Dictionary of Aviation David Crocker


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Aviation
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Aviation
English is the universal language of communication used in civil aviation. This
dictionary provides the basic vocabulary of terms used by pilots, cabin staff,
maintenance crews, ground staff and travellers worldwide. The terms are those used
in everyday work on aircraft, and cover parts of the aircraft, manipulating the
aircraft on the ground and in the air, instructions to passengers, conversations with
Pronunciation Guide
The following symbols have been used to show the pronunciation of the main
words in the dictionary.
) and a secondary stress mark(
Note that these are only guides, as the stress of the word changes according to its
Vowels

\f\r
\f
\f\r
ire
ellow
eave


ave
ake
"

AAIB
abbreviation
Air Accident Inves-
tigation Branch
AARA
abbreviation
air to air refuelling
area
abbreviate
\b\t\n
verb
shorten a word or a text
Air Traffic
Control is usually abbreviated to ATC.
abbreviated weather report
a short-
ened weather report
abbreviation

\b\t\f
the short form of a word or text
Aero-
nautical charts use abbreviations and
symbols.
Km is the abbreviation for
kilometre.
COMMENT
: Abbreviations can cause
confusion. They may range from those
which have a very specific meaning as
defined by an authoritative body, to
others which may come about
because of personal usage in note-
Aviation.fm Page 1 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
absolute pressure
absolute pressure
\n
\b\f
a unit of force per unit of
area without comparison to other pres-
sure
Aircraft show absolute pressure
in inches of mercury on the inlet mani-
fold pressure gauge.
absolute value
\n
the size or value of a number
regardless of its sign
The absolute
value of –64.32 is 64.32.
absolute zero
\n\t
the lowest temperature possible,
0 °K, or –273.15 °C
absorb

verb
to take in
Warm air absorbs moisture more easily
than cold air.
Our bodies absorb oxy-
gen.
to absorb information
to under-
stand and remember something
Only
a few passengers absorb the pre-depar-
ture safety information.
absorption
\f\r
the
act of taking something in
There is
absorption of energy by the tyre when
the aircraft lands.
abbreviation
alternating current
altocumulus
ICAO
ACARS
abbreviation
airborne com-
munication, addressing and reporting
system
ACAS
\b\t
abbreviation
airborne
collision avoidance system
ACC
abbreviation
area control centre
accelerate
\b\b\t\n
verb
increase speed
After start-up, the
engine accelerates up to idling speed.
The aircraft accelerated down the run-
way and took off.
Opposite
decelerate
acceleration
\b
\b\t\f
the act of increasing the speed
of something or of going faster. Oppo-
site
deceleration
NOTE
: Acceleration
can be felt as an aircraft begins its take-
off run.)
a force that pulls outwards
and is caused by a change in direction
rather than a change in speed
Acceler-
ation forces can be felt during aerobatic
manoeuvres.
acceleration due to earth’s
gravity
noun
the pulling force exerted
on a body by the Earth. It has an inter-
national standard value of 9.80665
Aviation.fm Page 2 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
according to
accessibility
\b\t
\t\t\n
the ease with which something can be
reached or found
Accessibility of com-
ponents and equipment during servic-
ing enables work to be done more
quickly.
\b\t
adjective
easy to get at
It is a good idea to have
a set of emergency charts in an accessi-
ble place in the cockpit.
Instruments
which need resetting in flight must be
accessible to the crew.
accessory
\b
a system
or piece of equipment of secondary
importance
a camera with several
accessories
adjective
of secondary
importance
There are many accessory
systems which need engine power to
operate them – pumps, generators,
Aviation.fm Page 3 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
account
said in the instructions
according to
requirements
as required
\r\n
to take
something into account
to remember
something and consider it carefully
When planning a flight, wind speed and
direction must be taken into account.
In the event of an in-flight emergency,
the aircraft should be landed at the
nearest suitably equipped airport, tak-
ing into account fuel available.
account
under no circumstances, never
On no account should anybody fly an
aircraft without carrying out pre-flight
checks.
\r\n 
verb
make up or constitute
Kevlar and car-
bon fibre account for a large percentage
of the materials used in modern air-
craft.
to provide the main reason for
something
High humidity accounted
for the longer take-off run.
In wind shear conditions, a
fly-by-wire system allows the pilot to
achieve maximum lift by pulling hard
back on the stick without risk of a stall.
achievement
\n\f\r\n
something difficult that somebody suc-
ceeds in doing and feels proud about
For most trainee pilots, making their
first solo flight is a great achievement.
\t
noun
a chemical sub-
stance which reacts with a base to form
a salt
sulphuric acid (H
NOTE
An acid turns a litmus indicator red and
has a sour taste.)
acidity
\t\t\n
noun
having an acid
content
the acidity of a substance
the
amount of acid in a substance
acid-proof
\t
adjective
able to resist the harmful effects of an
acid
acid test
\t\n\b\n
a difficult
or exacting test of worth or quality
pilot’s ability to react appropriately in
an emergency situation is the acid test
of his or her professionalism.
ACMS
a computer which records
information from various aircraft sys-
tems during flight. Full form
aircraft
condition monitoring system
ACN
abbreviation
aircraft classifica-
tion number
acoustic
\n\t
adjective
refer-
ring to sound
acoustic ear muffs
\n\t\t
 
plural noun
coverings to protect
the ears from loud noise. Also called
ear protectors
ear defenders
acquire
!\t
verb
to buy or oth-
erwise obtain
to acquire a new air-
Aviation.fm Page 4 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
adapt
craft
Speed control is used to acquire
and maintain a selected airspeed.
acquisition
!\t
\t\f
the act of buying or otherwise obtaining
Each computer checks data acquisi-
tion.
The image of the airline
improved after the acquisition of the
new aircraft.
acronym
\r\t
noun
a word
which is made up of the initial letters of
a name, and is pronounced as a word
NASA is the acronym for National Aer-
onautics and Space Administration.
VASI is the acronym for visual
approach slope indicator.
verb
to behave in a partic-
ular way
The crew must act with
authority.
to take the role of
Moun-
tain ranges act as a barrier.
The gov-
Aviation.fm Page 5 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
adaptation
new conditions
Crew flying long-haul
routes have to adapt to time changes.
adaptation

\n\b\t\f
the act of changing or modifying some-
thing for special use
Doppler VOR is
an adaptation of VOR to reduce errors
caused by location.
adjustment to
new conditions
Adaptation to time
changes when travelling west to east
takes time.
adapter
\n
a piece of
equipment or device which allows a
change or modification
a ‘T’ piece
adapter
a device for connecting two
inputs to one output or vice versa
device that allows two incompatible
devices to be connected
ADC
\b\t
abbreviation
air data
computer
add
verb
to put figures together
to form a sum, to make a total
Add the
two numbers together to find the sum.
to put together to make a larger group or
a group with different properties
There are only nine chairs, add another
one.
A substance is added to the fuel
to clean fuel injectors.
addition
\t\f
a mathe-
matical operation consisting in putting
numbers together
Addition is nor-
mally taught before subtraction, multi-
plication and division.
The addition
sign is +.
the act of adding something
With the addition of methanol, the tur-
bine inlet temperature is restored.
in addition
also
in addition to
well as
additional
\t\f
adjective
added or extra
additive
\t\n\t
a chemical
substance, often liquid, added to
another substance to give it extra quali-
ties
Additives are used in engine oils
to prolong the life of the engine.
Anti-
icing additives are used in radiator
coolants.
adequate
\t!\n
adjective
enough, sufficient
The compressor
must provide an adequate airflow
through the engine.
adequate fuel
enough fuel
ADF
abbreviation
automatic direction
finder
adhere
\t
verb
to stick as if
glued
Clear ice adheres strongly to
airframes.
adhesive
\t
glue
adjective
having the sticking quality of
glue
adhesive tape
Adhesive bond-
ing of aluminium parts is widely
employed.
ADI
\b\t
\t
abbreviation
attitude
direction indicator
attitude director
indicator
adiabatic
\t
\n\t
adjective
referring to processes through which
heat cannot be lost or gained
refer-
ring to a change in temperature in a
mass of air, which occurs when the air
is compressed or expanded by an
increase or decrease in atmospheric
pressure and does not involve the air
losing heat to, or gaining heat from, its
surroundings
adiabatic compression
\t\n\t
\b\f
compression caused by atmospheric
factors, which makes descending air
warm up
adiabatic cooling
\t\n\t
\t
a process in which
ascending air is cooled by a decrease in
atmospheric pressure without heat
transfer
adiabatic expansion
\t\n\t
\r\f
expansion caused
by atmospheric factors, which makes
ascending air cool down
Cooling by
adiabatic expansion may result in cloud
formation.
adiabatic heating

\n\t
\n\t
a process in which
descending air is heated by an increase
in atmospheric pressure without heat
transfer
adjacent
"\b\t
adjective
next to or near
Fire extinguishers
should be positioned adjacent to the
aircraft during all ground-running
operations.
adjust
"\n
verb
to change and
improve the position or setting of a
piece of equipment
The pilot adjusts
the throttle or propeller controls.
adjust the seat
to move the seat into a
position suitable for yourself
Aviation.fm Page 6 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
advice
adjust the volume
to increase or
decrease the volume to improve the
sound quality
adjustable
"\n
adjective
designed to be adjusted
An adjustable
stop on the throttle control ensures a
positive idling speed.
adjustment
"\n\r\n
change to improve the setting, position
or operation of something
A slight
adjustment to the seat will make it much
more comfortable to sit in.
the act of
changing something to improve its set-
ting or position
Maximum system
pressure is often controlled by adjust-
ment of the main engine-driven pump.
admit
\t\n
verb
to allow to enter
Cold air can be admitted to the cabin
through adjustable louvres or shutters.
adopt
\n
verb
to choose to use
something as standard equipment or to
make it standard procedure
A policy of
no smoking on all flights has been
adopted by many airlines.
widely
adopted
now in standard use with many
companies, institutions and organisa-
tions
adoption
\f\r
noun
the act of
using something as standard equipment
or making it standard procedure
spite of the adoption of the axial flow
type compressor, some engines retain
the centrifugal type.
ADR
abbreviation
accident data
recorder
ADS
abbreviation
automatic depend-
ent surveillance
ADT
abbreviation
approved departure
time
advance
#\r
a change
that improves something
enormous
advances in aircraft design
great
progress or developments in aircraft
design
in advance of
ahead of
The Gulf region is three hours in
advance of GMT.
verb
to move for-
wards, or move something forwards
the throttle lever is advanced
the
throttle lever is moved forwards
make something happen at an earlier
time
to advance the ignition
to adjust
the timing of the ignition so that the
spark occurs earlier
advanced
#\r\n
adjective
modern and sophisticated
The A340 is
an advanced type of aircraft.
‘…a Seattle-based modification company
Aviation.fm Page 7 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
advisability
pilot.
NOTE
Advice
has no plural
form.)
advisability
\t
\t\t\n
noun
the advisability of something
whether
something is a good idea or not
Flying
manuals often contain guidance on the
advisability of flying with a cold.
advisable
\t
adjective
recommended, suggested
It is advisa-
ble to check the condition of the tyres
after each landing.
advise
\t
verb
to inform, to
notify
The flight deck advised the
cabin crew that descent would start in
20 minutes.
to recommend, to sug-
gest
Because of the bad weather, the
instructor advised the trainee pilot not
to fly.
to advise against
to recom-
mend or to suggest that something
should not be done
advisory
\t
adjective
giv-
ing advice and information
advisory airspace
\t
\b\b\t
airspace containing
advisory routes in which air traffic con-
trol provide an advisory service but not
full control. Abbreviation
ADA
advisory route
\t
\n
a published route for which there
is an advisory service. Abbreviation
ADR
advisory service
\t
%\t
a service in which Air
Traffic Control provides advice and
information to assist a pilot in the safe
conduct of a flight
AEEC
abbreviation
airlines electronic
engineering committee
aerate
\b\b\t\n
verb
to put a gas,
especially carbon dioxide or air, into a
liquid so that bubbles are formed
Aer-
ated fuel causes problems.
Opposite
aerate
aeration
\b\t\f
the act of
putting a gas, especially carbon dioxide
or air, into a liquid
The purpose of the
booster pump is to prevent fuel aera-
tion.
Opposite
de-aeration
aerator
\b\t\n
a device to put
a gas – especially carbon dioxide or air
– into a liquid. Opposite
de-aerator
aerial
\b
adjective
happening
in the air
done by an aircraft in flight
a device to send or receive radio
or TV signals
Ice-covering reduces
the effectiveness of aerials.
NOTE
: The
US English word with this meaning is
antenna
aerial display
\b\t
\b\t
a display of flying skills and aircraft
performance
aerial photography
\b 
\n$ 
photography done from
an aircraft in the air
aero-
\b
prefix
referring to the
air
aerodynamic
referring to air-
craft
aero-engine
aero-tow
aerobatic
\b
\n\t
adjective
referring to aerobatics
Loops and rolls
are aerobatic manoeuvres.
aerobatic aircraft
\b\n\t
\b# \n
an aircraft which is
designed to perform aerobatics
COMMENT
: One of the most famous
Aviation.fm Page 8 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
aeronautics
aerodrome circuit
\b
%\t\n
noun
the pattern and direction
of aircraft movement in the air around
the aerodrome
aerodrome QFE
\b 
\b 
the barometric pressure set-
ting at which the altimeter reads zero
when the aircraft is on the runway
aerodrome QNH
\b 
\b\r\b\t\n\f
the barometric pressure
setting at which the altimeter reads aer-
odrome elevation when the aircraft is on
the runway
aerodrome surveillance moni-
toring indicator
\b
%\b\t\r\r\t\n\t \t\r\t\b\t\n
noun
same as
Aviation.fm Page 9 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
aeroneurosis
aeroneurosis
\b\r
\t
anxiety and fatigue in airline
pilots as a result of long periods of fly-
ing
aeroplane
\b\b\t\r
power-driven, heavier-than-air craft
with fixed wings
NOTE
: Many people
use the words
aeroplane
aircraft
as if they had exactly the same mean-
ing. However, aeroplanes, hot-air bal-
loons, helicopters, airships and gliders
are all
aircraft
. The US English is
air-
plane
aeroplane performance
\b\b\t\r
 \r
description in figures of what a plane
can do, including, e.g., its speed, rate of
climb, and the length of its take-off run
aerostat
\b\n\n
noun
a hot-air
or gas-filled aircraft, e.g. an airship or
balloon
aero-tow
\b
\n
a tech-
nique of using a powered aircraft to pull
a glider into the air
An aero-tow to
The aggregate of
the capacity of all the fuel tanks is 50
gallons.
verb
Aviation.fm Page 10 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
aircraft
AHRS
a sensor which provides
information on the pitch, bank and
heading of an aircraft. Full form
atti-
tude heading reference system
abbreviation
attitude indicator
AIAA
abbreviation
area of intense air
activity
AIC
abbreviation
aeronautical informa-
tion circular
\b\t
something which helps
somebody do something
verb
to help
Computers can aid students in their
studies.
AIDS
\b\t
abbreviation
airborne
integrated data system
aircraft inte-
grated data system
aileron
\b\t\r
a horizontal
control surface hinged to the main-
plane, which enables an aeroplane to
bank or roll
By rotating the yoke the
ailerons are moved and the aircraft rolls
into a turn.
NOTE
: The word comes
from the French ‘aile’, meaning ‘wing’.)
a goal or objective
100% safe operation is the aim of all
airline companies.
verb
to intend or to
try to do something
we aim to suc-
ceed
we intend to succeed
AIP
abbreviation
Aeronautical Infor-
mation Publication
the mixture of gases
which forms the Earth’s atmosphere
Air enters the cabin through an inlet.
AIRAC
abbreviation
aeronautical
information regulation and control
Air Accident Investigation
Branch
\b \t
\r\n\t\r
\b\n\t
$\b\t\f
\r #\r\n\f
the depart-
ment of the CAA of the United King-
dom responsible for establishing the
cause of accidents. Abbreviation
AAIB
airborne
\b\r
adjective
lifted
and kept in the air by aerodynamic
forces
Shortly after the aircraft
becomes airborne, the undercarriage is
retracted.
airborne installation
\b\r
\t\r\n
\b\t\f
a radio device in
an aircraft which operates in conjunc-
tion with a ground installation
The
airborne installation comprises an
antenna, receiver and indicator(s).
airborne weather radar
\b\r
!\b& \b\t#
a radar installation
in an aircraft to give the flight crew
information about the weather along
their route. Abbreviation
AWR
air-breathing engine
\b &\t
\b\r"\t\r
an engine that burns a mixture
of liquid fuel and air
NOTE
: There are
four types of air-breathing engine: turbo
Aviation.fm Page 11 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
aircraft configuration
aircraft configuration
\b# \n
\r
\t$
\b\t\f
a particular
combination of moveable parts such as
flaps and landing gear that affects the
aerodynamics of the aircraft
aircraft proximity hazard
\b# \n
\t\t\n 
same as
airprox
aircraft stability
\b# \n\n
\t\n
the tendency of an aircraft
to return to its original attitude after
being deflected
aircrew
\b
noun
the pilot, nav-
igator and other crew members of an
aircraft
air cushion vehicle
\b \f
\t
noun
same as
hovercraft
air data computer
\b \b\t\n
\n
an electronic device
which provides information such as air
temperature, airspeed and static pres-
sure. Abbreviation
air density
\b \b\r\n
the
density of the atmosphere
airfield
\b 
an area of land
given over to runways, taxiways and
aprons
When the pressure setting on
the altimeter is set to 1013.25 millibars,
the pressure altitude of the airfield is
known as QNE.
air filter
\b \t\n
a device to
filter solid particles out of the air in
engine and ventilation systems
airflow
\b 
the move-
ment of air over the aircraft as it travels
through the atmosphere
a current of
air flowing through or past an object or
body
The compressor must provide an
adequate airflow through the engine.
airfoil
\b \t
noun US
same as
aerofoil
airframe
\b \b\t
the body of
the aircraft without the engines, instru-
ments and internal fittings
The air-
frame has to be built to very specific
requirements.
airframe icing
\b \b\t \t\t
ice that forms on the aircraft struc-
ture as opposed to on components such
Aviation.fm Page 12 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
air taxi
types according to source region, and
these are known as polar and tropical
air masses.
airpark
\b#
a small air-
port, usually found near a business or
industrial centre
airplane
\b\b\t\r
same as
aero-
plane
Aviation.fm Page 13 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
air terminal
air terminal
\b \n%\t\r
an airport building with a range of facil-
ities where passengers check in before
boarding their plane and where they
arrive when their plane lands
a build-
ing in a city for receiving passengers
who are being transported to or from an
airport by train or bus
air terrorism
\b \n\b\t
violent actions that aim to frighten
or kill passengers, disrupt air services,
or damage or destroy aircraft in an
attempt to achieve a political objective
air-tight
\b\n\t\n
adjective
closed or
sealed so that air cannot get in or out
air-to-air
\b\n
\b
adjective
Aviation.fm Page 14 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
allowance
\t
noun
a long passageway
Aviation.fm Page 15 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
alloy
Aviation.fm Page 16 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
analogue
is often used to describe the colour of
the yellow light in traffic signals.)
ambient
\r\n
adjective
refer-
ring to the surrounding atmospheric
conditions
Fresh ambient air is routed
into the cabin.
ambient temperature
the temperature outside the aircraft
ambient pressure
\r\n
\b\f
the pressure outside the
aircraft
ambiguity
\t
$\t\n
something heard or seen which can be
understood in more than one way, thus
resulting in possible confusion
avoid ambiguity
to avoid misunder-
standing or confusion
Correct use of
R/T phraseology avoids ambiguity.
ambiguous
\t$
adjective
able to be understood in more than one
way
It is important that R/T transmis-
sions are not ambiguous.
AMD
abbreviation
amendment
amend
\b\r
verb
to change,
update, improve or correct something
he amended the entry in his log book
he corrected or changed the entry in his
log book
amendment
\b\r\r\n
noun
change, updating, improvement or cor-
rection made, e.g., to a document or
procedure
When a terminal aero-
drome forecast requires amendment,
the amended forecast is indicated by
inserting AMD after TAF.
Aviation.fm Page 17 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
analyse
presentation of engine information.
analogue display (on a clock)
a tradi-
tional hands and face display on a clock
or dial. Compare
digital display
analyse
\r\t
, analyze
verb
break down into parts and study very
closely
to analyse fuel
to separate
fuel into its different parts to find out
what it consists of
to analyse a chart
to examine a chart in detail
analysis
\r\t
noun
breaking
down a substance into its parts in order
to study them closely
At a crash site,
samples of materials are removed for
analysis.
NOTE
: The plural form is
anal-
\r\t
/ .)
chart analysis
careful study of charts
anchor

a device con-
nected to and dropped from a boat in
order to prevent the boat from moving
in the water
verb
to drop an anchor to
prevent the boat from moving
anemograph
\r\b$#
an instrument which maintains a contin-
uous recording of wind direction and
speed on a graph
The anemograph
gives a continuous recording of wind
velocity which is displayed on a chart
and reveals gusts, squalls and lulls.
Aviation.fm Page 18 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
anti-icing fluid
announce
\r\r
verb
to state
something publicly or officially
Brit-
ish Airways announce the departure of
flight BA152 to New York.
announcement
\r\r\r\n
noun
a public statement
The captain
made a public address (PA) system
announcement asking passengers to
remain seated.
\r
adjective
happen-
ing once a year
annual inspection
inspection that happens once a year
over a period of one year
Overload
operations should not exceed 5% of
annual departures.
\r
adjective
shaped
like a ring
annunciation
\r\r
\b\t\f
an announcement or indication on the
annunciator panel
failure annuncia-
tion
signals on the annunciator panel
indicating the failure of a system
annunciator
\r\r\b\t\n
device which gives off a sound or light
to indicate which of several electrical
circuits is active
An annunciator
panel may contain a precise warning.
anode
\r
a positive pole
or electrode
The positive connector of
a battery is usually called the anode
and is indicated by the sign +.
anodise
\r\t
, anodize
verb
coat or cover by using electrolysis
Anti-corrosion treatment includes the
anodizing of aluminium parts.
anomalous
\r
adjective
referring to something unusual, unex-
pected or otherwise departing from
what is the normal order or range
anomalous instrument reading
unusual instrument reading which may
require further investigation
anomaly
\r
something
unusual, unexpected or otherwise not
within the normal order or range
Any
anomalies in the localiser will be
Aviation.fm Page 19 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
anti-skid
anti-skid
\r\n\t
adjective
designed to prevent skidding
anvil
\r\t
noun
a metal block
which ends in a point, has a rounded
bottom and a flat top, and on which
Aviation.fm Page 20 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
an appreciation of the basic gas laws.
an increase in value
There has been an
appreciation of 100% in the value of the
building in 10 years.
Opposite
depreci-
ation 3.
thankfulness, gratitude
After
gaining her private pilot’s licence, the
newly-qualified pilot showed her appre-
ciation by sending a letter of thanks to
her instructor.
approach
\n\f
a path
towards something
The approach to
the terminal was blocked by an over-
turned lorry.
the descent of an air-
craft towards the place where it intends
to land. Abbreviation
APP 3.
a way of
achieving or doing something
to take
a different approach to a situation
deal with or to manage a situation in a
different way
verb
to move nearer
in place or time to something
The air-
craft is approaching a danger area.
nightfall is approaching
it will soon be
dark
to have a particular mental atti-
tude towards something
approaches his studies with great
enthusiasm.
to speak to or get in
touch with somebody
You must
approach the chief flying instructor
regarding your request for a week’s hol-
iday.
approach control
\n\f\r
\n
a control station in an air
traffic control centre that guides an air-
craft while it is making its approach
approach monitoring aid
\n\f \r\t\n\t \b\t
instrument or system that helps an air
traffic controller to track the position
and movements of an aircraft during its
approach. Abbreviation
AMA
approach path
\n\f#&
noun
the course taken by the aircraft in
preparation for landing
approach plate
a document
issued by an aviation authority which
provides detailed information about
how to land at a given airport in very
poor visibility
approach to land
\n\f\n
\r
the final stage of the flight
when the aircraft is manoeuvred into
position, relative to the landing area, in
preparation for landing
on the
approach to land, the aircraft reduces
speed and height
appropriate
\n
adjective
suitable or needed
appropriate
action
the action that is needed to deal
with the situation
appropriately
\n
adverb
in a way that it is suitable or nec-
essary
to adjust the mixture appro-
priately
to adjust the mixture to suit the
conditions
approval

permis-
sion or agreement
with the captain’s
approval
with the permission of the
captain
Aviation.fm Page 21 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
APU
APU
abbreviation
auxiliary power unit
!\b\t\r\t
sliding in an uncontrolled way over a
thin layer of water on the runway
Aquaplaning is caused by a layer of
the centre of the Earth.
verb
to jump
across a gap
The spark arcs from one
electrode to another.
The condenser
prevents spark plugs from arcing.
Arctic
#\n\t
adjective
referring to
the area around the North Pole
cold
Arctic air
cold air from the Arctic
the
Arctic Circle
a parallel running round
the Earth at latitude 66°32N, to the
north of which lies the Arctic region
the Arctic
the area of the
Earth’s surface around the North Pole,
north of the Arctic Circle
The aircraft
flew over the Arctic.
area
\b
a defined part of
a surface
a region
area forecasts
weather forecast for a region rather
than, e.g., an aerodrome
area control service
\b\r
\n %\t
a unit that provides
air traffic control services to flights
within the area for which it is responsi-
ble
area navigation
\b \r\t
$\b\t\f
a method of navigation that
permits aircraft to operate on any
desired flight path within the area cov-
ered by ground-based navigational aids,
self-contained navigational aids or a
combination of the two. Abbreviation
RNAV
argument
#$\r\n
noun
factor
QNH is the pressure at station
level reduced to sea level using argu-
ments of station height and an interna-
tional standard atmosphere.
a verbal
disagreement
to have an argument
disagree openly and verbally with
somebody
The investigation revealed
that there had been an argument
Aviation.fm Page 22 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
assess
arrest the spread of a fire
to stop the
fire spreading
to hold somebody for
breaking the law
He was arrested at
the airport.
noun
the act of holding
somebody for breaking the law
His
arrest was unexpected.
arrester
\b\n
a device or
substance which prevents or stops
something from happening
arrival
\t
noun
the act of
reaching somewhere. Abbreviation
Gulf Air announce the arrival
of flight GF147 from Abu Dhabi
flight GF147 from Abu Dhabi has just
landed
arrivals
\t
the part of
an airport that deals with passengers
who are arriving
arrive
\t
verb
to reach some-
where
the flight from Tokyo arrived
at 8.30
the flight from Tokyo landed at
8.30
arrow

a painted or
printed sign which points to something
Non-return valves are marked with an
arrow which shows the direction of
flow.
arrow convention
\r
\b\r\f
an agreed method of
using arrows when drawing wind trian-
gles
article
#\n\t
noun
an object, an
item
loose articles
things which may
move during flight and cause problems
artificial
#\n\t
adjective
not
natural, made by humans
The small
needle indicates cabin altitude or the
artificial altitude created by the pres-
surisation system.
artificial horizon
#\n\t \t\f

\t
an instrument that dis-
plays the degree of pitch or bank of an
aircraft relative to the horizon
\b\r
verb
to rise, to go or
move upwards
Hot air ascends.
ascending order
in order of number or
rank with the smallest or less important
at the bottom and the largest or more
important at the top. Opposite
\b\r\n
a rise, a slow
upward movement
the forced ascent
of air over high ground
In a stable
atmosphere where the ascent of air is
forced, precipitation is mostly light and
occasionally moderate.
ascertain

\n\b\t\r
verb
to find
out, to make certain
During pre-flight
checks, control surfaces should be
moved by hand to ascertain that they
have full and free movement.
ASDE
abbreviation
airport surface
detection equipment
ASI
abbreviation
airspeed indicator
ASMI
abbreviation
aerodrome surface
movement indicator
\b\n
a part of a
problem or subject
Vertical motion is
an important aspect of meteorology.
safety aspects
matters related to safety
the view from a particular position
The aspect of the runway on final
approach helps the pilot to judge height
and progress.
aspect ratio
\b\n\b\t\f
the ratio of the length of an aircraft’s
wing to the average distance between
the front and back edge of the wing
NOTE
: Aircraft that operate at low
speeds, for example gliders, need a
high aspect ratio and have long narrow
wings. Supersonic aircraft need a low
aspect ratio, which is created by swing-
ing the wings back.)
asphyxiation
\t
\b\t\f
unconsciousness or death caused
by lack of oxygen
Fire may result in
the cabin being filled by smoke causing
asphyxiation.
ASR
\b\t\b#
abbreviation
airport
surveillance radar
altimeter setting
region
\b
verb
to put
a number of parts together
The parts
are made in different countries but the
plane is assembled in France.
gather together
Passengers should
assemble in the departure lounge where
Aviation.fm Page 23 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
assessment
their exits are usable.
to assess a sit-
uation
to consider all aspects of a situ-
ation
\b\r\n
judgement on a situation based on care-
ful thought
The captain’s assessment
of factors such as aircraft damage, pas-
angle of one (at a distance of 60 nauti-
cal miles).
Aviation.fm Page 24 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
attenuate
ATIS
abbreviation
Automatic Terminal
Information Service
ATM
\b\t\n\b
abbreviation
air traf-
fic management
atmosphere
\n \t
mixture of gases in a mass surrounding
the earth
The surrounding atmosphere
moves with the earth.
a unit of meas-
urement of pressure
COMMENT
: The main gases found in
the atmosphere are nitrogen and
oxygen. The atmosphere contains less
than 1% carbon dioxide and argon,
and also traces of hydrogen, helium,
krypton, neon, ozone and xenon.
atmospheric
\n
 \b\t
adjec-
tive
referring to the atmosphere
atmospheric density
atmospheric attenuation
\n \b\t
\n\b\r
\b\f
the weakening of a radio signal as it
passes through the air
atmospheric pollution
\n \b\t
\f
same
air pollution
Solid particles in the
air include dust, sand, volcanic ash and
atmospheric pollution.
atmospheric pressure
\n \b\t\b\f
normal air
pressure on the surface of the earth
atmospheric refraction
\n \b\t\t
 \f\r
change in direction of waves due to var-
iations in temperature, pressure and
humidity, particularly at lower altitudes
atom
\n
the smallest
amount of a substance which can take
part in a chemical reaction
An atom
consists of a nucleus and electrons.
atomic
\n\t
adjective
referring
to atoms
atomic structure of matter
the structure of materials and sub-
stances at their smallest level
atomisation
\n\t
\b\t\f\r
, atomi-
zation
\n\t
\b\t\f
the
reduction of liquids to a fine spray
The
fuel achieves fine atomisation under
pressure.
atomise
\n\t
, atomize
verb
reduce liquids to a fine spray
The fuel
must be atomised or vaporised to com-
bine with the air to permit combustion.
ATPL
abbreviation
Airline Transport
Pilot’s Licence
ATS
abbreviation
air traffic services
ATSU
abbreviation
air traffic service
unit
attach
\n\n\f
verb
to join or fix
something to something
The ice
detector is attached to the fuselage.
attachment
\n\n\f\r\n
the act of joining or fixing something to
something
The attachment of winglets
improved the handling characteristics
of the aeroplane.
an accessory which
can be attached
The video camera is
sold with a number of attachments
including a carrying strap and a battery
pack.
\n\n\f\r\n
\t\r\n
a place on the airframe
Aviation.fm Page 25 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
attenuation
attenuation
\n\b\r
\b\t\f
loss of strength
Atmospheric attenua-
tion is negligible until the upper end of
the UHF band when it increases rapidly
to limit the highest usable frequency to
about 10 GHz.
attenuative
\n\b\r\n\t
adjective
becoming weaker
Rain has an attenu-
ative effect.
attitude
\n\t\n
the posi-
tion of the aircraft in the air in relation
to the horizon
Angle of attack will
vary with changes in engine speed and
aircraft attitude.
nose down attitude
the attitude of the aircraft when the nose
is at a lower level than the tail
a way
of thinking and feeling about or of
behaving towards something or some-
body
he has an excellent attitude
towards his training programme
he is
positive and motivated in his training
programme
attitude heading reference sys-
tem
\n\t\n \b\t\b
\r
\t\n
noun
full form of
\n\t\n
\t\r\t\b\t\n
a flight instrument
that gives the pilot information about
the position of the aircraft in the air in
relation to the horizon
In light air-
craft, the attitude indicator is situated
on the instrument panel, directly in
front of the pilot.
pitch
COMMENT
: The attitude indicator is
sometimes referred to as the ‘artificial
horizon’. In instrument flight training,
the attitude indicator is the primary
reference instrument. It is positioned
on the instrument panel directly in front
of the pilot.
attract
\n\n
verb
to cause to
draw near
If two magnets, with unlike
poles are brought together, they will
attract each other.
to attract atten-
tion
to behave in such a way that people
will notice you
to cause people to
want to have or do something
attraction
\n\f\r
noun
force that draws things towards some-
thing
Aviation.fm Page 26 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
average
ernment body with the power to make
decisions
auto-
\n
prefix
automatic or auto-
mated
autogiro
\n
"\t
aircraft that uses a propeller to produce
forward motion and has an unpowered
horizontal rotor for lift and stability
autoland
\n\r
abbreviation
automatic landing
automate
\n\b\t\n
verb
to make
e.g. a device or procedure automatic
automated systems
systems which
have been made less dependent on
direct human control or management
automatic
\n
\n\t
adjective
done without needing to think
In the
early stages of training, student pilots
have to think about the use of the flying
controls, but after a while these actions
become automatic.
which works by
itself without the need of an operator
The normal activation method is auto-
matic.
automatic dependent surveil-
\n\n\t\t
\b\r\r\n
\b\t\r
an electronic surveillance sys-
tem that uses data that aircraft provide
automatically via a datalink and is able
to identify and track the aircraft
automatic direction finder
\n\b\t\n\t\t
\b\f
\r \t\r
noun
a radio navigation instrument that
receives signals from non-directional
radio beacons
The needle on the ADF
indicator points toward the selected
radio signal.
Abbreviation
ADF
automatic landing
\n\n\t
\r\t
noun
automatic flight control
system capable of landing an aircraft
‘hands-off.’ Abbreviation
autoland
automatic mixture control
\n\n\t\t\n\f\r
\n
a subsystem in a piston engine which
adjusts the flow of fuel to balance
changes in air density
automatic pilot
\n\n\t
\t\n
full form of
autopilot
Automatic Terminal Information
Service
\n\n\t \n%\t\r
\t\r 
\b\t\f
\r %\t
a record-
ing of information played continuously
on a specified radio frequency which
gives pilots the current weather, runway
Aviation.fm Page 27 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
avert
an average
Brake temperatures aver-
age around 500°C during normal oper-
ations.
avert
%\n
verb
to avoid
To avert
a collision, he changed direction.
AVGAS
$
abbreviation
avia-
tion gasoline
aviation
\b\t
\b\t\f
noun
flying
an aircraft
Wind speeds in aviation are
usually given in knots.
aviation gasoline
\b\t\b\t\f
$\r
fuel used in piston-
engined aircraft. Abbreviation
AVGAS
aviation law
\b\t
\b\t\f
\r 
the laws relating to flying
aviation routine weather report
\b\t\b\t\f
\r \n\r!\b&\t
\n
a weather report issued regularly
at intervals of an hour or half an hour
describing weather conditions at an air-
port. Abbreviation
METAR
aviator
\b\t\b\t\n
a person who
flies aircraft
avionics
\b\t
\r\t
elec-
tronic communication, navigation, and
flight-control equipment of an aircraft
The trainee engineer is doing an avion-
ics course.
Full form
aviation elec-
tronics
avoid
\t
verb
to prevent
something from happening
She just
managed to avoid an accident.
Aviation.fm Page 28 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM

verb
of the wind
change direction in an anticlockwise
direction. Opposite

adjective
second or third system, instrument or
computer disk available to be used if the
first one fails
The backup system or
the backup failed as well.
Backup gen-
erators are driven by the engine.
backward
!
adjective
directed towards the back
a backward
movement
backwards
!
adverb
towards the back
Unlike most aircraft,
the C130 can move backwards using its
own power.
NOTE
: The US English is
backward
backwash
!\f
a back-
ward flow of air produced by an aircraft
propeller or jet engine
baffle

