonants
(iii) /
/ after other voiced consonants and vowels
The above two rules are in fact more pervasive than the above description suggests.
participle or -
participle):
. Similarly, the plural noun rule (
) also applies to
), possessives (
), and
or
(
In the previous sections, we used the term
. In this context,
means
). Regular verbs and nouns are thus





. In the third, the nasalization (also a
([
଀ἀ

଀ἀ
In short, /
/ is described as a voiced bilabial nasal. But it takes part in the 
rst process
nasal respectively. In other words, none of these processes are speci c to /
/, but apply
Phonologists have proposed that sounds should be thought of as being composed of
±vowels, / m / is [+ voice], as opposed to [ voice] meaning voiceless. And it is because of
/ participates in the  rst process above.
There are several reasons why such a view of sounds should be proposed.
1 Natural classes
Distinctive features allow us to specify natural classes, that is, groups of sounds that
±[± voice] is a very basic feature characterizing all sounds, because all sounds either have or do not have vocal cord vibration.
2 Phonological processes
As we have just seen, phonological rules often depend on distinctive features. It is much
simpler to say that the plural suf x is pronounced as /
/ (which is [+ voice]) after any
()b,


























3 Economy
One feature that is needed for English is [± lateral]. However, this is only needed in
/ [+ lateral] from /
/ [ lateral], because they are the same in
/, we therefore only need to describe
脠 [± lateral]: the only [+ lateral] sound in English is /
/, which allows air to escape
over the sides of the tongue; all other English sounds are [ lateral].
脠 [± nasal]: [+ nasal] sounds (nasals and nasalized vowels) have a lowered velum,
allowing air to escape through the nose.
脠 [± tense]: [+ tense] vowels are long vowels, produced with greater tension; [ tense]
(short) vowels are also called lax.
脠 [± sibilant]: [+ sibilant] fricatives (/



/) are those with large amounts of
acoustic energy at high frequencies.
These distinctive features can then be used to categorize natural classes, as shown in
Table 14.1
Distinctive feature matrix for English natural classes
Syllabic Consonantal Sonorant Continuant
Plosives and affricates ―
Nasal stops
Approximants (/

/) ―
Semi- vowels (/

/) ―
Each natural class is now distinguished from every other in terms of the + and 
The distinctive features used to categorize consonant sounds of English are shown in
Table 14.2
Distinctive feature matrix for English consonants
voice consonantal sonorant coronal anterior labial high back continuant lateral nasal sibilant
/ ― +
― ― + + ― ― ― ― ― ―
/ + +
― ― + + ― ― ― ― ― ―
/ ― +
― + + ― ― ― ― ― ― ―
/ + +
― + + ― ― ― ― ― ― ―
/ ― +
― ― ― ― + + ― ― ― ―
/ + +
― ― ― ― + + ― ― ― ―
/ ― +
― + ― ― ― ― ― ― ― +
/ + +
― + ― ― ― ― ― ― ― +
/ ― +
― ― + + ― ― + ― ― ―
/ + +
― ― + + ― ― + ― ― ―
/ ― +
― + + ― ― ― + ― ― ―
/ + +
― + + ― ― ― + ― ― ―
/ ― +
― + + ― ― ― + ― ― +
/ + +
― + + ― ― ― + ― ― +
/ ― +
― + ― ― ― ― + ― ― +
/ + +
― + ― ― ― ― + ― ― +
/ ― +
― ― ― ― ― ― + ― ― ―
/ + +
+ ― + + ― ― ― ― + ―
/ + +
+ + + ― ― ― ― ― + ―
/ + +
+ ― ― ― + + ― ― + ―
/ + +
+ + + ― ― ― + + ― ―
/ + +
+ + + ― ― ― + ― ― ―
/ + ―
+ ― ― + + + + ― ― ―
/ + ―
+ + ― ― + ― + ― ― ―
脠 Morphophonology examines the way morphemes are pronounced.
脠 While regular past tense verbs are all spelled
, they are not all pronounced the
脠 While regular plural nouns are all spelled
, they are not all pronounced the
labial high low back tense
/ ― + ― ― +
/ ― + ― ― ―
/ ― ― ― ― ―
/ ― ― + ― ―
/ ― ― + + ―
/ ― ― + + +
/ + ― + + ―
/ + ― ― + +
/ + + ― + ―
/ + + ― + +
/ ― ― ― + +
Further reading
There are many introductory books on phonology, including Carr (1993), Katamba
A Salt ‘N’ Battered, Kash n’ Karry Food Stores, Love-n-Kisses, Mains ‘N’ Drains, Memphis
脠 Content words are the kind of word you might look up in a dictionary. For instance,
in the dictionary. But
 Content words can be 摥Ḁ
(‘a book or  lm that is very good
) is only one line. In
takes up a page and has 25 subentries. The ‘meaning’ of
depends on its context of use.
脠 For this reason, content words are also called lexical words, because they have real
meaning depends on their function in sentences.
Content words therefore carry most of the message of an utterance. Producing a
Table 15.1
� Weak forms
Word Citation form Weak form Example (SSBE transcription)
/
/ /
/
/


/ /
/
/


/
/ /
/
/


/
/ /
/
/


/
/ /
/
/



/
)/ /
)/
/


/
/ /
/
/


/
/ /
/
/


/
/ /
/
/


/
/ /
/
/


/
/ /
/
/


/
/ /(
/
/


/
/ /(
/
/


/
/ /(
)/
/



/
/ /
)/
/


/
/ /
/
/



/
/ /
/
/


/
/ /
/
/


/
/ /
/
/


/
/ /
/
/


/
/ /
/
/


/
/ /
)/
/


/
/ /
/
/


/
/ /
/
/



/
/ /
/
/


/
/ /
/
/



/
/ /
/
/


/
)/ /
)/
/


/
/ /
/
/


/
/ /
)/
/


/
/ /
/
/


/
/ /
/
/


/
/ /(
/
/


/
/ /(
/
/


/
/ /(
/
/




/
/ /(
/
/


/
/ /(
/
/



/
/ /
/
/


/
/ /(
/
/


/
/ /
)/
/


Word Citation form Weak form Example (SSBE transcription)
/
/ /
/
/


/
/ /
/
/


/
/ /

/
/



/
)/ /
)/
/



just /
/ /
/
/


saint /
/ /
/
/

sir /
/ /
)/
There are  ve main environments where strong forms are found:
脠 As the last word of a sentence, e.g.
Some people, rather
pedantically, object that you should never  nish a sentence with a preposition, but
it is extremely common in questions like this.
2 Final vowel + initial consonant
This combination does not pose any problems:
An international friendly match
We got into national costume.
3 Final consonant + initial vowel
This combination is made easier if the  nal consonant is linked up to the initial vowel.
In this way, the  nal consonant is not dropped:
Two other possibilities exist for these environments. Firstly, zero link means that
Weakening and linking
97
as
penknife
/
p

e

n

n

a

i

f
/ therefore looks identical to that for the phrase
good dog
. The differ-
ence is that, while the velum is closed throughout the phrase
good dog
, it is open for the
/
n

n
/ of
penknife
. Again, the central dotted line is notional (
Figure 15.2
).
Figure 15.1

� Geminate plosives (
good dog
).
Figure 15.2

� Geminate nasals (
penknife
).
Affricates
release. Where they are geminate, as in
orange juice
/

/




r

i

n

d



d



u



s
/, the  rst affricate is
typically released and then the second is formed. In short, we have two full affricate
sounds.
Fricatives
Fricatives, on the other hand, do not have distinct beginnings and endings. They can
therefore be prolonged as geminate consonants. In a word such as
misspell
/
m

i

s

s

p

e

l
/,
there is one double-length [
s
] articulation.
Approximants
As for fricatives, air escapes during approximants. They can therefore be prolonged
when geminate. Thus the phrase
real life
has one double-length [
l
] articulation.
Kaye (2005) gives measurements for the nasals in
versus
. They
n ] articulations in
. However, his data involves
Placing an onClick handler in

elds Ḁ
xes a bug where
objects inside tables are
牥ἀ ected more than once.
Ryserson University Canada webpage (emphasis added)
Learning objectives
At the end of this chapter, you will be able to:
脠 provide examples of de- alveolar regressive assimilation of place
脠 list the four main types of elision
 explain coalescent assimilation.
In the previous chapter, we examined weak forms and linking as connected speech
Assimilation of place
When an alveolar stop (plosive or nasal) is followed by a consonant that is not alveolar,
the  rst consonant often changes its place of articulation to that of the second sound.
/ of
is followed by a bilabial /
/. It is common for the voice-
/ to change to a voiceless bilabial plosive /
/ because the following
Assimilation of manner
Here, one sound changes its manner in order to be similar to that of a surrounding
sound. For example, the  rst word of the phrase
contains a 
nal /
/, and the
/. The  rst sound may change from a voiced alveolar
/ to a voiced alveolar nasal /
/; thus /
2 Progressive and Regressive Assimilation
the  nal and initial consonants are alveolar.
A further common kind of assimilation happens where a 
nal /
,
/ occurs before
either palato- alveolar /
/ or palatal /
/. In this case, the alveolar /
,
/ changes into palato-
,
/ respectively.
/
�/ /
followed by
a bilabial an alveolar a velar
nal /
/


/ /


nal /
/


/ /


nal /
/


/ /

/ /

/ pronunciation has three syllables, while /
/ has
/ is particularly common in SSBE where strings of /
/ and /
/
�/ (four syllables) /
�/ (three) /
/ (two). In
 When /
/ begins an unstressed syllable, e.g.
/

�/ /

There are several other elisions affecting particular words and phrases.
 The /
/ of
is often elided when they are unstressed (that is, the verb
is
/


/ �


/,
/


�/ /


 The /
/ of
, and the /
/ of
, are elided in the following common phrases:
/

�/
/
,
/,
/

�/
/
/

/
,
脠 We have already seen how syllable- Ḁ
nal /
,
/ may be elided in certain circum-
stances. English allows relatively large syllable- Ḁ nal clusters, because of endings
/ (e.g.
) and / -
/ (e.g.
). It is not surprising that
awkward clusters are simpli ed by the omission of one or more of the constituent
,
/ become palato- alveolar /
,
/ before palatal /
/, e.g.
/
�/ /

