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(Spokane, Washington: Center for Nonverbal Studies Press)
biologists, linguists, psychiatrists, psychologists, semioticians, and others who have
studied human communication from a scientific point of view. Every effort has
American Heritage Dictionary
Shadows, gray ripples of doubt and discomfort, suddenly appeared and moved just beneath the surface of his pale eyes
George C. Chesbro (
student's GSR (galvanic skin response) is greatest when he or she is approached frontally by a member of
watery substance to the skin's surface.
conditioning [e.g., of the SCR or skin conductance response (i.e., sweaty palms)], whereas several human
and nonhuman primate studies have established that the hippocampus and surrounding regions are
crouching down, violent heartbeat, pale skin, cold sweat, erect hair, trembling muscles (esp. the lips),
his discomfort with an exaggerated angular distance, as if to "remove" himself from others nearby. White
approached frontally (McBride, King, and James 1965).
angular distance than girls (Stern and Bender 1974).
dimensions of posture:
animals, such as the nematode worm. Working through pools of interneurons controlling the muscular
Drawing from Darwin 1872 (copyright 1998 by Oxford University Press)
sending (or receiving) nonverbal
configured millions of years before the advent of cortical circuits for
visible signs of
preserve information about gestures from the
oscillating, rhythmic movements of
with muscles for the body movements required by nonverbal signs.
batter with a ball.
deeply to those lower in status. It is considered bad form for westerners to bow too deeply to lower status
heads.)" (Givens 1986:155 ).
a superior's inner sanctum, American workers may
Distinctively styled head garb with varied markings, colors, shapes, and fit, designed to communicate a
our social status, affiliation, and personality (see
hand, stays put and rides out of the store atop the owner's head. Self-conscious thoughts that "everyone is
noticing" soon fade (i.e., become old hat) as the wearer assimilates his or her "new personality."
headwear may be represented by a woven cap worn by an Upper Paleolithic figurine (the Venus of
nonverbal bonds to fellow cap-wearers, and
alone, but carries a hidden warning message as well. Conspicuous blotches and bright flashes of color
Humphrey Bogart made him look "meaner," while its vertically ascending crown increased his standing
are self-conscious about the appearance of their cap's brim shape, and strive for an insouciant curvilinear,
operating officer of Manny's Baseball Land, a sports merchandise store in Palm City, Fla" (Oldenburg
strength. Cowboy hats and fedoras, among the best selling headware for women in the U.S., reflect
linked to the
respond to specific
scarier the face (or the hat) the more activity registers in the left amygdala (Suplee 1996), which alerts
observed in rhesus monkeys. Even when reared in isolation from birth, young monkeys respond
crayonist's art, a recipe repository, and anything else we might want. What it can never be again is an
movements give Silly Putty its "personality." The smoothness of its ovoid container--which audibly
dress himself, donning his chamois-skin suit and drawing on his traveling
The crisp, tailored look frames a permanently established "wedge" shape. Lapels lie flat, buttons blend
leather. But boots . . . you see red, yellow, fuchsia, and chartreuse
Originally adapted from the moderately high
sense they [sic] are in sync with the latest fashions and sports logos. "If you have a passé color," Doxey said, "it means
same color suggests a social tie, such as shared membership in a club, gang, pack, school, sorority, team,
or tribe. States mark their national identities with colorful dyes affixed to banners, crests, flags, and seals.
Blue and red, for women
If your boss is a woman, wear a lot of red--it says you can take the heat'" (color expert Bride Whelan,
bowl of fruit and be struck by the gleaming colours and the way they relate to each other. Another--with
due to a process called
opponents were lulled in restful blue quarters" (Vargas 1986:152).
and coolness associated with the color blue.