noun
a metal plate for
preventing the free movement of sound
or liquids
Integral fuel tanks can be
strengthened by fitting baffle plates.
$\t"
noun
luggage,
cases and bags which you take with you
when travelling
One passenger had a
huge amount of baggage.
She lost one
piece of baggage.
NOTE
: The word
lug-
is also used in British English.)
baggage hall
an area where arriving
passengers pick up their baggage
carry-on baggage
small bags of lim-
ited size and weight that passengers are
allowed to take with them into the cabin
of an aircraft
baggage allowance
$\t"
\r
the weight of baggage
each air passenger is allowed to take
free
There is an accompanied bag-
gage allowance of 18 kilos.
baggage handling
$\t"
\r\t
noun
the process by which
passengers’ baggage is loaded onto an
aircraft, or unloaded and moved to the
airport terminal
\r
a state in
which weight, force or importance are
evenly distributed
The propelling noz-
zle size is extremely important and must
be designed to obtain the correct bal-
ance of pressure, temperature and
thrust.
the act of staying steady
verb
to be opposite and equal in
weight, force or importance to some-
thing else
The pressure exerted by the
weight of the atmosphere above the
level of the bowl balances a column of
mercury in the tube.
to stay steady,
especially when resting on the centre of
gravity
‘…balance refers to the location of the
centre of gravity along the longitudinal
axis of the aeroplane’ [
Civil Aviation
Aviation.fm Page 29 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
BALPA
lect information useful to meteorolo-
gists.
BALPA

abbreviation
British
Air Line Pilots Association
\r
noun
a narrow strip
A jet stream is a narrow band of high-
altitude strong winds.
a range of
Aviation.fm Page 30 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
beware
aligned in a fore and aft direction dur-
ing retraction.
a part of the coast that
curves inwards
the Bay of Bengal
Aviation.fm Page 31 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
beyond
beyond
\r
preposition
further
away than
The radio horizon extends
beyond the visible horizon.
it is
beyond his understanding
he cannot
understand it at all, it is too difficult for
him to understand
prefix
two
twice
\t
\r
adjective
hap-
pening two times a year
biannual
inspection
an inspection done twice
every year
\t
noun US
same as
note
noun
Aviation.fm Page 32 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
boot
a fuse
to break, as it should, when the
circuit is overloaded
NOTE
blowing –
blew – blown
blow-back

a sud-
den movement of fluid in the opposite
direction to the general flow
A sudden
release of pressure may cause a blow-
back.
blower

a device for
blowing air
Air for combustion is
obtained from a blower.
board

noun
a flat, square or
rectangular piece of wood or other
material
on board
on an aircraft
The flight plan records the callsign and
the number of people on board.
verb
to get on to an aircraft
In an emer-
gency, many passengers only remember
the entrance by which they boarded the
aircraft.
boarding gate
\t$\b\t\n
the door through which passengers
leave the terminal building to get on to
an aircraft
Boarding gates 1 – 10 are
on the left.
boarding pass
\t#
a temporary pass, issued at the check-in
desk, which allows the holder to board
the aircraft
Boarding passes must be
shown at the gate.
NOTE
: The plural
form is
boarding passes
boarding steps
\t\n\b
plu-
ral noun
stairs used by passengers and
Aviation.fm Page 33 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
bottleneck
bottleneck
\n
\r\b
buildup of air traffic causing delays in
taking off or landing
adjective
bound for
on the way to
an aircraft bound for
Paris
the Copenhagen-bound flight
the flight on the way to Copenhagen
outward bound
leaving home, espe-
cially for another country
boundary
\r
noun
a phys-
ical or imaginary limit between two
areas
The boundary between two air
masses is called the frontal surface.
boundary layer
\r
\b\t
the layer of fluid next to the sur-
face over which it is flowing and,
because of friction, travelling more
slowly than layers further from the sur-
face
bowser

noun
a mobile fuel
tank for refuelling aircraft
It is impor-
tant to prevent the possibility of an elec-
tric spark by earthing the aircraft and
the bowser.
Boyle’s Law
\t
noun
a sci-
entific principle that states that the vol-
ume of a given mass of gas, whose tem-
perature is maintained constant, is
inversely proportional to the gas pres-
sure
brace
\b\t
verb
to strengthen a
construction using cross-members
and/or wires
Early aircraft were of the
braced type of construction.
to take a
protective body position in preparation
for a crash landing
The cabin-crew
will repeat the ‘brace’ order and brace
themselves.
to brace yourself
quickly prepare yourself mentally and
physically for what is shortly to happen
brace position
\b\t
\t\f
the position that a person is rec-
ommended to adopt before impact in a
crash, protecting the head with the arms
and bringing the legs up underneath the
chest
Aviation.fm Page 34 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
bulkhead
briefing
 \t
a short meet-
ing to enable instructions and basic
information to be given
British Isles
\t\n\t\f\t
plural
noun
the islands which make up Great
Britain and Ireland
The climate of the
British Isles is affected by the Atlantic
Ocean.
British thermal unit
\t\n\t\f
&%
noun
the amount of heat
needed to raise the temperature of one
pound of water by one degree Fahren-
heit. Abbreviation
Btu
brittle
\t\n
adjective
having a
tendency to break easily, like thin glass
Absorption of oxygen and nitrogen
from the air at temperatures above
1,000° F makes titanium brittle.
BRNAV
abbreviation
basic area navi-
gation
broad

adjective
very wide
a broad river
wide or general
Three
broad categories of aircraft are consid-
ered – rotary wing aircraft, light single-
engine aircraft and twin-engine air-
craft.
Opposite
narrow
broadcast
#\n
verb
transmit, often to a large number of peo-
ple, a radio signal or message which
requires no answer
The cabin crew
can use the public address system to
broadcast messages to passengers only.
NOTE
broadcasting – broadcast
noun
a transmission of information
relating to air navigation that is not
addressed to a specific station or sta-
tions
broadly

adverb
widely or
generally
broadly speaking
gener-
ally speaking
brush
\f
a tool that has
lengths of hair or wire fixed into a han-
dle and is mainly used for painting or
cleaning
a small, replaceable block of
carbon which rubs against the surface
of a commutator in a generator or elec-
tric motor
At high altitude, the air
becomes drier and this causes a greatly
increased rate of wear on the brushes.
buckle

a metal part of
a belt used for joining the two ends
together
verb
to bend out of shape
because of heat or force
Overheating
will make the battery plates buckle.
Aviation.fm Page 35 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
bulletin
Aviation.fm Page 36 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
symbol
Celsius
centigrade
CAA
abbreviation
Civil Aviation
Authority
\t\r
a passenger com-
partment in an aircraft
Air enters at
the front of the cabin and leaves at the
rear.
cabin attendant
\t\r
\n\b\r\r\n
noun
member of the flight
crew who looks after passengers, serves
Aviation.fm Page 37 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
call button
on a measuring instrument or gauge
The international standard atmosphere
is used for the calibration of instru-
ments.
call button
 \n
button, often on the arm of a passenger
seat, which can be pushed when you
need help from an attendant
\t\r
a series of
words and/or letters and/or numbers
used to identify an aircraft or station
The aircraft’s callsign is ‘College 23’.
VOR stations transmit a two or three
letter aural Morse callsign.
calorie

noun
the amount of
heat required to raise the temperature of
1 gram of water by 1°C, equal to 4.186
joules
After 2 calories have been
released the temperature will have risen
2 degrees i.e. to 0°C, and so the freezing
process ceases temporarily.
Abbrevia-
tion
cal
calorific

\t \t
adjective
refer-
ring to calories
calorific value
the
heat produced by the complete burning
of a given amount of fuel
The calorific
value of a fuel is an expression of the
heat or energy content released during
combustion.
an oval or egg-
shaped wheel which, when rotating,
converts circular motion into recipro-
cating motion
In a piston engine, the
shape of each cam is designed to give
the correct amount of opening to the
valve.
CAMFAX
 
the civil
aviation meteorological facsimile net-
work
camplate
\b\t\n
a rotat-
ing or non-rotating plate with cams on it
The fuel pump consists of a rotor
assembly fitted with several plungers,
the ends of which bear onto a non-rotat-
ing camplate.
camshaft
\f# \n
a rotat-
ing shaft carrying cams, which opens
and closes valves in a piston engine
the camshaft rotates, the cam will trans-
mit a lifting force.
canard
\r#
noun
a projection
similar to a small wing fitted close to
the nose of an aircraft and designed to
increase its horizontal stability
candela

noun
the SI unit
of brightness of a light
The red and
green wing tip navigation lights must be
at least 5 candela.
NOTE
: It is usually
written
with figures.)
candle power
\r
 
noun
a unit to measure the brightness of
a light
Estimation of visibility is
achieved by noting the distances at
which lights of a known candle power
can be observed.
canopy
\r
noun
a transpar-
ent cover, typically on some fighters,
light aircraft and gliders, designed to
slide backwards and forwards or hinge
upwards to allow pilots to enter or leave
an aircraft
a covering to protect peo-
ple in a life raft
The canopy should be
erected to provide protection from the
weather.
cantilever
\r\n\t
a beam
fixed and supported at one end only
The mainplanes or wings are of canti-
lever design.
noun
a top or lid
the
exhaust valve cap
CAP
abbreviation
Civil Aviation Pub-
lication
capability
\b\t
\t\t\n
the
capacity or ability to do something
the flare has a day and night capabil-
ity
the flare is effective in daylight and
in the dark
‘France has a large capability in the areas
of commercial aviation training and
simulation’ [
Civil AviationTraining
\b\t
adjective
com-
petent, having an ability
Aircraft used
in aerobatics must be capable of with-
standing the extra loads imposed on the
airframe by the manoeuvres.
In most
modern multi-engine jet transport air-
craft, each fuel tank is capable of feed-
ing any engine.
a capable person
person who works well
capacitance
\t\n\r
noun
the
ability of a system of conductors and
insulators to store an electrical charge
when there is a positive discharge
Aviation.fm Page 38 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
cardioid
time to build up a larger charge, or
capacitance.
NOTE
: Capacitance is
measured in farads and can either be a
fixed amount or variable amount.)
capacitive
\t\n\t
adjective
referring to the ability of a system of
conductors and insulators to store an
electrical charge
Overspeed is usually
a fault in the constant speed drive unit
which causes the generator to over-
speed and damage the capacitive loads
on the aircraft.
capacitor
\t\n
a system
of conductors and insulators which
store electrical charge
NOTE
: A capaci-
tor is used in a circuit to store energy for
a short while.)
capacity
\t\n
the abil-
ity to do something easily
Energy is
the capacity for performing work.
the
amount of something which a container
can hold
Each cylinder has a capacity
of 0.5 litres.
battery capacity
the
amount of electrical energy a battery
can store and deliver expressed in
ampere hours
the ability of an ATC
system, in a given area, to provide a
normal service, expressed in numbers
of aircraft
‘…a 500 to 600 seat ultra-high capacity
type aircraft is now being studied by
Airbus Industrie and Boeing’ [
Flight
International1–7May1996
capillary
\t
a very fine
or narrow tube
capillary action
\t\f\r
capillary flow
\t 
the
action by which a liquid rises up a nar-
row tube
capsule

a small
closed container
captain
\n\t\r
the person in
charge of an aircraft
The captain
asked all passengers to remain seated
until the aircraft had come to a stop.
captive
\n\t
adjective
not free to
move
captive balloon
\n\t
\r
noun
a balloon which, when in flight, is
attached to the ground by a long cable
carbon
#\r
noun
a non-
Aviation.fm Page 39 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
carousel
gram of the magnetic field around a
Aviation.fm Page 40 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
centrifuge
distributor panels before passing
through the porous steel outer skin.
abbreviation
cumulonimbus

abbreviation
cubic centi-
metres
symbol
candela
CDI
abbreviation
course deviation indi-
cator

verb
to stop
If fuel, oxy-
gen or heat is removed from the fire tri-
angle, combustion will cease.
\t
the highest
point
the greatest pressure height that
can be reached
The aircraft has a ceil-
ing of 50,000 ft.
celestial
\b\n
adjective
refer-
ring to the sky
celestial navigation
navigation by using the stars in the sky
a system of positive
and negative plates for storage of elec-
tricity that form a battery
A battery is
a device which converts chemical
energy into electrical energy and is
made up of a number of cells.
the cen-
tral part of a thunder cloud
The life
cycle of the thunderstorm cell ends
when the downdraughts have spread
throughout the cloud.
Celsius
\b
noun
a scale for
measuring temperature in which water
freezes at 0° and boils at 100°. Symbol
. Compare
Fahrenheit
center
\b\r\n
verb US
same as
centre
centerline
\b\r\n\t\r
noun US
same as
centreline
centigrade
\b\r\n\t$\b\t
scale for measuring temperature in
which water freezes at 0° and boils at
100°. Symbol
. Compare
Fahrenheit
Aviation.fm Page 41 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
centripetal
Aviation.fm Page 42 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
circuit
An installed battery becomes fully
charged by the aircraft generator.
charged particles
atmospheric parti-
cles which have either a positive or neg-
ative electrical charge
to take money
for a service
We do not charge for
overnight parking.
charger
\n\f#"
battery
charger
device for putting an electrical
charge into a battery.
turbocharger
chart
\n\f#\n
noun
a map for naviga-
tional purposes
significant weather
chart
a weather chart with important
weather information marked on it
chase plane
\n\f\b\t\b\t\r
noun
aircraft whose role is to escort another
aircraft or to photograph it
check
\n\f\b
an examination to
make certain that something is as it
should be
safety check
A check was
made on the undercarriage and air-
frame after the pilot reported a heavy
landing.
run
verb
to examine some-
thing in order to find out if it is correct
It is the pilot’s responsibility to check
that the aircraft is airworthy.
‘European Union (EU) airports may be
empowered to carry out safety checks on
foreign airlines’ [
FlightInternational1–
7May1996
check in
\n\f\b\t\r
verb
to register by
giving in your ticket, showing your
passport and giving your baggage at an
airline desk before a flight
Passengers
should check in two hours before depar-
ture.
check-in
\n\f\b\t\r
an airline
desk where passengers register before a
flight
The check-in is on the first floor.
check-in time
time at which passen-
gers should check in
check-in counter
\n\f\b\t\r
\r\n
, check-in desk
counter
where passengers check in
checklist
\n\f\b\t\n
noun
a list of
items, often in booklet form, to be
checked in a given sequence
Before
every flight, the pilot should perform
pre-flight checks using a checklist.
\b\t
adjective
referring to chemistry
a chemical
reaction
a substance used in or
made by a chemical process
a chemi-
cal such as anti-ice for propellers
chemistry
\b\t\n
the
science of chemical substances and
their reactions
the nature of some-
thing
The basic chemistry of fire can
be illustrated by the three sides of a tri-
angle representing fuel, oxygen and
heat.
\n\f
adjective
most important,
main
the chief factors
the most
important factors
chief flying instructor
\n\f
 \t\t\t\r
\n\n
the senior rank
of flying instructor. Abbreviation
CFI
chock
\n\f
a wooden or metal
device placed in front of the wheels of a
parked aircraft to prevent it from mov-
ing
The accident happened because
the chocks had been removed before the
engine was started.
\n\f
a valve in a carbu-
rettor, which controls the amount of air
combining with fuel
verb
to block a
Aviation.fm Page 43 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
circuit board
climb-out, turn onto crosswind leg, turn
onto downwind leg, turn onto base leg,
turn onto final approach and landing
When carrying out practice landings at
an aerodrome, the pilot should keep a
sharp lookout for other aircraft in the
circuit.
circuit board
%\t\n
insulating board which holds compo-
nents connected into an electrical cir-
cuit
circuit-breaker
%\t\n \b\t
a small protective device in the
circuit which blows or breaks before a
dangerous overload of current arises
circuitry
%\t\n
noun
a system of
electrical circuits
In an anti-skid brak-
ing system, circuitry is employed which
equal to one 360th part of the circum-
ference of a circle is called one degree.
circumstance
%\n\r
condition which affects something in a
given situation
in some circum-
stances
under certain circumstances
in some particular situations
cirro-
\t
prefix
high altitude, i.e.
above 20,000 feet
cirrocumulus
\t

noun
a layer of broken cloud at about
20,000 feet
cirrostratus
\t
\n#\n
layer cloud at about 20,000 feet
cirrus
\t
a high cloud in a
mass of separate clouds which are
formed of ice crystals
Civil Aviation Authority
\t\t
\b\t
\b\t\f
\r
&\n
the
organisation which licences operators,
aircraft and employees for non-military,
especially commercial aviation. Abbre-
viation
CAA
Civil Aviation Publication
\t\t
\b\t
\b\t\f
\r \t\b\t\f
found in CAP 413.
Abbreviation
CAP
COMMENT
: CAA (Civil Aviation
Authority) publications are referred to
as CAPs and each has a reference
number for identification:
procedure for obtaining a bearing is
described in CAP 413
clad

verb
to protect by covering
Alloys can be protected from corro-
sion by cladding the exposed surface
with a thin layer of aluminium.
clamshell door
\f\b
the hinged part of a thrust reverser
Clamshell doors are hydraulically or
pneumatically opened, and direct the
exhaust gases forwards to produce
reverse thrust.
classification
\t \t
\b\t\f
noun
the act of putting things into
groups or classes because they possess
particular common features
Classifi-
cation of aircraft consists of a multi-
level diagram with each category
divided into sub-categories.
A full
Aviation.fm Page 44 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
climatic zone
classification of layer cloud is given in
the table.
classify
\t \t
verb
to group
items so that those with similar charac-
teristics are in the same group
Precip-
itation is classified as light, moderate
or heavy according to its rate of fall.
The weather associated with visibility
reductions by particles suspended in the
atmosphere is classified either as fog,
mist, haze, or smoke.
clear
\t
adjective
referring to
conditions in which it is easy to see, e.g.
with no cloud or fog
a clear sky
a sky
with no cloud
a clear winter night
night with no fog, mist or other condi-
tions which might impair visibility
possible to easily see through
with
nothing blocking the way
clear run-
way
the runway is clear
nothing is on
the runway
keep the exits clear
not put anything and do not stand in
front of the exits
away from
easy to
hear
clear of cloud
either above or
below cloud
keep clear (of)
keep
away (from)
easy to understand
The
explanation is very clear.
understood
understood
is it clear?
do you
understand?
verb
to remove a
blockage or some other unwanted effect
which prevents a system from working
correctly
A heater element is fitted to
clear the detector of ice.
to disappear
In winter frost and fog are slow to
clear.
to make sure that it is all right
to do something
clear it with the CFI
make sure that the CFI agrees with the
request
to officially ask people to
quickly leave a given area or place
clear the building
to quickly leave the
building
‘…the principles of weight and balance
should have been learned by all pilots
during their initial training, but it is clear
that, afterwards, some forget’ [
Civil
Aviation Authority, General Aviation
clear to land
\t\n\r
air traffic control permission to land
climate
\t\n
weather con-
ditions particular to a given area
Med-
iterranean climate
tropical climate
temperate climate
a type of climate
which is neither very hot in summer nor
very cold in winter.
continental
climatic
\t
\n\t
adjective
refer-
ring to climate or weather conditions
particular to a given area
The aircraft
forward speed and altitude as well as
climatic conditions will influence the
value of thrust.
climatic zone
\t
\n\t\r
one of the eight areas of the Earth
which have distinct climates
COMMENT
: The climatic zones are: the
two polar regions (Arctic and
Antarctic); the boreal zone in the
northern hemisphere, south of the
Arctic; two temperate zones, one in
Aviation.fm Page 45 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
climatology
the northern hemisphere and one in
the southern hemisphere; two
subtropical zones, including the
deserts; and the equatorial zone which
has a damp tropical climate.
climatology
\t
\n"
the science of the study of climate
Although pilots do not need to be
experts in climatology, they should have
a good understanding of the factors
which produce changes in the weather.
climb
\t
the act of increas-
ing altitude by use of power
Fine pitch
enables full engine speed to be used
during take-off and climb.
Opposite
verb
to increase altitude by
use of power
After take-off, the air-
craft climbed to 5,000 ft.
Opposite
climb-out
\t
\n
a flight
Aviation.fm Page 46 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
collapse
on a map
It is normally easy to iden-
tify a coastline or island.
\n
a thin covering of a
substance such as paint
The coats of
paint on a large aircraft significantly
increase its weight.
verb
to cover with
a thin layer of a substance such as paint
Metals are coated for protection
against corrosion.
coating
\n\t
a thin layer
of a substance
There are two coatings
on the inside of CRT screens.
the act
of covering with a thin layer of a sub-
stance
a manually controlled
valve or tap to control the flow of a liq-
uid
It is necessary to have a master
cock for each engine.
\t\n
the forward
area in an aircraft from where the air-
craft is controlled by the pilot
In the
case of an in-flight oil loss, a warning
indicator will light in the cockpit.
‘…in the cockpit of the future there will
be two animals, a pilot and a dog. The
pilot will be there to feed the dog, and the
dog will be there to bite the pilot if he tries
to touch anything’ [
NYTNewsService
code

a system of num-
bers, letters or symbols used to repre-
sent language which has to be learned
and decoded in order for the receiver to
understand the meaning
a series of
pulses by which an aircraft transponder
replies to a signal from the ground
codeshare
\f\b
code-
share deal
Aviation.fm Page 47 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
collect
\b\n
verb
to gather over
a period of time
Any given object will
usually collect ice more quickly at high
speed.
to take something or to pick
something up from a place
collection
\b\f\r
noun
Aviation.fm Page 48 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
compensate
communicate
\r\t\b\t\n
verb
to make contact with somebody in order
to pass information
The cabin attend-
ants should communicate with the cap-
tain.
communication
\r\t
\b\t\f
the act of passing infor-
mation to somebody usually, but not
always, by using language
Two meth-
ods of communication are available to
crew members – language and hand
signals.
communication link
\r\t
\b\t\f
\r \t
a telephone or
radio connection, as between the
ground crew and flight deck while an
aircraft is preparing for departure
communications
\r\t
\b\t\f
plural noun
a system of
passing information
satellite commu-
nications
VHF communications are
allocated the frequency bracket 118–
137 MHz.
Abbreviation
comms
commutator
\n\b\t\n
noun
device containing metal bars connected
to the coils of a generator to produce
electrical current
As the power output
required is DC not AC, a commutator is
fixed at one end of the armature.
compact
\n
adjective
small, close together, or not taking
much space
The annular system, as
used on modern aircraft, provides a
compact system, and, for the same out-
put and mass flow, a shorter system.
verb
to make smaller or more dense
by pressing
to compress, by driving
over with heavy machinery
When tax-
iing on grass, aircraft wheels compact
the earth as the aircraft moves over it.
compaction

\f
Aviation.fm Page 49 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
compensation
sation and bending loads.
The fall in
air temperature increases the air den-
sity and so compensates to some extent
for the loss of the thrust due to atmos-
pheric pressure.
to give money to a
person or organisation to make up for a
physical or financial loss
The money
offered by the company did not compen-
sate for the injuries she received in the
accident.
compensation
\r
\b\t\f
money paid to an individual or
organisation to replace or make up for
physical or financial loss
The com-
pany paid out $2 million in compensa-
tion to the families of those who lost
their lives in the tragedy.
\t
\b\t\f
the putting together of suitable informa-
tion
The manual is a compilation of
materials used by each of the instruc-
tors.

\t
verb
to put
together a number of pieces of informa-
tion
Aviation routine weather reports
are compiled half-hourly or hourly at
fixed times.
\t\b\r\n
verb
fit in with and improve the performance
of something
Ultra-sonic detection is
used to complement other methods of
flaw detection.
complementary
\t
\b\r\n
adjective
the fact of fitting
in with and improving the performance
of something
SSR is complementary
to the primary radars used by ATC.
Aviation.fm Page 50 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
concentration
material
The flight crew route flight
plan is a composite document which
serves as a navigation log.
noun
lightweight but very strong man-made
material used in aircraft manufacturing
To make a composite it is necessary to
combine the reinforcing glass fibres
with special glue or resin.
NOTE
: The
word
composite
was originally an
adjective, but through frequent usage
the term
composite material
shortened to
composite
‘Canadian Aerospace Group (CAG) is
working with Pratt & Whitney Canada on
a turboprop-powered version of its
Windeagle all-composite light aircraft’
Flight International 16–22July1997
COMMENT
: Composites are used in
the construction of many modern
aircraft, from gliders to aircraft such as
the Airbus A320, because they are
Aviation.fm Page 51 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
concentric
the early stages of training, instrument
flying requires great concentration on
the part of the student pilot.
concentric
\r
\b\r\n\t
adjective
having the same centre
concentric
circles
circles of different diameters but
with the same centre point
\r\b\n
an idea or
abstract principle
The concept of open
skies is not one with which everybody
agrees.
a complicated concept
idea or series of ideas or principles
which are difficult to understand
concern
\r
%\r
serious
interest
a matter for concern
some-
thing which must be taken very seri-
ously
responsibility
Attention to the
welfare of passengers is the concern of
the cabin crew.
Safety is everybody’s
concern.
this is no concern of ours
this is nothing to do with us
verb
cause somebody to feel worried
this
report concerns me enormously
I am
not at all happy about this report
to be
about or to be the subject of
If there is
serious vibration, the crew should shut
down the engine concerned.
this
report concerns me
this report is about
to be of interest and relevance to
the regulations concern all employ-
ees
the regulations apply to all employ-
ees
‘…the correct storage and handling of
cargo and especially dangerous goods is
an area which is of considerable concern
to the Federation’ [
INTERPILOT
Aviation.fm Page 52 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
connection
conductive
\n\t
adjective
referring to the ability of a substance to
allow heat or electricity to pass through
Steel is a conductive material.
Land
masses are less conductive than water.
conductivity
\r
\n\t\t\n
the ability of a material to allow heat or
electricity to pass through
Because of
the poor conductivity of air, heat is
transferred from the Earth’s surface
upwards by convection.
conductor
\r
\n
a sub-
stance through which heat or electricity
can pass
Water and steel are good
conductors.
cone
\r
noun
a solid body with a
base in the shape of a circle, and with
sides which narrow to a point, or any
object which has that shape
configuration
\r
\t$
\b\t\f
noun
the pattern or way in which things
are arranged
configuration of an air-
craft’s fuel tank system
the way in
which the tanks are laid out
confine
 \t\r
verb
to limit to a
particular area
Cooling is confined to
the air in contact with the ground.
The
damage was confined to a small area.
to limit to a given subject
the report
confines itself to the incident of 3rd
January
the report deliberately does
not mention anything other than the
incident of the 3rd January
confined
\r
 \t\r
adjective
lim-
ited, small
a confined space
a small
defined space which does not allow free
movement
confirm
 %
verb
to agree that
something is correct, or to repeat it to
remove any uncertainty
The attitude
indicator shows that the aircraft is in a
nose down attitude and the increasing
airspeed confirms that the aircraft is not
in level flight.
Can you confirm that
the instructor was flying the aircraft at
the time of the collision?
VHF and/or
UHF radio aids confirm ADF bearings.
COMMENT
: Cross-checking of certain
flight instruments is used to confirm
readings from other instruments, e.g.
the airspeed indicator and vertical
speed indicator confirm pitch
information from the attitude indicator.
conform
\r
 
verb
to corre-
spond to required standards
Fuels
must conform to strict requirements.
to conform to regulations
to do what is
required by rules and regulations
conformal
 
adjective
Aviation.fm Page 53 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
connector
a second aircraft to arrive at a final des-
tination
Follow the ‘Flight Connec-
tion’ signs.
\r\b\n
noun
a device
which connects two or more things
connector is used to connect two
lengths of wire together.
Standard
connectors consist of a metal coupling
with a rubber sandwich joint.
consecutive
\b\n\t
adjec-
tive
following one another without a
break
4, 5 and 6 are three consecutive
numbers.
a period of 28 consecutive
days
28 days following immediately
one after the other
\r\t!\r
the result of an action
The accident
was a consequence of the pilot’s
actions.
as a consequence
as a result
\r\t!\r\n
adjec-
tive
resulting
As temperature rises,
there will be a consequent increase in
the volume of the gas.
consequently
\r\t!\r\n
adverb
therefore, as a result
She was
late, consequently she missed the start
of the examination.
conserve
\r
%
verb
to avoid
using unnecessarily
Release the
brakes when necessary and conserve
main system pressure.
to conserve
energy
to use only as much energy as
you really need
to conserve fuel
use as little fuel as possible
\t
verb
to think
carefully about something
If the air-
craft is low on fuel, the commander
should consider diverting to the nearest
suitable airport.
‘…many purchasers of flight simulators
would argue that, when considering the
major manufacturers, there is little to
choose between them’ [
Civil Aviation
Training
considerable
\t

adjective
a lot of, quite large
required range of trim change is consid-
erable.
NOTE
Considerable
Aviation.fm Page 54 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
contaminate
constituent
\r
\n\t\n\r\n
any one of the various parts that make
up a whole
Water, whether in the form
of vapour, liquid or ice, is a very impor-
tant constituent of the atmosphere.
constitute
\r\n\t\n\n
verb
make up, to form
Oxygen and nitro-
gen together constitute most of the
atmosphere.
constrain
\n\b\t\r
verb
to pre-
vent somebody from being completely
free or from doing something they want
to do
The airline was constrained in
its purchase of new aircraft by lack of
financial resources.
to force some-
body to do something
Lack of finan-
cial resources constrained the airline to
cancel the purchase of new aircraft.
constraint
\r
\n\b\t\r\n
noun
some-
thing that reduces freedom of action
The number of landings per 24-hour
period is subject to constraint.
constrict
\n\t\n
verb
to make
something narrower, especially to make
the flow of gas or liquid more difficult
by narrowing the passage through
which it flows
Aviation.fm Page 55 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
contaminated fuel
the cabin, the dump valve can be
opened.
contaminated fuel
\r
\n\t\r\b\t\n\t 
fuel which
contains an unwanted substance, such
as water, and is therefore dangerous to
use
contamination
\r
\n\t
\r\b\t\f
a process by which a
liquid, gas or object is made unusable
because impurities or foreign matter are
allowed into or onto it
contamination
of air
air pollution
fuel contamina-
tion
a situation in which fuel becomes
unusable because an unwanted sub-
stance such as water gets into it
nuclear contamination
damage done
to an object, person or substance
because of contact with nuclear radia-
tion
\r\n\b\r\n
the amount
of a substance that is contained within
something, often expressed as a per-
centage
The stratosphere is a layer in
which the water vapour content is low.
the moisture content of the atmos-
phere
the amount of water vapour in the
air
\r\n\t\r\r\n
noun
one of
the seven great land masses of the Earth
the continent of Europe
COMMENT
: The seven continents are:
Asia, Africa, North America, South
America, Australia, Europe and
Antarctica.
continental
\r\n\t
\r\b\r\n
adjec-
tive
referring to a continent
continental climate
\r\n\t\r\b\r\n
\t\n
the
type of climate found in areas where
there is no effect from the sea
contingency
\r
\n\t\r"\r
something which might happen in the
future and therefore must be planned
for
contingency reserve fuel
\r
\n\t\r"\r\t
% 
fuel
which would only be used in an unusual
situation such as a diversion
\r\n\t
\r\t\n
con-
tinuing
continuity of precipitation
continuing rain, snow or hail
contour
\r\n
noun
the shape of
something
contour chart
\r\n\n\f#\n
chart which shows areas of high and
low ground
contour gradient
\r\n
$\b\t\r\n
noun
steepness of change
in elevation
contour line
\r\n\t\r
line on a map or chart joining points of
equal elevation
contract
\n\n
verb
to become
smaller in volume
Liquids will expand
or contract as a result of temperature
changes.
Opposite
expand
contraction
\n\f\r
the
decrease in volume of a substance
brought about by cooling
Due to con-
traction, the length of a mercury column
shortens.
Opposite
expansion
contrail
\r\n\b\t
same as
vapour trail
contrast
\r\n#\n
noun
the
amount of light and dark in something
seen
Contrast and colour enable a
pilot to identify ground features.
the
Aviation.fm Page 56 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
conventional
control
\r
\n
the
authority or ability to direct somebody
or something
crowd control
the
management of the movements of large
numbers of people
checking or exam-
ining
verb
to direct, to manage or to
make a machine, system, procedure,
Aviation.fm Page 57 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
converge
converge
%"
verb
to come
together at a particular point
Meridi-
ans converge towards the poles.
air-
craft on converging courses
aircraft on
courses which may eventually be too
close to each other if no corrective
action is taken. Opposite
diverge
convergence
\r
%"\r
the fact of coming together at a particu-
lar point
The inter-tropical conver-
gence zone is the zone in which the
trade winds from the two hemispheres
approach each other.
There is conver-
gence of meridians of longitude at the
north and south poles.
Opposite
diver-
converse
\r%
noun
the oppo-
site
The converse of port is starboard.
warm air rises – the converse is also
true
in other words, cool air descends
conversion
%\f
change to a different system or set of
rules
The conversion of km into nm is
not difficult.
conversion course
flying training which enables and qual-
ifies a pilot to fly a different aircraft
type
convert
\r
%\n
verb
to change to a
different system or set of rules
to con-
vert km into nm
How do you convert
degrees C into degrees F?
converter
%\n
a device
which alters the form of something
backup converter converts the alternat-
ing current power into direct current.
convertible
\r
%\n
adjec-
tive
possible to change easily, e.g. to fit
in with a new system or set of standards
The statute mile, unlike the nautical
mile, is not readily convertible into
terms of angular measurements.
convey
\r
\b\t
verb
to carry or
move from one place to another
large number of tubes convey the cool-
ing medium through the matrix.
Buses
are used to convey passengers from the
aircraft to the terminal building.
convey information
to pass informa-
tion from one person to another, or from
one place to another

adjective
a little cold
cool
weather
weather which is not hot,
warm nor very cold
verb
to become or
cause to become less hot
The airflow
is used to cool the oil.
air-cooled
coolant
\r\n
noun
a substance,
usually liquid, used to cool something
such as an engine
radiator coolant
The coolant is sprayed into the combus-
tion chamber inlet.
cooler

a device for cool-
ing
A self-contained system, consist-
ing of an oil tank, pump, filter, cooler,
and oil jets, lubricates the auxiliary
power unit.
cooling
\t
the action of
making something cool
the cooling of
the oil by the airflow
adjective
reduc-
ing the temperature of something
cooling medium
a substance which
reduces the temperature of another sub-
stance or material
coordinate

\t\r\n
verb
Aviation.fm Page 58 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
corrode
coordination
\t
\r\b\t\f
noun
Aviation.fm Page 59 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
corrosion
tems.
to be destroyed by a slow
chemical process such a rust
Alumin-
ium will not corrode easily.
corrosion
"
the
destruction of a material by chemical
processes
Aluminium has a high
resistance to corrosion.
anti-corro-
sion
corrosion protection
"

\n\b\f\r
action and/or meas-
ures taken to prevent corrosion such as
rust
corrosive
\t
adjective
caus-
ing corrosion
Sulphuric acid is very
corrosive.