/. The /
/ may be elided, giving the pronunciation /
,
The rule is, in fact, that /
,
,
,
/ followed by /
/ become /
,
,
,
/ respectively.
in questions, e.g.
/
,
/. Also,
often becomes /
/ by the eliding of
, and coalescent assimilation.
脠 Assimilation is the process whereby one sound changes in order to become similar
to a neighboring sound.
脠 Assimilation may affect voice, place or manner; and may be progressive (where the
Ḁ rst sound affects the second) or regressive (where the second affects the 
rst).
脠 The commonest form of assimilation is de- alveolar regressive assimilation of place.
脠 Elision is the process of omitting certain sounds in certain environments. It is
different from assimilation, which involves change, not omission.
脠 Elision in English typically affects syllable- Ḁ
nal /
,
/, unstressed /
/, and /

art gallery goodbye John Major salad cream

broad beans Great Britain Mrs Young tennis shoes

Citizen Kane headmaster please yourself tenpin bowling

disused input SUV United Kingdom

backhand handshake loved ones temperature

family left luggage penthouse West Side Story
Further reading
Speaking English is like tongue-twist for me. I can speak each word perfect, but then you
1 Natural processes
It must be emphasized that the connected speech processes of weak forms, linking,
/ in the phrase
as an /
/. Instead of the tongue
/ and the lips for /
/, there is now only one
/, using just the lips. The resulting pronunciation is identical to
2 Common features
I personally  nd it almost impossible to pronounce the phrase
/ sequence by eliding
some consonants. It is not dif cult to  nd similar examples of connected speech
not have them.
3 Historical evidence
Perhaps the strongest evidence for connected speech processes in ordinary speech is the

: All nouns ending in -
were originally pronounced /
/. The /
/ became
/. If, as in the case of
, this followed a /
/, this became /
/ by
†脀
: This was originally a compound of
‘a cloth to hold in
/ sequence in the middle. The /
/ was in a suitable envi-
/ preceding a velar /
/ was changed to
/ by assimilation, giving us the modern pronunciation /
/. This
. Note that the  rst two syllables
are the same as for the verb
, which is always /
†脀
: This was originally a compound of
‘a person who looks
). The /
/ at the beginning of the second, unstressed
†脀
: This was originally a compound of
‘a yard that is a garden,’
. The initial /
/ was
/ sequence in the middle became /
/ by coalescent assimilation,
/.
4 Spelling
As in the case of
spelling. Similarly, the surname
is a respelling of the word
There is a suburb of Birmingham (UK) called
. Many people think
is a common word in English and it is pronounced identi-
if the /
/ is elided. In fact, the origin of the name
is
in the
is
—it is always served cold as part
element is not known. If it were
, the /
/ would be regu-
is an old word meaning ‘cabbage’—it is the origin of the modern
, and the
Ḁ rst part
Nobody would object that /
,
/ is a slovenly pronunciation for what should
,
/, or that the spelling
is somehow wrong. However, this is
processes that are common in everyday speech.
Connected speech processes
109
Mondegreens
A mondegreen is the mishearing of a phrase, often as the result of the occurrence of
connected speech processes, but also involving individual consonant and vowel
segments, and other features. The word
mondegreen
itself comes from such a mishearing
of a line from ‘The Bonnie Earl O’ Murray,’ a ballad from
Reliques of Ancient English
collected by Thomas Percy (1765).
Ye Highlands and ye Lowlands,
Oh, where hae ye been?
They hae slain the Earl O’ Murray
And Lady Mondegreen.
The last line actually reads
And laid him on the green
. Note that this mishearing
involves the elision of unstressed /
h
/, the hearing of /

/ as /
d
/, and linking.
Such mondegreens were common with early computerized speech recognition
systems. It is said that the sentence
ItÕs hard to recognize speech
was recognized as
ItÕs hard
to wreck a nice beach
.

In fact, we have already quoted two mondegreens, in
chapter 7
:


Bick Spiderbecke

and
Excuse me while I kiss this guy
. There are many other, famous ones, often from
popular song and hymn lyrics (some perhaps invented). Often mondegreens are a
strategy for trying to understand unusual place-names or foreign elements. The monde-
green examples below are preceded by an asterisk, with the correct version given in
*Are you going to starve an old friend? (Are you going to Scarborough Fair?)
from
Scarborough Fair
by Simon and Garfunkel
Figure 17.1

� Epenthesis (
hamster
).

*Sunday monkey won’t play piano song (Sont des mots qui vont très bien ensemble;
脠 Q: What do you call a short-sighted dinosaur?
A: A Juthinkesaurus.
 Q: How can I Ḁ
nd out more about Dracula?
A: Join his fang club.
脠 Q: How does the man in the moon have his hair cut?
A: Eclipse it.
脠 That’s all you monks think of – sects, sects, sects!
脠 If you’ve seen one shopping center, you’ve seen a mall.
Further reading
The most precious things in speech are pauses.
Sir Ralph Richardson (1902–1983), British actor
Learning objectives
At the end of this chapter, you will be able to:
脠 list reasons why pausing is important in speech
脠 explain problems in the measurement of speaking speed
 control speaking more slowly, as a teacher.
This chapter deals with two aspects of speech that are seldom mentioned in books on
Finally, by concentrating on pausing, speakers are able to control their breathing and
be nervous.
The measurement of speaking speed
Speed (often referred to, in connection with speech, as tempo or rate) is a simple concept
to understand, but a surprisingly dif cult one to measure. Just as in other  elds, it refers
Second, it is clear that different speaking styles typically entail different speaking
Language G—sy (1991) Dankovicova (1994)
French 4.7–6.8 5.2–5.7
German ₖ
Spanish 4.6–7.0 ₖ
Arabic 4.6–7.0 ₖ
Italian 5.3–8.9 6.4
Dutch 5.5–9.3 6.1
Roach (1998, p. 153) concludes that ‘it seems that, on the evidence available at
. In it, Deep Thought, the second greatest computer in the Universe of Space
Good morning said Deep Thought at last er good morning O Deep Thought
really is one con rmed Deep Thought to Everything to the great Question of
How dare you speak to me like that! I’ll have you know I am a very impotent man.
Perhaps apocryphal utterance by
a foreign speaker
Learning objectives
At the end of this chapter, you will be able to:
脠 list ways in which stressed syllables differ from unstressed syllables
 mark stress in different ways
脠 explain the importance of the schwa vowel in English
 identify
stress- attracting, -preserving
and
suf
xes
 de
ne
and
.
As we saw in
chapter 11
, words are made up of syllables. They may contain one syllable
), two syllables (e.g.
), three syllables (e.g.
), four syllables (e.g.
), Ḁ
ve sylla-
), and so on. Where there is only one syllable in nouns like these, then
The main stress in the above words can therefore be represented as follows, by
1 It only occurs in unstressed syllables
The stress falls on the second syllable in
, and on the  rst syllable in
in order to decide on stress placement, it is necessary to make use of some or all of
have no real meaning. All these elements have Latin origins.
脠 Some examples, far from having a passive feel to them, instead have an active feel.
and
mean ‘able/suitable to
change, fail, perish, present oneself, act socially.’
脠 Most importantly for teaching purposes, there are exceptions to the stress place-
does change the stress.
has stress on the second syllable while
is stressed on
the  rst. Similarly,
(second),
(second) but

rst syllable
(second) and

rst),
(second) and
rst).
脠 Changes to make words conform to the rule seem to be in progress. For instance,
has stress on the second syllable. However, the stress in the adjective
, or often the negative
, is preferred on the 
rst syllable
) by older speakers, but on the second (
) by younger speakers in both British
has
second- syllable stress. Wells gives stress for the adjective
on the 
), but also cites possible stress placement on the second syllable (
may also be heard with second- syllable
). Indeed, Wells (2000, 2008) includes several graphs containing the
able, lamentable, transferable
, showing
x to be stress- preserving, although in some
(46%  rst- syllable stress, 54% second-
syllable stress in British English).
Teachers generally prefer rules that are easy to state and have no, or very few, exceptions.
Nevertheless, the rest of this chapter presents some rules that are not too dif
to state, and thus not too dif cult for learners to understand and remember, and
Stress and sufÞ
The effect, in terms of stress placement, of adding suf xes to stems is usually described
1 Stress- attracting sufÞ
When stress- attracting suf
xes are added to stems, the suf x itself receives the stress,
examples just quoted are thus stress-
Table 19.1
gives some common examples (adj = adjective).
Table 19.1
� Stress- attracting suf
xes
SufÞ xUsual stemResulting word classUsual meaningExamples
verbnounsomeone who is
employee, interviewee-eernounnounsomeone involved
nounadjnationality
2 Stress- preserving sufÞ
Stress- preserving suf
xes do not alter the placement of stress. That is, whichever syllable
in the stem was stressed is still the stressed syllable after the suf x has been added. The
suf
x we discussed earlier is thus an example of this category. So are all the eight
ectional suf
xes of English:
, he want ed

Table 19.2
gives some common examples.
xes, that is af xes that come before the stem, are usually stress- preserving in English,
3 Stress- Þ
xing sufÞ xes
The Ḁ
nal category of suf x is those that are not attracting or preserving, that is, the stress
falls within the stem, not on the suf x, but the addition of the suf x does change the
stress placement within the stem. Such suf xes are often called stress- shifting. However,
is preferred.
x -
causes the stress to fall on the syllable
preceding this suf x (the second- to-last, or penultimate, in the word), regardless of
.
Table 19.3
gives some common examples.
Stress in (some) words of more than one grammatical class
There is a group of words that undergoes a change in stress placement depending on
SufÞ
�x Usual stem Resulting word class Meaning Examples
verb adj
that can be
adjustable, maneuverable -age noun or
noun adj
to do with [noun]
verb noun
the act of [verb]ing
adj verb
to make more
Table 19.3
� Stress- 
xing suf xes
SufÞ
�x Usual
word class
Meaning Stressed syllable Examples
noun adj with [noun] 2nd- to-last
noun adj related to [noun] 2nd- to-last
noun adj related to [noun] 2nd- to-last
In terms of stress, the important point about compounds is that the stress falls on
(the stressed syllable of) the  rst element. Thus, the above compounds are WHITEboard,
seems the more important
rst element.
Three common structures for compound nouns are:
 Noun + noun, e.g.
 Adj + noun, e.g.
 Gerund (verb +
) + noun, e.g.
Compounds like this can be contrasted with simple noun phrases made up of nouns
The teacher wrote the answer on the whiteboard.
Jack used a white board to hold the mirror in place.
The Ḁ
rst sentence above contains the compound, which is thus pronounced
, with the premodifying adjective
. It is literally a
Vaughan-Rees (2010) gives the following simple description of the main differences


English does this because it seems to avoid, where possible, having two stressed syllables
and
脠 Word stress is an important aspect of English pronunciation, as listeners use it to
recognize words.
脠 As Dalton and Seidlhofer (1994; see
chapter 30
) point out, it is important for
teaching purposes, as it combines teachability with communicative importance.
脠 Stress is marked in transcriptions, as in dictionaries, by a superscript tick at the
beginning of the stressed syllable.
脠 Stress cannot exist without unstress. The schwa vowel is important for signaling
脠 Many stress rules are complex, and they often have exceptions.
/