(Italy), famine (Egypt).
light-hearted meanings of yellowness.
cautionary road signs. And, as a color engineer noted, ". . . Yellow Cabs are not as common as one may
and visiting. When the soft green walls of the area were repainted vivid orange, workers took a drink and
left" (Vargas 1986:153).
frequent suicides. When the city fathers painted it bright green, they were surprised to discover that
first and last steps of escalators, and in rented bowling shoes.
the pastoral meanings of green and greenness.
White Hunter Black Heart
Nonverbal Behavior in Interpersonal Relations
intense feeling of attachment to a family member, esp., to a baby or young child.
near a person who is the object of sexual passion.
tendency to take care of, feed, and groom the people [and objects, e.g., automobiles] we love.)
Copyright 1998, 1999, 2000 (David B. Givens/
vertebrae) to the upper two ribs, as well as
muscles are well equipped to express
courtship cue (Eibl-Eibesfeldt 1970; Givens 1978, 1983).
in business (e.g., to please customers, solicit clients, and woo colleagues; see
year-old Proto-Indo-European root,
forming ritual. In such conversations hardly any factual information is passed on, as they consist largely
units to solicit a warm social bond which may be exploited economically. . ." (Givens 1978A:358).
is often possible to identify the most powerful (i.e., highest status) person seated at a
the relative number of torsos aimed in his or her direction. While the less influential may glance freely
similar postures, they were likely to be in agreement, or close to agreement" (Blum 1988:6-6).
formal, businesslike posture (Scheflen 1964).
suggests friendliness (Mehrabian 1974), while
angling their faces and eyes away.
You were not sure, this eve,
Three inches away and closing, their faces will roll several degrees right or left, in synchrony, so the
men and women progress to the fourth or
Among the least ambiguous and most believable of signs, touch cues are profoundly "real" to the brain.
you have some indication I can follow?" --Danilo S., Brazil (7/14/01 5:18:49 PM Pacific Daylight Time)
With courtship, though, you begin to see more and more touching. Other than that, like I say, the two are essentially alike.
Good luck!" --David Givens (7/16/01 10:50:23 AM Pacific Daylight Time)
impulses received from the skin of the face, lips, and frontal scalp. Reflecting its importance, trigeminal
other's lips, eyes, cheeks, and brows excludes others nearby, and reveals subtle cues with which to probe
to one side (
unconsciously as negative cues.
nervous system's calmer
system, arousing our blood, sweat, and fears.
and potentially threatening fellow human being. . . . studies of the galvanic skin response (e.g., McBride
Lewis and Brooks 1974).
maximal-lateral gaze avoidance [see
to that which cannot be consciously manipulated, and to look for patterns rather than content
. . .
The desire for personal mobility seems to be unstoppable--it is, perhaps, the Irresistible Force
humankind's "perception and use of space" (Hall 1968:83).
space is that we may not come and go everywhere as we please. There are cultural rules and biological
boundaries--explicit as well as implicit and subtle limits to observe--everywhere.
Body space I
Ya know, I spend a long time on my hair, and he hit it; he hit my hair
"why" we are. Our hairdo is a badge of identity reflecting membership in a group, and also showing our
desire to identify with (i.e., be like; see
may be used to show membership on a corporate, military, or religious "team" (see
themselves, but make
downplaying the more manly traits. Men may project additional "strength" with dense
top rulers were virtually always male, the royal headdress in [ancient] Egypt also came to symbolize
nearby stand and applaud, or
suggests like thinking and feeling, as well. Appearing, behaving, and acting the same way makes it easier
neuroanatomist Paul D. MacLean, who first used it in print in 1975 (see below,
implying "conscious" learning or mimicking, I shall avoid it in the context of experimental work,
the Canada goose: ". . . the female responding to him with the same actions that he makes" (Ogilvie
is rooted in
mammals includes the corpus striatum (caudate plus putamen), globus pallidus, and peripallidal
structures [including the substantia innominata, basal nucleus of Meynert, nucleus of the ansa
"Dressing like your colleagues and neighbors dress 'reflects a deep reptilian behavior principle called
says. 'You're allies. You look alike, think alike. It's easier to be accepted if you look like others. "Same"
is safe'" (
1975. It is composed of the Greek prefix
simultaneous head-nodding of female and juvenile lizards in response to a male's territorial display, and
assertion, or a key speaking point.