\t\r
a trigono-
metric function defined as the length of
the side adjacent to an angle in a right-
angled triangle divided by the length of
the hypotenuse. Abbreviation
\r\n
verb
to act against
something so as to remove or reduce its
effect
For level flight, lift must counter
the force of gravity.
Some people find
that swallowing hard counters the
effects of changes in pressure.
counter-
\r\n
prefix
against
counterclockwise
\r\n
!\t
adjective
adverb US
same
anticlockwise
counter-rotating propellers
\r\n
\n\b\t\n\t
\b
plural
propellers which turn in opposite
directions
NOTE
: They are also called
contra-rotating propellers

noun
two of some-
thing
a couple of minutes
two or
three minutes
verb
to connect or to
join, often mechanically
The auxiliary
power unit is a self-contained unit
which normally consists of a small gas
turbine engine which is coupled to a
gearbox.
to combine
Pilot error,
coupled with poor weather conditions,
resulted in an accident.
\t
noun
a joining or
connecting component
When not in
use, the coupling is sealed by a dust
cap.
course

noun
an imaginary
line across the surface of the Earth
which must be followed in order to
arrive at the destination
to alter
course
to change direction or to follow
a different route
a formal period of
study
a meteorology course
contin-
uing time
in the course of the brief-
ing
during the briefing
course correction

\b\f
noun
same as
heading cor-
rection
course deviation indicator


\b\t\f
\r \t\r\t\b\t\n
a nee-
dle in an
omni-bearing indicator
which indicates if an aircraft is on a
selected course. Abbreviation

verb
to include e.g.
flaps which regulate the amount of air
flowing across the cylinders.
cowling
\t
a covering
usually made up of hinged or removable
panels
Access to the engine compart-
ment is normally via hinged cowling
panels.
CPL
abbreviation
Commercial Pilot’s
Licence
Aviation.fm Page 60 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
cross-pointer indicator
crab

a manoeuvre in
which an aircraft is steered slightly into
a crosswind to compensate for flying
slightly off course
verb
to steer an air-
craft slightly into a crosswind to com-
pensate for flying slightly off course
craft
# \n
Aviation.fm Page 61 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
cross-section
cross-section
 \b\f\r
a view of an object seen as if cut
through
The diagram is a cross-sec-
Aviation.fm Page 62 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
cylindrical
of thermal activity resulting from the
warming of the surface.
Grey cumulus
often develop into cumulonimbus.
altocumulus
stratocumulus
cumulus cloud


clouds which form only in
an unstable atmosphere and, as the
name suggests, often build vertically for
great distances. Also called
heap cloud
current
\r\n
adjective
present,
actual, happening at the moment
cur-
rent weather conditions
present
weather conditions
current position
the position now
an electrical
supply
alternating current
direct
current
flow
curvature
%\n\f
a curved
shape
curvature of the earth
the
curving of the Earth’s surface due to the
spherical form of the Earth
customary
\n
adjective
normal or usual
It is customary for the
senior cabin supervisor to introduce
herself to passengers at the start of a
flight.
customs
\n
noun
an official
department of government concerned
with movement of people and freight
across national borders
customs aer-
odrome
an aerodrome, usually near a
border or coast, with customs facilities
customs duty
\n \n
noun
same as
import duty
the duty
payable on a carton of cigarettes
cycle
\t
noun
a series of
actions which end at the same point as
they begin
With the piston engine, the
cycle is intermittent, whereas in the gas
turbine, each process is continuous.
life cycle of the thunderstorm cell
the
process of formation, development and
decay of a thunderstorm
cyclic
\t\t(\t\t
, cyclical
\t\t
adjective
referring to or
happening in a cycle
Off-shore and
on-shore wind patterns are cyclic.
cyclone
\t\r
a system of
winds rotating inwards to an area of low
barometric pressure
These areas of
low pressure are called hurricanes in
the Atlantic Ocean, cyclones in the
Indian Ocean and Bay of Bengal, and
typhoons in the China Sea.
Also called
low
depression
cyclonic
\r\t
adjective
refer-
ring to air movement, which turns in the
same direction as the Earth and which,
when seen from above, is anticlockwise
in the northern hemisphere and clock-
wise in the southern hemisphere
winter the sub-tropical high retreats
and gives way to cyclonic pressure pat-
terns which produce cool unsettled con-
ditions with rain at times.
\t\t\r
noun
a device
shaped like a tube, in which a piston
moves
Smaller aircraft have a static
hydraulic system similar to a car, with a
master cylinder and individual brake
cylinders at each wheel.
cylinder
block
the casing containing the cylin-
ders in a internal combustion engine
cylinder head
the removable top part of
a piston engine cylinder containing
plugs, inlet and exhaust connections
and valves
cylindrical
\t\r\t
adjective
with the shape of a cylinder
The mod-
Aviation.fm Page 63 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
abbreviation
danger area
abbreviation
danger area
DAAIS
abbreviation
danger area activ-
ity information service
DACS
abbreviation
danger area cross-
ing service
DADC
abbreviation
digital air data
computer
DADS
abbreviation
digital air data sys-
tem
DALR
abbreviation
dry adiabatic lapse
rate
\t"
noun
harm that is
caused to something
If the tempera-
ture rises it can cause serious damage
to the engine.
verb
to cause harm to
something
Small stones around the
run-up area may damage propellers.
damage tolerance
\t"
\n\r
the ability of a material
or structure to withstand or resist dam-
age
The structural efficiency of
bonded and machined structure is not
achieved at the expense of damage tol-
erance.
\r
verb
decrease or reduce
An accumulator is
fitted to store hydraulic fluid under
pressure and dampen pressure fluctua-
tions.
to make slightly wet

noun
a device to
decrease or reduce something
A yaw
damper is used for rudder control.
D & D
abbreviation
distress and diver-
sion cell
danger area
\b\t\r" \b
airspace of a particular length, width
and depth, within which at particular
times there may be activities which are
dangerous to the flight of the aircraft.
Abbreviation
danger zone
\b\t\r"\r
an area where danger exists
data
\b\t\n
information
made up of numbers, characters and
symbols often stored on a computer in
such a way that it can be processed
Airspeed information is supplied from
an air data computer.
meteorological
data
information about weather condi-
tions stored on a computer
informa-
tion.
recorder
datum
\b\t\n
noun
a reference or
base point of a scale or measurement,
e.g. mean sea level
datum shift trim system
\b\t\n
\f\t \n\n\t \t\n
a trim system
which varies the incidence of an all-
moving tailplane without moving the
cockpit controls
In some aircraft, the
datum shift is operated automatically.
abbreviation
decibel
abbreviation
direct current
DCL
abbreviation
departure clearance

prefix
undo, remove or stop
deactivate
depressurise
deactivate

\n\t\b\t\n
verb
turn off a system or a piece of equip-
ment thus stopping it being ready to
operate
On some aircraft nose wheel
steering must be deactivated prior to
retraction.
dead reckoning
\b\b\r\t
ded reckoning
noun
navigation using
calculations based on airspeed, course,
heading, wind direction and speed,
ground speed, and time
In the early
stages of practical navigation, the stu-
dent pilot navigates by using dead reck-
Aviation.fm Page 64 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
deck
oning.
Abbreviation
NOTE
: The
term comes from ‘deduced’ reckoning
or ‘ded’ reckoning.)
de-aerate
\b\b\t\n
verb
remove gas, especially carbon dioxide
or air, from a liquid such as fuel
The
pump helps to de-aerate the fuel before
it enters the engine.
de-aeration
\b
\b\t\f
the process of removing gas from a liq-
uid such as fuel
Partial de-aeration of
fuel takes place in the pump.
de-aerator
\b
\b\t\n
device to remove gas from a liquid
de-aerator tray
\b
\b\t\n \n\b\t
noun
a device in the lubrication system
to remove air bubbles from oil

a great deal
a large
amount of, a lot of
A great deal of
damage was done to the aircraft as a
result of the fire.
verb
to handle or
manage
A computer can deal with the
constant inputs required to control an
unstable aircraft.
debris
\b
scattered broken
pieces
Before running up the engine,
check that the aircraft is on firm ground
and that the area is free of stones and
other debris.
The aircraft exploded in
mid-air, spreading debris over a wide
area of the countryside.

picture, letters or
digits printed on adhesive paper, which
is transferred onto a surface and may be
peeled away
A red decal with AVGAS
100LL in white letters indicates the type
of fuel to be used.
decelerate

\b\b\t\n
verb
to slow
down
Reverse thrust and brakes help
to decelerate the aircraft after landing.
Opposite
accelerate
deceleration

\b
\b\t\f
noun
slowing down
Anti-skid braking
systems units are designed to prevent
the brakes locking the wheels during
landing, thus reducing the possibility of
wheel skid caused by the sudden decel-
eration of the wheel.
Opposite
acceler-
ation
decibel
\b\t\b
a unit for
measuring the loudness of a sound.
Abbreviation
\b\t
a decimal
fraction
adjective
decimal fraction
a fraction as expressed in the decimal
system
0.50 is a decimal fraction that
is equal to 1/2.
correct to three
places of decimal
to three decimal
places
correct to three figures after the
decimal point
2.754 is correct to three
decimal places, 2.7 is correct to one
decimal place.
decimal notation
\b\t
\r
\n\b\t\f
the method of writing a
number in the decimal system
fraction 3/4 can be written as 0.75 in
decimal notation.
Prices and number
are normally written using decimal
notation.
He finds it difficult to under-
stand how the computer works because
it uses binary not decimal notation.
\b\t
\b\t
the position of a number to the
right of the decimal point
decimal point
\b\t
\t\r\n
the dot (.) used to separate a whole
number from a decimal fraction
COMMENT
: The decimal point is used
in the USA and Britain. In most
European countries a comma (,) is
used to show the decimal, so 4,75% in
Germany is written 4.75% in Britain.
decimal system
\b\t
\t\n
system of counting
based on the number 10 and using the
digits 0 – 9
\t"
the act of
deciding or of making up one’s mind
to make a decision
to choose a course
of action
The decision to evacuate the
aircraft was made by the captain.
\t"
\r\t\n
the altitude at which, during an
ILS landing approach, a pilot must
decide whether to land or carry out a
missed approach
The pilot waited
until she was at decision height before
initiating the missed approach proce-
dure.
Abbreviation
COMMENT
: An ILS approach generally
has a decision height of 200 ft (60 m)
above ground level.
deck
\b
noun
the floor of a ship or
aircraft
Aviation.fm Page 65 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
decode


verb
to change
coded information into readable form
Incorrectly spaced information pulses
can result in failure by the ground sta-
tion to decode the aircraft information.


a device
used to decode signals from the air traf-
fic control radar beacon system
aircraft receiver is set to the required
frequency and linked to a selective call
system decoder which has a 4-letter
code.
decrease

a lessening
or reduction
A decrease in power
results in the aircraft descending.
verb

to become less, to fall
Air density and pressure decrease with
an increase in altitude.
opposite (all
senses)
increase

verb
to work some-
thing out in the mind using information
provided
Sometimes, it is possible to
estimate the depth of the layer of mist or
fog from the ground observations and
hence to deduce the ground range from
any height.
defect
 \b\n
noun
a fault or error
Low oil pressure or excessive temper-
ature indicate the development of a pos-
sible defect.
defective
 \b\n\t
adjective
faulty
or not operating correctly
Loss of sup-
ply pressure is caused by either a defec-
tive booster pump or lack of fuel.
 \t\r
verb
to give an
exact explanation, as in a dictionary
is not easy to define the word
it is dif-
ficult to say exactly what the word
means
to set the limits of something
Cloud tops are very difficult to define.
\b
adjective
refer-
ring to something which is not in doubt,
which is certain
Using a time scale on
the track, the pilot should be prepared
to look for a definite feature at a definite
time.
Opposite
indefinite
\b \t
\r\t\f
noun
exact explanation of what a word or
expression means
The definition of a
year is the time taken for a planet to
describe one orbit around the sun.
definition
understood by the use of the
word itself
A sphere is, by definition,
round.
deflate

 \b\t\n
verb
to allow air to
escape from something, so that it
becomes smaller or collapses. Opposite
inflate
to deflate a tyre
to allow the
air to escape from a tyre
deflation

 \b\t\f
the act
of allowing air to escape from some-
thing, so that it becomes smaller or col-
lapses
Deflation of a tyre is done by
depressing the valve.
deflect
 \b\n
verb
to cause an
object to move away from a neutral or
central position
During an out-of-bal-
ance turn, the ball in the slip indicator
will be deflected to the left or right.
move a moving object, gas or liquid
away from its intended path
In an
open-cockpit aircraft, the windshield
deflects the airflow over the pilot’s
head.
deflection
 \b\f
movement away from a central or neu-
tral position
Full deflection of the
Aviation.fm Page 66 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
density altitude
degrees Fahrenheit (70°F)
a unit of
measurement of an angle equal to
1/360th of a circle – each degree is
divided into 60 minutes and each min-
utes into 60 seconds
Make a turn to
the right at a bank angle of 30°.
angle of 90°
a right angle
a unit of
direction as measured on a compass
east = 090°
west = 270°
degrees true
$\n
degrees of direction measured from true
Aviation.fm Page 67 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
density error
density error
\b\r\n \b
correction to airspeed to give true air-
speed
DEP
abbreviation
departure message
depart
#\n
verb
to leave
flight departs at 0200 GMT.
Opposite
arrive
department
#\n\r\n
separate part of a complex whole, espe-
cially of an organisation
departure
#\n\f
noun
the act
of leaving
departure time
the time
when an aircraft becomes airborne
the distance between two meridians at
any given latitude
departure lounge
#\n\f
\r"
a room at an airport
where passengers wait to board their
aircraft
departure point
#\n\f\t\r\n
a place on the map representing
the place from which a flight begins
departures
#\n\f
the
part of an airport that deals with passen-
gers who are leaving
\b\r
verb
to be con-
trolled or affected entirely by some-
thing
Whether or not an object can be
seen by aircrew at a given distance will
depend on factors such as size, shape
and colour of the object.
If an aircraft
ditches in the sea, early rescue depends
on rapid location of survivors.
to rely
on
Pilots depend on air traffic con-
trollers to help them conduct a safe
flight.
\b\r
adjec-
tive
reliable, trustworthy
Mercury
barometers have largely been replaced
by precision aneroid barometers which
are smaller, simpler to use, and more
dependable.
\b\r\r\n
adjective
relying on or unable to do without
something
The height indicated by an
altimeter is dependent on the pressure
which is set on the sub-scale.
deploy
\t
verb
to come into
action, to become ready to be used
Slide rafts are door-mounted and auto-
matically deploy and inflate when the
door is opened in the armed position.
deposit
\t\n
a layer of
collected matter on a surface
deposit of ice crystals causes the air-
craft surfaces to change their aerody-
namic characteristics.
Wheel brakes
should be inspected for snow or ice
deposits.
depreciate
\f\b\t\n
verb
decrease in value
The aircraft depre-
ciated by 100% over the 5 year period.
Opposite
appreciate
depreciation
\f
\b\t\f
noun
a decrease in value
There was a
depreciation of 100% in the value of the
aircraft over the 5 year period.
Oppo-
site
appreciation
depress
\b
verb
to push down
Switches on the control columns
instantly disengage the autopilot when
depressed.
depression
\b\f
area of low atmospheric pressure
the northern hemisphere, the wind
blows anticlockwise round a depression
and clockwise round an anticyclone and
vice versa in the southern hemisphere.
deep depression
area of very low rela-
tive atmospheric pressure
a lower
area on a surface, which is often diffi-
cult to see
A depression on the wing
surface must be investigated in case it is
an indication of more serious structural
damage.
depressurisation
/

\b\f\t
\b\t\f
, depressurization
noun
loss, especially sudden, of cabin pres-
sure
Emergency oxygen must be avail-
able in the event of depressurisation.
depressurise

\b\f\t
depressurize
verb
to lose pressure
suddenly, or to cause to lose pressure
The aircraft began to depressurise at
20,000 feet.
depth
\b&
noun
the distance from
the top surface of something to the bot-
tom
The troposphere’s depth is varia-
ble in temperate latitudes.
derive
\t
verb
to get or to obtain
Performance data is derived from
flight tests.
Kepler derived the laws
which relate to the motion of planets in
their orbits.
Aviation.fm Page 68 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
detachable wheel spats
descend
\b\r
verb
to lose alti-
tude, usually in a planned manoeuvre
the aircraft descended to 10,000 feet
the pilot reduced altitude until the air-
craft was at 10,000 feet. Opposite
climb
descent
\b\r\n
a planned loss
of altitude
The descent from cruise
altitude took 40 minutes.
in the
descent
during planned loss of altitude,
usually in preparation for landing
‘…a search of radar recordings showed
that a DC-10 had tracked within a few
hundred metres of the house while
passing 9,500 feet in the descent to
Gatwick’ [
Pilot
describe
\t
verb
to give
Aviation.fm Page 69 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
detail
streamlined coverings for the wheels of
light aircraft which can be taken off to
allow inspection and repairs of tyres
Aviation.fm Page 70 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
diffusion

drops of condensed
moisture left on the ground overnight in
cool places
dew point
\t\r\n
the
temperature at which air is saturated
with water vapour and condensation
begins
COMMENT
: Weather reports usually
include the air temperature and dew
point temperature. When the
Aviation.fm Page 71 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
digit
tion losses, the speed of flow is
decreased by diffusion.
\t"\t\n
any number from
0 to 9
Information is provided in a
four-digit group.
\t"\t\n
adjective
referring
to a system or device which uses signals
or information in the form of numbers
dihedral
\t
\b
the
angle between an upward sloping air-
craft wing and a horizontal line
\n\t
adjective
made
weaker by adding water or some other
fluid
Spillage from a lead acid battery
may be neutralised by washing with a
diluted solution of sodium bicarbonate.
\t
\n
a device for
decreasing the strength or concentration
of a liquid or gas
Most flight decks use
the diluter demand system in which the
oxygen is diluted with cabin air.
\t
\b\r\f\r
noun
measurable distance such as height,
Aviation.fm Page 72 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
dispense
tends to be low and vice versa.
Opposite
advantage
disadvantaged
\t
#\r\n\t"
adjective
physically disadvantaged
(person)
a person who has a physical
disability
COMMENT
: The word ‘disadvantaged’
may be regarded by some people as a
politically correct term for ‘disabled’.
With the help of specially-adapted
controls, more and more disabled
people are learning to fly.
disappear
\t
\t
verb
to van-
ish
If air blew at right angles to iso-
bars, the horizontal pressure differ-
ences would eventually disappear.
pass out of sight
The aircraft took off,
climbed out and soon disappeared from
view.
disarm
\t
#
verb
to switch off
an active or live system
On the ground
approaching the terminal, the flight
deck will instruct the cabin crew to dis-
arm the escape devices.
to forcibly
remove a weapon from somebody
The
hijacker was disarmed by security
forces.
\t
noun
a circular flat plate
A turbine consists of a disc on which is
mounted a number of blades.
discharge
\t
\n\f#"
release of power from a source such as
a battery
A lightning flash is a large-
scale example of an electrical spark, or
discharge.
battery discharge
the loss
or release of electrical supply from a
battery
verb
to release electrical sup-
ply from a source such as a battery
The battery discharged overnight.
disconnect
\t
\r\b\n
verb
separate two things attached to one
another
The electrical supply can be
disconnected by pulling out the plug.
discrimination
\t\t
\r\b\t\f
noun
the ability to know or
see the difference between two similar
things
\b\r
, dispense with
verb
not to include or not to use some-
thing
Aviation.fm Page 73 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
dispersal
pensed with and the skin is fixed to the
internal members by the redux process.
dispersal
%
noun
the
act of leaving an area and going in dif-
ferent directions
the dispersal of a
crowd
the disappearance of a crowd
Aviation.fm Page 74 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
diurnal
distillation
\t\n\t
\b\t\f
the
process by which a liquid is heated and
the resulting vapour is then condensed
and collected
With kerosene-type
fuels, the volatility is controlled by dis-
tillation.
distinct
\n\t\n
adjective
clear
and easily seen or understood
When a
lead-acid battery is fully charged, each
cell displays three distinct indications.
distinction
\n\t\f\r
something which makes one thing dif-
ferent from another
A clear distinc-
tion is made between showers and gen-
eral precipitation.
distinctive
\n\t\n\t
adjective
easily recognised because of particular
features or characteristics
Concorde is
a very distinctive-looking aeroplane.
distinguish
\n\t$!\t\f
verb
know or to see the difference between
things
A receiver antenna would be
Aviation.fm Page 75 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
dive
\t
a steep nose-down
attitude of an aircraft
to pull out of
from a dive
to return the aircraft to
level flight after a nose-down flight path
During manoeuvring of an aircraft,
when banking, turning and pulling out
from a dive, stresses on the airframe are
increased.
verb
to put the aircraft into
a steep nose-down attitude
The air-
craft dived to avoid the other aircraft.
NOTE
diving – dived
diverge
\t
%"
verb
to move fur-
ther apart from something else
Air
diverges at low levels and converges at
high levels, causing a sinking or subsid-
ing effect in the atmosphere.
Opposite
converge
divergence
%"\r
the
act of moving apart
Divergence of air
at high levels leads to rising air at low
levels with a consequent pressure fall.
Opposite
convergence
divergent
%"\r\n
adjective
referring to something which moves
further apart from something else
divergent duct
\t
%"\r\n\n
a duct which has an inlet area
which is smaller than the outlet area
diversion
\t
%\f
change in route or destination caused by
Aviation.fm Page 76 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
drive
downstream
\r
\n
adverb
in the direction of flow, or further along
the line of flow
Internally driven
superchargers are generally used on
medium and high powered engines and
are fitted downstream of the throttle
valve.
downward
\r!
adjective
moving to a lower level
When flying in
turbulent air conditions, an aircraft is
subjected to upward and downward
gust loads.
downwards
\r!
adverb
a lower level, towards the bottom
Pull
the toggles downwards to inflate the life
Aviation.fm Page 77 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
driven
and guide
He’s learning to drive.
NOTE
driving – drove – driven
driven
\t
drive
drizzle
\t
noun
precipitation,
often persistent, in the form of very
small drops of water
Drizzle is the
lightest form of precipitation consisting
of fine water droplets.
COMMENT
: In weather reports and
forecasts, drizzle is abbreviated to DZ.
drogue parachute
$
\f\n
a small parachute used
in releasing a larger parachute from its
pack
drone
\r
noun
an aircraft whose
flight is controlled from the ground
drop

a small amount of
liquid that falls
a drop of water
a few
drops of rain
a sudden lowering
passage of a cold front is usually fol-
lowed by a drop in temperature.
sudden drop in oil pressure is normally
an indication of serious engine trouble.
verb
to become lower or to decrease
suddenly
The temperature dropped by
several degrees.
Aviation.fm Page 78 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
abbreviation
east
the hearing organ
ear defenders
\t\t
\b\r
plural
noun
same as
acoustic ear muffs
eardrum
\t
a membrane
inside the ear which vibrates with sound
and passes the vibrations to the inner
ear
Equalisation of the air pressure
across the eardrum is more difficult to
achieve during descents than ascents.
ear muffs
\t 
plural noun
acoustic ear muffs
ear protectors
\t
\n\b\n
plu-
ral noun
same as
acoustic ear muffs
earth
%&
Aviation.fm Page 79 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
economical
economic to keep the maintenance
operation going.

\r\t
adjec-
tive
referring to a substance or device
for which input is minimised and output
maximised (thereby saving costs)
economical engine
an engine which
uses less fuel to produce the same
power as comparable engines
Jet
engines are more efficient and econom-
ical when operated at high altitudes.
ECS
abbreviation
environmental con-
trol system
EDDUS
abbreviation
electronic data
display and update system
eddy
\b
a current of air mov-
ing in the opposite direction to the main
current, especially in a circular motion
When wind flows over an obstruction
such as a building, an eddy is formed on
the lee, or downwind side.
a line of intersection
or joining of two surfaces
Aviation.fm Page 80 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
electronic
which is fired out of the aircraft while
the crew-member is still in it
ejector
"\b\n
noun
a device to
throw something out forcefully
device using a jet of water, air, or steam
to withdraw a fluid or gas from a space
A jet transfer pump or fuel ejector is
used to transfer fuel.

verb
to pass
The
radio altimeter works on the principle
that, if the path followed by the radio
wave is straight down and up, then the
Aviation.fm Page 81 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
element
\b\t\r\n
noun
a sub-
stance composed of atoms with an iden-
tical number of protons in each nucleus
Elements cannot be reduced to sim-
pler substances by normal chemical
methods.
the resistance coil in an
electrical device such as a heater
removable component or removable
part, such as in an air filter or oil filter
elevate
\b\t\b\t\n
verb
to move some-
thing to a higher place or position from
a lower one; to lift
In some light air-
Aviation.fm Page 82 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
engine block
radio emission
One factor on which
the operational range of a radio emis-
sion depends is the transmitted power.
a substance discharged into the air, as
by an internal combustion engine
Exhaust emissions contain pollutants.
\t\n
verb
to send out e.g. mat-
ter, energy or radiation
radiation emit-
ted by the sun
An X-ray tube emits
radiation.
Latent heat is emitted when
condensation takes place.
NOTE
emit-
ting – emitted
empennage
\b\r\t"
the
tail assembly of an aircraft
The
empennage usually includes the fin,
rudder, horizontal stabiliser (or tail-
plane), and elevator.
emphasis
\b \t
force of
expression that gives importance to
something
It is only in recent years
that much emphasis has been placed on
determining the causes of metal fatigue.
emphasise
\b \t
, emphasize
verb
to give importance to something
On some maps, different elevations are
emphasised by colouring.
employ
\t
verb
to use
There are two methods employed to
cool the cylinders down.
In some air-
craft, particularly those employing
nickel-cadmium batteries, temperature
sensing devices are located within the
batteries to provide a warning of high
battery temperatures.
to give some-
body regular paid work
empty weight
\b\n!\b\t\n
the
weight of a plane without fuel, people
or freight
\b\t
verb
to make
something possible or easier
Isolation
valves are fitted to enable servicing and
maintenance to be carried out.

verb
to surround
on all sides
The housing encloses the
various mechanical parts.
Fuses form
a weak link in a circuit and are usually
made of a strip of tinned copper
enclosed in a glass tube.
encode

verb
to put into
code
Weather information is encoded
to allow large amounts of information
to be given in a short space of time.
encounter
\r\n
verb
Aviation.fm Page 83 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
engine capacity
engine capacity
\b\r"\t\r
\t\n
noun
the swept volume of an
engine
engine compartment
\b\r"\t\r

#\n\r\n
a space in the air-
frame where the engine is located
\b\r"\t
\r\t
a person
who is qualified to design, build and
repair machines
aircraft engineer
engineer who specialises in the mainte-
nance and repair of aircraft
engineering
\b\r"\t
\r\t\t
the use of scientific and mathematical
principles for practical reasons such as
the design, manufacture, and operation
Aviation.fm Page 84 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
equivalent shaft horsepower
envelope
\b\r
noun
the set
of limitations within which a techno-
logical system, especially an aircraft,
can perform safely and effectively
The boundaries of flight envelopes vary
Aviation.fm Page 85 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
error
error
\b
a mistake or incor-
rect calculation
an error in some-
body’s work
errors caused by location
the known inaccuracy of an instru-
ment or system which has to be cor-
rected by calculating the true value
\b\t
the act of get-
ting away from or out of a place after
being held
escape of fuel or oil
unwanted loss of fuel or oil
escape
from danger
Aviation.fm Page 86 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
examination
evacuate a glass jar
remove all the air
from a glass jar
evacuation

\b\t\f
the act of removing all people from
somewhere in the event of an emer-
gency
The evacuation of the passen-
gers from the airport was not ordered.
an act of emptying somewhere of all
people in it because of an emergency
The evacuation of the aircraft did not
take long.
evacuation command
evacuation order from the captain
ditching evacuation
an evacuation
after the aircraft has force-landed on
water
evaluate
\b\t\n
verb
to examine
and judge carefully
Deposits of ice
are detected and continuously evalu-
ated to operate a warning system.
evaluation

\b\t\f
the examination and judgement of
something
Aviation.fm Page 87 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
examine
examine
\t\r
verb
to find
out how much knowledge or skill some-
body possesses by means of questions
or exercises
Students will be examined
in four subjects.
to test or check the
condition or health of somebody
examine a patient
to study or analyse
something
to examine charts
exceed

verb
to be greater
than
Vertical velocity of updraughts
can exceed 50 kt.
exception
\b\f\r
some-
thing or somebody not included
exception to the rule
an example
which does not conform to a general
rule
with the exception of
not includ-
ing
with the exception of Smith, all
the students passed their exams
Smith did not pass, but the other stu-
dents did
exceptional
\b\f\r
adjec-
tive
being an exception, uncommon
in exceptional circumstances
in unu-
sual circumstances
well above aver-
age, extraordinary
an exceptional
pilot
a very good pilot
excess
\b
an amount or
quantity beyond what is normal or suf-
ficient
excess power
the difference
between horsepower available and
horsepower required
in excess of
more than
a height in excess of
50,000 feet
a height greater than 50,000
Aviation.fm Page 88 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
experimental
\t\t\n
verb
to have or to
display
Composites, due to their con-
struction, exhibit good fatigue behav-
iour.
Altocumulus are (usually) white
layers or patches of cloud frequently
exhibiting a waved appearance.
\t\n
verb
to be present under
particular circumstances or in a speci-
fied place
Water can exist in the
atmosphere in three forms.
A fire risk
may exist following failure or leakage of
any component.
existence
\t\n\r
noun
the fact
or state of being
Warning systems are
provided to give an indication of a pos-
sible failure or the existence of a dan-
gerous condition.
\b$\t\n
the act of going
out of a place
The exhaust valve opens
to allow for the exit of exhaust gases.
exit velocity
the velocity of exhaust
gases from a jet engine
a way out
exit nozzle
\b\t\n \r
pipe or opening through which exhaust
gases leave a jet engine
\b\t\n\t\r\n
a posi-
tion on the ground above which an air-
craft leaving a control zone crosses the
boundary
\r
verb
to increase in
size, volume or quantity, to enlarge
Air expands when heated and contracts
when cooled.
\r\f\r
increase in size, volume or quantity
There is an expansion of the gas when it
is heated.
expansion chamber
\r\f\r
\n\f\b\t
a container which
allows for expansion of a fluid caused
Aviation.fm Page 89 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
explanatory
purposes
The experimental aircraft
were used to investigate high-speed
flight.
explanatory
\r\n
adjec-
tive
referring to something which
explains
explanatory paragraph
paragraph of text which explains some-
thing
self-explanatory
something
which does not need any further expla-
nation
explosion
"
release of energy in a sudden and often
violent way
an explosion caused by a
bomb
an act of bursting as a result of
internal pressure
tyre explosion due to
overheating
the loud sound made as
a result of an explosion
The passen-
gers heard an explosion.
explosive
\t
adjective
referring to something having the
nature of an explosion
an explosive
effect
having the effect of an explosion
a substance, especially a pre-
pared chemical, that explodes or causes
explosions, e.g. Semtex
expose

verb
to uncover
something or leave something uncov-
ered so that it is not protected from
something such as rain or sunlight
When the slope of a hill is exposed to
solar radiation, wind currents are set
up.
exposed to the sun
in sunlight
without covering
exposed surface
surface without paint or covering of any
sort
exposure
"
the
fact of being exposed, especially to
severe weather or other forces of nature
After 24 hours in the sea, she was suf-
fering from the effects of exposure and
was taken to hospital.
the fact of
being subjected to something
Expo-
sure to radio-active substances may
cause cancer.
express
\b
verb
to put into
words, symbols or signs
Bearings
may be expressed as true or relative.
An angle may be expressed in degrees,
minutes and seconds.
Pressure alti-
Aviation.fm Page 90 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
eye
thing
Extract the important informa-
tion from a text.
extrapolate
\n\b\t\n
verb
estimate by using known facts
Infor-
mation given on a synoptic chart can be
extrapolated, by the use of some simple
guidelines.
extreme
\n
adjective
most
distant in any direction, the outermost
or farthest
the most extreme point on
the map
to the greatest or highest
degree, very great
extreme care must
be taken
the greatest care must be taken
extreme difficulty
great difficulty
either of the two things, values,
Aviation.fm Page 91 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
symbol
Fahrenheit
farad
FAA
abbreviation US
Federal Aviation
Administration
fabric
 \t
noun
material or cloth
produced especially by knitting or
weaving
A breathing mask has a fab-
ric carrying bag.
fabricate
 \t\b\t\n
verb
to make
or manufacture
Selected wing panels
are fabricated entirely from magnesium
alloys.
The ease with which alumin-
ium can be fabricated into any form is
one of its most important qualities.
face
\b\t
the surface of an
object
the face of the earth
exhaust cone prevents the hot gases
from flowing across the rear face of the
turbine disc.
the north face of the
mountain
the vertical or near-vertical
side facing north
the front part with
dial, indicators, etc.
the face of an
instrument
the face of a clock
the
front part of the clock with numbers
the front of the head, including the eyes,
nose, mouth
full face smoke mask
protective mask for fighting fires which
covers the whole face
verb
to be
turned towards a particular direction
Hills and mountains which face the sun
receive more intense radiation.
the
building faces north
the building has
its front towards the north
\t\t\n\b\t\n
verb
to enable
something to happen more easily or
quickly
A ramp is used to facilitate
access to the wing.
Clearly marked
exits facilitate rapid evacuation of pas-
sengers.
\t\t\n
ability or
ease in moving, acting, or doing some-
thing
a facility in learning to fly
good natural ability for flying
installation or building which provides
specific operating assistance
(Distance Measuring Equipment)
ground facility
a mode of operation
which allows the user of equipment to
do something
The printer has a self-
test facility.
facilities
things, espe-
cially buildings or equipment, that peo-
ple can use
a clubhouse with good
facilities
a clubhouse with a number of
features which can be used by members
and guests, e.g. restaurant, bar, reading
room, swimming pool
medical facili-
ties
Aviation.fm Page 92 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
false
fade
\b\t
noun
a periodic reduc-
tion in the received strength of a radio
transmission
Surface wave at night
causes fade of the signal.
a periodic
reduction in braking power
Hard
braking can cause fade and tyre burst
through overheating.
verb
to lose
strength, brightness, loudness, or bril-
liance gradually
the lights faded
the
lights became less and less bright, the
lights dimmed
the radio signal faded
the radio signal became weaker and
weaker
Fahrenheit
 \r\t\n
noun
a scale
of temperatures where the freezing and
boiling points of water are 32° and 212°
respectively. Compare
Celsius
centi-
grade
NOTE
: Used in the USA but now
less common in the UK; usually written
as an
after the degree sign:
32° F
fail
\b\t
verb
to stop working prop-
erly
the brakes failed
the brakes did
not work
the wing failed during a
high-speed turn
the wing broke during
a high-speed turn
to receive an aca-
demic grade below the acceptable min-
imum in an examination or a course of
study
the trainee failed his naviga-
tion examination
the trainee did not
pass her navigation exam
without fail
certainly, definitely
Be here at 8
o’clock without fail.
 \b\t\b\t
the principle
of designing a structure so that the fail-
ure of one part does not affect the safety
of the whole
fail safe system
 \b\t\b\t  \t\n
noun
a system or device which has in-
built safeguards against total failure
The term fail safe means that the struc-
ture, though damaged, is capable of
supporting a reasonable percentage of
its design load.
failure
 \b\t
noun
a stoppage or
a breakdown
bearing failure
Engine
failure is sometimes accompanied by
power failure
loss of engine
power, or loss of electrical power sup-
ply
the fact of not achieving the
desired goal or result
the failure of an
experiment
failure to do something
not doing something
The steward’s
failure to remain at his station made the
emergency situation worse.
the fact
of not passing a course, a test, or an
examination
His failure in the GFT
(General Flying Test) meant that he
didn’t finish the course.
fair
adjective
free of clouds or
storms, clear and sunny
fair weather
good weather
just, reasonable, free of
favouritism or bias
a fair exam
exam which tested students on what
they had been taught, was of reasonable
difficulty and duration and which did
not trick the candidates
it is fair to
say that he should have done better
is reasonable to say that he should have
done better
verb
to join pieces so as to
be smooth, even, or regular
The air-
craft’s wing is faired into the fuselage.
fairing
 \b\t
noun
a device to
improve the flow of air over a surface
There is a dorsal fairing at the base of
the fin or vertical stabiliser.
Wheel
fairings, called spats, are fitted to light
aircraft to reduce drag.
nacelle
fairly
 \b
adverb
moderately,
rather, quite
fairly high levels
moder-
ately high levels
fairly simple
moder-
ately simple
fall

a drop or lessening in
amount
fall in pressure
a drop in
pressure
the amount of rain or snow
which comes down at any one time
overnight fall of snow
autumn
verb
to become less in amount
atmospheric pressure is falling
atmos-
pheric pressure is decreasing
to be
included within the range of something
Aircraft fall into a number of type cat-
egories.
Design methods fall into four
groups.
Long-range high-frequency
communications fall in the frequency
bracket 2–25 MHz.
to drop or come
down freely because of gravity
Light
rain may fall occasionally.
to occur at
a particular time
New Year’s Day falls
on a Thursday this year.
NOTE
falling
– fell – fallen
false

adjective
not true, incor-
rect
Lightning may cause false read-
ings from sensitive instruments.
false
glide path information
incorrect glide
path information
Aviation.fm Page 93 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
familiar
\t
adjective
often
seen, common
Clouds are the most
familiar visible meteorological feature.
known
Symbols and abbreviations
which are strange at present become
familiar after a time.
to be familiar
with
to have some knowledge of some-
thing
He is familiar with the proce-
dure.
familiarise
\t\t
, familiar-
ize
verb
to familiarise yourself with
to get to know something well
fan
a circular device with
rotating blades, powered by an engine
or motor, for moving a gas such as air
The compressor has large rotating fan
blades and stator blades.
Aviation.fm Page 94 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
fine
\b\t\f
noun
a regulation governing
aviation in the United States. Abbrevia-
tion
FAR
feed