/



/





/






/





/






/






/





/
Further reading
The classic work on English word stress, analyzing the subject in depth, is Fudge (1984).
If the child could paint the picture, these [intonation and rhythm] would be the wave on
has his way—he calls them suprasegmentals, and makes the wave ride on top of the ship.
Dwight Bolinger (1907–1992),
(1961)
Learning objectives
At the end of this chapter, you will be able to:
 de
ne the terms
and
Tone groups
The pitch of the voice is the note on which sounds are said. This pitch depends on the
ༀ ࠀ ] or a consonant such as [
] on a high note, and then on a low note. Then say
It may have occurred to you that, since pitch depends on vocal cord vibration (that
s ] are voiceless, that is, do not involve
s ] on a rising
The tone group (also known, by different writers, as tone unit, intonation unit,
3
4
I donÕt like Susan because sheÕs cute . . .
The difference in meaning here depends on what the negative element (the -
of
) relates to. In the  rst sentence, it negates the verb
. The  rst sentence thus
(and I don’t like cuteness).
. It thus means the same as
I like Susan, not because sheÕs cute . . .
(but because
to migrate to the main
. Sentence 3 will thus have two tone groups, the
5
6
Sentence 5 contains a restrictive relative clause, like sentence 1. It means ‘Only those
has a different
. Sentence 5 will have two tone groups, the boundary coming after
, and separating the subject from the predicate. Sentence 6, however, will
Intonation is typically marked in the following way. Sentences are written, not in italics,
| my car | which is twelve years old | keeps breaking down |
Within the tone group, and within sentences generally, it is the lexical content words
Within the tone group, the tonic word is the one that carries the greatest pitch move-
(noun),
(adjective)
(adverb) in the above example). Where the tonic word contains more than
In intonational terms, stressed (prominent) syllables are marked by capitalization,
| my CAR | which is TWELVE YEARS OLD | KEEPS BREAKing DOWN |
Contrastive and correcting stress
It can be seen that intonation, in the strict sense of pitch movement, and stress are
will be marked not only by having the greatest
One 楮ἀ
uential property of English, often described as a feature of stress although it
in the question. In 11, the tonic is
, because B is
One often contradicts an opinion when what is uncongenial is really the tone in which it
was conveyed.
ne for
most tones except, of course, the level tone. By de nition this does not have movement
up or down. This is why we have de ned the tonic here as having the intonational focus
In each of the following subsections, we will describe the main functions of the tones.
A falling tone, marked here by the symbol \ before the tonic syllable, represents a move-
The level tone, marked here by the symbol
Teacher: |
Learner: |
PRES ent |
Teacher: |
BLACK burn |
Learner: |
HERE |
Teacher: |
BROWN |
Learner: |
YES |
It is also often used when asking a series of routine questions, as in the following
Doctor: | have you EVer SUFfered from tubercu
LO sis |
Applicant: |
NO |
Doctor: | leu
KE mia |
Applicant: |
NO |
Doctor: |
WHOOP ing COUGH |
Applicant: |
NO |
The tail
abc
Learners often concentrate on what precedes the tonic. By comparing the mid pitch
) with the high pitch of the tonic (
) (that is,
is at a high pitch, while
is at a low pitch, showing that the pitch
to
in order to make room for this fall.
Again, by wrongly comparing the mid pitch of
(a) with the low pitch of
(b),
(b)
(c), it is seen to be a rise. The pitch fell from
to
in
order to make room for the rise.
We have seen how intonation works within utterances and sentences. We have also seen
same speaker or the interlocutor. A  nal element of intonation to be covered here
When we say that a fall-rise conveys uncertainty, or that a rise-fall conveys being over-
order to convey their feeling at the time.
When we say that a
- question is usually pronounced on a fall, while a yes-no question
is usually on a rise, the tone can be described as ful lling a grammatical function.
The placement of the tonic syllable within the tone group is of importance, as it shows
Brazil’s discourse intonation analysis of English is based on a two-way distinction
146
Rhythm
being lexical content words (see
chapter 15
),
are stressed (shown by the superscript tick
in
Figure 22.1
).
are shown in
Figure 22.1
with vertical lines, but these are being used in a different way
from the vertical lines representing tone group boundaries in
chapter 20
.
The Ḁ
rst foot contains three syllables: a stressed syllable (
this
) and two unstressed (
is,
the
Jack,
built
). In order to maintain the isochrony of the stressed syllables, the unstressed ones
are shortened to varying degrees. This is informally known as the concertina effect.
Abercrombie (1967, p. 97) maintains that ‘as far as is known, every language in the
world is spoken with one kind of rhythm or with the other.’ Traditionally quoted exam-
ples of syllable-timed languages are French, Spanish, Portuguese, Telugu (southeast
India) and Yoruba (Nigeria), while English, Russian and Arabic are quoted as
stress-timed.
of English (West Indian, West African, Indian, Filipino, Singaporean and Hawaiian
stress-timed. However, there is any equally large number of people who do not believe
in Abercrombie’s analysis, for the following reasons:
脠 The physiological basis of the chest pulse theory has been disproved
instrumentally.
脠 English rhythm has been shown instrumentally to be only very roughly isochro-
nous, even in read prose.
脠 Traditionally quoted examples of languages with one kind of rhythm or the other
have not stood up well to instrumental investigation.
脠 Abercrombie himself claimed that there was reason to believe that languages, and
different accents of the same language, had historically made the transition from
one type of timing to the other. He gave Provençal French (stress-timed) and stan-
dard Parisian French (syllable-timed) as an example. If such possibilities exist, then
syllable-timed nor stress-timed, but somewhere in the middle.
脠 Writers have claimed that syllable- and stress-timing should not be thought of as a
dichotomy (syllable-timed versus stress-timed), but as a scale (more syllable-timed
versus more stress-timed). Dauer (1983) proposes a change in terminology,
suggesting that languages are more or less stress-based.
脠 Some writers have suggested that syllable-/stress-timing is more of a perceptual
Figure 22.1

脠 O’Connor (1973, pp. 239–240) asserts that ‘there is no reason why there should be
148
Rhythm
BolingerÕs theory of syllable length
A different account of speech rhythm has been proposed by Bolinger (1981). In this
theory, rhythm is seen not as a function of syllables and stresses, but of syllable type.
Syllables may be of two types: long (L) syllables contain full (F) vowels, while short
(S) syllables contain reduced (R) vowels. Reduced vowels comprise not only schwa [
ə
],
but also [
#
] as in
sill
i
ness
, and [
$
] as in
sol
o
ist
. These are the symbols Bolinger uses, and
may be thought of as similar to [

i
,

u

], as discussed in
chapter 5
.

Abercrombie’s illustrative sentence may therefore be represented as shown in
Figure 22.3
.
A rule then states that a long syllable becomes extra long (LL) when it is followed by
another long syllable or a pause (such as at the end of the sentence). This then gives us
Figure 22.2

� PVI pro
les for data from 18 languages.
Source: Grabe & Low, 2004
Rhythm
149
the following  nal pronunciation, and explains why
Jack
and
built
are each longer than

this

and

house

, even though they all contain full vowels and are stressed (
Figure 22.4
).
Figure 22.3

� Long and short vowels.
Figure 22.4

� Extra long vowels.
Faber (1986) suggests that, instead of calling
Jack
and
built
extra long, we might, from
the opposite point of view, say that
this
and
house
are shortened, because they are
followed by reduced-vowel syllables.
Conclusion
It can be seen that there is relatively little agreement, not only over how rhythm can be
measured, but also over what rhythm is. Abercrombie’s theory claims that it is a func-
only measure vowel or syllable length, ignoring stress. For Bolinger, rhythm is a function
of vowel and syllable type, while stress is irrelevant.
It seems clear that rhythm is an important, large-scale feature of languages, and one
quite evident way in which languages differ. Since it is dif cult to explain or measure
rhythm, the solution for the teacher may simply be to expose their learners to plenty of
natural occurrences of the language being learnt, in the hope that the learners will
subconsciously acquire an appreciation of the rhythm of the language.
emphatic speech, have a more regular stress than other forms. They may therefore be
used with learners whose native language has a very different rhythmic basis, and who
may therefore have trouble with English rhythm.
Summary
脠 Some languages clearly have different rhythms from others.
脠 This informal observation does not mean that it is easy to de ne rhythm or
measure it.
脠 Exposure to the language is an important aspect of learning the rhythm of
English.
1. Sing your country’s national anthem. Now say the words of the anthem in a normal
speaking voice. What differences are there?
Act modestly in the way you walk, and lower your voice. Indeed, the harshest of sounds is
the voice of the ass.
Learning objectives
At the end of this chapter, you will be able to:
 give a technical 摥Ḁ
nition of the term
脠 list some of the ways in which voice qualities differ.
The term
, like the more everyday expression
, is often used by
Voice quality and pronunciation teaching
 whispery voice
 a large pitch range
 protruded lips
 a close jaw.
2. Think of any language, other than English, that you know well. Can you describe
I ascribe a basic importance to the phenomenon of language. . . . To speak means to be in
means above all to assume a culture, to support the weight of a civilization.
Frantz Fanon (1925–1961), Martiniquan psychiatrist, philosopher,
�(1952)
Learning objectives
At the end of this chapter, you will be able to:
脠 distinguish the considerations of intelligibility, image and identity
160
In short, as teachers, we cannot assume that all learners are aiming for the same
know what we are aiming for. However, many classes involve learners with different
cult.
Several terms are used in the literature for the process of teaching pronunciation to
foreign learners. These terms are widely used in the context of teaching English (including
pronunciation) to migrants to English- speaking countries. The terms are especially
popular in the USA, but many of them carry unnecessarily negative overtones.
The term
accent elimination
seems meaningless, because an accent cannot be
eliminated. An accent cannot be unlearned, in such a way that the speaker can no longer
pronounce that way.
The term
accent neutralization
implies that the accent being learned is neutral.
However, no accent is neutral, in that each accent conveys information about the
speaker. For native speakers, this may be geographical and social information. For
foreign speakers, this information relates not only to their foreign origin, but also to

Accent reduction
implies that the speaker’s accent is in uenced by the transfer of
features from the speaker’s native language(s) (see
chapter 29
).
This may, however, have
positive bene ts of conveying identity for certain speakers and in certain contexts.
The terms
accent change
and
modiÞ
cation
are based on the premise that each speaker
has only one accent. However, all speakers of all languages command a repertoire of
Figure 24.1
image and identity.
The factors of image and identity pull in different directions. Image involves trying to
convey an impression of being a prestigious speaker of English, by using a pronuncia-
your compatriots know that you share solidarity with them. This is the distinction
Figure 24.1
foreigner claimed you had?
Drill: a device used for boring.
ELT saying
Learning objectives
At the end of this chapter, you will be able to:
/ sounds, because we feel they are dif cult for our learners. As soon as the teacher opens
Writers have produced materials claiming to introduce and practice pronunciation
/ can be covered when ordinal numbers
fth, sixth
2. If you are a teacher, think of any language course(s) you are teaching. What
Knowledge is not what is memorized. Knowledge is what bene
ts .
Imam al-Sha
’i (150–204), Arabic jurist
Learning objectives
At the end of this chapter, you will be able to:
 list some factors affecting success in pronunciation learning.
脠 the number of years they had received formal classroom training in English
脠 the number of months of intensive formal classroom training in English
脠 the number of weeks of formal classroom training focused speci cally on English
脠 the strength of their concern for pronunciation accuracy.
The results of Purcell and Suter’s analysis are statistically sound, as they represent a
statistical re- examination of Suter’s (1976) previous work. Purcell and Suter’s results
show that only four of the above variables are signi cant. Once these four are taken into
176
The effectiveness of pronunciation teaching
those of their native language (see
chapter 29
).
However, such exercises require some
Strength of concern for pronunciation accuracy may result from motivation and
attitudes formed before the pronunciation course. Even so, this is probably the one
factor among the four signi cant ones that teachers can in uence in some way. Tasks
can be carried out to inculcate the attitude that pronunciation is important for most
speakers of a language, that poor pronunciation can lead to loss of intelligibility, embar-
rassment, even offence, and that a change in pronunciation is both desirable and possible
(see
chapter 28
).