world to show understanding, approval, and agreement. Emphatic head-nods while speaking or listening
affirm their presence in
words. The reptilian principle of
cross-culturally (LaBarre 1947), the affirmative head-nod is well-documented as a nearly universal
it assists movements of a baby's head in accepting the breast--a behavior some have used to explain the
sideward, or backward from standard
unintended, and unconscious, they are among the most reliable indicators of mood.
flexing the spinal column forward (
and lowered social status. (
Japanese] we may still tip our head and bend our spinal column forward when entering a superior's office
forward and the buttocks thrust backward, toward another person--is a sign of "obscene disdain" (Morris
primitive, the same spinal circuits enable us to
anatomical position is useful as a schematic device for description. Movements away from its standard
hand with silver rings, a meager limb draped in a torn covering, a head bent back, a naked foot, a throat
approach. The anatomical posture is seen on TV in NFL football games, as well, in players who are
From the end of World War II on, America was on an unbelievable program of homogenization--
sounds, words, and graphic images filling the modern world's PCs, pagers, palm pilots, phone lines,
waters, and whistling winds, ours blusters with media today. Media has become a seamless electronic
atop the limb of a tree
grasslands in close-knit groups (see
the Golfing Gorilla [a Tacoma, Washington human primate dressed in a gorilla costume] has been told
Culture and the
designed the Muirfield Village course with Jack Nicklaus.
"'It resonates with the older parts of our brain and our background as hunter-gatherers and upright
woodlands, as the arboreal ancestors of humans began living a part of their lives on the ground. (
hunter-gatherers, on tropical, shrubby grasslands--in hot, flat, open countryside with scattered trees and
cliffs, surf, boulders, and tree-lined hills spanning the horizon. Its fairway resembles a game trail, its sand
The color yellow
Nicklaus, is suing three fertilizer companies for allegedly supplying faulty products. The course claims
Trees and animals
U.S. public course,
surface, idealizing the original plains upon which our ancestors hunted, gathered, and camped. We still
need to grasp objects (just as strolling satisfies our need to
evolved sub-regions of the
circuits of the power grip. Unlike its cerebral cousin--the
(perhaps as a holdover from our primate past and penchant for climbing trees; see
Thus, power-gripping sports such as baseball, tennis, and
employ the muscles and neural circuits of the precision grip. A case in point is the
is used when one is immersed in deep thought. Precision cues may take form, e.g., as the cerebral cortex
processes financial, scientific, and other complex types of information or ideas. The precise digital
flat piece of shale-like ochre (red hematite [artifact no. SAM-AA 8937]) from Blombos Cave, South
as the precision grip--and even our closest primate relatives cannot manipulate objects with such delicacy
fingers intellectual "smart parts" of the highest order. We are able to thread a needle (or to pantomime the
person, place or thing.
temporal relationships among objects, activities, and events.
also express narrative thinking, relationships among objects, and the association of ideas. In this regard,
make stone tools, build brush shelters, and topple trees--mime cues represent an advanced, conceptual
Mime cues depict
position used in a
appear stronger and more convincing. In particular, the palm-down cue is highly visible above a
serratus anterior, rhomboid
which to demonstrate stability, strength, and standing on the earthly plain.
also be used to express a confident mood.
response, and are expressed through displays designed to make the body seem more powerful,
threatening, and "bigger" to the eye (see
Dominance cues may be used to express
dominance and submission through programmed movements and postural displays (MacLean 1990). In a
assist in this threatening posture through fiber links of the
movements and postures.
to eat and to drink
cortex (via thalamic relays to the postcentral gyrus and insula). (
Jell-O® pudding box (copyright 1999 by Jell-O®)
to the tongue as "meat" (see
roasted nuts [McGee 1990].)
glycine, arginine, alanine, glutamate, inosine, monophosphate, sodium chloride, and dibasic potassium
The fifth basic taste--MSG--called
items to "speak" to the tongue as "meats."
crackers, chips, seasonings, soup bases, sauces, and "natural flavorings." Rich in free glutamate,
parmesan cheese and tomatoes, e.g., appeal to the tongues of carnivores.