a supply of fuel,
Aviation.fm Page 95 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
FIR
propeller
Fine pitch enables full
engine speed to be used on take-off and
coarse pitch allows an economical
engine speed to be used for cruising.
abbreviation
flight information
region
\t
noun
an area of burning
guard against the risk of fire, passen-
gers are requested not to smoke in the
Aviation.fm Page 96 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
flight attendant
flammable
 
adjective
easily ignited and capable of burning
fiercely and rapidly, and therefore haz-
ardous
Aviation gasoline is a flamma-
ble liquid.
NOTE
Flammable
inflammable
mean the same thing.)
flange
\r"
noun
the outside edge
or rim of a part such as a beam or wheel
The web connects the upper and lower
flanges of a beam.
flap

noun
a movable control sur-
face on the trailing edge of an aircraft
wing, used primarily to increase lift and
drag during final approach and landing
Flaps should be retracted immedi-
ately after landing to decrease lift and
therefore increase brake effectiveness.
cowl
COMMENT
: Flaps are not usually used
for take-offs in light aircraft except
when a short take-off run is required.
Flaps are not primary control surfaces
of an aircraft.
flare
\b
a stage of the flight
immediately before touchdown when
the nose of the aircraft is raised into the
landing attitude
The approach, flare
and landing can be carried out by auto-
matic systems.
Aviation.fm Page 97 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
flight bag
respond within a few minutes.
Also
called
cabin attendant
 \t\n$
noun
used by flight crew to carry manuals,
Aviation.fm Page 98 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
fog
Aviation.fm Page 99 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
föhn
When visibility is less than 1,000 m
owing to suspended water droplets in
the atmosphere, the condition is known
as fog.
evaporation fog
steam fog
Evaporation fog is usually confined to
water surfaces and adjacent areas of
land.
a warm dry wind that
blows down the lee side of a mountain,
particularly in the Alps
NOTE
: The
word is also written
foehn
foil
\t
same as
aerofoil
foot
a unit of length in the
US and British Imperial Systems equal
to 12 inches or 30.48 centimetres. Sym-
bol
NOTE
: The plural form is
Aviation.fm Page 100 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
front
classroom and accommodation build-
ing form the main part of the college.
formation
\b\t\f
the
process of coming into being or form-
ing
cloud formation
the natural pro-
duction and development of clouds
ice formation
the natural production
and development of ice
to fly in
formation
to fly in a group which
maintains a particular pattern or
arrangement in the air
former
 
adjective
having been
in the past
a former military pilot
pilot who used to be a military pilot
noun
the first of two things men-
tioned
a light secondary structure of
the airframe which gives improved
shape
‘…much has changed in the former
Eastern European States, especially in
terms of aviation operations and training’
Civil Aviation Training
formula
 
a mathe-
matical rule expressed in symbols
The
formula for calculating speed is D ÷ T
= S (where D = distance, T = time and
S = speed).
NOTE
: The plural form is
formulas
or
formulae
forward
 !
adjective
at, near,
or belonging to the front
the forward
section of the aircraft
forward and aft
exits
forwards
 !
adverb
towards
a position in front
The throttles are
moved forwards for take-off.
NOTE
: The
US English is
forward
 \t
contamination
of the spark plugs with oil or petrol so
that they do not fire correctly
The
engine should be run at a positive idling
speed to prevent spark plug fouling.
four-digit group
 \t"\t\n
$
four single numbers found
together
four-stroke combustion engine
\n
\n\f
\r \b\r"\t\r
noun
an engine which operates in
accordance with the four-stroke cycle
Induction, compression, power and
exhaust are the four phases of the four-
stroke combustion engine.
fpm
abbreviation
Aviation.fm Page 101 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
frontal
Aviation.fm Page 102 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
"
symbol
the acceleration due to
Earth’s gravity
abbreviation
gram
"
abbreviation
giga-
abbreviation
general aviation
$\b\t\r
an increase
There is a gain of heat by the Earth due
to solar radiation.
a gain in altitude
an increase in altitude
an increase in
signal power, voltage, or current
The
amplifier boosts the gain of the incom-
ing signal.
a benefit or advantage
verb
to increase
He failed the test
because the aircraft gained 100 ft in the
360° level turn.
She
gained a pass in her meteorology exam.
$\b\t
a very strong wind
usually blowing from a single direction
Gales are forecast for the area.
gallon
$\r
imperial
gallon
unit of volume in the British
Imperial System, used in liquid meas-
ure and sometimes in dry measure,
equal to 4.546 litres
The system deliv-
ers fuel at the rate of 100 to 2,000 gal-
lons per hour.
Abbreviation
gal 2.
a unit
of volume in the US Customary Sys-
tem, used in liquid measure, equal to
3.785 litres
abbreviation
General Aviation
Manufacturers Association
gamma rays
$\b\t
plural
noun
electromagnetic radiation given
off by some radioactive substances
Gamma rays are given off when radio-
active material breaks down.
a space between
objects or points
the difference
Micro switches have a very small gap
Aviation.fm Page 103 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
GCA
Aviation.fm Page 104 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
governor
transmission of meteorological data,
polar and geostationary.
geostrophic wind
"\n \t
!\t\r
a wind which blows hori-
zontally along the isobars, across the
surface of the earth
GFT
abbreviation
general flying test
abbreviation
gigahertz
giga-
$\t$
prefix
one thousand mil-
lion. Symbol
gigahertz
$\t$%\n
a fre-
quency of 10
Hertz. Abbreviation
$\t
adjective
particu-
lar, specified, fixed
At high altitudes,
less fuel is consumed for a given air-
speed than for the same airspeed at a
lower altitude.
given (that)
taking
into account, considering
Given the
condition of the engine, it is surprising
that it starts.
glare
$\b
a strong blinding
light
Glare can be caused by diffuse
reflection of sunlight from the top of a
layer of fog.
glass fibre reinforced plastic
noun
a composite material made of
plastic which is strengthened by glass
fibres, used in the manufacture of air-
frames and other aircraft components.
Abbreviation
GRP
glide
$\t
verb
to fly without power
In the event of an engine failure, it is
important to have enough altitude to be
able to glide clear of houses, people,
Aviation.fm Page 105 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
gph
ing of the engine is prevented by a gov-
ernor in the fuel system.
valve
"\b\t\n\f
abbreviation
gal-
lons per hour
GPS
abbreviation
global positioning
system
GPWS
abbreviation
ground proximity
warning system
abbreviation
hail
grade
$\b\t
noun
a position in a
scale of size or quality
Kevlar 49 is the
grade used in aircraft composites.
mark indicating a student’s level of
accomplishment
Students who scored
below a particular grade in the exami-
nations were not allowed to continue
the course.
gradient
$\b\t\r\n
noun
the rate at
which a quantity such as temperature or
pressure changes relative to change in a
given variable, especially distance
Because there is a temperature gradient
across each front it is possible to draw
isotherms which reduce in value from
warm to cold air.
A pressure gradient
occurs aloft from land to sea.
gradual
$"
adjective
hap-
pening slowly but continuously
Loss
of cabin pressure may be gradual rather
than sudden.
gradual change
change which takes place over a period
of time
graduate
$"
\b\t\n
verb
to be
granted an academic degree or diploma
She graduated from Oxford Univer-
sity with a first class honours degree.
to advance to a new level of skill,
achievement, or activity
After 50
hours of flying the single engine trainer,
the student pilots graduate to flying the
twin engine aircraft.
to divide into
marked intervals, especially for use in
measurement
A thermometer has a
scale graduated in degrees Celsius.
gram
a unit of measure-
ment of weight, equal to one thousandth
of a kilogram. Symbol
graph
$#
a diagram that
Aviation.fm Page 106 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
guard
expressed in 24-hour format; for
example, 7:00 P.M. is 1900 hours
Aviation.fm Page 107 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
guidance
something does not happen
To guard
against the risk of fire, passengers are
Aviation.fm Page 108 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
\b\t
noun
precipitation as small
pellets of ice
Precipitation is the fall-
ing of water, as rain, sleet, snow or hail
onto the surface of the earth.
Although hail, and in particular, heavy
hail is rare and of short duration, dam-
age to an aircraft may be severe.
COMMENT
: In weather reports and
forecasts, hail is indicated by the
abbreviation ‘GR’.
hailstone
\b\t\n\r
noun
a small
pellet of ice which falls from clouds
hailstone starts as a small ice particle
in the upper portion of a cumulonimbus
cloud.
hailstorm
\b\t\n
a storm,
where the precipitation is hail instead of
rain or snow
Flying through the hail-
storm damaged the leading edges.
hand flying
\r \t\t
noun
fly-
ing an aircraft by moving the flight con-
trols with the hands rather than by using
the autopilot
hand-held
\r\b
adjective
possible to hold in the hand
Nowa-
Aviation.fm Page 109 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
hazardous
hazardous

adjective
pos-
sibly risky or dangerous
Flying over
mountainous terrain can be hazardous.
Structural icing is a hazardous phe-
nomenon for rotary wing as well as
fixed wing aircraft.
haze
\b\t
dust or smoke in the
atmosphere
Haze can seriously
reduce air-to-ground visibility.
the top part of the
body above the shoulders
a person
head count
an easy way of counting
large numbers of people
a main end
part or top of something
a leader,
chief or director
head of department
the most senior person in the depart-
ment
verb
to fly in a particular direc-
tion
head north
to fly towards the
north
\b\t
the direction
in which the longitudinal axis of the air-
craft is pointing, expressed in degrees
from north
COMMENT
: Wind affects an aircraft in
flight, therefore heading does not
always coincide with the aircraft’s
track. The pilot must head the aircraft
slightly into the wind to correct for drift.
\b\t$
noun
movable plastic marker on the horizon-
tal situation indicator
heading correction
\b\t
\b\f
a change of heading in
order to deal with a new situation. Also
called
course correction
heading indicator
\b\t
\t\r\t\b\t\n
an instrument which
gives course or direction information
e.g. a horizontal situation indicator
(HSI) or direction indicator (DI)
COMMENT
: The heading indicator is
driven by a gyro and provides steady,
exact indications of heading.
heading to steer
\b\t\n\n\t
a gyro-compass point in which to
direct the aircraft
head-on
\b\r
adjective
adverb
to approach head-on
to approach
from opposite directions
\b\r
\t"
noun
a collision between two
things or vehicles coming from oppo-
site directions
headphones
\b \r
small speakers with padding, worn over
a person’s ears, used for private listen-
ing
Headphones are used to monitor
the signal.
Aviation.fm Page 110 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
hill
hard wear or use
a heavy-duty battery
Longerons are heavy-duty steel mem-
bers.
\b\r\t
a routine landing in which the aircraft
makes contact with the surface with
more force than usual, thereby possibly
causing damage to the undercarriage
The pilot reported a heavy landing.
hedgehop
\b"
verb
to fly at
very low height above the ground
height
\t\n
the vertical dis-
tance of a point, level or object meas-
ured from a particular point, e.g. sea
level
Pressure decreases with increas-
ing height.
height of the aircraft
the
vertical distance, measured in feet, of
the aircraft above the surface of the
earth
\b
hold
\b
noun
a rotary-wing aircraft
heliborne
\b\r
adjective
trans-
ported by helicopter
helicopter
\b\t\n
noun
an air-
craft with one or more rotors rotating
around vertical axes which provide lift
and control
Helicopter operations are
carried out at the airport.
helicopter rotor
\b\t\n \n
noun
two or more rotating blades,
known as the main rotor, which provide
lift and thrust for a helicopter;
helideck
\b\b
a deck on
something such as a ship or offshore oil
platform that is used as a landing area
for helicopters
heliograph
\t
$#
instrument with a mirror to send mes-
sages by reflecting the sun
Helio-
graphs enable reflected sunlight to be
directed to a ship or aircraft in periods
of direct sunlight.
helipad
\b
an area
where helicopters take off and land
heliport
\b\n
noun
an airport
designed for helicopters
helistop
\b\n
noun
a place
where helicopters can take off and land,
but usually one that does not have the
support facilities found at a heliport

a rotary-winged
aircraft
same as
heliport
hemisphere
\b\t \t
noun
half a
sphere
Hertz
%\n
the SI unit of fre-
quency, defined as the number of cycles
per second of time. Abbreviation
abbreviation
high frequency
adjective
having great
vertical distance
a high mountain
great, large, a lot
high engine rpm
fast engine speed
high pressure
a lot
of pressure
high reliability
good reli-
ability
high speed
a fast speed
high
temperature
a hot temperature
an area of high atmospheric pressure
There is a high over the British Isles.
high frequency
\t !\r
high frequency band
\t
 !\r \r
a radio com-
munications range of frequencies
between 3–30 MHz. Abbreviation
high-performance
\t
 \r
adjective
a system which
provides better-than-usual output
engine with a high performance
Some
high-performance engines have coolant
and oil system thermostats which aid
warming-up.
high performance aircraft
\t
\r\b# \n
an aircraft
capable of flying faster, higher or with
more manoeuvrability than normal air-
craft
hijack
\t"
verb
to take over
control of an aircraft by one or several
unauthorised person or persons with the
intention of forcing the crew to fly it to
a different destination
The airliner
was hijacked on its way to Paris.
hijacker
\t"
noun
a person
who hijacks an aircraft or other vehicle
hijacking
\t"\t
the act
of taking over control of an aircraft by
one or several unauthorised person or
persons with the intention of forcing the
crew to fly it to a different destination
The crew must be alert at all times to the
possibility of hijacking, bombs and
stowaways.
\t
an easily-seen, natural
elevation, smaller than a mountain
Slopes on the side of a hill or mountain
facing away from the sun receive less
intense radiation.
Hill shading is pro-
Aviation.fm Page 111 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
hinder
duced by assuming that bright light is
shining across the chart sheet so that
shadows are cast by the high ground.
\t\r
verb
to make it diffi-
cult for something to happen
Free
flow of fuel may be hindered by a block-
age in the fuel line.
Her illness hin-
dered his progress on the course.
hinge
\t\r"
a device which
allows a door, flap or lid to open and
close on a stationary frame
Flying
control hinges should be inspected
before flight.
verb
to move against a
stationary frame
Access to the engine
compartment is normally via hinged
cowling panels.
HIRF
abbreviation
high-intensity radi-
ated fields
HMR
abbreviation
helicopter main
route

, hoar frost
a frozen
dew which forms on outside surfaces
when the temperature falls below freez-
ing point
Rapid descent from cold
altitudes into warm moist air may pro-
duce hoar frost on the aircraft.

an area or compart-
ment within the aircraft for carrying
freight
Carry-on baggage is limited
by regulations as to size and weight and
items in excess of this should be stowed
in the luggage hold.
verb
to keep
and prevent from moving
The func-
tion of the autopilot system is to hold
the aircraft on a desired flight path by
means of gyroscopes and/or accelerom-
Aviation.fm Page 112 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
hub
homogeneous

"\r
adjective
of the same kind
If the air
over a large region were homogeneous,
there would be no horizontal differ-
ences in surface temperature.
The
atmosphere is not homogeneous – pres-
sure, temperature and humidity can all
change with height.
hop
a flight or section of a
flight in an aircraft
informal
horizon
\t
noun
the line
where the sky and the ground appear to
join
visual horizon
a horizon which
can be seen
horizontal
\t
\r\n
adjective
parallel to the horizon, or at right angles
to the vertical
The horizontal motion
of air is known as wind.
horizontal axis
\t\r\n
\t
noun
a horizontal reference line
of a graph
The plot shows the effect of
airspeed on lift with airspeed shown on
the horizontal axis and lift on the verti-
cal axis.
horizontal situation indicator
\t\r\n
 \t\n\f
\b\t\f
\t\r\t\b\t\n
a cockpit instrument
which gives the pilot information about
the direction of the aircraft’s flight path
On the aircraft, the horizontal situa-
tion indicator is located on the instru-
ment panel below the attitude indicator.
Abbreviation
HSI
COMMENT
: The horizontal situation
indicator combines the function of the
heading indicator and a VOR/ILS
display.
horizontal stabiliser
\t\r\n
\n\b\t\t
tailplane
The horizontal stabiliser
provides stability about the lateral axis
of the aircraft.
horn
\r
a device for project-
ing sound
warning horn
device
which emits a loud warning noise
horn balance
\r 
noun
part of a control surface forward
of the hinge line which reduces the
force needed by the pilot to move the
surface
horsepower

noun
the
accepted unit for measuring the rate of
doing work
Horsepower is defined as
33,000 foot-pounds of work done in one
minute.
Abbreviation
h.p.

noun
a long, flexible pipe
usually made of fabric, plastic or rubber
for pumping gases or liquids
refuel-
ling hose
a flexible pipe used to pump
fuel from the bowser to the aircraft
\n
adjective
very warm, having
a high temperature
hot weather
air
air introduced to melt ice forming in
Aviation.fm Page 113 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
hub airport
hub airport
 \b\n
same as
HUD
abbreviation
head-up display
human factors
\r \n
the study of the way in which
humans handle, and react to, things in
their environment. It is used in aviation
to develop safer systems and proce-
dures.
NOTE
: Human factors is followed
by a verb in the singular.)
\t
adjective
contain-
ing a lot of water vapour
humid
weather
weather which, although
warm, feels damp and uncomfortable

\t\t\n
a meas-
urement of how much water vapour is
contained in the air
the humidity is
high
there is a lot of moisture or water
vapour in the air
hydraulic
\t
\t
adjective
referring to any system or device which
uses fluids such as oil to transmit a
force from one place to another using
pipes
a hydraulic pump
hydraulic fluid
\t \t
thin oil used in hydraulic braking
Aviation.fm Page 114 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
IAS
\t\b\t\b
abbreviation
indicated
airspeed
IATA
abbreviation
International Air
Transport Association
I-beam
\t
a large bar of metal
or some other strong substance with a
cross-section shaped like the letter ‘I’
ICAO
\b\t
abbreviation
Interna-
tional Civil Aviation Organization
noun
frozen water
ice crystal
\t \t\n
type of precipitation composed of crys-
tals in the form of needles, plates or col-
umns
\t\t
noun
a process by which
part of the aircraft becomes covered in
ice while in flight
Engine icing can be
extremely hazardous to flight.
Air-
frame icing can be encountered in wave
cloud.
anti-icing
de-icing
\t
adjective
perfect, as
good as can be expected or the best pos-
sible
an ideal situation
a very good
situation
ideal flying conditions
very
good flying conditions
ident
\t\b\r\n
noun
a function on the
transponder panel which helps a con-
troller to identify the aircraft
The ident
is suppressed until the standby VOR is
fully run-up and has passed its monitor
checks.
Full form
identity
identical
\b\r\n\t
adjective
exactly the same
identical computers
computers which are exactly the same
identification
\b\r\n\t \t
\b\t\f
noun
the process by which a person, air-
Aviation.fm Page 115 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
idle rpm
light aircraft which allows the engine to
be shut down without leaving a com-
bustible fuel/air mixture in the engine
idle rpm
\t
 #\b
the speed at which a piston engine turns
when it is not running fast enough to
move the vehicle or aircraft, i.e. on a
light aircraft when the throttle is almost
closed
\t
\t
a state in
which the engine is turning over slowly
without providing enough power to
move the vehicle or aircraft
\t
\t
the rpm of the engine when it is idling
After start-up, the engine accelerates
up to idling speed.
Before the engine
is stopped, it should normally be
allowed to run for a short period at
idling speed to ensure gradual cooling.
abbreviation
instrument flying
intermediate frequency
abbreviation
instrument flight
rules
\r\t\n
verb
to burn or cause
to burn
The spark plug ignites the
fuel/air mixture.
The air/fuel mixture
ignites.
\r\t\n
noun
a device for
starting gas turbine engines
An elec-
tric spark from the igniter plug starts
combustion.
\r\t\f
the start-
ing of burning of a substance
Satisfac-
tory ignition depends on the quality of
the fuel.
the moment, in an internal
combustion engine, when a spark from
the spark plug causes the fuel/air mix-
ture to burn
Ignition should occur just
before top-dead-centre.
an electrical
system, usually powered by a battery or
Aviation.fm Page 116 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
inactive
imaginary
"\t\r
adjective
not real
The equator is an imaginary
line around the earth.
IMC
abbreviation
instrument meteoro-
logical conditions
immediate
\n
adjective
happening at once or instantly
Fire
extinguishers should be ready for imme-
diate use in the event of an emergency.
in the immediate future
in the very
near future
nearby, close at hand
The immediate area surrounding the
Earth is known as the atmosphere.
immerse
%
verb
to cover com-
Aviation.fm Page 117 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
inadvertent
time of the accident the autopilot was
inactive.
inadvertent
\t\r
%\n
adjec-
tive
not intended, not meant, accidental
A safety mechanism prevents inad-
vertent retraction of the undercarriage
while the aircraft is on the ground.
inboard
\t\r
adverb
closer to the
centre of an aircraft rather than the sides
or edges
\t\r\r
adverb
adjective
towards a destination
The aircraft flies
outbound from the beacon along the
airway and inbound to the facility at the
other end of the leg.
inbound traffic
aircraft flying towards an airfield
incapacity
\t\r
\t\n
noun
the
inability to do what is needed, not hav-
ing the necessary power to do some-
thing
crew incapacity
an injury to a
crew member which prevents him or
her from performing his or her normal
duties
Accident research has shown
that crew incapacity greatly increases
the risk to passengers’ safety.
inch
\t\r\f
noun
a British Imperial Sys-
tem unit of length, also used in the US,
Aviation.fm Page 118 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
inductance
verb

to become greater or
more, to rise
As you increase height,
the countryside below you appears to
flatten out.
Opposite
reduce
opposite
(all senses)
decrease
increment
\t\t\r\n
some-
thing added
The minimum detection
range of a pulse radar system is equal
to half the pulse length plus a small
increment.
incur
%
verb
to acquire or to
receive something, often something
unwanted
Fuel penalties can be
incurred if fuel surplus to requirements
is carried.
In some aircraft, the datum
shift is operated automatically to cater
for any large trim changes incurred by
operating undercarriage, flaps, etc.
NOTE
incurring – incurred
incur a financial loss
to lose money, in
a business or commercial sense
indefinite
\b
\r\n
adjective
without limits
an indefinite period of
time
a period of time which, in reality,
may have no end
independent
\t\r\t
\b\r\r\n
adjec-
tive
free from the influence or effects of
other people or things
Airspeed is
independent of wind and is the same
regardless whether the aircraft is flying
upwind, downwind or at any angle to
the wind.
independent system
a sys-
tem which can operate by itself
index
\t\r\b
Aviation.fm Page 119 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
induction
\f\r
the
process by which the fuel/air mixture is
drawn into the cylinders of an internal
combustion engine
The four strokes of
the engine are induction, compression,
combustion and exhaust.
the produc-
tion of electrical current in a conductor
by a change of magnetic field
A trans-
former is a static device that changes
the amplitude or phase of an alternat-
ing voltage or current by electro-mag-
netic induction.
\n\t
adjective
refer-
ring to the production of electrical cur-
rent in a conductor by a change of mag-
netic field
One side effect of low
frequency in an inductive circuit is that
excess heat may be produced.
\n
a compo-
nent in the ignition system that pro-
duces electrical current in itself by a
change of magnetic field
inert
\r%\n
adjective
not reacting
with other substance
inert gas
\r%\n$
a gas that
does not react with other substances
Inert gases, dust, smoke, salt, volcanic
ash, oxygen and nitrogen together con-
stitute 99% of the atmosphere.
NOTE
The inert gases include helium, neon,
argon, krypton and xenon.)
inertia
\r%\f
noun
the tendency of
a body at rest to stay at rest or of a mov-
ing body to continue moving in a
straight line unless acted on by an out-
side force
Inertia switches operate
automatically when a particular g
(acceleration due to Earth’s gravity)
loading occurs.
inertial
\r%\f
adjective
referring
to inertia
inertial navigation system
\r%\f
 \r\t
$\b\t\f
\r \t\n
a navigation system which calcu-
lates aircraft position by comparing
measurements of acceleration with
stored data, using gyros rather than
radios. Abbreviation
INS
inferential
\t\r 
\b\r\f
adjective
obtained by deduction
The inferential
method of ice detection is used in flight
trials for aircraft certification.
inflammable
 
adjec-
tive
easily set on fire
Petrol is an
inflammable liquid.
NOTE
Flammable
and
inflammable
mean the same
thing.)
highly inflammable
very eas-
ily set on fire, and therefore hazardous
inflate
 \b\t\n
verb
to blow air into
something and thereby increase its size
A sharp pull on the cord will dis-
charge the gas bottle and inflate the life
Aviation.fm Page 120 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
input
ingest
"\b\n
verb
to take in, or to
absorb into, something such as a jet
engine through the intake
Jet engines
may be damaged by ingested chunks of
ice.
ingestion
"\b\n\f\r
noun
the act
of taking something into something
such as a jet engine through the intake
Ingestion of birds may seriously dam-
age the blades of turbo-fan engines.
inherent
\t\r\n
adjective
exist-
ing as a basic or fundamental character-
istic
A boiling point of 100°C is an
inherent characteristic of water.
the unit for measuring
absolute pressure. Full form
inch(es)
of mercury
inhibit
\t\t\n
verb
to prevent or to
limit the effect of something
Cloud
cover inhibits cooling of the Earth’s
surface at night.
inhibition
\t\r\t
\t\f
the
prevention or limitation of the effect of
something
Fuel contains chemicals
for the inhibition of fungal growth.
inhibitor
\t\t\n
a device or
substance which prevents or limits the
Aviation.fm Page 121 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
INS
rent.
If the number of turns on the sec-
ondary winding is greater than the
number of turns on the primary, the out-
put voltage from the secondary will be
greater than the input voltage to the pri-
mary.
pilot control input
movements
on the flying controls made by the pilot
INS
abbreviation
inertial navigation
system
insert
%\n
verb
to put in or into
To prevent tyre explosion due to over-
heating, fusible plugs are inserted into
the wheel assemblies.
Insert your tel-
ephone number in the space provided
on the form.
Insert the key in the lock
and turn it.
insertion
%\f
the act
of putting in or into
There is a space
on the form for the insertion of a postal
address.
When the contours for a par-
ticular pressure level have been drawn
in, the chart is completed by insertion of
spot temperatures and wind speed
information.
insignificant
\t\r\t$
\r\t \t\r\n
adjective
not important, of no conse-
quence
Minor changes in wind speed
or direction are insignificant.
\b\n
verb
to look at
something closely and to check for
problems or defects
Propellers should
be inspected prior to flight.
inspection
\b\f
noun
careful check for problems
Before
flight, the pilot should carry out a care-
ful inspection of the aircraft.
\t\r\n
\t\t\n
a con-
dition in which a body or mass moves
easily, and with increasing speed, away
from its original position
Atmospheric
instability often results in strong verti-
cal currents of air.
The built-in insta-
bility of some modern fighter aircraft
makes them highly manoeuvrable but
difficult to control without fly-by-wire
technology.
install
\n
verb
to put in posi-
tion, connect and make ready for use
Aviation.fm Page 122 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
intake
on an instrument called the airspeed
indicator.
instrument approach procedure
\t\r\n\r\n
\n\f
"
noun
a set of procedures which a pilot
must follow when approaching an air-
port under
instrument flight rules
instrumentation
\t\r\n\b\r
\n\b\t\f
from what can be seen outside the air-
craft
instrument landing system
\t\r\n\r\n\r\t \t\n
aids for an instrument landing approach
to an airfield, consisting of a localiser,
glide slope, marker beacons and
approach lights
The instrument land-
ing system provides both horizontal and
vertical guidance to aircraft approach-
ing a runway.
Abbreviation
ILS
COMMENT
: The ILS is the most used
precision approach system in the
world.
Aviation.fm Page 123 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
intake guide vane
intake guide vane
\t\r\n\b\t$\t
\b\t\r
a device to direct the flow
of air at the air-intake
intake lip
\t\r\n\b\t\t
noun
the rim or
edge of the air intake of a jet engine
sonic speed is approached, the effi-
ciency of the intake begins to fall
because of shock waves at the intake lip.
intake temperature gauge
\t\r\n\b\t\n\b\t\n\f $\b\t"
instrument to indicate the temperature
of air entering an engine
integral
\t\r\n\t$
adjective
which
completes the whole or which belongs
to a whole
Meteorology is an integral
part of a flying training course.
inte-
gral fuel tanks
tanks which are located
within the structure of the aircraft
integrity
\n\b$\t\n
noun
the state of
being complete and in good working
condition
The engine fire warning
system is checked to test its integrity.
The integrity of an aid used to conduct
procedural approaches must be high.
\n\b\r
verb
to have a partic-
ular plan, aim or purpose
A battery is
intended to supply only limited amounts
of power.
intended track
desired
course of flight
\n\b\r
adjective
extreme
in amount
intense heat
very high heat
intense wind
very strong wind
intense concentration
very hard or
deep concentration
\n\b\r\t\n
the
amount or strength of heat, light, radia-
tion
Surface air temperatures depend
mostly on the intensity and duration of
solar radiation.
\n\b\r\f\r
noun
the course
of action one means or plans to follow
It is not the intention of this chapter to
Aviation.fm Page 124 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
interrupt
of the approach from arriving at the first
navigational fix to the beginning of the
final approach
intermediate frequency
\t\r\n\n !\r
the
frequency in a radio receiver to which
the incoming received signal is trans-
formed. Abbreviation
intermittent
\t\r\n
\t\n
adjec-
tive
stopping and starting at intervals
The cycle of induction, compression,
combustion and exhaust in the piston
engine is intermittent, whereas in the
gas turbine, each process is continuous.
internal
\n%\r
adjective
refer-
ring to the inside or interior of some-
thing
internal damage
Opposite
external
internal combustion engine
\n%\r

\n\f\r \b\r"\t\r
type of engine in which the fuel is burnt
within the cylinders of the engine, as
opposed to the steam engine
international
\t\r\n
\r\f
adjective
between countries
interna-
tional call
a telephone call between
people in two different countries
International Air Transport
Association
\t\r\n\r\f
\r\b
\n\r\n
\b\t\f
international organisation that super-
vises and coordinates air transport and
to which most major airlines belong.
Abbreviation
IATA
International Calling Frequency
\t\r\n\r\f
\r\t !\r
International Distress Frequency
\t\r\n\r\f
\r\t
\n\b !\r
noun
2182 kHz or 500 kHz
International Civil Aviation
Organization
\t\r\n\r\f
\r \t\t
\b\t
\b\f
\r $\r\t\b\t\f
an organisation established in 1947 by
governments that ‘agreed on particular
principles and arrangements in order
that international civil aviation may be
developed in a safe and orderly man-
ner…’
Air navigation obstructions in
the United Kingdom are shown on
ICAO aeronautical charts.
Abbrevia-
tion
ICAO
COMMENT
: ICAO is based in Montreal
(Canada).
international standard atmos-
phere
\t\r\n\r\f
\r \n\r
\n \t
an internationally
agreed unit of pressure used in the cali-
bration of instruments and the measure-
ment of aircraft performance
For en
route weather the datum chosen is
international standard atmosphere at
mean sea level.
Abbreviation
ISA
interphone
\t\r\n \r
an internal
telephone communications system
within an aircraft that enables members
of the crew to speak to one another
interpolation
\n%
\b\t\f
the estimation of a middle value
by reference to known values each side
Spot temperatures at positions other
than those printed are obtained by
interpolation.
Aviation.fm Page 125 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
interruption
interrupted by variations which occur
in pressure patterns.
interruption
\t\r\n
\f\r
break in the continuity of something
Because of the summer holiday, there
was an interruption in the flying train-
ing course.
intersect
\t\r\n
\b\n
verb
to cut
across each other
Meridians intersect
at the poles and cross the equator at
right angles.
intersection
\t\r\n
\b\f\r
the
point at which two lines cross each
other
The aircraft came to a stop at
the intersection between runways 09
and 16.
The intersection of the drift
line and the wind vector gives the drift
point.
intertropical convergence zone
\t\r\n\n\t
\r
%"\r \r
cylinders.
introduction
\t\r\n
\f
something written which comes at
the beginning of a report, chapter, etc.,
or something spoken which comes at
the beginning of a talk
In his introduc-
tion, the chief executive praised the
efforts of the workforce over the previ-
ous 12 months.
the act of bringing
into use
The introduction of fly-by-
wire technology has made the pilot’s
task easier.
inverse
%
adjective
reversed in
order or effect
There is an inverse
relationship between altitude and tem-
perature, i.e. temperature decreases as
altitude increases.
inversion
%\f
noun
atmospheric phenomenon where cold
air is nearer the ground than warm air
Smog is smoke or pollution trapped on
the surface by an inversion of tempera-
ture with little or no wind.
turning
something upside down
Inversion of
the aircraft in flight may result in fuel
stoppage.
inversion layer
%\f
\r \b\t
noun
a layer of the atmosphere in which
the temperature increases as altitude
increases
invert
%\n
verb
to turn upside
down
A glass tube is sealed at one
end, filled with mercury and then
inverted so that the open end is
immersed in a bowl containing mer-
cury.
investigate
\b\n\t$\b\t\n
verb
examine or look into something in great
detail
If the starter engaged light stays
on after starting, it means that power is
still connected to the starter and, if it is
still on after 30 seconds, the cause must
be investigated.
investigation
\b\n\t
$\b\t\f
noun
a detailed inquiry or close exami-
nation of a matter
accident investiga-
tion
process of discovering the cause of
accidents
‘…accident investigation by the FAA and
the German LBA revealed that the
crashed aircraft had been completely
repainted in an unauthorized paint shop’
Pilot
investigator
\b\n\t$\b\t\n
person who investigates
Accident
investigators found poor coordination
Aviation.fm Page 126 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
item
replacing a lost passport is very
involved.
inward
\t\r!
adjective
directed to
or moving towards the inside or interior
To provide protection against smoke
and other harmful gases, a flow of
100% oxygen is supplied at a positive
pressure to avoid any inward leakage of
poisonous gases at the mask.
inwards
\t\r!
adverb
towards
the inside or the interior
The door
opens inwards.
Opposite
outwards
\t\r
an atom or a group of
atoms that has obtained an electric
charge by gaining or losing one or more
electrons
negative ion
positive ion
Ultra-violet light from the sun can
cause electrons to become separated
from their parent atoms of the gases in
the atmosphere, the atoms left with
resultant positive charges being known
as ions.
ionisation
\t\r\t
\b\t\f
, ioni-
zation
noun
the process of producing
ions by heat or radiation
The intensity
of ionisation depends on the strength of
the ultra-violet radiation and the den-
sity of the air.
ionosphere
\r \t
the
part of the atmosphere 50 km above the
surface of the earth
Since the strength
of the sun’s radiation varies with lati-
tude, the structure of the ionosphere
varies over the surface of the earth.
ionospheric
\r
 \b\t
adjec-
tive
referring to the ionosphere
ionospheric attenuation
\r \b\t
\n\b\r
\b\f
loss
of signal strength to the ionosphere
ionospheric refraction
\r \b\t\t
 \f\r
a change
in direction as the wave passes through
an ionised layer
abbreviation
instrument rating
irregular
\b$
adjective
not
regular
Pilots of long-haul flights are
subject to an irregular sleep pattern.
irrespective
\t\t
\b\n\t
, irrespec-
tive of
preposition
taking no account of,
regardless of
Rescue flights continue
their work irrespective of the weather
conditions.
\t
abbreviation
international
standard atmosphere
\t#
a line on a
weather chart joining points of equal
atmospheric pressure
Isobars are
analogous to contour lines.
isobaric
\t
\t
adjective
refer-
ring to or showing isobars
isobaric
charts
\t\b\t\n
verb
to separate
Aviation.fm Page 127 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
symbol
joule
JAA
abbreviation
Joint Aviation
Authorities
jack
"
a powered device to
move heavy components, such as con-
trol surfaces of large aircraft
Aviation.fm Page 128 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
junction box
Aviation.fm Page 129 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
symbol
kelvin
katabatic
\n
\n\t
adjective
referring to a cold flow of air travelling
down hillsides or mountainsides
Due
to katabatic effects, cold air flows
downwards and accumulates over low
ground.
Compare
anabatic
katabatic wind
\n
\n\t!\t\r
a wind which occurs when the air
in contact with the slope of a hill is
cooled to a temperature lower than that
in the free atmosphere, causing it to
sink. Compare
anabatic wind
\b\t\r
the base SI unit
of measurement of thermodynamic
temperature. Symbol
NOTE
: Temper-
atures are shown in kelvin without a
degree sign:
. Note also that 0°C is
equal to 273.15K.)
kerosene
\b\r
, kerosine
a thin fuel oil made from petroleum
Kerosene will only burn efficiently at, or
close to, a ratio of 15:1.
Kevlar
\b
a trademark for a
light and very strong composite mate-
rial
Kevlar and carbon fibre account
for a large percentage of a modern jet
airliner’s structure.
key

a piece of metal used to
open a lock
symbol
kilogram
kHz
symbol
kilohertz
kick-back
\t
the ten-
dency of the engine to suddenly reverse
the rotation of the propeller momentar-
ily when being started
On most mod-
ern engines the spark is retarded to top-
dead-centre, to ensure easier starting
and prevent kick-back.