Short- and long- term improvement
Research carried out in the mid 1990s by Yule, Macdonald and Powers also raised
important concerns about the effectiveness of pronunciation teaching. In any teaching
situation, there are three distinguishable elements:
The teaching: That is, the materials that the teacher prepares, and the way that they
are delivered in class. It is clearly the teacher’s responsibility to ensure that this
aspect of the teaching situation is carried out professionally.
The learning: To some extent this depends on the teacher, in that, if the teacher
and/or the materials are poor, then the learners are unlikely to learn. However, the
learners are also unlikely to learn if they are not in the appropriate frame of mind to
learn, because of factors such as not seeing the point in learning English, boredom
or tiredness. Increasingly, the learner is being seen as having greater responsibility
for successful learning.
as the class is  nished, or have no intention of using newly learnt skills outside the
classroom. Tongue in cheek, this situation has been referred to by the acronym
TEFLON: Teaching English as a Foreign Language, but it doesn’t stick. While the
teacher may emphasize the importance of this aspect, it is primarily the responsi-
bility of the learners, because the teacher does not see the learners outside the class-
room or after the course has 
nished.
Yule and Macdonald (1995) remind us that it is the last of these three elements that is
the true measure of success of pronunciation teaching. In their research, they obtained
perceptual judgments of the pronunciation of 23 learners from the People’s Republic of
China at three points:  rst (T1) at the beginning of the course of instruction, second
(T2), at the end of the 15-week course, and third (T3), two days after the end of the
instruction (
Figure 26.1
).
Figure 26.1

� Three measurement points for pronunciation improvement.
The effectiveness of pronunciation teaching
177
Figure 26.2

� Eleven possible outcomes for pronunciation improvement.
They identi
ed eleven possible outcomes, depending on performance at T2 relative
to T1, and at T3 relative to T2 and/or T1 (
Figure 26.2
).
For example, outcome 2D means
than when the course started.
Four types of instruction were used on different groups of learners:
 teacher- directed drill
脠 language laboratory work, without a teacher
 a teacher asking for clari
cation of key words
脠 silent revision without a teacher, that is, no instruction.
In fact, while the language laboratory condition gave the best overall improvement, the
results are generally inconclusive. However, three general conclusions can be drawn.
First, we should not overlook the importance of individual differences.
It is apparent that no single intervention was bene cial to all the learners who expe-
rienced it. Moreover, the wide range of different individual reactions should serve
as a reminder that the individual learner may represent a more powerful variable
(Macdonald, Yule and Powers, 1994, pp. 95–6)
Second, they note that their results may lend some support to the  ndings of writers
tion teaching may not lead to acquisition in a one- to-one fashion.
Third, any effects of pronunciation teaching may not be immediately apparent,
Moreover, the changes in direction observed in many cases across the three points
Further reading
The original sources of the research summarized in this chapter may be pro
research into the effectiveness of pronunciation instruction.
Nothing great was ever achieved without enthusiasm.

is the drive of the learner, and the amount of time spent studying the language.
†脀
is a measure of how much the learner wants to become pro cient in the
†脀
is the feelings of the learner towards language study.
Bloom (1956) proposes a taxonomy of educational objectives (commonly known as
There are  ve levels in Bloom’s affective domain, in ascending order:

the learner pays attention passively.
†脀
the learner actively participates by not only attending but also reacting.
†脀
the learner ascribes some value to the topic, and skills and information
†脀
the learner can relate, compare and elaborate on what is learned.
†脀
because of values and beliefs, a learner’s behavior becomes a
Affect is an important feature of the language learning approach known as the Natural
chapter 25
). This emphasizes the fact that the process of learning another
Krashen (1981, 1982) proposes that learners have an affective  lter. If they feel
uncomfortable in a learning situation, their affective  lter will be high, they are less
There are several factors that contribute to the level of comfort in a learning situa-
Extrinsic motivation
In contrast, external motivation is generated by factors such as culture, a class system,
nancial reward.
Instrumental motivation
nd out about the culture
and culture.
脠 Arranging exchange programs with foreign learners, or overseas homestays.
脠 Relating study of the language to study of the culture. Courses, or parts of courses,
could be organized around aspects of English- speaking cultures that appeal to the
Canadian landscape and weather.
Activities aimed at increasing intrinsic motivation, that is motivation because of the
脠 Making sure that learners understand the purpose of classroom activities.
Further reading
The topic of motivation in language learning is reviewed by Crookes and Schmidt
chapter 27
, the process of learning a second language
whereas the children of immigrants to an English- speaking country will probably
uence than simple age
means ‘the vocal cords
means ‘the bottom lip with the
cannot pronounce them all accurately.
Modern dictionaries have accompanying CD-ROMs or online support. There
are two main bene ts to this. Firstly, words are found much more quickly by
clicking on a computer screen rather than by  icking through the pages of a printed

’ is an amalgam of clichés about writers and burlesque stereotypes of
chapter 28
).
Second language learners of, say, English may have already learned another language
associated with this.
Contrastive analysis
The fact that second language learners have already learned their  rst language, and have
The strong form
The strong form of the hypothesis (Lado, 1957) claimed that, by analyzing the phonolog-
ical systems of the  rst and a second language, and by comparing them, one could
predict the problems that learners from that  rst language would encounter in learning
that second language. That is, the phonological features that are the same in the two
languages would not pose any learning problem, while features that differed would be
cult. The same argument was made for grammar, vocabulary and other aspects of
analysis, and led to the  eld of enquiry known as error analysis.
Common errors
Nevertheless, in the  eld of pronunciation teaching, it is clear that many features of
Table 29.1
gives a comparison of the pronunciation features mentioned by two books
Table 29.1
Common errors in the English speech of Arabic native speakers
Swan & Smith Kenworthy
rst language is Arabic, which is spoken as a 
rst language with some variation throughout
Not everything that can be counted counts, and not everything that counts can be counted.
Attributed to Albert Einstein (1879–1955),
German- born US physicist
Learning objectives
At the end of this chapter, you will be able to:
脠 state which pronunciation features are considered important by experts
 explain the concept of functional load.
Pronunciation has been described as the Cinderella of the ELT world. That is, it is an
ection of reality, there is a great
Table 30.1
Pronunciation feature
Importance
199
Figure 30.1

� Teachability and communicative importance.
Source: Dalton & Seidlhofer, 1994
Dalton and Seidlhofer (1994) identify stress as the most important aspect for teaching
purposes, by the following argument. Some elements of pronunciation, such as conso-
nant and vowel segments, are eminently teachable. However, they are not necessarily
those elements that are of communicative importance, others, such as intonation, being
more important in this respect. The diagram (
Figure 30.1
)
plots teachability against
communicative importance. Stress, in the centre of the diagram, represents a maximum
overlap of communicative importance and teachability. Stress is thus the most conve-
nient focal point for any course in pronunciation.
So, what are we to make of all these, often contradictory, opinions? Clearly,
more work needs to be done to produce a ranking of pronunciation features that
most will agree with, including learners themselves. Following Jenkins (2000), we
should maintain that such rankings should be on the basis of observation, although
many would argue that it should not be exclusively on the basis of nonnative speaker
considerations.
The relative importance of consonants and vowels
account of the consonant and vowel sounds of English. This gives the impression that
are much more frequent and more important than others. Here, we will brie
y mention
four ways in which certain consonant and vowel contrasts may be considered more
by Brown (1988, 1991).
Frequency of occurrence
Certain segments occur more frequently in connected English speech than others.
Tables 30.2
and
30.3
show the relative text frequency of all the 24 consonant and
20 vowel phonemes of SSBE ( gures from Fry, 1947, quoted in Cruttenden, 2001,
pp. 148, 216).

Table 30.2
Text frequencies (%) of consonants
Sound Frequency Sound Frequency
/ 7.58 /
/ 1.97
/ 6.42 /
/ 1.79
/ 5.14 /
/ 1.78
/ 4.81 /
/ 1.46
/ 3.66 /
/ 1.15
/ 3.56 /
/ 1.05
/ 3.51 /
/ 0.96
/ 3.22 /
/ 0.88
/ 3.09 /
/ 0.60
/ 2.81 /
/ 0.41
/ 2.46 /
/ 0.37
/ 2.00 /
/ 0.10
Consonants make up 60.79% of all sounds in connected speech.
Source of data: Fry, 1947
Table 30.3
Text frequencies (%) of vowels
Sound Frequency Sound Frequency
/ 10.74 /
/ 1.24
/ 8.33 /
/ 1.13
/ 2.97 /
/ 0.86
/ 1.83 /
/ 0.79
/ 1.75 /
/ 0.61
/ 1.71 /
/ 0.52
/ 1.65 /
/ 0.34
/ 1.51 /
/ 0.21
/ 1.45 /
/ 0.14
/ 1.37 /
/ 0.06
Vowels make up 39.21% of all sounds in connected speech.
Source of data: Fry, 1947
Minimal pairs
We are talking about individual consonant and vowel sounds. However, we must not
Table 30.4
Number of minimal pairs for SSBE vowel contrasts
/
/ /
/ /
/ /
/ /
/ /
/ /
/ /
/ /
/ /
/ /
/ /
/ /
/ /
/ /
/ /
/ /
/ /
/ /
/ 471 338 394 316 362 489 82 381 301 309 66 561 532 98 527 157 133 144 38
446 635 228 438 271 61 222 456 178 362 334 257 59 358 88 48 28 7
302 142 227 212 43 130 233 147 36 250 222 57 213 118 32 30 11
179 409 179 56 159 425 160 11 256 237 29 240 103 23 31 9
172 156 34 75 172 127 11 184 125 37 169 51 46 48 22
157 73 141 300 153 1 218 172 22 203 96 26 19 8
56 142 168 180 21 251 207 71 243 106 82 92 23
/
18 19 41 1 61 52 3 28 15 6 8 3
119 74 9 234 200 45 208 97 26 33 11
126 4 211 148 29 181 85 18 20 7
8 182 141 33 149 63 35 41 14
82 20 3 48 3 0 7 0
353 90 336 154 41 47 15
56 269 166 43 33 13
75 33 14 7 6
115 42 44 13
22 18 6
67 22
Source: Higgins, n. d.
Table 30.5
Number of minimal pairs for SSBE consonant contrasts
/
/ /
/ /
/ /
/ /
/ /
/ /
/ /
/ /
/ /
/ /
/ /
/ /
/ /
/ /
/ /
/ /
/ /
/ /
/ /
/ /
/ /
/ /
/ 612 882 524 1009 401 570 227 129 66 613 222 216 3 377 620 561 84 683 374 87 433 296 197
/ 431 400 458 350 411 129 63 34 342 79 186 2 228 385 270 37 346 289 64 196 225 179
682 731 319 405 232 117 57 1258 379 247 8 231 453 517 109 575 318 46 216 238 248
466 250 332 285 126 58 481 2660 242 7 185 414 484 1619 507 440 39 142 206 208
341 464 176 112 42 472 214 213 4 272 413 460 87 470 229 50 193 211 155
196 79 52 18 201 54 145 1 125 239 240 61 207 155 26 109 97 108
130 50 35 371 73 137 2 185 312 236 22 272 218 49 178 156 171
25 30 204 148 49 2 66 187 222 83 233 112 7 52 63 93
/
9 91 59 41 2 36 60 67 10 65 37 10 42 42 36
/
28 34 18 2 15 63 53 7 45 18 3 19 22 16
232 220 9 217 361 384 51 467 299 42 169 182 184
65 11 24 159 317 1135 253 50 8 17 102 94
5 129 179 148 83 180 155 34 105 115 103
0 9 6 0 6 0 0 1 3 1
226 139 0 216 225 70 191 95 101
359 59 513 259 52 150 172 175
78 681 239 35 142 151 147
58 2 0 0 21 76
589 68 204 182 202
58 213 120 151
48 28 45
61 93
92
Source: Higgins, n. d.
Table 30.6
Rank ordering of sound distinctions
according to overall importance
10 /