Europe until the 16th century, the New World's tomato, combined with onions and olive oil by Spanish
for foods: ". . . most people eat the same limited assortment of foods over and over again" (Hall
1992:C1). "Breakfast seems to be the most predictable meal of the day. Even those who embrace the
olive oils, e.g., which are made from earlier harvested, greener olives, leave a peppery flavor in the
Trigeminal (cranial V) nerve endings in the tongue and oral cavity sense, e.g.,
off by such "hot" spices as red chili pepper (capsaicin), black pepper (piperine), mustards and horseradish
stimulation in foods, beverages, and oral-care products (e.g., in minty mouthwashes, toothpicks, and
toothpastes) is still a mystery. It has been suggested that the capsaicin in chili peppers works to release
opium-like substances which address the brain as
contains melon; Ellen Tracy and Rose Cardin have peach
arm pits, breasts and groin areas. Thick hair in these regions helps broadcast the scent by increasing its
textured to appeal to the senses of vision and touch.
Primary odor qualities
portions of the
Thus, aroma cues carry information to the limbic system in a remarkably direct and immediate way
underarms, and by lesser concentrations in the face, scalp, ears, eyelids, genital area, and navel.
natural, animal-like aroma which can be emotionally stimulating and sexually attractive.
highly responsive to emotional stimuli. About two dozen chemical compounds contribute to apocrine
underarm scent. Odorless until digested by bacteria, millions of possible smell combinations suggest that
hill people of India (Stoddart 1990:10)
aromas of a show-room-new motor vehicle interior.
natural plant resins, animal esters, and sexual steroids.
Colgate's Irish Spring® soap.
emotions through the
and extracts, Arpege is a classic
classic as memorable as the scent itself.
bowed away from the body.
elbows are bowed outward:
the body is poised to "step forward" (e.g.,
from the torso]) widen, expand, and visually "enlarge" the upper body, making it look more powerful in
aggressiveness than to telegraph uncertainty or thoughtfulness. In standard
hands-on-hips is made with hands in the more dominant pronated (i.e.,
stand display. Thus, the latter is a more aggressive posture. (
Resting the hands on the hips "locks in" the expansiveness of the gesture, i.e., as a postural
"bigger" or "smaller" through illusions of size. To threaten, the hognose snake, e.g.,
widens its head like a cobra, thrusts its body forward, and makes loud hissing noises. But to surrender, it
Like fish and lizards, cattle turn a broadside when threatened to show their most fearsome angle. The
an adversary, as witness the behavior of small boys
A primeval "pushup" intended to lift the quadrupedal body higher off the ground.
mood. It is a forerunner of the aggressive
and mudskippers raise their bodies on vertical fins in aggressive displays.
On terra firma
heights. Doing a pushup makes living iguanas and lizards, e.g., look "bigger" than they appear with their
and spreads its
"large" before galloping ahead at full charge. Bears, coyotes, and wolves
adult baboons at other baboons in the wild; it can prelude attack or escape (Hall and DeVore 1972).
we stand tall, bristle, square our
deep tones, and toe-out to military oblique. (
din of a cheering crowd, the [i.e., Mr. Nixon's] fingers up for victory also signals acceptance of tribute to
signs to warn students of the dangers of nearby mountain lions. The signs recommend ". . . that people
and even though each of these giants may have two tallest towers for legs while his arms resemble the masts of huge and
often dangerous or imminently threatening to the mind.