noun
same as
kilogram
This piece of luggage weighs 15 kilos.
\t
prefix
one thousand
kilogram
\t$
a meas-
ure of weight equal to one thousand
grams
This piece of luggage weighs
15 kg.
Abbreviation
NOTE
: It is writ-
ten
after figures.)
kilohertz
\t%\n
a unit of
frequency measurement equal to one
thousand Hertz. Abbreviation
kHz
Aviation.fm Page 130 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
ailerons are moved.
a round button
such as on a receiver
Turn the knob to
increase the volume.
knot
a unit of speed equal
to one nautical mile per hour, approxi-
mately 1.85 kilometres or 1.15 statute
miles per hour. Abbreviation
NOTE
Wind speeds in aviation are usually
given in knots.)
COMMENT
: American light aircraft
manufactured prior to 1976 had
airspeed indicators marked in statute
miles per hour. Knot means ‘nautical
miles per hour’. It is therefore incorrect
to say ‘knots per hour’.
knowledge
\r\t"
noun
familiar-
ity, awareness or understanding gained
through experience or study
A knowl-
edge of the factors which affect surface
temperatures will contribute a great
deal to the understanding of meteorol-
ogy.
abbreviation
knot
Aviation.fm Page 131 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
\b\t
noun
a small piece of
paper or cloth attached to an article with
details of its owner, contents, use, desti-
Aviation.fm Page 132 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
latter
landing run
\r\t\r
the
distance on the runway from the touch-
down point to the stopping point or tax-
iing speed
landing speed
\r\t
the lowest speed at which an aircraft
must be flying in order to land safely
landing strip
\r\t\n\t
noun
specially prepared area of land for an
aircraft to land on
landing weight
\r\t!\b\t\n
the weight of an aircraft when it lands,
which is made up of its empty weight,
the weight of its payload, and the
weight of its remaining fuel
landmark
\r#
some-
thing on the ground which enables the
pilot to know where he/she is, e.g. a
noticeable building, bridge, coastal fea-
Aviation.fm Page 133 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
launch
Airbus A320 and A340, the latter is
the larger aircraft
the A340 is the
larger of the two
\r\n\f
a small boat
often used to transport people from a
larger boat or ship to the shore
verb
to slide or drop a boat into the water to
make it ready for use
While passen-
gers are fitting life jackets, crew will
open exits and launch the life-rafts.
force something into motion
to launch
Aviation.fm Page 134 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
level
ward side.
The flow of air over and to
the lee of hills and mountains may
cause particularly severe turbulence.
Opposite
windward
\b$
part of a flight pattern
that is between two stops, positions, or
changes in direction
An airfield traffic
pattern is divided into take-off, cross-
wind leg, downwind leg, base leg and
final approach.
‘…their route was across the States to
Canada, Greenland and the North Pole,
into Norway, through Europe, back to
Iceland, then two long legs across the
Atlantic via South Greenland and back to
Seattle’ [
Pilot
$
adjective
lawful or
within the law
Alcohol concentrations
of 40 milligrams per 100 millilitres, i.e.
half the legal driving limit in the UK,
are associated with substantial
increases in errors committed by pilots.
legend
\b"\r
a list explain-
ing the symbols on a chart or a map
legend is usually to be found at the edge
or on the reverse side of most topo-
graphical charts.
length
\b&
a measurement
along something’s greatest dimension
the length of the aircraft
The runway
length is 3 kilometres.
a piece of
something that is normally measured
along its greatest dimension
a length
of pipe
the extent from beginning to
end
the length of a book
extent or
Aviation.fm Page 135 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
level off
centration
an unsafe level of contami-
nation
a reduced level of noise
turbine engine has an extremely low
vibration level.
level off
\b

verb
to start to
fly level with the ground after climbing
or descending, or make an aircraft do
this
lever

a device with a
rigid bar balanced on a fixed point and
used to transmit force, as in raising a
weight at one end by pushing down on
the other
Push the lever fully up to
activate the brake mechanism.
Push
the button to release the lever.
a han-
dle used to adjust or operate a mecha-
nism
throttle lever
undercarriage
selector lever
Feathering is accom-
plished by moving the pilot’s control
lever.
verb
to move as with a lever
The door would not open so the emer-
gency services had to lever it open with
specialised equipment.
abbreviation
low frequency
\t
noun
a document
which is proof of official permission to
do or to own something
COMMENT
: Each licence has its own
specific requirements and privileges.
In the UK, one of the fundamental
Aviation.fm Page 136 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
link
tle quantity
light rain
light snow
of thin consistency
light oil
oil which
pours easily
light aircraft
\t\n\b# \n
noun
small, single engine aircraft generally
for private not commercial use
lighting
\t\n\t
lights or a sys-
tem of lights
Cabin lighting is
switched off for take-off and initial
climb.
Emergency floor lighting
guides passengers to the emergency
exits.
lightning
\t\n\r\t
a powerful
and sudden electrical discharge from a
cloud
Lightning is the most visible
indication of thunderstorm activity.
lightning activity
\t\n\r\t
\n\t\t\n
a period of time when
there are a lot of lightning flashes
lightning strike
\t\n\r\t\n\t
noun
the hitting of something by a dis-
charge of lightning
light plane
\t\n\b\t\r
noun US
same as
light aircraft
\t
adjective
probable
rain is likely
rain will probably fall
icing is likely to occur in cumulonim-
bus clouds
icing is often a problem if
flying in cumulonimbus clouds
\t\t\n
a point or line past
which something should not go
There
is a time limit of one hour for the exam-
ination.
The minimum age limit for
holding a PPL in the UK is 17.
the
upper limit of cloud
the highest point
at which there is cloud
verb
to restrict
or to prevent from going past a particu-
lar point
The amount of cabin bag-
gage is limited to one bag per passen-
ger.
limitation
\t\t
\n\b\t\f
noun
the
act of limiting or the state of being lim-
ited
Limitation of the maximum
engine rpm to a little above maximum
engine cruise rpm prevents compressor
stall at the higher rpm range.
\t\r
noun
a thin continuous
Aviation.fm Page 137 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
linkage
linkage
\t\t"
noun
a system or
series of mechanical connections such
as rods, levers, springs, etc.
throttle
linkage
rudder linkage
The linkage
from the control column to the control
surfaces should allow full and free
movement.
\t!\t
adjective
having a
consistency like that of water
Liquid
oxygen is stored in cylinders.
substance with a consistency like water
Water is a liquid, ice is a solid.
liquid crystal display
\t!\t
\t\n
\t
\b\t
liquid crystals
that reflect light when a voltage is
applied, used in many watch, calculator
and digital displays. Abbreviation
LCD
liquid fire
\t!\t \t
oil or
petrol fire
\t\n
a series of names,
words, things to do, etc., arranged one
after the other in a vertical column
verb
to write a series of names, words,
etc. one after the other in a vertical col-
umn
List the advantages of a stressed-
skin construction.
\n
noun US
same as
litre
\t&
a soft silvery
metallic element, the lightest known
metal, often used in batteries
an alloy
of aluminium and lithium
litmus
\t\n
a substance
which turns red in acid, and blue in
alkali
litmus paper
\t\n \b\t
small piece of paper impregnated with
litmus to test for acidity or alkalinity
litre
\n
the volume of one kil-
ogram of water at 4°C (= 1,000cc or
1.76 pints)
NOTE
: It is written
after a
figure:
; also written
liter
in US Eng-
lish.)
\t
adjective
carrying electricity
live wire
livery
\t
noun
the colour scheme
and markings on the outside of an air-
craft that identify it as belonging to a
particular airline
LMT
abbreviation
local mean time

noun
the weight or mass
which is supported
The load on the
undercarriage decreases as lift
increases and, when the aircraft rises
into the air, the aircraft is supported by
the wings.
load bearing
supporting
some weight
a force which a struc-
ture is subjected to when resisting
externally applied forces
The load on
the control column is increased when
the aircraft is flown out of trim.
something that is carried in the aircraft
fuel load
passenger load
the
number of passengers on board
the
power output of a generator or power
plant
the resistance of a device or of
a line to which electrical power is pro-
vided
verb
to put something into a
container, often for the purpose of
transportation
The aircraft is loaded
with fuel before take-off.
to transfer
data from disk into a computer main
memory
She loaded the software onto
the computer.
load-bearing structure

\b\t\n\n\f
a structure
which supports the weight of the air-
craft in flight or on the ground
load controller
\r
\n
noun
a device which monitors the out-
put of a generator
load factor
 \n
the
stress applied to a structure as a multi-
ple of stress applied in 1g flight
The
higher the angle of bank, the greater the
load factor.
COMMENT
: In straight and level,
unaccelerated flight, the load factor is
1. When an aircraft turns or pulls up
out of a dive, the load factor increases.
An aircraft in a level turn at a bank
angle of 60 degrees has a load factor
of 2. In such a turn, the aircraft’s
structure must support twice the
aircraft’s weight.
loading
\t
the act or
process of adding a load to an aircraft
loading is in progress
passengers, bag-
Aviation.fm Page 138 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
logic
moves the valve towards the closed
position.
the act of transferring data
from disk to memory
Loading can be
a long process.
loading bridge
\t\t"
a covered walkway from an airport
departure gate that connects to the door
of an aircraft, used by passengers and
Aviation.fm Page 139 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
logical
"\t
adjective
refer-
ring to something which, because of
previous experience or knowledge, is
natural or expected
Pre-flight checks
on light aircraft are made in a logical
manner from one side of the aircraft to
the other.
longeron
\r"
\r
the
main structural part of an aircraft fuse-
lage extending from nose to tail
Long-
erons are normally used in aircraft
which require longitudinal strength for
holds underneath the floor.
long-haul

adjective
trav-
elling over a long distance
Crew flying
long-haul routes have to adapt to time
changes.
Opposite
short-haul
longitude
$\t\n
the
angular distance on the Earth’s surface,
measured east or west from the prime
meridian at Greenwich, UK, to the
meridian passing through a position,
expressed in degrees, minutes, and sec-
onds
The centre of London is latitude
51°30’N, longitude 0°5’W.
Compare
latitude
longitudinal
$\t
\n\t\r
adjective
in a lengthwise direction
longitudinal axis
$\t\n\t\r
\t
the
axis of the aircraft which extends from
the nose to the tail.
axis
roll
long-range
\b\t\r"
adjective
covering a long distance
long-
range radar
long-range weather
forecast
covering a period more than 5
days ahead
lookout
\n
a careful
watch
Keep a careful lookout for
other aircraft.
to be on the lookout
for
to watch carefully for something

a flight manoeuvre in
which the aircraft rotates, nose up,
through 360° while holding its lateral
position
loop antenna
\r
\n\b\r
circular-shaped conductive coil which
rotates to give a bearing to a ground sta-
tion
LORAN
abbreviation
long-range air
navigation system

verb
not to have something
any longer
NOTE
losing – lost
lose altitude
to descend from higher to
lower altitude

no longer having
something
The pilot reported loss of
engine power.
loss of control
longer being able to control
loss of
life
death in an accident
loss of a sig-
disappearance of a signal
The
term attenuation means the loss of
strength of a radio signal.
loudspeaker


electromagnetic device that converts
electrical signals into audible noise.
Also called
speaker
lounge
\r"
noun
VIP lounge
special room at an airport for VIPs.
departure lounge
louvre

thin, horizontal
openings for air cooling
Cold air can
be let into the cabin through adjustable
louvres.
NOTE
: The US spelling is
lou-

adjective
not high, not tall
a low building
low cloud
cloud rel-
atively near the surface of the earth
low ground
an area of land which is not
high, as opposed to mountains
not
high, or below normal
an area of low
pressure
low temperature
a tempera-
ture which shows that it is cold
quiet,
not loud
an area of low atmos-
pheric pressure
polar low
an area of
low atmospheric pressure over polar
regions
lower

adjective
referring to
something that is at a low level or
towards the bottom
the lower layers of
the atmosphere
the lower surface of
the wing
the underneath surface of the
wing
referring to something which is
Aviation.fm Page 140 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
luggage
the volume (of sound)
to make some-
thing such as a radio quieter or less loud
lower airspace
\b\b\t
noun
the airspace below FL245
(approximately 24,500 ft)
lower atmosphere

\n \t
the layer of the
atmosphere in which changes in the
weather take place. Also called
tropo-
sphere
low frequency
 !\r
low frequency band
 !\r
\r
a radio communications
range of frequencies between 30–300
kHz. Abbreviation
lubricate
\t\b\t\n
verb
to oil or to
grease moving parts in order to reduce
friction
Oil passes through the hollow
crankshaft to lubricate the big-end
bearings.
Turbo chargers are lubri-
cated by the engine oil system.
lubrication
\t
\b\t\f
the act or process of covering moving
surfaces with oil or grease in order to
reduce friction
lubrication system
Aviation.fm Page 141 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
abbreviation
metre
abbreviation
minute
Mach
noun
the ratio of the
speed of an object to the speed of sound
in the same atmospheric conditions
Mach 2 equals twice the speed of sound.
COMMENT
: Named after E. Mach, the
Austrian physicist who died in 1916.
machine
\f\r
a device
with fixed and moving parts that takes
mechanical energy and uses it to do use-
ful work
A drill is a machine for mak-
ing holes in things.
An electrical cir-
cuit is designed to carry energy to a
particular device or machine which can
then perform useful work.
Aviation.fm Page 142 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
maneuver
Aviation.fm Page 143 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
maneuverability
maneuverability
\r
\t\t\n
noun US
same as
manoeuvra-
bility
maneuvering area
\r
\t
\b
noun US
same as
manoeuvring
area
manifold
\r\t 
a sys-
tem of pipes for a fluid from single
input to multiple output or multiple
input to single output
inlet and
exhaust manifolds of a piston engine
manifold pressure
\r\t

\b\f
noun
absolute pressure in the
induction system of a piston engine
measured in inches of mercury
\r
noun
a way of doing
something
Wind is said to be veering
when it changes direction in a clockwise
manner.
Pre-flight checks should be
done in the correct manner.
manoeuvrability
\r
\t\t\n
the ability and speed with
which an aircraft can turn away from its
previous path
Light training aircraft
do not have great manoeuvrability but
they are stable and therefore easier to
fly.
NOTE
: The US spelling is
maneu-
verability
manoeuvre
\r
any
deliberate or intended departure from
the existing flight or ground path
NOTE
It is also written
maneuver
in US Eng-
lish.)
flight manoeuvre
turns, loops,
climbs and descents
ground manoeu-
taxiing and turning onto runways
and taxiways, etc.
manoeuvring area
\r
\t
\b
the part of the aerodrome
used for the take-off, landing and taxi-
ing of aircraft
\r
adjective
refer-
ring to the hands, or done or worked by
hand
The electronic flight instrument
system has two self-test facilities –
automatic and manual.
a refer-
ence book giving instructions on how to
Aviation.fm Page 144 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
matter
marker
#
something
which acts as an indicator of something
such as distance or position
a radio
beacon that is part of the ILS
COMMENT
: The outer marker (OM) is
indicated on the instrument panel, by a
blue light. The middle marker (MM) is
indicated by an amber light and the
inner marker (IM) by a white light.
marker dye
#\t
brightly coloured substance used by
people adrift at sea to draw the attention
of flight crews to their position
marshal
#\f
verb
to direct air-
craft into their parking positions on the
apron by means of hand signals
After
taxiing, a marshaller marshals the air-
craft to the disembarkation and unload-
ing point.
marshaller
#\f
member of ground staff whose job is to
direct aircraft into parking positions by
means of hand signals
‘…when under a marshaller’s control,
reduce speed to a walking pace’ [
Civil
Aviation Authority, General Aviation
Aviation.fm Page 145 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
MATZ
action
Aviation.fm Page 146 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
mental
\r\t
adjec-
tive
referring to machines
Activation
may be electrical or mechanical.
mechanical pump
a pump operated by
the engine rather than by electrical
power
mechanical advantage
\r\t

#\r\n\t"
the ratio
of the output force produced by a
machine to the input force
mechanical engineering
\r\t
 \b\r"\t
\r\t\t
noun
the
study of design, construction, and use
of machinery or mechanical structures
She gained a degree in mechanical
engineering from university.
mechanical linkage
\r\t
\t\t"
a system of rods, cables
and levers in a light aircraft, which con-
nect the control column in the cockpit to
the control surfaces on the wings, tail-
plane and fin
\r\t
noun
the
study of the action of forces on matter
or material systems
the way some-
thing works
The mechanics of the
föhn wind provide a good illustration of
the adiabatic process.
\b\r\t
noun
the arrangement of connected parts in a
machine or system
the landing gear
mechanism
the nose wheel steering
mechanism
a physical process
the
mechanism by which thunderstorms
develop
MEDA
abbreviation
military emer-
gency division aerodrome
medical certificate
\b\t

\n\t \t\n
noun
a document which con-
firms that the named person has been
medically examined and declared to be
in good physical condition
medical emergency
a situa-
tion when somebody is unwell and
quickly needs medical care
medium

adjective
refer-
ring to something that has a position or
represents a condition midway between
extremes
high, medium and low fre-
quencies
medium level cloud
substance through which something
else is transmitted or carried
Tubes
convey the cooling medium.
The cool-
ing medium for cooling oil can be ram-
air or fuel.
medium frequency

 !\r
, medium frequency
 !\r \r
radio frequency range between
300 kHz and 3000 kHz – often referred
to as medium wave (MW). Abbrevia-
tion
\b$
prefix
large. Opposite
micro-
NOTE
: The prefix
mega-
is used
in front of SI units to indicate one mil-
lion:
megahertz =
one million hertz.)
megahertz
\b$%\n
measure of frequency equal to one mil-
lion cycles per second. Abbreviation
MHz
\b\n
verb
to become liquid by
heating
Ice melts at temperatures
above freezing.
melting point
tem-
perature at which a solid turns to liquid
Magnesium has a melting point of
1204°F.
\b
a large,
important structural unit
The skin in
bonded to the internal members.
beam is a member which is designed to
withstand loading applied at an angle
to it, often perpendicular.
a person
who joins a club or organisation
He is
a member of the gliding club.
a per-
son in a team or crew
Most large pas-
senger aircraft are now operated by two
crew members.
memorise
\b\t
, memorize
verb
to fix in the memory, to learn by
heart
It is helpful if a student pilot can
memorise certain items, such as down-
wind checks, early in his training.
memory
\b
the
mental ability of remembering and
recalling past events or information
he has a good memory
he remembers
things easily
part of a computer
which is used for the fast recall of infor-
mation
The computer cannot run
many programs at the same time
because it doesn’t have enough mem-
ory.
mental
\b\r\n
adjective
referring
to the mind or brain
Anoxia severely
limits physical and mental perform-
ance.
mental calculation
a calcula-
Aviation.fm Page 147 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
mention
tion done in your head, without using
aids such as pen, paper or calculator
mention
\b\r\f
verb
to refer to
something briefly
as mentioned in
chapter 4
as I mentioned yesterday
No one mentioned the incident.
MEP
abbreviation
mean effective pres-
sure
Mercator’s projection
%
\b\t\n

"\b\f
a map projection
of the Earth onto a cylinder so that all
the parallels of latitude are the same
length as the equator
Since meridians
on this projection are represented by
parallel straight lines, it is impossible
to represent the poles on Mercator’s
projection.
Lambert’s projection
COMMENT
: Named after the Latinised
name of G. Kremer, the Flemish-born
geographer who died in 1594.
mercury
%
a silver-
coloured metallic element, liquid at
room temperature, used in thermome-
ters
Manifold pressure gauges are
calibrated in inches of mercury.
Aviation.fm Page 148 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
minimum
at the compressor inlet or at the com-
bustion chamber inlet.
Aviation.fm Page 149 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
minimum flying speed
to a minimum, the difference between
cabin pressures and the external atmos-
pheric pressures should be kept to a
minimum.
NOTE
: The plural form is
minima
or
minimums
minimum flying speed
\t\r\t \t\t 
the
lowest true air speed at which an air-
craft can maintain height
minimum fuel
\t\r\t 
the amount of fuel required to
reach destination and land without
delay
minimum sector altitude
\t\r\t\b\n \n\t\n
the lowest altitude at which an aircraft
may fly under emergency conditions
and which will provide a minimum
clearance of 1000 ft above all obstacles
located within a particular sector
minimum separation
\t\r\t
\b
\b\t\f
the minimum ver-
tical or horizontal distance allowed
between two aircraft
\t\r
a person under
the age of legal adulthood
adjective
small in size or amount and therefore
relatively unimportant. Opposite
major
minor repairs
repairs which can be
made quickly and with the minimum
amount of equipment
\t\r
preposition
reduced
by
6 minus 2 equals 4 (6 – 2 = 4).
a minus sign (-)
minus forty
degrees Celsius (- 40° Celsius)
noun
\t\r\t\n
a time period
of 60 seconds
There are 60 minutes in
one hour.
wait a minute
wait a while
or a short period of time
a unit of
angular measurement equal to one sixti-
Aviation.fm Page 150 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
molecule
COMMENT
: Some of the well known
mnemonics are:
ARROW
Airworthiness Certificate, Registration
Document, Radio Station Licence,
Operating Handbook, Weight and
Balance document – documents to be
carried in (light) aircraft (U5);
BUMF
checks
= Brakes, Undercarriage,
Mixture, Fuel – downwind checks in a
light, single engine aircraft with a fixed-
pitch propeller;
FREDA
= Fuel, Radio,
MOA
abbreviation
military operations
area
mode

noun
a particular
selected setting for the operation or
functioning of equipment
automatic
mode
manual mode
a letter or
number given to the various pulse spac-
ings of airborne transponders and
ground interrogators
Mode A and
mode C for altitude reporting, are used
in air traffic control.
model

noun
a simplified
description of a system, often in mathe-
matical form, designed to make calcula-
tion simpler
The description of the
weather patterns is a model only which,
in reality, is modified greatly by a
number of factors.
moderate
adjective

referring to something well within lim-
its, not extreme
a moderate climate
climate which is not too hot, not too
cold
the middle of three descriptions
of intensity or amount, i.e. light, moder-
ate, severe
moderate humidity
humidity which is not light or severe
light to moderate
varying between
light and moderate
light to moderate
icing
moderate to severe
varying
Aviation.fm Page 151 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
moment
move more quickly than the molecules
of a liquid.
\r\n
a short
period of time
It only takes a moment
to fill in the log book.
a point in time
at the moment
at this particular time
He’s not in the office at the moment.
the product of a quantity and its perpen-
dicular distance from a reference point
A load on the end of a beam creates a
bending moment.
the tendency to
cause rotation about a point or an axis
The tailplane provides a pitching
moment to keep the aircraft level.
momentum

\b\r\n
measure of the motion of a body equal
to the product of its mass and velocity
In rain, the faster an aircraft travels the
Aviation.fm Page 152 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
mutual inductance
mounted
\r\n\t
adjective
fixed
to a support
rear-mounted
mounted
at the rear of the aircraft
Some aircraft
such as the Boeing 727 have rear-
mounted engines.
mounting
\r\n\t
a sup-
porting component or attachment point
Airbus aircraft have engine mount-
ings under the wings.
\r\n
change in place or position
The
upward movement of the piston com-
presses the fuel/air mixture.
move-
ment of the crankshaft
the rotation of
the crankshaft
the downward move-
ment of cool air
the downward flow of
cool air
mph
abbreviation
miles per hour
MSL
abbreviation
mean sea level
MTA
\b\n\b\t
abbreviation
military
training area
MTBF
\b\n\b
the aver-
age period of time that a piece of equip-
ment will operate between problems.
Full form
Aviation.fm Page 153 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
abbreviation
north
\b
a streamlined
housing for an engine
The ram air
intake is located in a wing leading edge
or an engine nacelle fairing.
narrow
\r
adjective
not wide
narrow band of cloud
a narrow beam
of electrons
The narrow aisles of pas-
senger aircraft makes it difficult to
evacuate an aircraft quickly.
Opposite
wide
broad
NAS
abbreviation
national airspace
system
NASA
\r
abbreviation
National
Aeronautics and Space Administration
\r\f
\r
adjective
belonging to a country
KLM is the
national airline of the Netherlands.
National Aeronautics and
Space Administration
\r\f
\b\r\n\t\r\b\t
\t\r\t\n\b\t\f
a US organisa-
tion for flight and space exploration.
Abbreviation
NASA
national airspace system
\r\f
\r\b\b\t \t\n
integrated system of control and com-
munications facilities that is responsi-
ble for ensuring the safe and efficient
movement of aircraft through the
national airspace of the US. Abbrevia-
tion
National Air Traffic Services
\r\f
\r\b\n \t %\t\t
plu-
ral noun
the organisation that is respon-
sible for air traffic control at most UK
airports. Abbreviation
NATS
NATS
abbreviation
National Air Traf-
fic Services
nature
\r\b\t\n\f
noun
the world,
especially plants, animals and their
environment in general
Electricity is
one of the fundamental forces of nature.
sort or type
Action taken by the
crew will depend on the nature of the
emergency.
the essential qualities of
something
the convective nature of
thunderstorms
Magnesium is a fire
hazard of unpredictable nature.
nautical
\r\n\t
adjective
refer-
ring to the sea
The terms pitch, roll
and yaw are nautical in origin.
nautical mile
\r\n\t
\t
noun
1.852 kilometres
One knot is
equal to one nautical mile per hour.
Abbreviation
. Compare
statute
mile
NOTE
: A nautical mile is precisely
defined as the length of an arc on the
Earth’s surface subtended by an angle
of one minute at the centre of the
Earth.)
NAVAID
\r\b\t
abbreviation
navi-
gational aid
\r\t
$\b\t\f
the theory and practice of planning,
controlling and recording the direction
of an aircraft
The basis of air naviga-
tion is the triangle of velocities.
\r\t
$\b\t\f
adjective
referring to navigation
The
accuracy of modern navigational
equipment is much greater than older
systems.
\r\t
$\b\t\f
\r
noun
a mechanical or electronic
device designed to help a pilot navigate
Any type of navigational aid but par-
ticularly electronic aids, for example
ADF (automatic direction finding) and
Aviation.fm Page 154 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
never-exceed speed
NDBs (non-directional beacons).
Abbreviation
NAVAID
\r\t
$\b\t\f
\r
\t\r
same as
position line
\r\t
$\b\t\f
\t\n
plural noun
lights on an aircraft
consisting of a red light on the left wing
tip, a green light on the right wing tip
and a white light on the tail
COMMENT
: Navigation lights must be
Aviation.fm Page 155 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
night rating
night rating
\r\t\n \b\t\n\t
additional qualification gained from a
course of training for night flying
\r\t
nothing, zero
nil driz-
zle
no drizzle
nimbostratus
\r\t
\n\b\t\n
a cloud forming a low dense grey
layer from which rain or drizzle often
falls
nitrogen
\r\t\n"\r
a col-
ourless, odourless gas which makes up
four fifths of the Earth’s atmosphere
Some aircraft have high pressure air or
nitrogen bottles provided in the under-
carriage and flap circuits for emer-
gency lowering.
NOTE
: The atomic
number of nitrogen is
abbreviation
nautical mile
nocturnal
\n%\r
adjective
happening or appearing during the night
Because there is a requirement for a
cold ground, a katabatic wind tends to
be nocturnal, but if the slope is snow-
covered, it can also occur during the
day.
no-fly zone
\r \t \r
an area over which aircraft, especially
those of another country, are forbidden
to fly
\r\t\r
adjective
significant or not important
a nomi-
nal increase
a very small increase
named, specific
As an installed bat-
tery becomes fully charged by the air-
craft generator, the battery voltage
nears its nominal level and the charging
current decreases.
prefix
not or no
non-directional beacon
\r\r\t
\b\f
\r\r
a radio bea-
con transmitting a signal by which the
Aviation.fm Page 156 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
notice
a northerly airflow from the polar
regions
moving towards the north
We are flying in a northerly direction.
noun
a wind which blows from the
north
northern
\r'
adjective
refer-
ring to or situated in the north
the
northern hemisphere
northern hemisphere
\r'
\b\t
 \t
the area of the Earth
to the north of the equator
North Pole
\r&
the
point which is furthest north on the
earth
From the UK the aircraft flew
over the North Pole to Vancouver.
northward
\r&!
adjective
going towards the north
adverb US
same as
northwards
northwards
\r&!
adverb
towards the north
One of the aircraft
was flying northwards.
north-west
\r&!\b\n
the
direction between north and west
The
aircraft turned towards the north-west.
adjective
situated in the north-west
the north-west coast of England
blowing from or coming from the north-
west
a north-west wind
adverb
towards the north-west
We are head-
ing north-west.
north-westerly
\r&!\b\n
adjective
blowing from or coming
from the north-west
A north-westerly
wind was blowing.
moving towards
or to the north-west
Follow a north-
westerly direction.
north-western
\r&!\b\n\r
adjective
referring to or situated in the
north-west
the north-western part of
the United States
north wind
\r&!\t\r
noun
a wind
blowing from or coming from the north
NOTE
: A wind is named after the direc-
tion it comes from.)
nose
the extreme forward
end of the aircraft
nose cone
\r\r
the
foremost part of the nose of a multi-
engine aircraft which may house elec-
tronic equipment, but not an engine
\r\t
extremely steep descent by an aircraft
front first
nose-dive
\r\t
verb
to fall
steeply with the front end pointing
downwards
nose gear
\r$\t
noun
the nose
wheel and supporting struts and link-
ages
nosewheel
\r!
the
undercarriage wheel at the front of the
aircraft. Compare
tailwheel
no-smoking sign
\r\t
\t\r
noun
a sign, usually lit-up, warn-
ing passengers and crew that smoking is
not allowed
\r\n
a brief message on
a piece of paper
There’s a note on
your desk.
a brief comment made on
paper about something that you are
reading, listening to, or watching
Make notes while you watch the video
recording.
a short comment or expla-
nation in a text, often at the end of a
book or at the bottom of a page
piece of paper money
a £10 note
NOTE
: The US English is
bill
musical tone of definite pitch
The note
of the engine changes as rpm (revolu-
tions per minute) is increased.
verb
to observe carefully, to take notice
Note that true north is always along a
meridian.
to write down
Note the
time of departure on the log sheet.
Note the time of any incident.
‘…immediately you become unsure of
your position, note the time and, if you
are in touch with an ATC unit, especially
a radar unit, you should request
assistance’ [
Civil Aviation Authority,
General Aviation Safety Sense Leaflet
\r\n\t
noun
a written or
spoken announcement
a formal
warning or notification
to give notice
to inform an employee or employer in
advance and in writing, of a termination
to a period of employment
As a result
of the accident, the instructor was given
three months’ notice.
the student
pilot is grounded until further notice
the student pilot cannot fly again until
told by those in authority that he or she
can continue
verb
to observe
While
Aviation.fm Page 157 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
noticeable
doing the pre-flight checks, Captain
Smith noticed that there was a leak of
hydraulic fluid from one of the brake
cylinders.
noticeable
\r\n\t
adjective
catching the attention, easily noticed
noticeable increase
an increase which
is important enough to be observed
There was a noticeable improvement in
the trainee’s recent exam results.
notice board
\r\n\t
usually wooden board in a corridor or
classroom, etc., where information on
paper can be displayed
notification
\r\n\t \t
\b\t\f
the act of informing somebody
about something
Notification of the
new procedures will follow in a few
days.
She received notification that
she had been accepted for the job.
\r\n\t \t
verb
to inform
Stu-
dents were notified of their exam results
by post.
The authorities must be noti-
fied of all in-flight incidents.
nozzle
\r
noun
a projecting
part with an opening at the end of a
pipe, for regulating and directing a flow
of fluid
The nozzle of a portable fire
extinguisher should be pointed at the
base of the fire.
nucleus
\r
the central
part around which other parts are
grouped
An atom consists of a nucleus
with orbiting electrons.
Condensation
occurs on very small particles sus-
pended in the air which are known as
condensation nuclei.
NOTE
: The plural
form is
nuclei
an instrument reading
of zero
the null position
the zero
position
Nulls are used for direction
sensing because they are better defined
than the maxima.
numerical
\r
\b\t
adjective
referring to numbers or digits
numerical value
\r
\b\t

a number
numerous
\r
adjective
very many, a lot
Large transport air-
craft have numerous clearly-marked
exits to facilitate rapid evacuation of
passengers.
Numerous refinements to
the simple actuator will be found in use.
noun
a metal ring which
screws on a bolt to hold it tight
Turn
the nut anticlockwise to loosen it.
Aviation.fm Page 158 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
OAT
abbreviation
operational air
traffic
outside air temperature
obey
\b\t
verb
to carry out or
comply with a command
Pilots must
obey landing instructions.
to follow a
physical law
Winds obey Buys Ballot’s
Law.
abbreviation
omni-bearing indica-
tor
object
"\b\n
something
that you can touch and see and that has
a particular form and dimensions
Any
given object will collect more ice when
travelling at high speed than at low
speed.
intention or aim
The object
of the briefing is to inform all aircrew of
the new procedures.
verb
"\b\n
to raise or voice opposition
Staff
objected to the introduction of longer
working hours.
oblong

adjective
rectangular
an oblong piece of aluminium
a rectangle
abbreviation
omni-bearing selec-
tor
obscure

adjective
not
clearly understood
the explanation
was obscure
the explanation was diffi-
cult to understand because it wasn’t
clear
verb
to make difficult to see
Deposits of ice crystals on the wind-
screen will obscure vision.
obscured

adjective
sky obscured
a meteorological term to
mean that fog or mist prevents sight of
the sky
observation

\b\t\f
careful watching
The type of cloud is
established by observation and com-
parison with cloud photographs.
observe
%
verb
to watch care-
fully
Local wave action can be
observed from a height of 200 feet.
Wing deflection can be observed from
the passenger cabin.
observer
%
a person
working in a meteorological station
who assesses weather conditions by vis-
ual means
Meteorological visibility is
the greatest horizontal distance at
which objects can be seen and recog-
nised by an observer on the ground with
normal eyesight and under conditions
of normal daylight illumination.
\n
some-
thing which blocks a path or prevents
progress
Low frequency transmissions
Aviation.fm Page 159 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
obtain
air intakes and jet pipes must be
inspected, to ensure that they are free
from any debris or obstruction.
‘…taxiways and aerodrome obstructions
may be hidden by snow, so ask if you are
not certain’ [
Civil Aviation Authority,
General Aviation Safety Sense Leaflet
\n\b\t\r
verb
cast.
The probes are positioned in the
gas stream in order to obtain an accu-
rate temperature reading.
obvious

adjective
clear and
easily seen or understood
It is obvious
that high ground will disturb the smooth
horizontal flow of air.
\b\t"
noun
the time
at which an event or happening occurs
In recent months the aircraft suffered
two engine failures, on the first occa-
sion the aircraft force-landed safely.
The maiden flight of an aircraft is a
great occasion.
on occasions
some-
times
\b\t"
adjec-
tive
happening from time to time
occasional rain
periodic rain
occa-
sional turbulence
turbulence happen-
ing from time to time
occluded front
\t \r\n
a weather front created when air is
forced upward from the Earth’s surface,
as when a cold front overtakes and
undercuts a warm front
Jet streams
are very rare near occluded fronts
because of the much smaller tempera-
ture gradient across the fronts.
occlusion
"
the
forcing of air upward from the Earth’s
surface, as when a cold front overtakes
and undercuts a warm front
If the air
ahead of the warm front is less cold
than the air behind the cold front, the
cold front will undercut the less cold air
and form a cold occlusion.
\r\n
noun
a person
who has a seat in an aircraft
occu-
pants
the crew plus passengers
In-
flight emergency procedures are
designed to successfully combat air-
borne emergencies which threaten the
safety of the aircraft and its occupants.
occupy
\t
verb
to have a
position, to be in a place
The passen-
ger is occupying the wrong seat.
busy oneself
Once an evacuation
process is under way the crew will be
fully occupied carrying out emergency
drills.
occur
%
verb
to happen
Heavy
rains occur during the monsoon season.
Tropical revolving storms generally
occur from June to October.
An acci-
dent occurred on June 12th.
occurrence
\r
a hap-
pening or event
There were a number
of occurrences of hijacking in the eight-
ies.
The occurrence of the equatorial
jet stream is due to a temperature gradi-
ent with colder air to the south.
\f
the body of
salt water which covers the earth
NOTE
This is a chiefly American usage: Brit-
ish English prefers the word
sea
any of the major sea areas of the world
the Atlantic Ocean
COMMENT
: The five oceans are: the
Atlantic, the Pacific, the Indian, the
Arctic and the Antarctic (or Southern).
oceanic
\f
\r\t
adjective
refer-
ring to the oceans
The trade winds
maintain their direction over the oce-
anic areas, especially the Pacific, more
than over land areas.
an oceanic
crossing
a flight across sea or ocean
octa
\n
same as
okta
octane rating
\n\b\t\r \b\t\n\t
the ability of the fuel to resist detona-
tion, i.e. the higher the number, the
greater is the fuel’s resistance to detona-
tion
adjective
strange, peculiar
an odd situation
The fact that moist
air is lighter than an equivalent volume
of dry air seems odd to many people.
odd tenth
an odd decimal, e.g. 0.1,
Aviation.fm Page 160 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
opaque
\r
number which cannot be exactly
divided by two, e.g. 1, 3, 5, 7, etc.
(battery) cell contains an odd number
of plates.
OEM
\b
abbreviation
original
equipment manufacturer
offer
 
noun
something, e.g. a sum
of money, that is presented for accept-
ance or rejection
He made an offer of
$85,000 for the aircraft.
verb
show readiness to do something
Aviation.fm Page 161 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
opening