/ 10 /








/
/

9 /

/ 9 /






/
8 /

8 /


7 7 /


6 /

/
/



5 /

/ 6 /




5 /

4 /









4 /

3 /


/ 3 /


2 /

2 /



1 /


/ 1 /


Source: Brown, 1988, 1991
1. Do you agree with the consensus four points of importance for pronunciation
any others that you feel should be in that list?
2.
� Table 30.1
Further reading
Jenkins (2000) argues in depth for the importance of nonnative speakers, intelligibility
and consonant contrasts can be considered important; also see Catford (1987).
have ‘silent’
and
脠 The English language has a long history of over 1,500 years, and it has been written
down for that long. In contrast, the  rst book in Finnish was printed in 1488, and
脠 Right at the beginning of English spelling, it contained irregularities, because
have long monophthongs or (long) diphthongs (/



/). Perceptive readers will have noticed that these long vowels correspond to

Further reading
Crystal (2012) gives a readable account of the history of English spelling. Upward
user- friendly workbook on English spelling.
for /
/, as in rare examples such as
and
脠 First, multisyllable words must be divided into their constituent syllables. For
/ is made up of two syllables /
+
脠 These syllables must then be divided into their constituent sounds. So, the 
/ has three sounds /
+
+
脠 These constituent sounds must then be associated with their (probable) spellings.
/ consonant is normally spelled
(occasionally
), /
/ is regularly
, and
/is
脠 In the second syllable of the noun
and
, an /
/ in
, an /
, and a /
/ in
. Again, spelling pronunciations are impossible in
216
Spelling: Literacy
Figure 32.1
Word reading level for various nationalities after one year of instruction (Primary 1).
world, and the particular problems of learners from non-Anglo-Saxon countries need to
be addressed.
Nevertheless, it seems clear that one major obstacle to accurate spelling and
pronunciation in English is its deep, irregular spelling system. The report of a high-level
conference of spelling specialists concluded as follows:
The studies so far undertaken in individual countries are building evidence for the
hypothesis that shallow orthographies are a real advantage in terms of acquiring
reading pro ciency for both normal and dyslexic children. Countries with deep
of implementing orthographic reforms.
(Davis, 2005, p. 14)
Considerations of spelling reform, while probably the long-term solution to this
problem, are however beyond the scope of this book on pronunciation teaching.
Summary
脠 Learners whose native languages have more regular spelling systems may resent the
dif culty of English spelling, and the need to learn phonemic symbols.
Exercises

1
.



For each of the following words, 

nd another word that is pronounced the same,
but spelled differently, that is, is a homophone of it.



Wen readrs  rst se Cut Spelng, as in this sentnce, they ofn hesitate slytly, but then
quikly becom acustmd to th shortnd words and soon  nd text in Cut Spelng as esy
Cut Spelng, as many of th most trublsm uncertntis hav been elimnated.
Further reading
On the literacy problems caused by English spelling, see Cook (2004b) and Yule (2013).
I come from a place that likes grandeur; it likes large gestures; it is not inhibited by 
ourish;
Total liking = 7% Verbal liking + 38% Vocal liking + 55% Facial liking
Verbal features are the actual words spoken, while vocal features refer to tone of
†脀
raising the eyebrows, widening the eyelids and dropping the jaw.
†脀
脠 in Japan, it means ‘money,’ the circle formed by the thumb and index 
nger repre-
senting a coin.
脠 in many countries around the world, it is a sexual insult relating to the female ori
or to masturbation.
Even deictic gestures may vary. For instance, in English-speaking cultures, it is
acceptable to point to a person with the index  nger. However, this is not acceptable in
many other cultures, where the index  nger would seem like a dagger. While objects can
be indicated with the index  nger, persons have to be pointed to with the whole hand,
ngers, which
While beat gestures are probably found in all cultures, the volume and extent of the
whose boat sank; until they were rescued, they kept a oat by talking to each other.
The pedagogical importance of nonverbal features
Language teachers can use nonverbal features (especially gestures, but also facial expres-
rst Ḁ
†脀
The placement of the tonic in a tone group can be emphasized by
DAVID drove to London on Friday night (It wasn’t Mary)
David DROVE to London on Friday night (He didn’t 
David drove to LON don on Friday night (He drove to London, not Birmingham)
David drove to London on FRI day night (It wasn’t Thursday night)
David drove to London on Friday NIGHT (It wasn’t Friday afternoon)
†脀
: The placement of stress on different syllables in multi-syllable words
Adaptor gestures are unconscious, and therefore cannot be used to convey any
turn their attention to their mannerisms.
脠 Nonverbal communication includes proxemics, facial expressions and gestures.
脠 These features are important because they help to carry a large part of a speaker’s
overall message.
脠 They can therefore be exploited by pronunciation teachers for rhythm, tonic
syllables and word-stress.
 The ἀ
ask is spun round and the centrifugal force separates out the particles
from the liquid.
No man ever listened himself out of a job.
Calvin Coolidge (1872–1933), US president
Learning objectives
At the end of this chapter, you will be able to:
脠 use different ways of increasing learners’ exposure to spoken English
脠 use recorded speech in class for tracking and mirroring.
It is in situations such as these that exposure seems important. That is, while it may
Tracking and mirroring
Recording speech
Many learners are unaware that they are doing anything wrong, until they hear them-
The measurement of pronunciation accuracy is in the dark ages when compared to
in general, with thoughts as to how these relate speci cally to pronunciation, and 
some pointers to the future.
Types of tests
Applied linguists typically classify language tests into several categories, including the

tests are the broadest type of tests, measuring general language ability.
†脀
language tests give more speci c information about the learner’s
strengths and weaknesses in particular areas.
†脀
tests are designed to allow the tester to place learners in classes at the
cult to distinguish these elements in the Pronunciation scale from similar ones
in the separate Fluency and Coherence scale.
Language tests should be practical. That is, they should not be dif cult to administer,
†脀
Test- takers listen to spoken questions (not available in
(Expected answer:
.)
†脀
Test- takers are presented with three short phrases (not available in
.);
脠 Language tests are of four types: pro ciency, diagnostic, placement and
脠 Language tests should be valid, reliable and practical.
脠 Currently, many tests do little other than test pronunciation in terms of overall
intelligibility to the tester.
1. Think of your own experience of learning other languages. Have you ever taken a
test speci cally for pronunciation? Or was it always combined with speaking skills,
and other aspects of the language?
2. If you have experience of the IELTS or TOEFL tests, do you think they are valid,
Further reading
General introductions to testing in language learning are Brown, H. D. (2004) and
The following pages contain exercises that can be used in the classroom. Each exercise
 Ask the Ḁ
rst pair to read the dialogue out to the rest of the class in an appropriate
props—only their voices.
level of the learners.
脠 A role play could therefore go like this:
A: Paper paper paper!
B: Five 
A: Paper paper paper. Paper paper paper?
B: Five 
ve Ḁ ve.
A: Paper?
B: Five!
Conducting the exercise
脠 One member of the class leaves the room.
脠 The other members collectively choose an adverb.
脠 The member who left the room comes back in. By asking members of the group to
do things using words, he/she tries to work out what adverb had been chosen.
脠 The adverb may range from simple (
) to more dif
atly, confusingly, long- windedly
). The tasks must be verbal, such as telling the
Conducting the exercise
Conducting the exercise
脠 Divide the class into pairs. Give one learner in each pair
three- syllable place- names, as here), but also particular vowel or consonant sounds,
xes (e.g. plural /
/ versus /
widely used in Brown (2005) and Hancock (1995).
9 Limericks
Pronunciation point
Limericks are a fun way to practice the rhythm and word stress of English. Being a
An exceedingly fat friend of mine,
When asked at what hour he would dine,
Replied, ‘At eleven,
At three,  ve, and seven,
And eight and a quarter past nine.’
There once was an old man from Esser,
Whose knowledge grew lesser and lesser.
It at last grew so small,
He knew nothing at all,
And now he’s a college professor.
A diner while dining at Crewe
Found a very large mouse in his stew.
Said the waiter, ‘Don’t shout
And wave it about,
Or the rest will be wanting one too.’
Create your own
脠 In the game, the learners are the knight. They must move from the starting square
/ vowel sound.
 The correct answer is
� ll, scissors, middle, Chris, sit, list, disk, litter, women, pick
脠 Elicit from the learners the typical spellings of this vowel: usually
(as in the above
11 Wordsearches and crossword
Pronunciation point
It is important that learners of English should become familiar with the phonemic
England London
Estonia Tallinn
Finland Helsinki
France Paris
Germany Berlin
Greece Athens
Hungary Budapest
Ireland Dublin
Italy
Latvia Riga
脠 Learners have to think of as many words as they can with the 16 symbols in a time
limit. Whoever produces the most words wins.
13 Cluster fun
Pronunciation point
Consonant clusters are dif cult for many learners, often because their native language
clusters, and their importance in distinguishing words.
Conducting the exercise
脠 This exercise can be conducted individually, in pairs or groups. Give each learner a
/
(3), /
/
(3), /

/
(4), /
/
(4),
/
(4), /
/
(3)
14 Homophones
Pronunciation point
Jokes in English very often rely on homophones. Homophones help learners to realize
Sample exercises
255
Who are we?