Impressive mountains, large stones, and tall
considered as sacred objects.
base a visual response. Without eyes to see it the loom literally would make no sense. But to those with
testimony to a pharaoh's superior status; while the Japanese
through feigned shortness" (Givens 1986:146).
itself. Movements and postures of expansion evoke the strong, automatic reaction known as the
the evolution of matter or energy.
consumer products, e.g., have "lives of their own," not unlike the
and medicinal plants. The mouth-like shape of an automobile's
but required for its ability to
an aromatic, spice, or medicinal plant, than in the
separate evolutionary paths taken by information, matter, and energy (see
drink as flavorings.
independently from its material carrier (or "sign stuff"), and exhibit a separate reality (designed solely to
evolved apart from ordinary plant requirements for energy, reproduction, and growth. Just as herbs and
(e.g., cakes, candies, cookies, and toothpaste).
Regular Crest is primarily wintergreen, while Mint Crest is primarily spearmint. According to web
documents published by Procter & Gamble, "Good flavor is important in toothpaste since people will not
brush regularly and carefully unless they like the taste." (
which appeals to millions of consumers throughout the world.
an incredible presence in the
information, and has a great deal to "say."
palate, e.g., cola communicates with complex
Bubbly carbonation provides an interesting
part goes to the more conscious cerebral cortex (through thalamic relays to its
was among the top-ten most popular grocery-store items sold in the U.S. (
eating, primate past (see
Coke Classic® and Pepsi® were, respectively, the 2nd and 3rd most popular grocery-store items in
Throughout the Middle East, e.g., crusty breads, pastries, and candies are liberally sprinkled or covered
say, they represent an "authentic" form of existence which transcends the desire for softer, "unreal"
foods, such as Twinkies®.
grinding is so powerful that, according to the U.S. Snack Food Association, Americans munch an
need for a real meal, according to a study published in the March, 2001 issue of the
sensations from nut substitutes through branches of the
texture cues are processed on two levels:
pull of gravity.
arms, and legs contract when signals are received from cerebellar and vestibular centers responding to
pull of gravity.
trunk, arms, and legs contract when signals are received from cerebellar and vestibular centers
transition from water to land in the Devonian period of the Paleozoic Era.
from modules and
stay tuned to abrupt changes in sound. Thus, with its fluctuating cuts in scenery, camera angle, and
Neuro-notes I: midbrain
their lives on land, seeing and hearing sharpened. Two paired centers of the amphibian midbrain--the
Neuro-notes II: forebrain
charge of the earliest aggressive "pushup" was a motor area presently called the
as John-Wayne did in the 1960 movie,
human beings (in all cultures)
character, Cosmo Kramer are typical of people with an
primates, which includes
automatically turn our faces and eyes toward what could be dangerous--before the forebrain knows, on a
conscious level, danger even exists. The midbrain's
movements away from another),
extremely subtle movements that communicate a potentially changing emotional state and an awareness
shifts may reveal anger, disagreement, and disliking more directly.
coordinate, and smooth out body movements, e.g., for
heritage. Territorial gestures and postural displays, e.g., of
these subcortical structures. Such status signs are analogous, MacLean thinks, to nonverbal displays of
our arms because the basal ganglia assume we are still
were linked to the primeval "smell brain," and led to swimming motions toward positive chemical signals
(e.g., food and mates) and away from negative chemical signs (e.g., of enemies; see
cortex. The cue (phasic neuronal activity) interacts with the SMA (sustained neuronal activity) to string
and associated instability of submovements (each submovement cumulatively decreases in amplitude and
velocity). This is the phenomenon of
vertebrates--from the jawless fishes to human ancestors (e.g.,
the advent of speech.
earlier areas of the nonverbal brain control communication apart from words. Knowing its parts and
wiring helps us decode nonverbal
includes the spinal cord's
consisting of the superior (and inferior) colliculus and its links, via the brain stem, running
elaborate: the central amygdala's link to the hypothalamus, via the stria terminalis, provided wiring for
defensive postures (see, e.g.,
as well: the hypothalamus's dorsomedial and ventromedial nuclei fed
evolved: the medial forebrain bundle (from the olfactory forebrain and limbic system's septal nuclei) via
the occipital neocortex's parvocellular interblob system (V1 to V2 and V4), permitting recognition of
to the facial nerve (cranial VII) permitted intentional
pathways to cervical and thoracic spinal nerves permitted manual sign language and linguistic-like
Purgatorio, Canto XV
due to physical injury, trauma, or emotional distress.