\r\t
a space
which acts as a passage through which
something or somebody can go
inlet valve opening
a formal start of
operation
the opening of the new fly-
ing school
a vacancy for a job
There’s an opening for a new chief
ground instructor.
\r\t
adjective
referring to a policy of allowing aircraft
belonging to any country to fly over an
area, without restrictions on surveil-
lance of military installations
operate
\b\t\n
verb
to control
the working of
The control column
operates the ailerons and elevators.
The flaps are operated by a switch.
use or manage
The airline operates a
‘…periodically check the carburettor
heating system and controls for proper
condition and operation’ [
Civil Aviation
Aviation.fm Page 162 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
originate
directly proportional to motor rpm (rev-
olutions per minute).
optimum
\n\t
adjective
refer-
ring to the point at which the condition
or amount of something is the best
The optimum altitude for jet aircraft is
higher than that for piston engine air-
craft.
the point at which the con-
dition or amount of something is the
best
Generally speaking, engine out-
put is at its optimum at cruising speed.
option
\f\r
a choice or
alternative
On a bad approach, the
pilot of a powered aircraft always has
the option of going around.
He was
given the option of buying two aircraft
instead of one.
orbit
\t\n
verb
to give a
command
Before impact, the captain
will order the crew to secure themselves
at their assigned emergency stations.
to put in a sequence
Order the items in
importance from 1 to 10.
organisation
$\r\t
\b\t\f
organization
noun
an association of
Aviation.fm Page 163 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
orographic
emergency landing, often originate in
the wing area.
orographic

$ \t
adjective
referring to mountains
orographic
uplift
the lifting of air masses in contact
with mountain regions
orographic cloud
$ \t

noun
a cloud formed by air
being forced upward over mountainous
areas
orthomorphic
&
 \t
adjective
of the correct shape
orthomorphic chart is one which has
meridians and parallels which intersect
at right angles and, at any point on the
chart, the scale must be the same in all
directions.
orthomorphism
&
 \t
a shape representa-
tion on a map
Orthomorphism means
that bearings may be measured cor-
rectly at any point on a chart.
\t\b\t\n
verb
to move
regularly between extremes
increase or decrease regularly so as to
produce oscillations
Instability pro-
tection is incorporated to guard against
oscillating outputs from the alternators.
\t
\b\t\f
noun
regular movement between extremes
Ridge waves can be thought of as oscil-
lations about the stable state of the
undisturbed air flow with the range of
hills providing the disturbance.
a reg-
ular increase and decrease of electrical
current
The supply is subject to oscil-
lation.
\t\b\t\n
an elec-
tronic circuit that produces a pulse or a
signal at a particular frequency
local oscillator replicates the radio fre-
quency of the frequency generator at
the transmitter.
\n
adverb
out of
away from,
no longer in
outboard
\n
adverb
in a
direction away from the centre of an air-
craft
adjective
situated away from the
main body of an aircraft and towards
the wing tips
outbound
\n\r
adjective
adverb
towards a destination away from
a VOR
The aircraft flies outbound
from the beacon along the airway and
inbound to the facility at the other end
of the leg.
outbound traffic
aircraft
flying away from an airfield
outbreak
\n\b\t
noun
a sudden
start
Showers are local outbreaks of
precipitation from detached cumulus or
cumulonimbus.
Hand operated fire
extinguishers are provided to combat
any outbreaks of fire in the flight crew
compartment and passengers cabins.
outer
\n
adjective
external
Pneumatic de-icer boots are made from
vulcanised rubber fabric with an outer
covering of neoprene.
positioned
away from the centre
Winds near anti-
cyclones are normally light near the
centre, but tend to be stronger towards
the outer edges.
outer wing
the part
of the wing nearest the tip
outer marker
\n#
an ILS marker beacon, usually on cen-
tre line of approach at about 4.5 nm
from the runway threshold
outflow
\n 
noun
flow in an
outward direction
The outflow valve is
controlled by the cabin pressure con-
troller.
outgoing
$\t
adjective
going
out
There is a fall of temperature until
about one hour after dawn when incom-
ing solar radiation balances outgoing
terrestrial radiation.
Opposite
incom-
ing
Aviation.fm Page 164 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
overload
out-of-balance turn
\n
\r\n%\r
a turn in which the
aircraft ‘skids’ upwards and outwards
from the turn or ‘slips’ inwards and
downward
During an out-of-balance
turn, the ball in the slip indicator will be
deflected to the left or right.
out of trim
\n\n\t
adjective
referring to a situation in which the air-
craft is not in static balance in pitch, so
that if the pilot releases the yoke or con-
trol stick, the aircraft will start to climb
or descend
output
\n\n
the product of a
process
Air density will affect the out-
put of the engine.
The function of the
supercharger is to increase the power
output.
The power output of an engine
depends on the weight of mixture which
can be burnt in the cylinders in a given
time.
outrigger
\n\t$
noun
a projec-
tion attached to an aircraft to stabilise it
or to support something
outward
\n!
adjective
moving
away from the centre or starting point
The piston draws fluid into the cylinders
on the outward stroke and expels fluid
into the system on the inward stroke.
outwards
\n!
adverb
away
from the centre or starting point,
towards the outside
The door opens
outwards.
NOTE
: The US English is
outward
overall


adjective
includ-
ing everything
The total aerodynamic
losses result in an overall turbine effi-
ciency of 92%.
Although the student
failed in one of the five exams, her over-
all result was a pass.
adverb
generally
Overall, the test flight was a success.
noun

a one-piece item of
protective clothing
The engineer was
wearing an overall to prevent his
clothes from getting dirty.
overalls

plural noun
pro-
tective trousers with a bib and straps
over the shoulders
Wear overalls to
protect your clothes.
overcome


verb
to beat,
to conquer, to win against
The effects
of anoxia at high altitudes can be over-
come by breathing through a mask.
Drag must be overcome with thrust in
order for an aircraft to increase speed.
overflew

 
overfly
overflight
 \t\n
the flight
of an aircraft over an area
overfly

 \t
verb
to fly over an
area
NOTE
overflew – overflown
overhang

noun
the
distance from the last outer strut to the
end of a monoplane’s wing
a distance
equivalent to half of the difference in
the spans of the two wings of a biplane
overhaul
verb


to take
apart and examine carefully in order to
Aviation.fm Page 165 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
overload operations
to load a device or system, such as an
electrical circuit, with too much work;
to demand more than a system is capa-
ble of
Operating pressure is main-
tained in that part of the system which
leads to the selector valves, and some
method is used to prevent overloading
the pumps.
to load too heavily
aircraft failed to gain height after take-
off because it was overloaded.
overload operations

\b\t\f
operation of air-
craft in unusual situations when take-
off weight exceeds the permitted maxi-
mum
override

\t
verb
to take
over control of the operation of an auto-
matic device or system
A circuit-pro-
tective device must not be of a type
which can be overridden manually.
NOTE
overriding – overrode – over-
ridden
overrun
\r
noun
a cleared
level area at the end of a runway, avail-
able in case a plane does not stop
quickly enough
overshoot

\f\n
verb
to fly
NOTE
: The atomic number of oxygen is
ozone
\r
a poisonous
form of oxygen found naturally in the
atmosphere which is toxic to humans at
concentrations above 0.1 parts per mil-
lion
The maximum concentration of
ozone is between 20 and 25 km above
the Earth’s surface.
Symbol
Aviation.fm Page 166 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
abbreviation
public address
Pacific Standard Time
\t \t
\n\r\n\t
the time zone of
the west coast area of the USA and Can-
ada, 8 hours behind Greenwich Mean
Time
noun
Aviation.fm Page 167 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
parameter
constant latitude around the Earth’s sur-
face
Aviation.fm Page 168 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
period
passport control, a customs official
checks passports.
patch
noun
a small area
patch of fog
a patch of cloud
Patches
of early morning fog made identifica-
tion of ground features difficult.
path
#&
a route or course
along which something moves
Pro-
jection of the path of the aircraft over
the ground is called its track.
pattern
\n
noun
a form or
method which shows particular, con-
sistent characteristics
pressure pat-
tern
changes in pressure areas which
take place regularly, e.g. every year
\b\t\r\n
a pre-
pared concrete or tarmac surface for
ground manoeuvring of aircraft, includ-
ing taxiways and runways
NOTE
: The
bearing strengths of pavements
intended for aircraft of 5,700 kg MTWA
(maximum total weight authorised) or
less are reported as the maximum
allowable weight and maximum allowa-
ble tyre pressure.)
pavement classification
number
\b\t\r\n \t \t
\b\t\f
\r \r
a number
expressing the bearing strength of a
pavement for unrestricted operations.
Abbreviation
PCN
PAX
abbreviation
passengers
\b\t
noun
the money-
earning load carried by the aircraft
including the passengers, baggage and
freight
The shape of an aircraft is
determined by the requirement to pro-
vide an aerodynamic lift force great
enough to support the weight of the air-
craft and payload whilst in flight.
PCN
abbreviation
pavement classifica-
tion number
PDC
abbreviation
pre-departure clear-
ance

the highest point
The intensity of solar radiation reaches
a peak around noon.
peak value
max-
imum value
PED
abbreviation
portable electronic
device
pedal
\b
a foot-operated
lever
\b\r
\n
unwanted result of an action
The pen-
alty of using a circular polarisation
transmission may be some loss of defi-
nition.
a punishment or fine
Fuel
penalties can be incurred if fuel surplus
to requirements is carried.
Aviation.fm Page 169 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
periodic
periodic
\t
\t
adjective
hap-
pening from time to time or at regular
intervals, occasional
periodic main-
tenance
maintenance made at a partic-
ular time interval
Periodic calibration
of ILS (instrument landing system)
installations is recommended.
peritrack
\b\n
same as
taxiway
permanent
%\r\r\n
adjective
lasting or remaining without change
permanent deformation
damage to a
structure which must be repaired by
replacing the damaged part
perma-
nent magnet
a metal component which
Aviation.fm Page 170 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
pitch trim
obey the physical laws as any other gas.
referring to the human body
some aircraft operating for long peri-
ods at high altitudes, physical discom-
fort may arise from low relative humid-
ity.
physical fitness
the state of health
of the body
PIC
abbreviation
pilot in command

noun
a bit, portion or part
The upper and lower skin panel of
each wing can be made in one piece.
NOTE
Piece
is often used to show one
Aviation.fm Page 171 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
pitot head
there are no forward/aft forces on the
control stick or yoke
pitot head
\n\b
externally mounted device which
senses and sends airspeed information
to the airspeed indicator in the cockpit
pitot-static system
\n
\n\n\t \t\n
a pressure sys-
Aviation.fm Page 172 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
polarity
make an electrical connection, often by
inserting the plug on an electrical
device such as a computer into an elec-
Aviation.fm Page 173 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
pole
polarity of the supply changes, the
stored energy is returned to the supply.
polarity test
a test to see which termi-
nal is positive and which is negative

the north or south
point of the Earth’s axis
A meridian is
a line joining pole to pole.
a terminal,
e.g. of a battery
negative pole
posi-
tive pole
a long, rounded piece of
wood or metal
a flag pole
\f
the pres-
ence of unusually high concentrations
of harmful substances in the environ-
ment
pontoon
\n\r
same as
float
adjective
bad
poor
weather conditions
poor visibility
Air is a poor conductor.
Aviation.fm Page 174 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
precaution
potential
\n\b\r\f
adjective
capa-
ble of being, but not yet in existence
designated fire zone is a region where a
potential fire risk may exist.
potential
danger
possible future danger
voltage
Precipitation static develops
due to friction between the aircraft sur-
face and precipitation causing the air-
craft to become charged to a high
potential.
pound
\r
a unit of weight
equal to 16 ounces or 453.592 grams.
Abbreviation
powder

noun
a substance
made of ground or otherwise finely dis-
persed solid particles
Dry chemical
fire-extinguishers contain a non-toxic
powder.
power

energy or force
power-assisted

\t\n\t
adjective
power-assisted controls
controls which require less human
effort to move
power dive
\t
a steep
dive made by an aircraft with its engines
at high power to increase the speed
powered

adjective
driven by
something such as a type of energy or
motor
system powered by electricity
power line
\t\r
a thick
cable, supported by pylons, which car-
ries electricity for long distances
powerplant
#\r\n
noun
engine used to move a vehicle or air-
craft
Additional strength is required
for the powerplant attachment point.
NOTE
: The word also written
power
plant
‘…by replacing the Rotax engine with a
four-stroke Jabiru powerplant, the aircraft
designers claim the aircraft will be
provided with more power and increased
all-round performance’ [
Flight
International 16–22July1997
power supply

\t
an electrical circuit that provides partic-
ular direct current voltage and current
levels from an alternating current
source for use in other electrical circuits
If the power supply from the amplifier
to the gauge fails, the needle slowly
falls to zero.
PPI
abbreviation
plan position indica-
tor
PPL
abbreviation
Private Pilot’s
Licence
PPR
abbreviation
prior permission
required
abbreviation
public relations
practicable
\n\t
adjec-
tive
capable of being put into practice or
effect
Some military aircraft use brak-
ing parachutes but this is not practica-
ble on civil aircraft.
practical
\n\t
adjective
referring to practice or action rather
than theory
For practical purposes,
any straight line drawn on a Lambert’s
conformal projection represents a great
circle.
practice
\n\t
habitual
or customary behaviour
It is common
practice for pilots to take turns to sleep
on long-haul flights.
a performance
or operation
in practice
when actu-
ally done, in reality
Frequency modu-
lation (FM) in theory has a limitless
number of sidebands, but in practice
only the first eight pairs are significant.
verb US
same as
practise
‘…if the aircraft has been standing
overnight or longer, check the drains for
water. This should, of course, be normal
practice’ [
Civil Aviation Authority,
General Aviation Safety Sense Leaflet
practise
\n\t
verb
to do some-
thing repeatedly in order to improve
In order to improve flying skills, a
trainee pilot must practise regularly.
NOTE
: This word is also written
prac-
tice
in US English.)
pre-

prefix
before
pre-arrange

\b\t\r"
verb
decide or to plan in advance, to prede-
termine
Selective calling uses the
Aviation.fm Page 175 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
precede
precede
\t

verb
to take place
or to come before something else
period of calm often precedes a storm.
When the RVR (runway visual range) is
greater than the maximum value which
can be assessed, the group will be pre-
ceded by the letter indicator P followed
by the highest value which can be
assessed.
precedence
\b\t
the
quality of being more important or
urgent than something else
to take
precedence over
to have priority over,
to be more important than
Emergency
landings take precedence over all oth-
ers.
preceding
\t
\t
adjective
tak-
ing place or coming before something
else
as mentioned in the preceding
paragraph
as written in the paragraph
before the one being read
precipitation
\t\t
\n\b\t\f
water falling as rain, drizzle, hail,
sleet and snow from the atmosphere
onto the surface of the Earth
Cloud
Aviation.fm Page 176 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
present
swell three or four feet high and 500 to
Aviation.fm Page 177 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
presentation
ties.
Learning to fly presents a chal-
lenge.
to present an opportunity
create or to give an opportunity
give a prize or award
Charter passen-
gers on Concorde were presented with a
certificate as a souvenir of their flight.
presentation
\b
\n\b\t\f
showing, a display
The most
widely acceptable presentation of flight
fuel data is in a tabular form.
presently
\b
\r\n
adverb
soon
I’ll be there presently.
now, at the present time
he’s pres-
ently in France
at the present time, he
is in France
a number of methods
are presently in use
a number of meth-
ods are currently in use
Aviation.fm Page 178 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
product
dinator, heading indicator, and vertical
speed indicator
When practising
instrument flying, the attitude indicator
is the most important of the primary
flight instruments.
primary radar
\t\b\t#
noun
a radar system which uses
reflected radio signals
prime
\t
adjective
first
prime
importance
greatest importance
verb
to pump fuel spray into the piston
engine inlet manifold to make starting
from cold easier
During the summer,
after the first flight of the day, it is not
normally necessary to prime the engine.
prime number
\t\r
noun
a number, which, if there is to be
no remainder, is only divisible by itself
and 1, e.g. 13, 17, 19, 23, 29
primer
\t
a protective
substance which is applied to a metal or
wood surface before painting
Interior
metal finishing is done with dust shed-
ding gloss-paint over a primer.
small hand-operated pump, operated
from the cockpit, to spray fuel into the
piston engine inlet manifold to make
starting from cold easier
principal
\t\r\t
adjective
main
Four principal control modes
can be selected on the EFIS (electronic
flight instrument system) control panel.
principle
\t\r\t
noun
a basic
truth or law
Fire extinguishing is
based on the principle of removing one
of the three components necessary for
fire to exist – fuel, oxygen and heat.
NOTE
: Do not confuse with
principal
prior
\t
adjective
earlier, previ-
ous
prior approval
prior permission
prior to
before
prior to our depar-
ture
prior to take-off
before take-off
‘…the pilot remembered hearing the stall
warning immediately prior to impact’
Pilot
priority
\t
\t\n
the order of
importance or urgency
high priority
important or urgent in the circum-
stances
low priority
not important or
urgent in the circumstances
Private Pilot’s Licence
\t\n
\t\n \t
noun
the basic
licence for flying light aircraft. Abbre-
viation
PPL
PRNAV
abbreviation
precision area
navigation
probability

\t\t\n
like-
lihood, the chance of occurrence
probability of aquaplaning increases as
the depth of tyre tread decreases.
probable

adjective
likely, most possible
Pilot error was
the probable cause of the accident.
probe

noun
a metal sensing
device
Ice is allowed to accumulate
on a probe which projects into the air-
stream.
procedural

"
adjective
referring to procedure
procedural approach
"
\n\f
a specific
approach made often after procedure
turns as part of timed, accurately flown
flight pattern to prepare for a landing at
a particular aerodrome
It is important
that the integrity of an aid used to con-
duct procedural approaches is high.
procedure

"
series of actions taken to achieve some-
thing
an emergency procedure
the
process by which aircraft are brought
into position for an instrument approach
and landing
procedure turn

"\n%\r
a turn made at 3° per second to
align the aircraft with the runway
process
\b
a series of
actions or changes which achieve a par-
ticular result
adiabatic process
com-
bustion process
cooling process
produce

verb
to create
Low altostratus clouds often produce
rain.
to make or to manufacture
Most light aircraft are produced in the
United States.
to show
The pilot
must produce her licence to the author-
ities within two weeks.
product
\n
some-
thing created or made by human or nat-
ural methods
Carbon monoxide is a
product of the combustion process.
number obtained by multiplying two
other numbers together
The amount of
power produced in a purely resistive
Aviation.fm Page 179 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
production
circuit is a product of voltage and cur-
rent (P = VI watts).
production

\f\r
noun
creation
The movement of air over the
aerofoil is necessary for the production
of lift.
the process of manufacturing
something
Production of aircraft in
the factory came to a stop in 1974.
the act of showing
An authorised per-
son may require the production of a cer-
tificate of airworthiness.
profile
 \t
an outline
or shape of something, seen from a side
view
The de-icing panels are formed
to the profiles of the wing and tail unit
leading edges into which they are fitted.
a short description
The handbook
gives a short profile of the different air-
craft types.
prognostic
$
\r\n\t
adjective
referring to foretelling or foreseeing
events such as the weather
prognostic chart
$
\r\n\t
\n\f#\n
a chart which predicts the
weather for a given area
Prognostic or
forecast charts are prepared, by the
central meteorological office of each
region, normally for periods up to 24
hours ahead.
Also called
forecast
chart
programme
"\b\n
noun
the
schedule of events to take place or pro-
cedures to be followed
Every part of
the aircraft must be designed to carry
the load imposed on it and in order to
determine such loads a programme of
stress analysis is always carried out.
NOTE
: The word is also written
pro-
gram
in US English.)
progress
$\b
noun
move-
ment towards an end or aim
the
progress of an aircraft in flight
progress
taking place
embarkation
is in progress
passengers are boarding
the aircraft
progression

$\b\f
noun
continuous series or sequence
instruments are checked in logical pro-
gression from left to right.
progressive

$\b\t
adjective
gradual, in stages
Throttle movements
should be kept to a minimum and be
smooth and progressive.
prohibit

\t\t\n
verb
to disallow
or forbid
Smoking is prohibited in toi-
lets.
project
"\b\n
a large-
scale plan or scheme
a project to mod-
ernise the airport
verb

"\b\n
to protrude or jut out
Ice is allowed to
accumulate on a probe which projects
into the airstream.
to produce an
image on a screen with a film or slide
projector
The instructor projected a
diagram of the fuel system onto the
screen.
projection

"\b\f\r
noun
the
production of an image on a surface
prolong

verb
to increase the
duration or time, often unnecessarily
to prolong the life of an engine
Pro-
longed idling at low rpm (revolutions
per minute) could cause spark plug
fouling.
promulgate
$\b\t\n
verb
make known through official means
The range promulgated for NDBs (non-
directional radio beacons) in the
United Kingdom is based on a daytime
Aviation.fm Page 180 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
provide
propeller pitch
\b\t\n\f
the distance a propeller would advance
in one rotation if there was no slip
propeller tip
\b\n\t
the
part of the blade of a propeller furthest
from the central hub
propelling nozzle

\b\t
\r
the extreme rear part of
the jet engine where the jet exhaust
enters the atmosphere
properly

adverb
correctly
When the chart is properly orientated, it
Aviation.fm Page 181 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
provision
with a full meteorological briefing.
Each tank is provided with a shut off
valve.
When aquaplaning, a tyre is not
capable of providing directional control
or effective braking.
provided that
condition that, if
The flight will take
off on schedule provided that the
weather improves.
provision
\t"
pro-
viding something, or what is provided
The provision of fresh air is important
for passengers’ comfort.
Catering
companies are responsible for the pro-
vision of food.
There is a generator for
the provision of emergency power.
The oil tank has provision for filling and
draining.
a legal statement which
provides for something such as particu-
lar circumstances
proximity
\t\t\n
noun
near-
ness in space or time
The two aircraft
were in close proximity.
psychological stress
\t"\t
\n\b
noun
a men-
tally or emotionally upsetting condition
which affects one’s health
abbreviation
press to test/talk
\t
people in gen-
eral
adjective
referring to the people
in general
public address system
\t
\b \t\n
noun
a microphone,
amplifier and loudspeaker set up to
allow one person to be heard by a group
of people
The captain made a public
address (PA) system announcement
asking passengers to remain seated.
Abbreviation
PA system
\t
\b\t\f
the act of making something public,
publishing
the publication of the lat-
est figures
a book, magazine, chart,
etc., which has been published
book is a Civil Aviation Authority publi-
cation.
public relations
\t\t
\b\t\f
the task of maintaining
good relations with the public. Public
relations may also involve putting
across a point of view or publicising a
product.
The arrangements for the
VIPs are being handled by the public
relations department.
Abbreviation
publish
\t\f
verb
to prepare and
Aviation.fm Page 182 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
pyrotechnic
eral purpose
for all-round or general
push-back
\f
noun
the proc-
ess of pushing a plane out from its
parked position using a special vehicle
pushrod
\f
a steel or
aluminium rod which moves the rocker
arm
The camshaft operates the push-
rod.
NOTE
: The
pushrod
is part of the
valve mechanism.)
\t\r
noun
a structure on
the wing of an aircraft to support an
engine
NOTE
: Most modern jet passen-
ger transport aircraft have pylon-
mounted engines.)
a tall metal struc-
ture built to support electricity or tele-
phone cables
Electricity pylons are
difficult to see from the air so pilots of
light aircraft should be particularly
careful to note their positions.
pyrotechnic
\t
\n\b\r\t
adjec-
tive
of or relating to fireworks
pyro-
technic lights
lights created by rockets
or flares
Aviation.fm Page 183 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
Q-code

an interna-
tional telegraph code which is now used
in RTF operations
QDM
in the Q-code system, the
particular type of work
He qualified
as an engineer in 1996.
quality
!\t\n
the amount of
Aviation.fm Page 184 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
radar
\b\t#
noun
a method of
Aviation.fm Page 185 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
radiotelephony
a cockpit navigation instrument which
combines a bearing indicator and a
heading indicator and can be used with
ADF or VOR. Abbreviation
RMI
radiotelephony
\b\t\n
\b \r
the transmission of speech by
radio
Correct use of R/T phraseology
avoids ambiguity.
Abbreviation
R/T
radius
\b\t
the radius of
a circle
a line drawn from a point on the
circumference of a circle to the centre
point
NOTE
: The plural form is
radii
\b\t\t
radome
\b\t
a dome that
protects a radar antenna, made from
materials that do not interfere with the
transmission and reception of radio
waves
RAF
abbreviation
Royal Air Force
raft
# \n
a flat-bottomed inflat-
able rubber craft for floating on water
railway line
\b\t!\b\t\t\r
noun
railway track or train track
A railway
line is a useful landmark.
rain
\b\t\r
precipitation or water
which falls from clouds in small drops
Rain is falling heavily.
Rain and
weather present fewer problems for
area radar compared to the other types.
verb
to fall as drops of water from
clouds
It is raining.
I don’t think it
will rain.
rainstorm
\b\t\r\n
heavy
rain accompanied by wind
In heavy
rainstorm, the windscreen wipers may
not be able to cope.
raise
\b\t
verb
to lift
raise the
landing gear
retract the undercarriage
to increase
to raise the temperature
to raise the pressure
to cause prob-
lems
Fuel vaporisation can raise
problems when starting the engine.
NOTE
: Do not confuse with the verb
rise
. Grammatically, the verb
raise
takes an object whereas the verb
rise
does not:
temperature rises
The sun’s
rays raise the temperature of the sur-
face
rake
\b\t
noun
the angle between a
wing or propeller blade of an aircraft
and a perpendicular or line of symmetry
ram

an increase in air
pressure caused by the forward speed of
the aircraft
Due to ram effect from air-
craft forward speed, extra air is taken
into the engine.
ram air
\b
airflow cre-
ated by the movement of the aircraft
which is used to cool, ventilate or drive
turbines
Oil cooling is often achieved
by using ram air or fuel.
Aviation.fm Page 186 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
reading
rare
\b
adjective
uncommon, not
often occurring
Smog or smoke fog is
now rare because of pollution controls.
RAS
abbreviation
radar advisory
service
rectified air speed
rate
\b\t\n
a quantity measured in
relation to another measured quantity
rate of climb
speed of ascent measured
in feet per minute
rate of descent
Aviation.fm Page 187 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
readout
readout
\n
noun
a display or
presentation of data from calculations
or storage
The rotating beam cloud
base recorder/indicator operates con-
tinuously, day and night and produces
an automatic readout of cloud base
height.
rear
\t
the aft part, the part fur-
thest from the front
the rear of the air-
craft
adjective
at the back, or referring
to the back
The rear part of the air-
craft is called the aft section.
rearward
\t!
adjective
towards
the aft or the rear
The expanding gas
travels in a rearward direction.
reason

the basis or
motive for an action
A rough surface
is more susceptible to fatigue cracking
than a smooth one and for this reason
highly stressed members are often pol-
ished.
reasonable

adjec-
tive
acceptable or fair
a reasonable
sum of money
a sum of money which is
not too high or which is acceptable
within the boundaries of common sense
It would be reasonable to expect that
radio frequencies would travel through
the air in straight lines as a direct wave,
but they bend, or refract.
receive

verb
to get, to obtain
The sides of the hills and mountains
which face the sun receive more intense
radiation than flat surfaces because of
the angle of exposure to the sun.
receiver

noun
a device that
receives incoming radio signals and
converts them to sound or light
transponder in the aircraft consists of a
transmitter and a receiver.
recent

adjective
referring
to a time immediately before the
present
Recent engine designs include
variable angle stator blades.
A more
recent development is the barograph
which utilises the electrical output of
the digital display barometer.
recent
weather
significant weather observed
in the period since the previous obser-
vation, but not now
reception
\b\f\r
an act or
instance of receiving radio signals
The antenna is highly directive in trans-
mission and reception.
reciprocal
\t
adjective
reciprocal heading
an opposite head-
ing, 180° from a given heading
The
reciprocal heading of 090° is 270°.
noun
the exactly opposite direction
wave transmitted vertically returns to
Earth on its reciprocal.
reciprocating
\t\b\t\n\t
adjective
moving backwards and for-
wards or up and down
recognise
\b$\r\t
, recognize
verb
to identify, or to know to be some-
thing that has been seen, heard, etc.
before
It may be difficult to recognise
a particular stretch of coastline simply
by its appearance.
recognition
\b$
\r\t\f
the process of seeing or hearing some-
thing or somebody and knowing what it
is or who he or she is
Hydraulic fluids
are coloured for recognition purposes.
recommend
\b
\b\r
verb
Aviation.fm Page 188 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
refer
craft to straight and level flight
to res-
cue and remove from a particular area,
often the sea
Emergency services
recovered two bodies from the wreckage
of the helicopter.
recovery

return to an earlier, normal condition or
attitude
recovery from unusual atti-
tudes
a flight exercise requiring the stu-
dent pilot to return the aircraft to its pre-
vious, normal, that is, straight and level
attitude, after it has been in an unusual
attitude
rescue and removal from a
particular area
The recovery of survi-
vors from the sea was carried out by
helicopters.
rectangle
\b\n$
sided plane figure with 4 right angles,
and with opposite sides of equal length
The colour identification of refuelling
equipment for AVGAS is: blue rectan-
gle, red decal with AVGAS 100LL in
white letters.
rectangular
\n$
adjec-
tive
referring to something with the
shape of a rectangle
a rectangular
wing panel
rectification
\b\n\t \t
\b\t\f
noun
the process of changing an alter-
nating current into direct current
Part
of the generator alternating current
(AC) is passed through a rectification
circuit.
rectified airspeed
\b\n\t \t\b

noun
indicated airspeed cor-
rected for instrument error and pressure
error
When rectified airspeed (RAS) is
corrected for density error the resultant
is known as the true airspeed.
rectifier
\b\n\t \t
an elec-
tronic circuit that converts an alternat-
ing current supply into a direct current
supply
The ignition unit receives an
alternating current which is passed
through a transformer and rect
ifier.
rectify
\b\n\t \t
verb
to change
alternating current into direct current
Alternating current output is rectified
and regulated externally and returned
as direct current to the stator field
winding.
to correct
to rectify a mis-
take
to put right a mistake
redeye
\b\t
a late night or
overnight airline service
reduce

verb
to decrease, to
make less. Opposite
increase
reduce
altitude
to descend
reduce tempera-
ture
to make cooler
reduced separation
\n
\b
\b\t\f
a revised mini-
mum separation which is smaller than
the previous minimum separation
reduction
\f\r
decrease
reduction in temperature,
pressure, speed
reduction gear
\f\r $\t
gears in an engine which allow the
propeller to turn at a slower speed than
the engine
redundancy
\r\r
the
duplication of component parts of a sys-
tem to enable the system to function
even if one component fails
With sys-
tem redundancy, a single failure within
a system will have little effect on the air-
craft’s performance during the
approach and landing operation.
redundant
\r\r\n
adjective
referring to a system which provides
extra component parts to enable the sys-
tem to function even if one component
fails
Redundant structure design is
composed of a large number of mem-
bers, all of which share a load, so that if
one of the members is lost, the load car-
ried by the member is divided between
all the others in such a way that the
total load-carrying ability is reduced
only slightly.
redux
\b
Aviation.fm Page 189 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
reference
reference
\b
\r
some-
thing used as a basis for further calcula-
tion or investigation
visual reference
anything seen and used as a guide to
something else
Use the large building
as a visual reference for the turn onto
final approach.
reference book
book in which you can look for infor-
mation, e.g. a dictionary
by reference
by looking at and comparing
reference datum
\b
\r
\b\t\n
a line fixed by the
designer from which measurements are
made when checking or adjusting wing
Aviation.fm Page 190 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
relative bearing
the fuel is in the region of 2,000°C (Cel-
sius).
register
\b"\t\n
an official
list or record
The student’s name was
not on the register.
verb
to record or
to indicate on an instrument
During
ground running checks, if oil pressure
does not register within a few seconds,
the engine should be stopped and the
cause investigated.
Electrically oper-
ated pressure gauges register main and
emergency system pressure.
to enter
details on an official list
to register an
aircraft
registration
\b"\t
\n\b\t\f
noun
the entry of civil aircraft into
records of national certification author-
ity with details of letter and number
code displayed on aircraft
certificate
of registration
a document issued as
proof of registration
regular
\b$
adjective
occur-
ring at fixed time intervals
a regular
flight
regular inspections
inspections
taking place at equal intervals of time
ordinary or standard
part of the regu-
lar menu
regulate
\b$\b\t\n
verb
to control,
to adjust to a specific requirement
Controllable cowl flaps regulate the
amount of air flowing across the cylin-
ders.
regulation
\b$
\b\t\f
act or instance of controlling or adjust-
ing to a specific requirement
Regula-
tion of cabin temperature is controlled
by the manual setting of a mechanically
controlled switch.
regulations
\b$
\b\t\f
plural
noun
rules or laws
regulator
\b$\b\t\n
a device
used to control the flow of fluids or
electric current
voltage regulator
device to control the level of voltage
Reid vapour pressure test