Alternative characters and contexts


Guess

Notes

1 B really wants to go to the cinema.
B doesn’t really want to go to the cinema, and
dislikes Sylvester Stallone.
2 B has discovered what he/she thinks is a
valuable painting in her attic.
B has discovered a large rash on his/her
arm.
3 Two family members are looking at a photo
album.
Two police of cers are watching a suspect at
the airport.
4 B is listening to the announcer on the
television.
A is reading the television programs from the
newspaper to his/her spouse
5 A neighbor, Mrs Williams, has poisoned her
husband.
A neighbor, Mrs Williams, has had her hair
dyed yellow.
6 B doesn’t remember Johnny Roberts.
B used to be friends with Johnny Roberts at
school.
7 Two builders plan a job building an extension
garage.
Two robbers plan a burglary.
8 B phones for the ambulance, because A has
broken his leg.
party.
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256
Sample exercises

Dialogue 1

A: Are you free this evening?
B: Er, yes, I’m not doing anything. Why?
A: Would you like to go to the cinema?
B: What’s the 
lm?
A:
Escape Plan
, with Sylvester Stallone.
B: Oh, good.
A: Do you like him?
B: He was quite good in the Rocky 
lms.
A: And then he was in the Rambo 
lms too.
B: Yes.
A: So, shall I pick you up at 6.30?
B: OK.

Dialogue 2

A: So, what do you think?
B: Well . . . I’m not really sure.
A: Do you know what I think it could be?
B: Of course. But I think it would be best to have it looked at by a specialist.
A: I suppose so.
B: When did you 
nd it?
A: Yesterday afternoon, while I was doing some work tidying up the house.
A: Yes, I’d rather know one way or the other. I’ll go along tomorrow morning
before work.

Dialogue 3

A: That’s her, isn’t it?
B: Which one?
A: The one with the big smile on her face.
A: That’s her. Look, she’s got that mole on her nose.
B: Oh yes. You’re right.
A: Did you know her father spent some time in prison?
B: Really? When was that?
A: Oh, years ago. For burglary.
B: I wonder what she’s doing nowadays.
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Sample exercises
257

Dialogue 4

A: On Channel 3 tonight, there’s two hours of children’s programs, starting at 6
o’clock with
Conquerors of the Wasteland
.
B: Oh, these children’s cartoons nowadays! They’re full of people shouting and
explosions going off.
A: And that’s followed at 7 by
Top of the Pops
.
B: More noise! It’s no wonder our children are growing up making so much noise
and damaging their hearing, with rubbish like that.
A: Then, at 8, it’s the  nal episode of
Survivor
, where the winner is announced,
who takes away $1 million in prize money.
A: And at 9, there is a special screening of the opera
Figaro
, recorded live at the
Rome Music Festival.

Dialogue 5

A: You’re joking, surely?
B: No. Mrs Smith told me this morning.
A: When did it happen?
B: On Tuesday.
A: I had heard Mrs Williams talking about it often enough, but I never thought
she was serious.
B: I wonder why she did it?
A: Maybe she was feeling very depressed.
B: I suppose so. Well, she’s done it, and she’ll just have to live with it.
A: Yes. Poor Mr Williams. Such a nice man.

Dialogue 6

B: I don’t know.
A: Johnny Roberts.
B: Who?
A: Johnny Roberts. You remember . . . the guy your sister used to go out with.
B: Oh, him.
A: Do you know what he’s been doing for the last couple of years?
B: No, what?
A: Well, Ḁ
B: Aha.
A: And then he got a job hosting a breakfast radio program. You can hear him
every morning.
B: Really?
A: Yes. But I don’t think he remembered me.
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258
Sample exercises

Dialogue 7

A: There are four of us. We really need a 
fth.
B: What about Mike again?
A: What do you mean ‘again’?
B: He was with us last year on that job at that big house in Norman Avenue.
A: Can we rely on him?
B: Yeah, he knows what this sort of job involves.
A: Does he have his own tools?
B: Yeah. Don’t worry, he’s a real professional. When is the job planned for?
A: The week after next.
B: So you’ll ask him?
A: OK.

Dialogue 8

A: Did you manage to contact them?
B: Yes.
A: And . . . ?
B: And they said they would come.
A: Are you sure. You told them how important it was?
B: Of course. I’m sure we can rely on them. Don’t worry.
A: And you gave them the address clearly?
B: Yes, I’m sure they’ll have no trouble  nding the address. I told them it’s right
next door to the post of
ce.
A: Well, I hope you’re right.
B: It’s all been taken care of. Don’t worry.
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Sample exercises
259
Domenica turned to Bertie and why aren’t we in nursery
school today Bertie is it a holiday I’m suspended said Bertie
I’m not allowed to go back Domenica raised an eyebrow
she looked at Irene who was frowning down on Bertie and
Irene had the time to speak this was delicious for doing
dear said Domenica I’m sorry to hear that but I’m sure
that you’re sorry for what you did Irene who now looked
before she had the chance to start and now I’m going
to psychotherapy that’s where we’re going right now we’re
going to see Dr Fairbairn again he makes me talk about
my dreams he asks me all sorts of questions therapy
exclaimed Domenica that’s enough Bertie snapped Irene then
turning to Domenica she said it’s nothing really there was
a bit of dif culty with a rather limited teacher at the
nursery school unimaginative really and now we’re giving Bertie
a bit of self- enhancement time psychotherapy said Bertie gazing
Guardian
he
paused and looked up at Domenica while he was reading
it
The

Guardian
exclaimed Domenica how many times have
I wanted to do that myself do you think I need psycho-
through the door you must excuse us Domenica we have
to walk to Bertie’s appointment she paused before adding
pointedly we don’t use our car in town you see I think
our car’s been lost said Bertie Daddy parked it somewhere
when he was drunk and forgot where he put it Bertie
said Irene reaching out to seize his arm you must not
say things like that you naughty naughty boy she turned
to face Domenica I’m sorry I don’t know what’s got into
him Stuart would never drive under the in uence Bertie’s
imagining things
Focus on pauses
From McCall-Smith, A. (2005)
. London : Abacus.
Photocopiable for classroom use.
260
Sample exercises
Domenica turned to Bertie. ‘And why aren’t we in nursery school today, Bertie?
Is it a holiday?’
‘I’m suspended,’ said Bertie. ‘I’m not allowed to go back.’
Domenica raised an eyebrow. She looked at Irene, who was frowning down on
‘Yes,’ said Bertie. ‘I wrote on the walls.’
‘Oh dear,’ said Domenica. ‘I’m sorry to hear that. But I’m sure that you’re sorry
for what you did.’
spoke before she had the chance to start. ‘And now I’m going to psychotherapy.
That’s where we’re going right now. We’re going to see Dr Fairbairn again. He makes
me talk about my dreams. He asks me all sorts of questions.’
‘Therapy!’ exclaimed Domenica.
‘That’s enough, Bertie,’ snapped Irene. Then turning to Domenica, she said: ‘It’s
nothing really. There was a bit of dif culty with a rather limited teacher at the nursery
school. Unimaginative really. And now we’re giving Bertie a bit of self- enhancement
time.’

Guardian
.’ He paused, and looked up at Domenica. ‘While he was reading it.’

The Guardian
!’ exclaimed Domenica. ‘How many times have I wanted to do
that myself? Do you think I need psychotherapy too?’
excuse us, Domenica. We have to walk to Bertie’s appointment.’ She paused, before
adding pointedly: ‘We don’t use our car in town, you see.’
‘I think our car’s been lost,’ said Bertie. ‘Daddy parked it somewhere when he
was drunk and forgot where he put it.’
‘Bertie!’ said Irene, reaching out to seize his arm. ‘You must not say things like
that! You naughty, naughty boy!’ She turned to face Domenica. ‘I’m sorry. I don’t
know what’s got into him. Stuart would never drive under the in
uence. Bertie’s
imagining things.’
Reading playscripts
From McCall-Smith, A. (2005)
. London : Abacus.
Photocopiable for classroom use.
Sample exercises
261


1 a I hear your brother’s graduated from Oxford.
b I hear your sister’s graduated from Cambridge.
2 I Ḁ
nished the assignment last night.
3 a Why did Jeff receive an F grade?
b Do you think Jeff will pass?
5 a When is your English lesson?
6 I don’t like math.
7 a Is he ever late for school?
b Why does Andrew annoy you so much?
8 I love you.
9 a When will you start revising for the exams?
b What’s next, after this assignment?
10 It is important.
Given and new information
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262
Sample exercises


1 No, my brother’s graduated from Cambridge.
2 a Have you Ḁ
nished your assignment?
b Why weren’t you at the club last night?
3 He deserves an F.
5 I’ve got English at 10.
6 a When did you realize you liked math?
b Why don’t you want to become an accountant?
7 He’s always late.
8 a Do you like me?
b Why do you love Sharon?
9 I’ll start revising once I’ve  nished this assignment.
10 a Why do you spend so long studying English?
b English isn’t important.
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Sample exercises
263
Correcting and contrastive stress


1 (Statement) Yuri Gagarin was the  rst man on the moon.
2 (Response a) No, Spain won the 2010 football world cup.
(Response b) No, Italy won the 2006 football world cup.
3 (Statement) Oranges provide you with vitamin D.
4 (Response a) No, Singapore is south of Malaysia.
(Response b) No, Thailand is north of Malaysia.
5 (Statement) Purple is a combination of yellow and red.
6 (Response a) No, kiwis are native to New Zealand.
(Response b) No, koalas are native to Australia.
8 (Response a) No, polar bears live in the Arctic.
(Response b) No, penguins live in the Antarctic.
9 (Statement) 24 ÷ 4 = 8
10 (Response a) No, 18 ÷ 9 = 2.
(Response b) No, 12 ÷ 6 = 2.
(Response c) No, 18 ÷ 6 = 3
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264
Sample exercises


1 (Response a) No, Neil Armstrong was the  rst man on the moon.
(Response b) No, Yuri Gagarin was the  rst man in space.
2 (Statement) Italy won the 2010 football world cup.

3 (Response a) No, oranges provide you with vitamin C.
(Response b) No, carrots provide you with vitamin D.

4 (Statement) Thailand is south of Malaysia.

5 (Response a) No, purple is a combination of blue and red.
(Response b) No, orange is a combination of yellow and red.

6 (Statement) Koalas are native to New Zealand.

(Response b) No, Microsoft Word is a word- processing program.

8 (Statement) Polar bears live in the Antarctic.

9 (Response a) No, 32 ÷ 4 = 8
(Response b) No, 24 ÷ 3 = 8
(Response c) No, 24 ÷ 4 = 6
10 (Statement) 18 ÷ 6 = 2
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Sample exercises
265
Where is Julia?
Julia loves traveling. However, she only wants to go to cities that have stress on the
middle syllable (oOo). Starting at the bottom of the page, and only traveling to places
that have the oOo stress pattern, where does she travel?