(Levine's sign . . .) while a flat hand describes the sensation of crushing heaviness . . . . Tight band-like
coronary care unit illustrate the nature of their chest pain by placing a clenched fist [Levine's sign] or a
need help." "The action mimes a fast heartbeat, implying that the gesturer is in a state of panic" (Morris
far exceeded our expectation. We have received numerous requests for the scale and for various types of
eating or breathing.
are indeed "special," because the muscle contractions they mediate are less easily (i.e., voluntarily)
muscles which once constricted, or dilated, "gill" pouches of the ancient alimentary canal.
(cranial XI, for
(i.e., dilating) or
Vagus nerve stimulation
separate brain-stem and spinal-cord areas from the
vagus may have been formed from four separate nerves, each similar to the glossopharyngeal (Walker
an expression of emotional
heightened sensory stimulation
speaker's remarks. Sustained cut-off may reveal shyness or disliking.
host and the various guests embraced, they backed off and one or both always looked away. [Adam]
(11/19/99 2:14:15 PM Pacific Standard Time)
And I will pledge with mine
link established as two people simultaneously observe each other's eyes.
seconds before one or both viewers experience a powerful urge to glance away. Breaking eye contact
lowers stress levels (as measured, e.g., by breathing rate, heart rate, and
too carefully at others (Joe Navarro, FBI special agent, personal communication, August 2001).
contact. That way you don't look shifty-eyed, but, more important, all he will notice is your eyes." --CIA
about the level of its waist" (Blurton Jones 1967:353).
consciously control where our own eyes hover and land, eyes have "minds of their own" as well. We feel
gazed at the interviewer's eyes, the hand
feelings, and moods; and
concepts, unexpressed before
and artifacts. By mirroring the process, i.e., by pantomiming it through patterns of articulation (manual as
through the "mind's eye") by activating ". . . the dorsal (area 19) and ventral (fusiform gyrus) visual
Right brain, left brain III
white matter connect modules of neocortex within the right-brain hemisphere. Preadapted white-matter
fibers link modules within the left-brain hemisphere, as well, to assist in the production and
understanding of speech.
Supplementary motor cortex (SMC)
outward, backward, and upward direction. This hand movement is accompanied by a movement of the
head and eyes toward the hand" (Willis 1998:215).
every branch in the 500-million-year-old tree of vertebrate evolution, the precursors of humanity opted
rather than as rivals or foes. Throughout the world, palm-up cues reflect moods of congeniality, humility,
assertive-like in tone.) Accompanied by "
our neck, stimulating a posture designed to stabilize the head relative to the body and the pull of gravity,
tilted side automatically extend as the hand rotates to a raised position, producing the palm-up cue.
don't understand" (Morris 1994:105).
to fly out to Cleveland tomorrow?"
gesture which comes from reaching up for help: "Pick me up" (Engel 1978).
today may well be his very liberal use of palm displays. How could anyone distrust a guy who is so
Darwin (1872), who saw them as signs derived from a larger
Guinea to Colombia and New York (Givens 1986).
vertebrate posture designed to be defensive rather than offensive. Neural roots of palm-up cues thus
reach back further in time than palms themselves--at least 500 m.y.a.--to protective
ancestral body wall, neck, arms, and legs away from danger, while palms and forearms rotate upward
head sideward, and when tilting it left or right--but
brain unwittingly touches off
situations, and in sleep.