\b\t \b\f\n\b\n
a test to deter-
mine the pressure required above a liq-
uid to hold the vapours in the liquid at a
given temperature
reinforce
\t\r
 
verb
to make
stronger or to strengthen
Typical skin
materials used in aircraft are made
from epoxy resins which are reinforced
with glass, carbon or Kevlar fibres.
reinforced
\t\r
 \n
adjective
made stronger or strengthened
reinforced plastics
\t\r \n
\n\t
plural noun
plastic materials
used with glass fibres to repair some
types of aircraft structure
reinforcement
\t\r
 \r\n
the act of strengthening, or a
material or structure used to strengthen
something
There is reinforcement
around each opening in the pressure
cabin, such as the cabin door, escape
hatch and windows.
relate
\b\t\n
verb
to make a con-
nection or link, to associate
Orientat-
ing the chart relates the direction of
land features to their representation on
the chart and aids recognition.
relate to
to concern or to be about
Kepler derived the laws which relate to
the motion of planets in their orbits.
relation
\b\t\f
noun
a natural
or logical association between things
Aviation.fm Page 191 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
relative density
object with reference to the aircraft’s
heading
relative density
\b\n\t\b\r\t\n
the ratio of density of a liquid with
reference to water, or of a gas with ref-
erence to air
relative humidity
\b\n\t
\t\t\n
noun
Aviation.fm Page 192 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
representation
essential.
operated or controlled from
a distance
remote cabin pressure con-
trollers
a remote chance
a small
but unlikely possibility
removal

the act of
taking something away, or of moving
something from the position it occupies
The repair to the aircraft required the
removal of the engine.
remove

verb
to take some-
thing away or move it from the position
it occupies
Filters are fitted in lines in
a hydraulic system, in order to remove
foreign particles from the fluid.
The
engine will have to be removed for
repair.
render
\b\r
verb
to cause to
become
The failure of any component
in the fire detection system will render
the system inoperative.
Tropical air
moving northwards is subjected to sur-
face cooling and rendered increasingly
stable in its lower layers.
to give
render assistance
to provide help
Only when all possible assistance has
been rendered inside the cabin will
crew themselves evacuate.
repair
\b
an action
designed to return something to good
condition after damage
The repair to
the nosewheel took three hours.
verb
Aviation.fm Page 193 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
representative
representative
\b\t
\b\r\n\n\t
adjective
representative of
which is a
typical example of what all others are
like
Surface air temperatures are
taken in such a way as to be representa-
tive of the air temperature near the sur-
Aviation.fm Page 194 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
resultant
resistor
\t\n
a device used
to control current in an electric circuit
by providing a resistance
Components
such as resistors, rectifiers and internal
switches are all embedded in micro-size
sections of semi-conductor material.
respect
\b\n
noun
in some
respect
in some way
The flat chart
inevitably misrepresents the Earth’s
surface in some respect.
with respect
concerning or with reference to
Frost point is the temperature to which
air must be cooled at constant pressure
in order to reach a state of saturation
with respect to ice.
respective
\b\n\t
adjective
referring to two or more persons or
things regarded individually
The pas-
sengers returned to their respective
seats.
The temperature and pressure
of the fuel supply are electrically trans-
mitted to their respective indicators, i.e.
temperature to the temperature gauge
and pressure to the pressure gauge.
respond
\r
verb
to reply or
to answer
to react, to act in return
the aircraft responds to the controls
the aircraft attitude changes as a result
of the pilot’s movements of the flying
controls
responder
\r
same as
transponder
response
\r
answer or reply
transponder response
Despite repeated air traffic control
transmissions, there was no response
from the pilot.
a reaction
response to
as a reaction to
The pri-
mary function of the outflow valves is to
regulate the discharge of cabin air in
response to the pressure signals
received from the controller.
responsibility
\r\t
\t\t\n
noun
the condition of being responsible
It is the responsibility of the captain to
order an evacuation.
responsible
\r\t
adjec-
tive
being a source or cause
Frontal
systems are responsible for much of the
weather and clouds which occur in tem-
perate latitudes.
directing or being in
charge, and open to blame if something
goes wrong
Cabin crew are responsi-
ble for the well-being of passengers.
responsible to someone
answerable for
one’s actions to somebody highly
placed
restore
\n
verb
to return some-
thing to its original or normal condition
Loss of engine power should be fully
restored when the control is returned to
the cold air position.
restrict
\n\t\n
verb
to make free
movement limited or difficult
narrow aisles of the aircraft restrict the
rapid movement of people.
to limit
during the bomb-scare, entry to the
airport was restricted to authorised
people only
only authorised people
could enter the airport
restricted area
\n\t\n\t\b
airspace of a particular length,
width and depth, within which the flight
of an aircraft must be carried out in
accordance with particular conditions
restriction
\n\t\f
narrowing or partial blockage
restriction in a pipeline will increase
liquid velocity and produce turbulence.
a limitation
There are restrictions
on the taking of photographs in the
vicinity of the airport.
restrictor valve
\n\t\n
a valve designed to permit limited
flow in one direction and full flow in the
other direction
The extent to which the
oil pressure will fall depends on the size
of the restrictor valve.
result
\n
a consequence or
outcome
Engine oil and cylinder tem-
perature will also increase as a result of
higher combustion temperatures.
verb
to result from
to happen as a conse-
quence
The structural weakness
resulted from a minor collision while
taxiing two years previously.
to result
to produce as an effect
Failure to
secure seat belts could result in serious
injury.
resultant
\n\r\n
adjective
that
happens as a result of something
temperature of the land rises, causing
the layer of air in contact with it to
warm up and expand with a resultant
decrease in density.
one vector
that is the equivalent of a set of vectors
Aviation.fm Page 195 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
retain
When two or more velocities act
simultaneously on a body, the aircraft
movement is called the resultant veloc-
ity due to the two or more component
velocities.
Aviation.fm Page 196 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
control is possible if complete loss of
hydraulic power occurs.
revert
%\n
verb
to return to an ear-
lier condition or state
The elevator
system has the ability to revert to man-
ual control after a hydraulic failure.
revolution
\b
\f
rotation or turn about an axis
a revo-
lution of the crankshaft
a 360° turn of
the crankshaft
revolutions per minute
\b\f
\r\t\r\t\n
the
speed of an engine or the number of
rotations of the crankshaft per minute
Rpm is the number of revolutions per
minute that the engine crankshaft is
making.
The actuator control is sensi-
tive to engine rpm.
Abbreviation
rpm
r.p.m.
revolve

verb
to turn about an
axis
The Earth revolves around the
sun.
revolving
\t
adjective
tropical revolving storm
an intense
depression of a kind that can develop
over tropical oceans
Tropical revolv-
ing storms originate within 5–15° of the
equator.
Tropical revolving storms
generally occur from June to October.
rhumb
one of the points of
a compass
rhumb line
\t\r
a reg-
ularly curved line on the surface of the
Earth which cuts all meridians at the
same angle
a steady course taken by
aircraft along one compass bearing
rhumb line direction
\t\r
\b\f
noun
the average of all
the great circle directions between the
two points
Because the great circle
direction between two points on the sur-
face of the Earth is not constant, it is
often more convenient to consider the
rhumb line direction.
rib
\t
one of many cross pieces
of the airframe that provide an aircraft
wing with shape and strength
Addi-
tional strength is required for the rib
sections which are placed in the area of
the undercarriage mountings, flaps and
power plant attachment point.
rich
\t\n\f
adjective
referring to a mix-
ture in which the ratio of fuel to air is
greater than usual
Moving the mixture
control lever forward to the rich posi-
tion increases the amount of fuel mixing
with the air.
rich mixture
\t\n\f\t\n\f
noun
fuel/air mixture in which the proportion
of fuel is greater than normal
ridge
\t"
noun
a long narrow hill
with a crest
The mountain ridge
stretches for miles.
a long zone of rel-
atively high atmospheric pressure
ridge of high pressure
On average, the
wind backs with the passage of a ridge.
ridge waves
\t"!\b\t
plural
oscillations about the stable state
of the undisturbed air flow with the
range of hills providing the disturbance
rigging position
\t$\t
\t\f
an attitude of the aircraft in which
the lateral axis and usually the longitu-
dinal axis are horizontal
The aircraft
was put into the rigging position.
rigid
\t"\t
adjective
unbending,
inflexible
The areas between the ribs
are utilised to house fuel tanks which
can be either rigid or flexible.
Opposite
flexible
rigid pipes
pipes that do not
bend easily
a rigid structure
a firm
unbendable structure
rigidity
"\t\t\n
noun
inflexibility,
stiffness
Extra strength and rigidity
must be provided in the tail section for
aircraft with a tail wheel unit.
Opposite
flexibility
rim
\t
the outer edge of some-
thing circular, e.g. a wheel
Creep
marks are painted on the tyre and the
wheel rim.
The rim of the air intake is
prone to icing.
rime ice
\t\t
ice formed
Aviation.fm Page 197 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
rise
rise
\t
an increase
a rise
in temperature
to give rise to
cause
Hills and mountains may give
rise to particularly severe turbulence.
verb
to move upwards
air rises
increase
The temperature is rising.
raise
risk
\t
the possibility of suf-
fering harm or injury, danger
When
starting an engine, it is bad practice to
pump the throttle lever as there is a risk
might be expressed as roll:
roll the
aircraft to the left
roll cloud

cloud
created in the rotor zone on the down-
wind side of mountain ranges
roller

a cylindrical metal
device which rotates
The most com-
mon bearings used in gas turbine
engine are the ball or roller type.
RON
abbreviation
remain overnight
root
\n
the root of the
problem
the cause of the problem
rose

compass rose
the
compass card or its marking of 32
points on a map
An arc of the compass
scale, or rose, covering 30° on either
side of the instantaneous track, is at the
upper part of the display.
rotary
\n
adjective
rotating
rotary motion
rotating movement
rotary actuator
\n
\n\b\t\n
an actuator which
rotates and operates a screw jack, e.g. to
extend flaps
rotary inverter
\n\t\r
%\n
noun
a DC motor driving an AC gener-
ator, the output of which must be regu-
lated to give constant voltage and fre-
quency
rotary wing aircraft
\n!\t
\b# \n
an aircraft with a rotor
which provides lift, such as a helicopter
rotate

\n\b\t\n
verb
to turn around
on an axis or centre
In the event of
flame extinction in flight, the engine
will continue to rotate, due to the air-
Aviation.fm Page 198 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
rudder
flow through it caused by the forward
speed of the aircraft.
The aircraft
should be rotated to the recommended
nose-up attitude for touch down.
Counter-rotating propellers rotate in
opposite directions.
rotation
rotation

\n\b\t\f
the act
of moving the control yoke or stick aft
to raise the nose of an aircraft during the
take-off run to facilitate the aircraft
becoming airborne
Rotation should
begin at about 60 knots.
the act of
turning around an axis or centre
the
rotation of the earth
crankshaft rota-
tion
The speed of rotation determines
the frequency of the generator output.
COMMENT
: The aircraft rotates around
three axes:
pitch
= rotation around the
lateral axis;
roll
= rotation around the
longitudinal axis;
yaw
= rotation
around the vertical axis.
rotational

\n\b\t\f
adjective
rotating
rotational movement of the
camshaft
The rotational movement of
the propeller blades creates lift at right
angles to the blade.
rotor
\n
noun
a device which
turns about an axis or centre
The rotor
blade of a compressor.
rotor blade
\n\b\t
long thin aerofoil on a helicopter rotor
rotorcraft
\n# \n
noun
same
rotary wing aircraft
rough
adjective
not smooth,
having an irregular surface. Opposite
smooth
rough air
turbulent air
rough running
referring to a piston
engine which is not operating correctly
not fully detailed
a rough estimate
an approximate calculation, good
enough for a given purpose
a rough
drawing
a quick drawing usually used
to illustrate or explain
roughness
 \r
noun
uneven-
ness of a surface
The strength of tur-
bulence near the Earth’s surface
depends largely on the surface temper-
ature, the surface wind, and the rough-
ness of the surface.
rough terrain
 \n
\t\r
uneven ground
round
\r
adjective
circular
round life raft
adverb
in a circular
movement
The pointer swings round.
route
\n
noun
a course of travel
The purpose of charts is to plan and fly
a safe route to a destination.
en route
verb
to plan to send an aircraft, pas-
sengers or freight to a place along a par-
ticular route
route flight plan
\n \t\n \r
detailed information concerning
an intended flight, provided to an air
traffic control facility in written or oral
form
routine

\n\r
a standard pro-
cedure
Meteorological information
for scheduled flights will be passed to
the operations department as a matter
of routine.
adjective
standard and reg-
ular
routine servicing
servicing car-
ried out in the normal way at regular,
scheduled intervals
row

a series of objects in
a line
Each row of rotating rotor
blades is followed by a row of station-
ary stator blades.
a series of seats in
an aircraft
There are no empty seats in
rpm
, r.p.m.
abbreviation
revolutions
per minute
Rpm is the number of rev-
olutions per minute that the engine
crankshaft is making.
The actuator
control is sensitive to engine rpm.
R/T
abbreviation
radiotelephony
NOTE
R/T
is frequently used in spoken
language, whereas
RTF
is the ICAO
abbreviation.)
RTF
abbreviation
radiotelephony
ICAO
rudder

noun
a control surface
on the fin which rotates the aircraft
about its vertical axis to produce yaw
The A320 retains a backup mechanical
linkage for elevator trim and rudder to
allow control in the unlikely event of
complete electrical failure.
COMMENT
: The rudder does not turn
Aviation.fm Page 199 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
rudder ball
rudder ball

same
Aviation.fm Page 200 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
abbreviation
south
safe
\b\t
adjective
free from danger
Approach to land must be made at a
safe speed.
safe landing
a landing
which does not endanger people or
damage the aircraft.
fail safe
safeguard
\b\t $#
some-
thing done as a precaution
A propeller
is feathered after engine failure, or as a
safeguard when low oil pressure or
excessive temperature have indicated
the development of a possible defect.
verb
to take action to make sure that
something is protected from harm
pressure maintaining valve is generally
used to safeguard operation of impor-
tant services, such as flying controls
and wheel brakes.
safe life
\b\t \t
the principle
of putting the least load or force on each
component, so that it will last well
beyond a plane’s expected life
Aviation.fm Page 201 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
SAS
SAS
abbreviation
stability augmenta-
tion system
\n\t\n
an object
launched to orbit the earth, usually
receiving and transmitting signals, pic-
tures and data
Satellite communica-
tions improve the effective distribution
of world area forecasts.
satellite navigation
\n
\t\n
\r\t
$\b\t\f
, satellite navigation
system
a system of navigation
which uses orbiting satellites to deter-
mine the position of an aircraft or point,
in relation to the Earth’s surface. Abbre-
viation
SATNAV
satisfactory
\n\t
 \n
adjective
adequate, good enough
For
satisfactory operation, an engine
requires an adequate supply of oil.
‘…during the engine run-up, check that
Aviation.fm Page 202 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
secondary surveillance radar
screen
\r
noun
the surface of a
TV or computer monitor on which the
image is seen
The airborne weather
radar (AWR) allows the range of cloud
to be estimated from range markers dis-
played on the screen.
screw

noun
a type of threaded
connector used to fix things together by
rotating it
screw jack
"
, screw-
jack
"
a lifting device
working with rotary input
Pitch trim
is achieved by lowering or raising the
tailplane leading edge with a screw jack
powered by two hydraulic motors.

a body of salt water
Aviation.fm Page 203 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
section
identify aircraft, determine altitude and
Aviation.fm Page 204 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
serviceability
of a word
The word ‘bearing’ is used
in a lot of different senses.
verb
detect automatically
The fire warning
system is designed to sense two levels of
temperature – overheat and fire.
sensitive
\b\r\t\n\t
adjective
able to
register very small differences or
changes in conditions
Oscillating out-
puts from the alternators could cause
sensitive equipment to malfunction or
trip off.
The actuator is sensitive to
engine rpm.
sensitivity
\b\r\t
\n\t\t\n
the
quality or state of being able to register
very small differences or changes in
conditions
Aviation.fm Page 205 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
serviceable
serviceable
%\t
adjective
able to function as required
The pilot
must make sure that the radio equip-
ment is serviceable prior to take-off.
service area
%\t \b
area where maintenance and repairs are
carried out
service bay
%\t\b\t
noun
space in the structure of an aeroplane
where equipment can be located for
maintenance or repairs
In most mod-
ern aircraft a number of the major com-
ponents are grouped together in a
hydraulic service bay which is easily
accessible for routine servicing opera-
tions.
Aviation.fm Page 206 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
shorten
of the Earth creates a shadow zone from
the sun.
Line-of-sight transmission
path means that obstacles and terrain
can create shadow zones.
shaft
\f# \n
a long, generally
cylindrical bar, especially one that
rotates and transmits power
engine
drive shaft
propeller shaft
shaft horsepower
\f# \n

the unit used for stat-
ing the power delivered to the shaft of a
turboshaft or turboprop engine. Abbre-
viation
\f\b\t
a device which
shakes or vibrates violently
Large air-
craft use a stick shaker to supplement
the natural stall warning of buffet.
\f
adjective
not deep
shallow angle
small angle
shallow depression
\f\t
\b\f
an area of slightly low
relative atmospheric pressure
shape
\f\b\t
noun
form
The shape
of an aircraft is determined by the
requirement to provide an aerodynamic
lift force great enough to support the
weight of the aircraft and payload
whilst in flight.
sharp
\f#
adjective
thin and
capable of cutting or piercing
If a
piece of thermosetting plastic is hit hard
enough, it breaks into pieces with
straight sharp edges.
clear
The
sharp setting means the bandwidth is
reduced to 1kHz (kilohertz) to minimise
noise or interference.
clear and dis-
tinct
Cumulus clouds have sharp out-
lines.
sudden and acute
a sharp
increase
a sudden large increase
shatter
\f\n
verb
to break into a
number of pieces when hit
Clear ice is
hard to shatter and break off.
\f\t
verb
to break by lateral
movement
shearing load
\f\t\t
load caused by sliding apart the layers
of a structure
shear stress
\f\t\n\b
stress
that occurs in riveted and bolted joints
when a force causes one layer of mate-
rial to slide over an adjacent layer
verb
to get rid of
Non-
essential loads may need to be shed in
order to reduce weight.
Aviation.fm Page 207 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
short-haul
column shortens when cooled.
Opposite
lengthen
short-haul
\f\n
adjective
trav-
elling over a short distance
short-haul flight
\f\n \t\n
a flight over a short distance, up to
1,000km
On short-haul flights, pas-
sengers are usually offered only light
meals.
short-term conflict alert
\f\n
\n%\r \t\n
%\n
a warning
that an aircraft may soon be flying too
close to another aircraft
\f\n
a discharge
Extin-
guishing of a fire in an auxiliary power
unit (APU) compartment is normally
done by a single-shot fire extinguisher.
shower
\f
a short period of
rain or snow
Showers are forecast for
the evening.
Snow showers are
expected in the area.
SHP
abbreviation
shaft horsepower
shroud
\f
an extension
of a fixed surface of a wing towards the
rear, which covers the leading edge of a
movable surface hinged to it
any one
of the lines by which the harness of a
parachute is attached to the canopy
\f\r\n
a low-resistance
connection between two points in an
electric circuit that forms an alternative
path for a portion of the current
shunt-wound generator, used in con-
junction with a voltage regulator, is the
most common type of DC (direct cur-
rent) generator system for aircraft.
Also
called
bypass
shutter
\f\n
noun
a hinged door
which controls the flow of air
oil
cooler shutters
radiator shutters
abbreviation
standard instrument
departure
sidestick controller
\t\n\t\r
\n
noun
a small side-mounted
control column used on aircraft such as
the Airbus A340
\t\n
view
The fog
cleared and the mountain came into
sight.
with the airfield in sight
transmission to air traffic control to
confirm that the pilot can see the land-
ing airfield
the ability to see using the
eyes
verb
to see something when it is
a long way away
Sea marker dyes can
only be used once and should only be
used when a search aircraft is sighted.
sight glass
\t\n$#
noun
a sim-
ple fluid-level gauge
Aviation.fm Page 208 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
sit
Aviation.fm Page 209 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
site
pilot sits in the cockpit.
NOTE
sitting –
site
\t\n
noun
a selected area of land
landing site
verb
to position or to
put in a particular place
Where it is
impossible or inadvisable to site the
localiser antenna on the runway cen-
treline, it may be positioned to one side.
sitting
\t\n\t
adjective
sitting posi-
tion
the position of a person who is on
a seat
The correct technique of using
the escape slides is to assume a sitting
position.
situate
\t\n\f\b\t\n
verb
to put in a par-
ticular place, to locate
The inlet pres-
sure is sensed by a single pitot-type
probe which is situated just in front of
the compressor.
situation
\t\n\f
\b\t\f
noun
location, the place where something is
The situation of the flight controls is
important.
the conditions or circum-
stances in a particular place or at a par-
ticular time
The synoptic chart is a
graphical representation of the general
weather situation over a given area at a
given time.
six character group
\t
\t\n$
a group of six
letters and/or numbers
six degrees of freedom of
motion
\t\t
$ 
\f
plural noun
the six types of
movement that an aircraft must be able
to make: forward, upward and down-
ward, and roll, yaw and pitch
\t
noun
the extent of a thing,
how big something is
Whether or not
an object can be seen by aircrew at a
given distance will depend on factors
such as the size, shape and colour of the
object.
\t
a slide on slippery
ground
Anti-skid braking systems
units are designed to prevent the brakes
locking the wheels during landing, thus
reducing the possibility of wheel skid.
a condition of uncoordinated flight then
the aircraft moves away from the centre
of a turn
Deflection of the ball in the
turn coordinator indicates a slip or a
skid.
anti-skid
NOTE
: To correct a
skid, the pilot should increase the bank,
or increase rudder pressure on the
same side as the ball has moved to in
the
turn coordinator
.)
verb
to slide
on slippery ground
If you brake too
Aviation.fm Page 210 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
smoke alarm
sea breezes occur in coastal areas when
there is a slack pressure gradient.
#\r\n
a slope or inclina-
tion
Distance Measuring Equipment
(DME) is a radio aid which measures
aircraft slant range to a ground beacon.
verb
to slope
The wing slants
upwards from the root to the tip.
\n
a movable device on
the leading edge of a wing which, when
extended, creates a gap that allows air to
pass smoothly over the top of the wing
thus reducing the possibility of a stall
The Socata Rallye is one of the few light
aircraft with leading edge slats.
Aviation.fm Page 211 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
smoking
up if there is smoke somewhere
Wash-
rooms are fitted with smoke alarms.
\t
the act of
breathing in smoke from a cigarette,
Aviation.fm Page 212 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
south-west
somewhat
!\n
adverb
some extent, a bit
The usefulness of
pure aluminium as a structural material
is somewhat limited.
sonic
\r\t
adjective
referring to
sound
within the human hearing
range
sonic speed
the speed of sound
sonic boom
\r\t
noun
noise, due to shock waves, produced
when an aircraft travels through the air
faster than the speed of sound
sophisticated
 \t\n\t\b\t\n\t
adjective
highly developed and com-
plex
The electronic flight instrument
system, commonly known as EFIS, is a
highly sophisticated type of flight direc-
tor system.
The A340 is a sophisti-
cated aeroplane.
sortie
\n
noun
an operational
flight by one aircraft
The test pro-
gramme has accumulated 1,146 sorties.
sound
\r
adjective
strong
stressed skin structure is used on mod-
ern aircraft which gives a sound struc-
ture with relatively low weight.
something that can be heard and is
caused by vibration of the surrounding
air
FM (frequency modulation) gives
a wide range of sounds or a very high
data rate.
verb
to make a noise
the trim position is incorrect, a warning
horn will sound when number three
thrust lever is advanced for take off.
sonic 2.
to seem
It sounds as if the
pilot is having trouble.
source

a supply
Under
emergency conditions, the battery may
be the only source of electrical power.
Jet aircraft have a ready source of com-
pressed air from the compressor sec-
tions of their engines.
south
a compass point on
the mariner’s compass 180° clockwise
from due north and directly opposite
north
Fly towards the south.
south
facing mountain side
the face of a
mountain which looks towards the
south
adjective
referring to areas or
regions lying in the south, referring to
the compass point 180° from north
the
south side of the river
the southern
part of a region or country
South
America
South Dakota
adverb
towards the south
The aircraft is fly-
ing south.
southbound
&\r
adjective
travelling towards the south
a south-
bound flight
south-east
&\n
the
direction between south and east
region in the south-east of Canada
adjective
situated in the south-east
the south-east coast of England
blowing from or coming from the
south-east
adverb
towards the south-
east
We were heading south-east.
south-easterly
&\n
adjective
blowing from or coming
from the south-east
a south-easterly
wind
moving towards the south-east
We were following a south-easterly
direction.
south-eastern
&\n\r
adjec-
tive
referring to or situated in the south-
east
the south-eastern coast of Spain
southerly
'
adjective
situ-
ated towards the south
the most south-
erly point of a country
coming from
the south
A southerly wind was blow-
ing.
moving to or towards the south
We were flying in a southerly direction.
noun
a wind which blows from the
south
southern
'
adjective
situ-
ated in the south
the southern hemi-
sphere
the southern Atlantic
southern hemisphere
'
\b\t \t
noun
the area of the Earth to
the south of the equator
South Pole
&
noun
the
point which is furthest south on the
earth
to fly over the South Pole
southward
&!
adjective
going towards the south
to go in a
southward direction
adverb US
same
southwards
southwards
&!
adverb
towards the south
The aircraft was fly-
ing southwards.
south-west
&!\b\n
the
Aviation.fm Page 213 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
south-westerly
adverb
towards the south-west
were heading south-west.
south-westerly
&!\b\n
adjective
blowing from or coming
from the south-west
a south-westerly
wind
moving towards the south-west
We were following a south-westerly
direction.
south-western
&!\b\n\r
adjective
referring to or situated in the
south-west
The south-western corner
of England includes Cornwall and
Devon.
south wind
&!\t\r
wind blowing from or coming from the
south
NOTE
: A wind is named after the
direction it comes from.)
\b\t
an empty area
A major problem with fuel storage is
finding space within the airframe.
the
physical universe outside the Earth’s
atmosphere
VHF (very high fre-
quency) waves tend to pass through the
layers of the ionosphere into space.
\r
the distance
between two points
#
the main longitudinal
beam of an aircraft wing
Designing a
wing skin, a rib or a spar as a single big
item rather than assembling it from
many smaller components minimises
the number of structural parts.
spark
#
a light produced
by a sudden electrical discharge
verb
to suddenly start a process or action
Crew must quickly establish control to
ensure panic does not spark a prema-
ture evacuation.
spark plug
#$
, sparking
plug
#\t$
noun
a device
screwed into each cylinder head in
spark ignition engines, which initiates
fuel combustion by an electric spark.
air gap
. Also called
sparking plug
\n
a streamlined cover-
ing for a wheel fitted on a light aircraft
to reduce drag. Also called
wheel fair-
ing
spatial disorientation
a situ-
ation of bad visibility and/or unusual
manoeuvres which result in the pilot not
knowing what attitude the aircraft is in

loud-
speaker
\b\f
adjective
particu-
lar, specific, or not ordinary
To make
a composite, it is necessary to combine
the reinforcing glass fibres with some
form of special glue.
a special
meteorological report
special aerodrome report
\b\f
\b\t
\n
report used if there are significant
weather changes since the last meteoro-
logical aerodrome report. Abbreviation
special VFR flight
a control-
led VFR flight permitted by air traffic
control to fly within a control zone in
meteorological conditions below visual
meteorological conditions
specific

\t \t
adjective
clearly
defined and definite
Flight levels are
specific pressure altitudes.
The air-
frame has to be built to very specific
requirements.
specification
\b\t \t
\b\t\f
noun
a detailed description that sets out
what something consists of, what is
Aviation.fm Page 214 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
spool
sphere
an object in the
shape of a ball
The Earth is not a per-
fect sphere.
A circle drawn on the sur-
face of a sphere, whose plane passes
through the centre of the sphere is
called a great circle.
spherical
 \b\t
adjective
shaped like a sphere
The Earth is
almost spherical in shape.
Drain
cocks are generally simple, manually
operated spherical valves.
\t
the running out of a
liquid from a container, especially when
it is unintentional
an oil spill
a fuel
spill
verb
to cause liquid to run out of
a container, usually unintentionally
fuel is spilt, it creates a fire hazard.
NOTE
spilling – spilled
or
spilt
spillage
\t\t"
the spilling of
a liquid
Any fuel spillage must be
cleaned up immediately.
NOTE
: The
word
spillage
is used in a more general
sense than the word
spill
\t\r
noun
fast rotation
the
spin axis of the earth
the continued
spiral descent of an aircraft where the
angle of attack of one wing is greater
than the stalling angle
verb
to rotate
rapidly
The Earth is spinning on its
axis.
to put an aircraft into a contin-
ued spiral descent with the angle of
attack of the mainplane greater than the
stalling angle
It is prohibited to spin
general-purpose light aircraft which
are not equipped with a suitable har-
ness.
COMMENT
: The Moroccan aerobatic
team ‘La Marche Verte’ perform a
formation manoeuvre with three
aircraft spinning through multiple
rotations while inverted.
spindle
\t\r
a pin or bar
which rotates or on which something
rotates
A cup anemometer has three
cups, mounted on a spindle, that are
driven by the wind causing the spindle
to rotate.
spine
\t\r
noun
the longitudinal
central part of an engine
Annular
inner and outer air casings form a tun-
nel around the spine of the engine.
\t\r
a cap that fits
over the hub of the propeller of an air-
craft
spiral
\t
adjective
winding
continuously in circles as it ascends or
descends
spiral dive
\t\t
dangerous uncontrolled turning descent
of an aircraft in which rate of descent
and speed increase
\t\r
noun
a groove in a
shaft for meshing or engaging with
another component
\t\n
noun
a division
break along a line, especially in wood,
plastic or rubber
a split in a tyre
verb
to divide
Aviation.fm Page 215 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
spot
bofan engine to decrease
to spool up
to increase the revolutions per minute of
a turbofan engine
\n
noun
a special or small
place
Charts should be kept in a con-
venient spot in the cockpit.
a small
roundish mark or piece
a spot of oil on
a shirt
spot height
the height of a par-
ticular place, e.g. a mountain peak,
marked on a chart
\n\t\n
a powerful,
often moveable light which illuminates
a small area
A spotlight is mounted on
the roof.
spray
\b\t
noun
a body of liquid
in fine drops
The generator is cooled
by oil spray delivered by the constant
speed drive section.
a container that
sends out liquid in fine drops
verb
apply or to send out liquid in the form of
fine drops
Some engines have the
coolant sprayed directly into the com-
pressor inlet, but for axial flow com-
pressor engines, it is more suitable to
spray the coolant into the combustion
chamber inlet.
spread
\b
an extension of
the area covered or affected by some-
thing
Measures are taken to prevent
the spread of fire.
verb
to extend the
area of something
Strong jets of water
should not be used on a liquid fire as
this may cause the fire to spread.
system sprays a quantity of fluid onto
the windscreen, which is then spread by
the wipers.
NOTE
spreading –
spread
spring
\t
noun
a metal device
which, when under tension, tries to
resume its previous position
The pitch
lock piston is held in the forward posi-
tion by a spring.
Aviation.fm Page 216 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
stall warning system
craft.
a state of the atmosphere in
which air will resist vertical displace-
ment
When air moves away from its
source region, the stability of the lower
atmosphere changes.
COMMENT
: Stability can be classified
as three types.
Positive stability
Aviation.fm Page 217 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
standard
standard
\n\r
some-
thing, e.g. a quality or measure, that is
officially recognised as an example that
others must conform with
Water is the
Aviation.fm Page 218 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
steward
static display
\n\n\t\t
\b\t
noun
a display of parked aircraft on the
ground
static electricity
\n\n\t \t\b
\n\t\t\n
electricity not flowing as
a current
When the aircraft travels
through the air, friction causes a charge
of static electricity to be built up on the
airframe.
static ground running
\n\n\t
$\r \r\t
the running of
the engine while the aircraft is station-
ary on the ground
static line
\n\n\t\t\r
a rope
attached to an aircraft and a parachute
that automatically opens the parachute
when the parachutist jumps
static port
\n\n\t\n
small hole in the side of the aircraft
which senses static pressure and is used
in the operation of the altimeter, vertical
speed indicator and airspeed indicator
Ensure that the static port is clear.
static pressure
\n\n\t\b\f
noun
the pressure of a fluid acting on
and moving with a body
station
\n\b\t\f
a particu-
lar assigned location
The interphone
system allows the flight deck to commu-
nicate with cabin crew stations.
the
location of a radio transmitter
a VOR
station
stationary
\n\b\t\f
adjective
not moving
The aircraft was station-
ary on the ground with engine running.
stator
\n\b\t\n
a fixed part of a
rotary machine
The low-pressure
compressor has large rotor blades and
stator blades and is designed to handle
a far larger airflow than the other two
compressors.
A temperature probe is
embedded into the stator of the genera-
tor and a meter is provided, so that gen-
erator stator temperature can be moni-
tored.
status
\n\b\t\n
noun
condition
The
centre-zero ammeter tells the pilot the
status of the aircraft battery.
statute mile
\n\n\f\n\t
noun
non-SI unit of length equalling 1.609
kilometres
It is 20 statute miles to the
airport.
Abbreviation
abbreviation
supplemental type
certificate
STCA
abbreviation
short-term conflict
alert
steady
\n\b
adjective
constant and
unchanging
The manual test will give
a steady red light.
a steady wind
wind of constant speed and direction
steam fog
\n $
fog
formed when cold air moves over rela-
tively warm water
Visibility was
impaired because of steam fog.
steel
\n
a metal alloy of iron,
carbon and other compounds
stain-
less steel
steel containing chromium
and nickel that is highly resistant to cor-
rosion
Tubing in parts of the system
containing fluid at high pressure are
usually made from stainless steel.
steep
\n
adjective
sloping
sharply
a steep angle of approach
the angle formed by the aircraft
approach flight path and the horizontal
is greater than usual
closely spaced
referring to marked changes in pressure
or temperature in a relatively short hor-
izontal distance
Cooling of the air in
contact with the ground at night can
cause a very steep inversion of temper-
ature at the surface.
Pressure gradi-
ents in anti-cyclonic curvature tend not
to be steep.
steer
\n\t
verb
to direct by using a
wheel or control stick
The aircraft is
steered on the ground by using the rud-
der pedals.
steering
\n\t\t
guiding or
directing
Steering is controlled by
rudder pedals.
a system for guiding
Aviation.fm Page 219 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
stewardess
stewardess
\n
\b
female member of airline staff who look
after passengers during the flight.
cabin crew
flight attendant
steward
NOTE
: Different airlines use different
terminology for their staff.)
stick
\n\t
the main hand con-
trol used by the pilot to control the air-
craft roll and pitch
Using fly-by-wire
technology, the stalling angle cannot be
exceeded regardless of stick input.
verb
to become fixed, as if with glue
Ice crystals and snowflakes do not stick
to airframes, and so icing is a problem
only when super-cooled water droplets
are present.
stiff
\n\t
adjective
rigid or inflexi-
ble
Kevlar 49 is stiffer t
han glass, but
only about half as stiff as carbon fibres.
not easily bent or turned
control
surfaces may become stiff as a result
of icing
control surfaces may become
difficult to move
a stiff wind
fairly strong wind
stiffen
\n\t
verb
to make rigid
or inflexible, to make stiff
Beams can
be additionally stiffened in a downward
direction by vertical and diagonal
members.
to become stronger
STOL
\n
noun
a flying system
that allows an aircraft to take off and
land on a very short runway
an air-
craft fitted with the STOL system. Full
form
short takeoff and landing
stop
\n
noun
the end of a move-
ment
to come to a stop
to stop mov-
ing
a component which limits the dis-
tance that a moving part can move
adjustable stop on the throttle control
ensures a positive idling speed.
storage
\n\t"
noun
the act of
storing something
A reservoir pro-
vides storage space for the system fluid.
store
\n
noun
a supply
maintenance section keeps a store of
spare components.
a shop
verb
to put away for future use
A capacitor
is a device with the ability to temporar-
ily store an electric charge.
stores
\n
plural noun
goods
Freight carrying aircraft have support-
ing members of greater strength to
allow for the carriage of heavy stores.
storm
\n
a violent weather
disturbance with high winds and rain or
snow
Storms produced by daytime
heating are most frequently encoun-
tered in the afternoon and early
evening.
stow
\n
verb
to place something in
its correct position in the aircraft
Make sure the fire-extinguisher is
stowed.
stowage
\n\t"
a space for
stowing things
A multi-wheel combi-
nation has the advantage of smaller and
lighter undercarriage structures, and
wing stowage problems can be over-
come by suitable mechanisms.
stowaway
\n
!\b\t
a per-
reading.
strength
\n\b&
the ability
of a material to take pressure or support
a load
Aircraft wheels require great
strength and are constructed in two
halves which are bolted together after
the tyre is fitted.
Magnesium does not
Aviation.fm Page 220 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
sub-beam
possess sufficient strength in its pure
state for structural uses, but when
mixed with zinc, aluminium, and man-
ganese it produces an alloy having the
highest strength-to-weight ratio of any
of the commonly used metals.
high-
strength materials
materials which are
very strong
the degree of clarity and
volume of a signal
A radio wave loses
strength as range increases.
the
degree of dilution of a liquid
Incorrect
Aviation.fm Page 221 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
subject
of two, four or more sub-beams that
form a directional radar beam.
"\t\n
a topic or
matter for discussion or study
knowledge and understanding of the
subtend
\n\b\r
verb
to be oppo-
site to and delimit
The angle sub-
tended by an arc equal to one 360th
part of the circumference of a circle is
called 1° (degree).
subtract

\n\n
verb
to deduct
or to take away
6 subtracted from 10
equals 4 (10 – 6 = 4).
subtraction

\n\f\r
the
operation of taking away or deducting
The major arithmetic operations are
addition, subtraction, multiplication
and division.
subtropical

\n\t
adjec-
tive
gives way to cyclonic pressure patterns.
sub-zero
\t
adjective
below zero degrees
In sub-zero condi-
tions sublimation will occur when air is
cooled below the frost point, producing
a deposit of ice crystals.
\b
the achieve-
ment of something wanted
The key to
Aviation.fm Page 222 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
sun
success in navigation is pre-flight plan-
ning.
successful

\b
adjective
satisfactory, as wanted
His second
attempt at landing was successful.
succession
\b\f
the
process of following in a particular
order
A succession of minor incidents
created a more serious situation.