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266
Sample exercises
Limericks
Fill in the blanks in the following limericks.

There was a young lady named Rose
Who had a large wart on her . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
When she had it removed
Her appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .,
But her glasses slipped down to her . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Archimedes, the well known truth- seeker,
Jumping out of his bath, cried ‘. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .!’
He ran half a mile,
Wearing only a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .,
Becoming the very 
rst . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The incredible Wizard of Oz
Due to up- to-date science,
To most of his . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .,
He wasn’t the Wiz he once . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

An exceedingly fat friend of mine,
When asked at what hour he would . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .,
Replied, ‘At eleven,
At three, 
ve, and . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .,
And eight and a quarter past . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .’
There once was an old man from Esser,
Whose knowledge grew lesser and . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
It at last grew so small,
He knew nothing at . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .,
And now he’s a college . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A diner while dining at Crewe
Found a very large mouse in his . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Said the waiter, ‘Don’t shout
And wave it . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .,
Or the rest will be wanting one . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .’
Photocopiable for classroom use © Taylor & Francis
Sample exercises
267
Searching for /
i
/ words


st

league

geese

peck

pick

peak

sheÕd

pressed


neat


l

i

ter

desk


l

e

tter


beach


w

o

men

Leeds


list

check

least

heap


l

i

tter


s

e

lling

crease

chip


will

meal

disk

lest

seat

shed

wheel

sweat


Phil

sit

priest

guess


C

ae

sarÕs


m

i

ddle

steal

cheek


r

i

sen

bitch


m

e

dal

Chris

fell

feast

chick


sc

i

ssors


hip

feel

lids


c

ei

ling

seek


ll

leg

mill



knit





cheap

sick

risen

still

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268
Sample exercises
Wordsearches and crossword
US state capitals wordsearch
The following wordsearch contains the names of the capital cities of 16 US states. The
names have been written in phonemic symbols (GenAm pronunciation). They may be
horizontal, vertical or diagonal in any direction. To start you off, Denver, the capital of
Colorado, has been highlighted in the Þ rst row. If you are really stuck, the states are
given underneath the puzzle as a clue.

d

e

n

v



r





l

i




o

θ

k



ʃ

a

i



n

z


m



v

l

s

n

t

ʃ



ə

i


ə

i

n







s

k

r

e

i

b


n



h

i

r

n



t

i




p



e



z



d



z


ʃ



i



k

l

p

w

u



m


v

l



o

θ

i





i

n






i

i

f

k

ʃ

b

n

o

θ

r


l

s



b

m



l



k

Alaska Iowa Mississippi North Dakota
Colorado Kansas Montana Ohio
Delaware Maryland Nebraska Tennessee
Idaho Michigan North Carolina Wyoming
Photocopiable for classroom use © Taylor & Francis
Sample exercises
269
European capitals wordsearch
The following wordsearch contains the names of 19 European capital cities. The names
have been written in phonemic symbols (SSBE pronunciation). They may be horizontal,
vertical or diagonal in any direction. To start you off,
Berlin
, the capital of Germany, has
been highlighted in the  rst row. If you are really stuck, the countries are given under-
neath the puzzle as a clue.

b





l

i

n

t





d

ə


r

d





k

ə

l

b



n


u



i

s

ə

ʃ

i



r

b

z


t

r





l

e

i

s



l

n


i

d

w



h



i

t

i

ə


f

ə

d



n

n

ʃ

i

n

θ


z

m



d

ə

t

s

m




l

p

r

ə

p

m

l





m


ə

e



n

ə



ʃ





r

p


s

t





r

k



v



i




r

n

f

i



ə

t



s


r

i

k



i

s

l

e

h


b

j

u



d

ə

p

e

s

t




z

n

i

l



t

k

θ


v





l

i

z

b

ə

n

ə


Countries

Belgium Finland Ireland Poland
Czech Republic France Italy Portugal
Denmark Germany Latvia Slovakia
England Greece Malta Spain
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270
Sample exercises
Crossword
This crossword follows the regular rules for crosswords, except that the answers have to

1

2

3

4

5

6


7


8


9


10

11


12


13


14

15

16

17

18

19


20


21


22


23


24


Across

4 Behaving in a way that is morally wrong
7 Surrounded by views of beautiful countryside
8
The teacher gave us a general _____ quiz.

9 Unhappy
14 Thing, person or situation that people pay special attention to
17 Continent containing Britain, Germany and France
20
IÕve no _____ where theyÕve gone
.
21 Large heavy African or Asian animals with one or two horns on their noses
22
Make a _____ copy of any work you do on computer.

23 People who work underground to remove coal or gold
24 Red, blue, yellow and green are
_____.

Photocopiable for classroom use © Taylor & Francis
Sample exercises
271

Down

1 The parts of your body where your hands join your arms
2 Mentally confused or behaving strangely, because of old age
3 Send someone a written message on a mobile phone
4
.
5 Tall solid upright stone post used to support a building
6 A thousand is a four-
_____
number
11 Abbreviation of
professional

13 Opposite of
outer

16
The shirts come in three _____: small, medium, and large
.
17 Book printed annually, with information about a particular subject or activity
18 Remember
19
The Times, The Guardian
and
The Sun
are British
_____.

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272
Sample exercises


Photocopiable for classroom use © Taylor & Francis
Sample exercises
273
Homophones
What do you call a
piece of wood with
nothing to do?
/
b





d
/
b





r

d
/. Why did the
sheepdog fail his
driving test?
Because he couldn’t
make a /
j

u


/ turn.
What happens when
a frog’s car breaks
down?
t

ə



d
/
t

o



d
/
away.
Where do you learn
/
h

a

i
/ school.
Why are Saturday
and Sunday the
strongest days of the
week?
Because all the
others are /
w

i



k
/
days.
What happens if you
sit on a grape?
It gives a little
/
w

a

i

n
/.
Why was the boy’s
school report card
Because his grades
were all below /
s

i


/
level.
Why did the chicken
cross the football
pitch?
Because the referee
shouted ‘/
f

a



l
/!’
What fruit do socks
prefer to eat?
/
p

e

ə

z
/
p

e

r

z
/. Did you hear about
cannibal?
He only ate /
s

w

i



d

z
/.
Why should you not
peacocks?
Because they are
always spreading
/
t

e

i

l

z
/.
Why did the girl run
away from the dark
castle?
She was afraid of the
/
n

a

i

t
/.
Waiter: /
j




(r)/
Customer: Thank
you. You’re cute,
too.
Waiter: It’s /
b

i



n
/
soup, sir.
Customer: What is it
now?
The magician didn’t
pull a rabbit out of
his hat.
It was a /
h

e

ə
,
h

e

r
/. Why are libraries so
tall?
Because they have
lots of /
s

t





r

i

z
/.
Photocopiable for classroom use © Taylor & Francis
1 Introduction
1
7 Scotland (5m, almost all of whom speak English)
8 New Zealand (4.5m, almost all of whom speak English)
9 Wales (3m, almost all of whom speak English)
The country with by far the largest number of English speakers is the USA.
3 Airstreams and the vocal cords

 [
] voiced
 [
] voiced
 [
] voiceless
 [
] voiced
 [
] voiced
 [
] voiceless
 [
] voiced
2
The following words contain an [
] sound:

b i h e i v ]
h e i t ]
h ə ਀ t e l / h o ਀ t e l ]
r i h ฀ ࠀ ⠀r⤀ s ]
h u ࠀ ] The following words do not contain an [
] sound:

5 Vowels

[
] [
] [

[
]
[
]
[

[
]
[
]
[

[
]
[
]
[

[
]
[
[
] [

[
]
[

[
]
[

[
]
[

[

[
] [
] [

[
]
[
]
[

[
]
[
]
[

[
]
[
]
[

[
]
[
[
] [

[
]
[

[
]
[

[
]
[

[

[
] [
] [

[
]
[
]
[

[
]
[
]
[

[
]
[
]
[

[
]
[
[
] [

[
]
[

[
]
[

[
]
[

[
The rounded vowels [



] are problems for ventriloquists, because
lip- rounding can be easily seen.
6 The vocal organs and consonant classiÞ
1
Ventriloquists have problems with sounds that involve the lips, because they can be
p ,


]) and labio- dentals ([

2
All the manners involve escaping air, apart from plosives.
7 Plosives and nasals
1
The following start with a plosive or nasal:

[
[
]:
[
]:
[
]:
[
]:

[
]: irregular ([
] is an impermissible initial cluster) and non-occurring
[
]: regular and occurring (
ఇ✓k]: irregular ([✓] cannot follow long vowels) but occurring, as the onomato-poeic word oink! [
]: regular, but non-occurring; therefore a potential syllable
[
]: irregular (the vowel after [
] in a two-consonant initial cluster must be [
]) and non-occurring
[
]: irregular ([h] cannot be a  nal consonant) and non-occurring
[
]: regular and occurring (
[
]: regular, but non-occurring; therefore a potential syllable
■ l i ࠀ z d ]: irregular ([
] is an impermissible initial cluster) and non-occurring
[
]: irregular as a word- nal syllable (because of the [
]) but occurring, as a
and in


[
[
,
[
,
[
,
[
,
]:
[
,
ఈ, ऊ/ o ਀]: law, low [
[
[
,
]

/
(i) [
] before a vowel
(ii) [
] elsewhere
/
(i) [
] before [
(ii) [
] elsewhere
/
(i) [
] before [
(ii) [
] elsewhere
13 Accent differences
phonemic system
allophonic realization
lexical distribution
phonemic system
phonotactic distribution
phonemic system
lexical distribution
phonotactic distribution (before voiced/voiceless consonants)
phonemic system
phonotactic distribution

and
rhyme in SSBE. However, in rhotic accents, only
will contain an /
/ in
but /
and
(
i.e.
) rhyme in northern England accents (and GenAm), but
and
(
) also rhyme in northern England accents with an
਀] in both words, but not in SSBE or GenAm.
14 Phonology
Sample items

in the regular rule, /
/ occurs after /
,
/, which is not true of any of these
these are not the past tenses or participles of verbs. If you take off the -
you
or
Instead, these are all simply adjectives.
The sounds /
,
/ are the six [+ sibilant] sounds of English.
The sounds /
,
/ are the only two sounds that are [+ coronal, + anterior, – contin-
uant, 阠nasal].
15 Weakening and linking
Sample words/phrases
1 /
/
13 /
/
2 /
/
14 /
/
3 /
/
15 /
/
4 /
/
16 /
/
5 /
/
17 /
6 /
/
18 /
sh shop
7 /
/
19 /
8 /
/
20 /

9 /
/
21 /
/
10 /
/
ve verses
22 /
11 /
23 /
12 /
24 /

Geminate /
/ does not occur syllable- nally, and (iii) /
16 Assimilation and elision