ATNR's reflexive, brain-stem circuitry makes this unconscious gesture a trustworthy indication of
position (Baumgartel 1976:69).
stating "I am innocent," e.g., shows that a speaker may not believe his or her own remarks. True
down occurs as the
the prime mover.
AM Pacific Standard Time)
universal human cues (Grant 1969:526, Brannigan and Humphries 1972).
aggressively at the American people and stating, "I did not have sexual relations with that woman, Miss
apology as he said, "I've done my best to be your friend" (
down involves higher brain centers, i.e., the
is fueled by popular and scientific observations that deceit often is accompanied by unconscious signals
deception cues present
galvanic skin resistance
interrogations, deceivers are less likely than truth tellers to use "gravity defying" gestures--such as lifting
the toes (while seated),
words (personal communication, August 8, 2001; see below,
evolved in primates (see below,
other individual's and its own signals are only signals, which can be trusted, distrusted, falsified, denied,
hidden from me." --Dante Alighieri (
showing underlying negative affect, (
has the meaning of helplessness or inability . . . would appear as a clue to the occurrence of deception. . .
. . In this instance, we expected that the hand-shrug emblem was occurring as a nonverbal slip of the
the two verbal themes, being hospitalized and having aggressive impulses" (Ekman and Friesen
1968:207; Author's Note: In the figure used to illustrate the eyecover cue, the subject is also gazing
deception. Study results showed the thermal-imaging technique to be about as reliable as the polygraph
communication" (Mehrabian 1972:102).
demeanor. Tense individuals, e.g., may chronically
indicator of acute or situational stress (e.g., in response to a question asked at a
signs of hidden attitudes, unvoiced moods, deceit, disagreement, and/or uncertainty.
clapping one's hands, and tying shoelaces), despite the presence of a healthy sensory-motor nervous
disagreeing, or uncertain) response to a speaker's remarks. Studies of apraxia suggest the neurological
reasons for this view. Mime cues, such as imitating the act of threading a needle (unlike lower-level
for example, using the index finger as if it were the shaft of a screwdriver [rather than using the fingers to
counterparts on the other.
thought patterns. It may be used while listening, speaking, or thinking, to entertain a provocative or novel
thoughtfully to a colleague's ideas and comments.
his fingers while conversing with Albert Einstein on December 29, 1947.
act of grasping, holding, or seizing a concept.)
confidence as they spoke and listened. Regarding Gorbachev, "He steeples in Moscow. He steeples in
first used ca. 2.6 m.y.a., when our ancestors opposed their digits to make stone tools. Controlled in part
a close relationship to tool-making itself--i.e., to the
movements of the steeple cue. Generally, the SMA controls the sequential movements of complex,
reliant upon timing than on spatial cues, indicating its role in the temporal organisation of sequential
touched off automatically by strong
from conscious awareness.
initiative for calendar years 2000 through 2001. Please mail or
at the Center for Nonverbal Studies (address below)
own existence, environment, and sensations, i.e., of one's own self and place in
and circuits earlier adapted to
and feelings for others inward and toward ourselves (see below,
cortex, whose function it is to analyze and make fine distinctions, is suppressed" (Cytowic 1993:128).
and visions, our mythology, our attempts to understand and find . . . our place in the universe" (flyer
to be a bat, a dog, a dolphin?--are ominously reminiscent of the protracted arguments about the
and chemical discharges into what we experience as consciousness" (Tattersall 2000:62).
impossible to be sure what this innovation [leading toward consciousness] might have been, but the best
neurophysiologist John Eccles of the Max Planck Institute for Brain Research in Frankfurt [378:234].
scholars--who are highly verbal creatures--often favor verbal modes of introspection over those available
state of emotion or as a nonlinguistic feeling [see below,
arrive at an appropriate course of action that is more than a stereotyped instinctive response" (Eccles
to the actions of other people" (Young 1978:31).
the worldwide linguistic use of personal pronouns, such as "you," "she," and "me," which open
the neural correlates of vision
Blindness and deafness I
processes colors but does not know what it is like to see them. This scenario suggests that knowledge of
color red is mapped but also how we have a subjective perspective of redness" (Damasio 2000:10
Coma & death
38th Ed., p. 1011).
the most enormous extension of vision of which life is capable: the projection of itself into other lives.