\b\t
adjective
following one after the other without
interruption
All aircraft remained
grounded for three successive days
because of fog.
A day is the period
Aviation.fm Page 223 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
sunrise
sunrise
\r\t
the time
when the upper edge of the sun appears
on the visible horizon. Abbreviation
Aviation.fm Page 224 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
susceptible
sion system
the prevention of electri-
cal interference of a radio signal
suppressor
\b
a device
used in an electrical or electronic sys-
tem to reduce unwanted currents, e.g. a
resistor or grid
A suppressor improves
the quality of the signal.
surface
% \t
noun
an outer cov-
ering of something, or the top part of
something
the surface of the wing
the Earth’s surface or ground
surface air temperature
% \t
\b \n\b\t\n\f
noun
the temperature
recorded in the shade at a height just
above ground level
surface front
% \t \r\n
weather front at the surface of the earth
The cirrus cloud can be 900 miles
ahead of the surface front with a rain
belt as wide as 200 miles.
surface heating
% \t \n\t
noun
the heating of the ground by the
surface movement radar
type of radar used at airports to monitor
aircraft traffic on the ground. Abbrevia-
tion
SMR
surface synoptic chart
% \t\t
\r\n\t\n\f#\n
a chart of a geo-
graphical area with symbols, fronts and
isobars giving a representation of the
weather over the area at a particular
time
surface tension
% \t \n\b\r\f
noun
the tension of the surface film of a
liquid
surface wind
% \t!\t\r
wind which blows across the land sur-
face
surge
%"
noun
a sudden increase
in something such as electrical power
engine surge
instability in the power
output of an engine
verb
to move with
force like a wave
If combustion pres-
sure increases above compressor outlet
pressure, the airflow will reverse in
direction and surge forward through the
compressor.
surplus
%
adjective
excess,
more than is needed
Fuel penalties
can be incurred if fuel surplus to
requirements is carried.
surround
\r
something
which encloses or borders
The design
of windows, hatches or door surrounds
is very critical.
verb
to encircle or to
enclose
The Earth is surrounded by
the atmosphere.
surveillance
\b\t\r
the
act of watching or monitoring
surveillance radar
\b\t\r
\b\t#
primary radar scanning,
often through 360°
survey
%\b\t
a detailed
examination
An aerodrome meteoro-
logical office maintains a continuous
survey of meteorological conditions
over the aerodromes for which it is des-
ignated to prepare forecasts.
verb
\b\t
Aviation.fm Page 225 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
suspect
adjective
\b\n
refer-
ring to something believed to be caus-
ing problems
Aviation.fm Page 226 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
system
problem
Aviation.fm Page 227 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
tab
\n
the hinged rear part of
flight control surface used for trimming
Trim tabs remove the pilot’s control
loads by aerodynamically holding the
control surface in the required position.
table
\n\b\t
noun
Aviation.fm Page 228 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
technology
take off
\n\b\t
verb
to leave the
ground
When flying speed is reached
the aeroplane takes off.
take-off
\n\b\t
, takeoff
\n\b\t
noun
the procedure when an aircraft
leaves the ground
The aircraft has to
accelerate before take-off.
There is a
tendency for propeller driven aircraft to
swing or yaw on take-off.
Abbreviation
T/O
take-off run
\n\b\t  \r
noun
the
distance from the start of take-off to the
point where the wheels leave the ground
Acceleration forces can be felt as the
aircraft begins its take-off run.
take-off weight
\n\b\t  !\b\t\n
noun
the weight of an aircraft at take-
off, made up of its empty weight, plus
the weight of its passengers, freight and
fuel
talk down
\n\r
verb
to give
advice to a pilot by radio on how to land
an aircraft
tan
abbreviation
tangent
tangent
\n\r"\r\n
a straight
Aviation.fm Page 229 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
TEHP
encourage universal acceptance of the
new technology.
TEHP
abbreviation
total equivalent
horsepower
Aviation.fm Page 230 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
thermal activity
terminal airfield
\n%\t\r
\b 
noun
the airfield at which a
flight finishes
terminal area forecast
\n%\t\r
 \b #\n
noun
the
weather forecast for the area around an
airport. Abbreviation
TAF
terminal control area
\n%\t\r
\n \b
an air traffic
control area established at the meeting
place of a number of routes near one or
more major airports
In some areas
where there is a local concentration of
traffic, terminal control areas are set
Abbreviation
TCA
TMA
terminate
\n%\t\r\b\t\n
verb
to end, or
to bring to a close
The flight termi-
nates in New York.
the transmission
terminated abruptly
the transmission
stopped suddenly and unexpectedly
terminology
\n%\t
\r"
set of words or expressions used for a
particular subject
It is necessary to
learn some of the terminology associ-
ated with aircraft navigation.
terrain
\b\t\r
land, especially
in relation to its physical geography
Special attention should be paid to wind
flow when flights are made over hills or
mountainous terrain.
terrestrial
\b\n
adjective
referring to the earth
Clear skies allow
terrestrial radiation to escape.
territory
\n\b\t\n
the extent
of the surface of the Earth governed by
Aviation.fm Page 231 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
thermal barrier
may develop because of thermal activity
resulting from the warming of the sur-
face.
thermal barrier
&%

the heat caused by air friction on
an aircraft flying at high speed
thermo-
&%
prefix
heat
thermocouple
&%
a device for measuring tempera-
ture
Variation in temperature of the
cooling air will give some indication of
engine trouble through a thermocouple
system to a temperature gauge.
thermodynamic
&%\t
\r\t
adjective
referring to the con-
version of one form of energy into
another and how this affects tempera-
ture, pressure, volume, mechanical
action and work
Aviation.fm Page 232 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
When starting an engine, it is inadvisa-
ble to pump the throttle lever because of
the risk of fire.
throttle quadrant
&\n
!\r\n
an arc-shaped device
in which the throttle levers move
Aviation.fm Page 233 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
titanium
titanium
\n\b\t\r
a light
metal used to make strong alloys
fatigue resistance of titanium is greater
than that of aluminium or steel.
TKOF
abbreviation
take off
ICAO
TMA
abbreviation
terminal control
area
, TO
abbreviation
take off
\n$
a short piece of
wood or other material, attached with a
Aviation.fm Page 234 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
transform
ing surface
One of the aircraft’s tyres
burst on touchdown.
touchdown point
\n\n\f\r
\t\r\n
the place on the runway
where the aircraft undercarriage first
touches the ground on landing
\n
verb
to pull an aircraft or
Aviation.fm Page 235 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
transformer
transformer
\n\r
 
noun
device for changing the voltage or cur-
rent amplitude of an alternating current
signal
Current transformers differ
from voltage transformers in that the
primary circuit consists of a supply
feeder cable rather than a coil con-
nected across a supply.
transient
\n\r\r\n
adjective
pass-
ing or temporary, lasting only a short
time
Transient loads can be absorbed
by the busbar with a minimum of volt-
age fluctuations.
transit
\n\r\t\n
noun
an act of mov-
ing
in transit
moving
A green light
indicates the undercarriage is locked
down, and a red light is displayed when
the undercarriage is in transit.
transit
route
a route taken by one aircraft
through controlled airspace
transition
\n\r
\t\f
an act
of passing from one place, state or con-
dition to another
transition altitude
\n\r
\t\f
\n\t\n
noun
altitude in the vicinity
of an airport, at or below which the ver-
tical position of the aircraft is controlled
by reference to altitudes above mean
sea level
When a flight takes place
above the transition altitude, the stand-
ard pressure setting of 1013.25 mb (mil-
libars) is used.
transition layer
\n\r
\t\f
\r \b\t
Aviation.fm Page 236 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
tropics
transport aircraft, the safety of hun-
dreds of passengers is involved.
transport aircraft
\n\r\n
\b# \n
noun
an aircraft designed to
carry ten or more passengers or the
equivalent cargo and having a maxi-
mum take-off weight greater than 5,670
trap
\n
verb
to catch and prevent
from escaping
If there is a failure of
the pressurised air supply, the check
valve will close and trap pressurised air
in the cabin.
Smog is smoke or pollu-
tion trapped on the surface by an inver-
sion of temperature with little or no
wind.
tread
\n\b
a series of patterns
moulded into the surface of a tyre to
provide grip
The risk of aquaplaning
increases as the depth of tyre tread is
reduced.
treat
\n\n
verb
to behave or act
towards something or somebody in a
particular way
Pilots should treat the
engine carefully, if they want to prolong
its life.
to apply a process to some-
thing in order to get a particular result
treated water
water which has been
made drinkable
heat-treated alloys
alloys which have undergone a process
of hardening by using heat
treatment
\n\n\r\n
subjec-
tion to the action of a chemical or phys-
ical process
anti-corrosion treatment
heat treatment
trembler
\n\b
an auto-
matic vibrator for making and breaking
an electrical circuit
trend
\n\b\r
noun
a general direc-
tion or tendency
Continuous VOL-
MET, which is normally broadcast on a
designated VHF (very high frequency)
channel, contains current aerodrome
reports and trends where available.
an up-to-date or modern way of doing
things
Warning systems can take the
form of lights, captions, and aural sig-
nals, and the modern trend is to incor-
porate them into a central warning sys-
tem.
triangle
\n\t$
a plane
figure with three sides and three angles
The triangle of velocities is a vector
solution of what happens to an aircraft
when wind causes drift.
wind
trigger
\n\t$
verb
to cause to oper-
Aviation.fm Page 237 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
tropopause
sub-tropics, the sea breeze is a regular
feature.
tropopause
\n
the
level at which the troposphere and the
Aviation.fm Page 238 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
tyre
engine is often used in transport air-
craft.
COMMENT
: Turboprop aircraft are
Aviation.fm Page 239 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
tyre creep
tyre creep
\n\t
the
gradual rotation of the tyre in relation to
the wheel, caused by landing
to con-
vert magnetic bearing into true bearing
Aviation.fm Page 240 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
UAR
abbreviation
upper air route
UAS
abbreviation
upper air space
UHF
abbreviation
ultra high frequency
UIR
abbreviation
upper air region
abbreviation
United Kingdom
ultimate
\n\t\n
adjective
final,
from which no further advance can be
made
To determine the ultimate load
which a structure must be capable of
withstanding, a multiplier, called the
ultimate factor of safety is used.
The
ultimate responsibility for safety rests
with the crew.
ultra-
\n
prefix
beyond
ultra high frequency
\n\t
 !\r
, ultra high frequency
\n\t !\r \r
noun
a radio frequency range between
300 MHz and 3000 MHz. Abbreviation
ultralight
\n\t\n
a small
single-seat or two-seat aircraft con-
structed of light materials and powered
by a small motor, flown mainly for rec-
reation
ultrasonic
\n
\r\t
adjective
referring to frequencies in the range of
20,000 Hz which cannot be heard by the
human ear
ultrasonic inspection
\n\r\t\t\r
\b\f
noun
non-destructive inspection of materials
using extremely high frequency vibra-
tions. Also called
Aviation.fm Page 241 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
undergo
undercarriage down and locked
\r\t" \r\r
confirmation that the undercarriage is
secure in preparation for landing
undergo
\r
$
verb
to experi-
ence, to pass through a process
When
water changes from vapour to liquid,
energy is released into the atmosphere
which is thus warmed, although the
water itself does not undergo a change
of temperature.
NOTE
undergoing –
underwent – has undergone
underlying
\r
\t\t
adjective
being under
Thermal modifications
occur when the temperature of the
underlying surface differs from that of
the source region.
forming the basis
of a theory or principle
The principle
underlying the construction of a mer-
cury barometer has not changed since
1643, when Torricelli first demon-
strated that the atmosphere has weight.
undershoot
\r
\f\n
verb
land before, or in front of the intended
target
Because of the strong wind, the
student pilot undershot the runway and
landed before the runway threshold.
underside
\r\t
the sur-
face underneath something
underside of the wing should be care-
fully inspected for damage or leaks.
undertake
\r
\n\b\t
verb
to do
In light aircraft, pilot/passenger com-
munication can be satisfactorily under-
taken verbally on a one to one basis.
NOTE
undertaking – undertook –
has undertaken
undulating
\r\b\t\n\t
adjective
rising and falling in gentle slopes
Flight over undulating terrain will
result in changing indications of air-
craft height on the indicator of the radio
altimeter.
uniform
\r\t 
adjective
the
same, not varying in quality, dimen-
Aviation.fm Page 242 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
triggered off by convection and/or oro-
graphic uplift.
upper

adjective
at high alti-
tude
upper air
upper winds
modern meteorological practice, upper
air analysis and the construction of
contour charts is carried out by compu-
ter.
top. Opposite
lower
the upper
surface of the wing
the surface of the
wing facing upwards, as opposed to the
underside
upper air chart
\b \n\f#\n
noun
a chart showing airflow pattern
and distribution of temperatures at spe-
Aviation.fm Page 243 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
vacuum

noun
a space
completely empty of everything includ-
ing air
If the fuel tank vent pipe is
blocked, a vacuum will form in the tank
and fuel flow to the engine will be
restricted.
valid
\t
adjective
having offi-
cial force or effect
All passengers
should have valid passports.
worth
taking seriously, acceptable because it
is true or well-based
Significant
weather charts use abbreviations and
symbols to illustrate en route weather
phenomena and are valid for a specified
time.
a valid assumption
a well-
based supposition
validity
\t\t\n
the state of
being valid
the period of validity of a
visa
Aerodrome forecasts included in
Aviation.fm Page 244 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
venturi
flight
NOTE
: The wings are swept back
to give low drag in supersonic flight and
are moved forwards for takeoff and
landing.)
variable pitch propeller
\b
\t\n\f
\b
propeller with a mechanism to change
the blade angle, to suit flight conditions
variable-sweep
\b
!
adjective
same as
variable-
geometry
variation
\b
\b\t\f
change or the amount of a change
the
angular difference between magnetic
north and true north, which is measured
in degrees and is named east or west
according to whether the north-seeking
Aviation.fm Page 245 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
verification
into ice and builds up on the venturi and
throttle valve.
verification
\b\t \t
\b\t\f
an act or instance of establishing the
truth or validity of something
document required verification.
versus
%
preposition
against,
as compared with
The diagram illus-
trates typical strength properties by
plotting applied stress versus resulting
strain.
vertical
%\n\t
adjective
at right
angles to the Earth’s surface or to
another line or plane
Beams can be
additionally stiffened in a downward
direction by vertical and diagonal
members.
Height is defined as the ver-
tical distance of a level, point or object,
considered to be a point, from a speci-
fied datum.
noun
a vertical line or
plane
The hot rod ice detector head
consists of an aluminium alloy oblong
base on which is mounted a steel tube
detector mast, angled back to approxi-
mately 30° from the vertical.
vertical axis
%\n\t
\t
an imaginary line running
through the fuselage at the centre of
gravity from top to bottom, around
which the aircraft rotates when it yaws
The rudder is a control surface on the
fin which rotates the aircraft about its
vertical axis to produce yaw.
yaw 2.
vertical reference line (
Y axis
) of a
graph
The vertical axis shows engine
power available.
vertically
%\n\t
adverb
in a
vertical position
The aircraft pitched
up vertically.
vertical speed indicator
%\n\t
 \t\r\t\b\t\n
noun
flight instrument which indicates the
rate of climb and descent. Abbreviation
VSI
vertical stabiliser
%\n\t
\n\b\t\t\t
same as
fin
very high frequency
\b\t
 !\r
, very high frequency
\b\t !\r \r
the radio frequency range
between 30 MHz and 300 MHz. Abbre-
viation
very high frequency omni-
directional radio range
\b\t
!\r \r\t\b\f\r
\b\t \b\t\r"
full form of
VOR
\b
noun
a boat or ship
When flying over the sea you must not
fly closer than 500 feet to a vessel.
VFR
abbreviation
visual flight rules
VHF
abbreviation
very high frequency
\t
preposition
by way of
The
flight is from Cairo to Paris via Rome.
After heating, the air passes into the
cabin via a chamber through which
cold air also flows.
vibrate
\t
\b\t\n
verb
to move rap-
idly and continuously backwards and
forwards
Turbine blades in the aver-
age jet engine vibrate at frequencies of
1 million per minute.
vibration
\t
\b\t\f
rapid and continuous movement
According to the pilot, engine vibration
was detected in engine number one.
vice versa
\t%
adjective
the other way around
when engine
demand is high, fuel pressure tends to
be low and vice versa
when the engine
demand is low, fuel pressure tends to be
high
vicinity
\t\r\t\n
noun
the area
nearby
After an emergency evacua-
tion, passengers should be directed to
move away from the vicinity of the air-
craft quickly.
in the vicinity of the
airport
near the airport

what you are able
to see from a particular place
Cabin
crew must have a clear view of the
aisles from their stations.
a picture of
something presented in a particular way
a cross-sectional view of an aerofoil
a personal opinion
He expressed
strong views on the subject of airport
security.
with a view to
with the
intention of
She wrote the report with
a view to improving in-flight services.
in view of
because of
In view of the
poor weather conditions, the flight will
be delayed.
violate
\t\b\t\n
verb
to enter
without permission
The aircraft vio-
lated a danger area.
to break rules or
Aviation.fm Page 246 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
viz
regulations
By not wearing a cap, the
cadet is violating the dress code.
violent
\t\r\n
adjective
with
great force
Flying through atmos-
pheric dust causes the airframe to build
up a static electrical charge and the
associated discharges can be violent.
VIP
abbreviation
very important person
virtually
%\n\f
adverb
almost
Resistance to alternating current
remains virtually constant and is inde-
pendent of frequency.
viscosity
\t\n
noun
a liquid’s
internal resistance to flowing
Exces-
sive oil temperatures are dangerous, as
the oil viscosity is reduced and inade-
quate bearing lubrication results.
visibility
\t\t
\t\t\n
the ability
to see unlighted objects by day and
lighted objects by night, subject to
atmospheric conditions
Measurement
of visibility by day is made by direct
observation of objects at known dis-
tances and is therefore an estimated
value.
poor visibility
a situation in
which things cannot be seen clearly, e.g.
because of fog, mist or smoke
visibility-by-day values
\t\t\t\n\t\b\t 
values which indicate how easily seen
an object is in a horizontal line from an
observer in daylight conditions
\t\t
adjective
that can
be seen
When the undercarriage is
selected down it may be visible from the
crew compartment, but it is not usually
possible to tell if it is securely locked.
If the sun is seen through cumulus cloud
it will be clearly visible.
\t"
noun
the power of
seeing, the ability to see
Lightning at
night may cause temporary loss of
vision.
what you are able to see
low wing aircraft, downward vision
may be limited by the airframe.
\t"
adjective
referring to
seeing
The instrument landing system
is to provide guidance in the horizontal
and vertical planes to an aircraft on
final approach into a position from
which a safe visual landing can be
made.
visual approach slope indicator
\t"
\n\f \t\r\t\b\t\n
an arrangement of red and white
lights on each side of the runway touch-
down point to give the pilot information
about the plane’s height on final
approach. Abbreviation
VASI
visual control room
\t"\r
\n 
the control room in the
tower at an airport. Abbreviation
VCR
visual examination
\t"\t$
\t
\r\b\t\f
a close observa-
tion or inspection with the eyes. Also
called
visual inspection
visual flight rules
\t" \t\n

plural noun
rules set down by an
authority for flight in visual conditions,
regarding such things as flight visibility
and distance from cloud. Abbreviation
special VFR flight
COMMENT
: Particular requirements for
VFR depend on the type of airspace,
time of day, and height above terrain.
visual indication
\t" \t\r\t
\b\t\f
noun
something which is
seen and which suggests a more serious
cause, e.g. a warning lamp
Distorted
wing panels are often a visual indica-
tion of structural damage to the air-
frame.
Aviation.fm Page 247 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
VMC
VMC
abbreviation
visual meteorologi-
cal conditions
abbreviation
never-exceed speed
volatile
\n\t
adjective
describes
a liquid which easily changes into a gas
or vapour
To aid starting in cold
weather, more volatile fuels can be used
volatility

\n\t\t\n
noun
the ease
with which a liquid changes into a gas
or vapour
With kerosene-type fuels,
the volatility is controlled by distillation
and flash point, but with the wide-cut
fuels it is controlled by distillation and
the Reid Vapour Pressure test.
Aviation.fm Page 248 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
abbreviation
west
WAAS
a US navigation system
which processes and improves data
from GPS satellites to provide location
information. Full form
Wide Area Aug-
mentation System
NOTE
: The Euro-
pean equivalent is
EGNOS
wake turbulence
!\b\t
\n%\r
the disturbance of
the air remaining after the passage of an
aircraft
wall
!
the side
There is a
Aviation.fm Page 249 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
waypoint
waypoint
!\b\t\t\r\n
a prede-
termined position on a route, used for
monitoring flight progress or for navi-
gating around controlled airspace.
Abbreviation
weak
!
adjective
not strong
weak radio signal
overdiluted with
water or air
weak mixture
a fuel/air
mixture in which there is more air than
usual
Excessive cylinder head tem-
peratures could be caused by prolonged
use of a weak mixture, especially at
high altitude.
weak solution
a mix-
ture of water and some other substance
in which the amount of water is more
than usual
weaken
!\r
verb
to make weak
Inflation of the de-icer boot weakens
Aviation.fm Page 250 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
width
wheel must be aligned in a fore and aft
direction during retraction.
wheel bearing
! \b\t
a device which allows the wheel to
rotate freely around the axle
wheel fairing
! \b\t
same as
spat
wheels up
!
adjective
air-
borne after having taken off from a run-
way
whereas
!\b

conjunction
in contrast, on the other hand
In the
piston engine, the cycle is intermittent,
whereas in the gas turbine, each proc-
ess is continuous.
Kerosene has a low
vapour pressure and boils only at very
high altitudes or high temperatures,
whereas a wide-cut fuel will boil at a
much lower altitude.
whereby
!\b
\t
adverb
according
to which
Compression heating relies
on the principle whereby the air tem-
perature is increased by compression.
In ram air supply systems, the cooling
method is of the simplest type, whereby
the cold air can be directly admitted to
the cabin via adjustable louvres.
whereupon
!\b
\r
adverb
that point, or after which
Pitch
changes are achieved using the throttle
lever, which is usually taken up and
back through a gate in the quadrant
whereupon fuel is added to increase
power.
wherever
!\b
\b
adverb
wher-
ever possible
in places where it is pos-
sible
wherever possible, thunder-
storms should be avoided by a wide
margin
thunderstorms should be
avoided by a wide margin in situations
or places where it is possible to avoid
them
while
!\t
conjunction
during the
time that
The pilot is trained to scan
an instrument panel, while at the same
time listening to the aircraft radio and
flying the aircraft.
in spite of the fact
that
While metal fatigue is not a mod-
ern phenomenon, it is only in recent
years that much emphasis has been
Aviation.fm Page 251 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
wind
stream may have a width of up to 200
nm (nautical miles).
wide
wind
!\t\r
horizontal move-
ment of air in relation to the Earth’s sur-
face
wind
!\t\r
verb
to move in a curv-
ing or twisting manner
If a wire is
wound as a coil, the field will be like
that of a bar magnet.
NOTE
winding –
wound
windblast
!\t\r#\n
noun
the
harmful effect of air flow on a pilot who
has ejected from an aircraft travelling at
high speed
wind cone
!\t\r\r
noun
same
windsock
wind currents
!\t\r \r\n
plu-
ral noun
the movement of air in a partic-
ular direction through a mass of air
which is not moving so much
wind direction
!\t\r\t
\b\f\r
a description of where the wind is
blowing from, given as north, south,
Aviation.fm Page 252 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
steep turning climb until it almost stalls
and then allows the nose to fall
wing panel
!\t \r
rectangular aluminium section of the
aircraft skin of a wing
Wing panels of
light aircraft are normally riveted
together.
wing root
!\t\n
the part of
Aviation.fm Page 253 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
X-ray
\b\b\t
a ray with a
very short wavelength, which is invisi-
ble, but can go through soft tissue or
material and register as a photograph on
a photograph taken using X-
rays
verb
to take an X-ray photograph
of luggage
yard
#
a unit of length in the
US and British Imperial Systems equal
to 3 ft or 0.9144 m. Abbreviation
yaw

rotation of the aircraft
around its vertical axis
Three-axis
control of roll, pitch and yaw is effected
by ailerons, elevators and rudder.
verb
to rotate around the vertical axis
Single-engine, propeller-driven aircraft
tend to yaw on take-off.
yoke

a type of aircraft
control column by which the pilot con-
trols ailerons by rotating a device on top
of the column to the left or right
Rotate the yoke to the left to roll the air-
craft to the left.
a supporting structure
like the forked metal mounting for the
nosewheel
The yoke was damaged in
the incident.
abbreviation
Zulu time
zero
\t
nought or the fig-
ure 0
If the atmospheric pressure at an
airfield is 1,000 millibars (mb) and this
pressure is set on the sub-scale of an
aircraft altimeter, then when that air-
craft touches down at the airfield, the
altimeter will read zero.
zero-zero
\t\t
adjective
referring to flying conditions of thick,
low cloud when a pilot can see nothing
ahead and nothing above or below the
aircraft
zonal
\r
adjective
referring to
one of the five parts into which the
Earth’s surface is divided by imaginary
lines parallel to the equator
The circu-
lation of air around the Earth is zonal in
character.
zone
an area with par-
ticular features or purpose
an admin-
istrative area of airspace
control zone
aerodrome traffic zone (ATZ)
one of
five divisions into which the Earth’s
surface is divided by imaginary lines
parallel to the equator
temperate zone
climatic zone
zoom

verb
to make an aircraft
climb rapidly at a very steep angle, or
move upwards in this way
Zulu time
\n\t
Greenwich Mean Time
Aviation.fm Page 254 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PM
Word/PhraseMeaning
Aircraftregistrationcodes
These codes are painted on all aircraft, showing their country of registration.
3AMonaco
3BMauritius
3CEquatorial Guinea
3DSwaziland
3XGuinea
4KAzerbaijan
4RSri Lanka
4UUnited Nations Organisation
4XIsrael
5ALibya
5BCyprus
5HTanzania
5NNigeria
5RMadagascar
5TMauritania
5UNiger
5VTogo
5WSamoa
5XUganda
5YKenya
6OSomalia
6VSenegal
6YJamaica
7OYemen
7PLesotho
7QMalawi
7TAlgeria
8PBarbados
8QMaldives
8RGuyana
9ACroatia
9GGhana
9HMalta
9JZambia
9KKuwait
9LSierra Leone
9MMalaysia
9NNepal
9QDemocratic Republic of the
9UBurundi
9VSingapore
9XRRwanda
9YTrinidad and Tobago
A2Botswana
A3Tonga
A40Oman
A5Bhutan
A6United Arab Emirates
A7Qatar
A9CBahrain
APPakistan
BChina & Taiwan
B-HHong Kong
B-MMacau
CCanada
C2Nauru
C3Andorra
C5Gambia
C6Bahamas
C9Mozambique
CCChile
CNMorocco
CPBolivia
CSPortugal
CUCuba
CXUruguay
DGermany
D2Angola
D4Cape Verde
D6Comoros Islands
DQFiji
ECSpain
EIIreland
EKArmenia
EPIran
ERMoldova
ESEstonia
Aircraftregistrationcodes
H4Solomon Islands
HAHungary
HBSwitzerland &
HCEcuador
HHHaiti
HIDominican Republic
HKColombia
HLSouth Korea
HPPanama
HRHonduras
HSThailand
HVThe Vatican
HZSaudi Arabia
IItaly
J2Djibouti
J3Grenada
J5Guinea Bissau
J6St Lucia
J7Dominica
J8St Vincent and the
JAJapan
JUMongolia
JYJordan
LNNorway
LVArgentina
LXLuxembourg
LYLithuania
LZBulgaria
NUSA
OBPeru
ODLebanon
OEAustria
OHFinland
OKCzech Republic
OOBelgium
OYDenmark
PNorth Korea
P2Papua New Guinea
P4Aruba
Aircraftregistrationcodes
VP-FFalkland Islands
VP-GGibraltar (UK)
VP-LBritish Virgin Islands
VP-MMontserrat
VQ-HSt Helena (UK)
VQ-TTurks and Caicos
VR-BBermuda
VR-CCayman Island
VR-GGibraltar
VR-HHong Kong
VTIndia
XAMexico
XTBurkina Faso
XUCambodia
XYMyanmar
YAAfghanistan
YIIraq
YJVanuatu
YKSyria
YLLatvia
YNNicaragua
YRRomania
YSEl Salvador
YUSerbia and Montenegro
YVVenezuela
ZZimbabwe
ZAAlbania
ZKNew Zealand
ZPParaguay
ZSSouth Africa
2JAir Burkina
4UGermanWings
9UAir Moldova
AAAmerican Airlines
ABAir Berlin
ACAir Canada
AFAir France
AHAir Algerie
AIAir India
AMAeromexico
AQAloha Airlines
ARAerolineas Argentinas
ASAlaska Airlines
ATRoyal Air Maroc
AYFinnair
AZAlitalia
BABritish Airways
BBSeaborne Airlines
BDbmi British Midland
BGBiman Bangladesh Airlines
BHTranstate Airlines
BIRoyal Brunei Airlines
BLPacific Airlines
BMAir Sicilia
BOBouraq Indonesia Airlines
BPAir Botswana
BREVA Air
BUBraathens ASA
BWBWIA - West Indies
CAAir China International
CBScotAirways
CIChina Airlines
CJChina Northern Airlines
CMCOPA (Compania
COContinental Airlines
CUCubana
CXCathay Pacific Airways
CYCyprus Airways
CZChina Southern Airlines
DLDelta Air Lines
MAMALEV Hungarian
MDAir Madagascar
MHMalaysia Airlines
MKAir Mauritius
MNCommercial Airways
MRAir Mauritanie
MSEgyptair
NFAir Vanuatu
NGLauda Air
NHAll Nippon Airways
NOAus-Air
NQAir Japan
NVNakanihon Airlines
NWNorthwest Airlines
NZAir New Zealand
OAOlympic Airlines
OBAstrakhan Airlines
OKCzech Airlines
OMMIAT - Mongolian
ONAir Nauru
OOSkyWest Airlines
OSAustrian Airlines
OUCroatia Airlines
OVEstonian Air
PBProvincial Airlines
PCAir Fiji
PHPolynesian
PKPakistan International
PRPhilippine Airlines
PSUkraine International
PUPluna Lineas Aereas
PXAir Niugini
PYSurinam Airways
PZTAM - Transportes Aereos
QFQantas Airways
QMAir Malawi
QRQatar Airways
QUEast African Airlines
QVLao Airlines
QXHorizon Air
RARoyal Nepal Airlines
RBSyrian Arab Airlines
RGVarig
RJRoyal Jordanian
RKRoyal Khymer Airlines
ROTAROM
SASouth African Airways
SDSudan Airways
SKSAS
SNSN Brussels Airlines
SQSingapore Airlines
SUAeroflot Russian Airlines
SVSaudi Arabian Airlines
SWAir Namibia
TCAir Tanzania
TELithuanian Airlines
TGThai Airways International
TKTurkish Airlines
TMLAM - Lineas Aereas de
TNAir Tahiti Nui
TPTAP - Air Portugal
TUTunisair
airport
country
ABJ
Abidjan
Côte d’Ivoire
ABZ
Aberdeen
UK
ACA
Acapulco
Mexico
ACC
Accra
Ghana
ADD
Addis Ababa
Paris Charles de GaulleFrance
Casablanca Mohamed VMorocco
Rome FiumicinoItaly
airport
country
KRT
Khartoum
Sudan
KUL
Kuala Lumpur
Malaysia
KWI
Kuwait
Kuwait
LAD
Luanda
Angola
LAS
Las Vegas
USA
LAX
Los Angeles
USA
LBA
Leeds/Bradford
UK
LCA
Larnaca
Cyprus
LCY
London City
UK
LED
Minneapolis St PaulUSA
Bucharest OtopeniRomania
Palma de MallorcaSpain
airport
country
RIO
Rio de Janeiro
Brazil
RIX
Riga
Latvia
ROM
Rome
Italy
RTM
Rotterdam
Montreal MirabelCanada
Montreal Pierre ElliotCanada
Toronto Lester PearsonCanada
London time1200
Abu Dhabi1600
Adelaide2130
Algiers1300
Amsterdam1300
Ankara1400
Astana1800
Athens1400
Baghdad1500
Bangkok1900
Beijing2000
Beirut1400
Berlin1300
Bern(e)1300
Bogota0700
Brasilia0900
Brazzaville1300
Brussels1300
Bucharest1400
Budapest1300
Buenos Aires0900
Cairo1400
Calcutta (Kolkata)1730
Canberra2200
Cape Town1400
Caracas0800
Chicago0600
Colombo1730
Copenhagen1300
Costa Rica0600
Damascus1400
Delhi1730
Dhaka1800
Dublin1200
Gibraltar1300
Hanoi1900
Harare1400
Helsinki1400
Hong Kong2000
Honolulu0200
Istanbul1400
Jakarta1900
Jerusalem1400
Kabul1630
Karachi1700
Khartoum1400
Kiev1400
Kinshasa1400
Kuala Lumpur2000
Kuwait1500
Lagos1300
La Paz0800
Lima0700
Lisbon1200
London time1200
Luxembourg1300
Madagascar1500
Montevideo0900
New York0700
Phnom Penh1900
Albania355
Algeria213
Andorra376
Angola244
Anguilla264
Antigua and Barbuda268
Argentina54
Armenia374
Australia61
Austria43
Bahamas242
Bahrain973
Bangladesh880
Barbados246
Belarus375
Belgium32
Belize501
Benin229
Bermuda441
Bhutan975
Bolivia591
Bosnia387
Botswana267
Brazil55
Brunei673
Bulgaria359
Burkina Faso226
Burundi257
Cambodia855
Cameroon237
Canada1
Cape Verde Islands238
Cayman Islands345
Central African Republic236
Chad235
Chile56
China86
Colombia57
Comoros269
Congo (Republic of the)242
Congo243
Costa Rica506
Croatia385
Cuba53
Cyprus357
Czech Republic420
Denmark45
Djibouti253
Dominica767
Dominican Republic809
Ecuador593
Equatorial Guinea240
Madagascar261
Madeira351
Malawi265
Malaysia60
Maldives960
Mali223
Malta356
Mauritania222
Mauritius230
Mexico52
Moldova373
Monaco377
Mongolia976
Montserrat664
Morocco212
Mozambique258
Myanmar95
Namibia264
Nauru674
Nepal977
positive
-
negative

ohm
º
degree

inch(es)

calcalorie(s)
callarge calorie(s)
Weights and Measures:Imperial Measures
1 inch (in)= 2.54 cm
1 foot (ft)= 12 in= 0.3048 m
1 yard (yd)= 3 ft= 0.9144 m
1 rod (rd)= 5.5 yds= 4.0292 m
1 chain= 4 rds= 20.117 m
1 furlong= 10 chains= 201.17 m
1 mile= 8 furlongs= 1.6093 km
1 nautical mile= 2025.4 yds= 1.852 km
1 square inch= 6.4516 cm
= 144 sq. ins= 0.0929 m
= 9 sq. ft= 0.8361 m
= 4840 sq. yds= 4046.9 m
= 640 acres= 259 hectares
= 437.6 grains= 28.350 g
1 pound (lb)= 16 oz= 0.4536 kg
1 stone= 14 lb= 6.3503 kg
1 hundredweight (cwt)= 112 lb= 50.802 kg
1 long ton= 20 cwt= 1.0161 t
1 cubic inch= 16.387 cm
= 1728 cu. ins= 0.0283 m
= 27 cu. ft= 0.7646 m
1 fluid ounce (fl. oz)= 8 fl. drachms= 28.413 cm
= 20 fl. oz= 568.26 cm
= 4 gills= 0.5683 l
1 bushel (bu)= 8 gal= 36.369 l
1 fluid ounce (US)= 29.574 ml
1 pint (US)= 16 fl. oz (US)= 0.4723 l
1 gallon (US)= 8 pt (US)= 3.7854 l

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