/
�/ /
/ before velar
/
�/ /
/ before bilabial
/
�/ /
/
�/ /
/ /
/; or coalescent assimilation /
/
�/ /
/ before bilabial
/
�/ /
/ before bilabial
/
�/ /
/ before bilabial
/
�/ /
/ before bilabial
/
�/ /
/ before bilabial
/
�/ /
/ /
/
�/ /
/ /
)self/; or coalescent assimilation /
/
�/ /
/ /
/
�/ /
/ before velar
/
�/ /
/
� /
/ before bilabial (twice)
/
�/ /
/ before velar


elision of /
/ in unstressed syllable
elision of /
elision of /


elision of /
/, assimilation /
�/ /
assimilation /
�/ /
elision of /
/, assimilation /
�/ /
elision of /
elision of /
/, assimilation /
�/ /
elision of /
/ (then /
/ or /
elision of /
/, assimilation /
�/ /
Arizona Diamondbacks elision of /
/, assimilation /
�/ /
Boston Bruins /
�/ /
/ before bilabial
Charlotte Bobcats /
�/ /
/ before bilabial
Cleveland Browns elision of /
/, assimilation /
�/ /
Cleveland Cavaliers elision of /
/, assimilation /
�/ /
Linking:
(
Elision: /
/ in
(
),
(
), and
(
); /
/ in
(
); /
/ and
/ in
(
); /
/ in
(
); /
/ in
(
); /
/ in ’
There are also contractions (
).

a
Many processes are taking place in these examples. Note in particular:
coalescent assimilation in
(
);
(
linking [
] in
(
linking in
(
);
(
epenthesis of /
/ in
(
elision of /
/ in
(
)
In terms of distinctive features:

/
/ and
/
/ differ in [±voice] (for /
/ and /

/
/ and
/
/ differ in [±sonorant, nasal] (for /
/ and

/
/ and
/
±(ʃ / and /
/) and
±(n / and /

/
,
/ and
/
,
/ differ in [±coronal, anterior, high,
/ and /
/⤀
18 Pausing and speed
Shirley said, ‘The teacher is stupid.’: A pause after
‘Shirley,’ said the teacher, ‘is stupid.’: A pause after
and another after
A pause after
and another after
A pause after
4 + 6 ÷ 2 = 5: A pause after
and another after
4 + 6 ÷ 2 = 7: A pause after
and another after

(meaning ‘it eats shoots and it eats leaves’): A pause after
(meaning ‘it eats, it shoots and it leaves’): A pause after
and
This meaning would normally have a comma after

Here is the passage as it appears in the book, with punctuation. A long pause will
19 Word stress

All the names have stress on the  rst syllable, apart from
, where it is on the

Stress on the  rst syllable: Douglas /
/, Helen /
/, Jonathan /
/, Raymond /
/, Sandra /

Stress on the second syllable: Denise /
A: Is Istanbul the capital of Turkey?
B: (Factually) No. (Matter- of-fact statement, therefore a fall: | \ NO |)
A: Is that the right answer?
B: No, but you’re warm. (Reservation, with continuation, therefore a fall- rise: |
� NO |)
A: Have you ever been convicted of a crime?
B: No.
A: Have you ever been refused a visa?
B: No. (Routine answers, therefore level tones: | ¯ NO |)
A: You’ll drive me home, won’t you?
B: (Indignantly) No. (Indignation, therefore rise- fall: |
NO |)
Here is the passage, with paragraph breaks shown.
To end the news, here are the main points again.
Mr Zhang: A pronunciation that is easily understood by Canadians. Maybe a
The
in
is empty when it is the verb /
/, but auxiliary (magic
) when it is the
32 Spelling: Literacy




/

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

/
3
The examples using phonemic symbols must be homophones. Of the rest,
and
are homonyms, and
and
are
dictionaries give one.
4
I doubt that it is necessary to give a version of the passage in traditional orthog-
b
In some cultures, raising both index  ngers is enough. In others, a two- part
gesture, showing all ten  ngers on both hands (for ‘ten’), and then one 
(for ‘one’) is used.
c
In western cultures, waggling the index  nger towards you, palm up, is used.
gesture is used, but palm down.
d
In western cultures, it is acceptable to point with the index  nger. However, in
pointing at a person (although the index  nger can be used for pointing at
things). In some Asian cultures, the extended thumb is used to point, palm up.
Davenport, M. and Hannahs, S. J. (2010).
Pronunciation teaching materials
Bowen, T. & Marks, J. (1992).
The pronunciation book: Student- centred activities for
. Harlow, Longman.
Bradford, B. (1988).
Intonation in context: Intonation practice for upper- intermediate and advanced
. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Absorbed /
/: an /
/ that is absorbed (i.e. disappears) into a preceding /
/ vowel, as in
Accent: the way a person pronounces a language, which may depend on their geographical origin,
Coda: the last position in a syllable, occupied by nothing or up to four consonants in English.
Complementary distribution: two sounds are in complementary distribution if one sound only
Connected speech processes: processes including weak forms, linking, assimilation and elision,
Consonant sound: a sound in whose production there is an obstruction in the oral cavity.
Content word: a noun, main verb, adjective or adverb.
Contraction: the con ation of two words, such as
Contrast: see minimal pair.
Coronal section: a cross- section view of the head, from the back to the front.
Dark /
/: an /
/ articulated with the body of the tongue raised towards the velum.
Dental: a sound such as /
Lateral approximant: the manner of articulation of the /
/ sound, where air escapes over the sides
Lexical distribution: accent differences of lexical distribution represent the differing use of

/ in
Lexical word: = content word.
Linking: the joining of words, so that the speech sounds  uent and connected. The phenomenon
j ,

Long vowel: a vowel such as /
/, that is longer than a vowel such as /
/. Long monophthongs have
Progressive assimilation: where one sound affects the following sound.
Pulmonic airstream: air moved through the vocal organs by the action of the lungs.
Regressive assimilation: where one sound affects the preceding sound.
Abercrombie , D. ( 1956 ).
. London : Longmans, Green .
Abercrombie , D. ( 1964 ).
Bradford , B. ( 1990 ). The essential ingredients of a pronunciation programme .
Cruttenden , A. ( 2001 ).
( 6th edition). London : Edward Arnold .
Cruttenden , A. ( 2008 ).
( 7th edition). London : Edward
Crystal , D. ( 1997 ).
. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press .
Crystal , D. ( 2012 ).
. London : Pro
�le Books .
Dalton , C. & Seidlhofer , B. ( 1994 ).
. Oxford : Oxford University Press .
Dancovicova , J. ( 1994 ). Variability in articulation rate in spontaneous Czech speech . Unpublished
M. Phil. thesis, University of Oxford .
Dauer , R. ( 1983 ). Stress- timing and syllable- timing reanalyzed .
Gardner , R. C. ( 1982 ). Language attitudes and language learning . In E. B. Ryan & H. Giles (Eds.)
(pp. 132 – 147 ). London : Edward Arnold .
Gardner , R. C. & Lambert , W. E. ( 1972 ).
,
Rowley, MA : Newbury House .
Giegerich , H. J. ( 1992 ).
. Cambridge : Cambridge University
Jenner , B. ( 1987 ). The wood instead of the trees .
Macdonald , S. ( 2002 ). Pronunciation views and practices of reluctant teachers .
,
Major , R. ( 1987 ). Measuring pronunciation accuracy using computerized techniques .
,
, 155 – 169 .
Marks , J. ( 1999 ). Is stress- timing real?
,
( 3 ), 191 – 199 .
McArthur , T. ( 1998 ).
. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press .
McArthur , T. ( 2002 ).
. Oxford : Oxford University Press .
McCall-Smith , A. ( 2005 ).
Renandya , W. & Farrell , T. S. C. ( 2010 ). ‘ Teacher, the tape is too fast!’ Extensive listening in ELT .
,
( 1 ), 52 – 59 .
Richards , J. C. & Rogers , T. ( 2001 ).
Yule , G. & Macdonald , D. ( 1995 ). The different effects of pronunciation teaching .
,
( 4 ), 345 – 350 . Also in J. Morley (Ed.) ( 1994 )
(pp. 111 – 118 ). Alexandria, VA : TESOL .
Yule , V. ( 2011 ). Recent developments which affect spelling .
,
( 3 ), 62 – 67 .
Yule , V. ( 2013 ).
. Brisbane : Bookpal .
l] 54阀5accent differences 74阀80affect 170, 181affricate 47airstream 15alliteration 62阀3allophonic realization (accent difference) 75approach 166阀70approximant 34, 50阀5aspiration 5, 38assimilation 100阀2cardinal vowels 20阀2clear [l] 54coalescent assimilation 103阀4coda 6, 62complementary distribution 70阀1connected speech processes 8, 91阀8, 100阀4, 105阀10consonant 6, 55阀6consonant cluster 62content word 91阀2contraction 103contractive analysis 192阀4dark [l] 54diphthong 6, 24, 26阀7distinctive features 84阀9[ə] 122阀3effectiveness of teaching 174阀8egressive 15elision 102阀3English as a foreign language 12English as a native language 12, 191English as a second language 12, 191阀2English as a world language 11epenthesis 108feature 9Ḁ rst language in
�191
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ကεʃʃሀༀ
əʔɹ
ɾʁεɹrɹʁ᠀ᤀ
ʔᨀကiěᰀᴀḀḀḀ ကεʃʃሀğ฀ἅကༀ ฀଀ ἀ က !"#→଀฀ἀ฀ကༀᴀ
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0 इကက $rɹ, iကఀʃi%ༀ
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0 5i฀଀ἀ ʃi ఀʃ*✓ ⨃⤐ༀ ʃiČ →*ἀကiༀ
0 ə"ԅ ఀʃ଀ἀက଀ἀ ༀက→iఀ
0 εʃʃሀ#→iሀᴀ ฀⤀ θ฀⤀ ἀ →଀% →଀଀ʃἀ→ἀက ἐ4ἀ
0 rఀఀကༀༀ ἀʃ ἀ ʃ"ༀ→଀%ༀ ʃ' *→⤀ကༀ ʃ'Ķ"→θ฀ἀ✓ iကༀက→iఀ
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&&&+က-ʃʃሀༀ"-ༀఀiสἀ฀ʃ଀ༀ+ఀʃ#
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17ăଥ ɹဏἀ ʃ' 8ʃiθ%9
ȃ✓ԃ؇ࠀऄ؈଀ఉ→ฏܐ■ܑሀ
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ؓᐆ༆ᐆ→ဆᔌख✓Ȕः฀༔ə→စࠇဂr
■̄θ؇ ࠀ+ ə܃଀ఀ฀ༀ :;ༀε!ᤀ/
ȃЅʃ܁ࠀ ə܃଀ఀฏ 㨇ʃ"*
rħθက4฀-θက ̋─ %✓଀→#฀ఀ iကༀʃ"iఀက 'ʃi ἀက→ఀ ซ⤀ᴀ θက→܋ซ⤀ă଀% ܐ༐→܌ +
᜕㔙㔀 ᜦ→ܥ ✆܁
ᄘᤂ ကεʔʔ7
51εɾᘙ!᠀ɹ
ᬞḼ ऎଃԎ༟
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