This is the lonely, magnificent power of humanity. It is, far more than any spatial adventure, the supreme
become conscious of] a person's face or a picture of a face, and will follow its movement with his eyes"
reality only the 'animal soul' still present in man's mentality" (
scientist at The Salk Institute, is not bidding them to ponder existential philosophy. Rather, his inquiry is
Japanese tea ceremony
bonds of linguistic consciousness, distraction, and thought. The Japanese tea house, e.g., is designed as a
a place for [wordless] concentration. The garden was and is not in view so the inhabitants will not be
makes these observations naturally, almost unconsciously, and certainly with no feeling of constraint"
cousins, the ability to communicate through the use of a sophisticated spoken language is, I believe, the
most significant" (Goodall 1990:208).
Levels of consciousness
(University of California, La Jolla)
Neuroscience I (prefrontal cortex)
consciousness of our dominant hemisphere only" (Carter 1998:51).
streams of consciousness in each of us . . ." (Carter 1998:53).
the final outcome of the illness, to repress from awareness any vision of the unthinkable" (Murphy
perceiving; imagine this machine enlarged but preserving the same portions, so that you could enter it as
Locke, in the sense of self-knowledge acquired by virtue of the mind's capacity to reflect upon itself in
recognize themselves in mirrors--that they had, therefore, some kind of self-concept" (Goodall 1990:21).
Right brain, left brain
influenced by modules of the right-side neocortex (esp. in right-handed individuals) than they are by left-
sided modules. Anatomically, this is reflected
I & II
'reality,' or keep repeating, 'I am not my idea of myself,' this is still mere abstraction. Zen created the
immediately to our notice
sensory mapping [e.g., of a seen object on the visual cortex]. And because the most fundamental sensory
Damasio], the sense of self in the act of knowing emerges as a special kind of feeling--the feeling of what
Drawing of a head (copyright 1996 by Clare Gibson and Saraband Inc.)
His Holiness Pope John Paul II (copyright Prospect Hill Co.)
be assumed that the cingulate gyrus acts as an intermediary to the prefrontal cortex and orbital cortices . .
anterior cingulate region, from other limbic cortices (in the medial temporal lobe), and from the
effortlessly . . ." (Damasio 1994:141-42).
candidate for the brain's emotional control centre, which is what it seems to be" (Carter 1998:101).
according to Paul MacLean, and has no counterpart in the
nocturnal (i.e., night) life, and
calling (MacLean 1990).
powerful form of arousal:
mammalian brain. In earlier brains, body movements appeared as
mammals came late in their history, in the last 50 million years of a time span of about 200 million
neurophysiologist John Eccles of the Max Planck Institute for Brain Research in Frankfurt (Bower
narrowed (i.e., partly closed)
warning label for children.
depress, knit, pucker, or wrinkle the brow by contracting the
comments are presented at a
originally designed for feeding. The expression is emotionally responsive today as it reflects visceral
sensations (i.e., "gut feelings") aroused, e.g., by aggression or anger. In effect, we lower our eyebrows to
centers to brain-stem nuclei below, where the
cues to help puzzled passengers find their way [Millican 1998:B-1].)
dangling jaw, given in excitement, surprise or
mouth and jaw observed in the mentally challenged.
seen in adults and children who
confronting colossal apes, giant lizards, and alien spacecraft. Classic jaw-droop movies include
amazement "absorbs" bodily energy), and
for protective exertion).
through the brain stem to the trigeminal nerve to contract the lateral pterygoid muscles and open the
mouth. Trigeminal is an emotionally responsive (i.e., "gut reactive")
intense emotion, such as
conversation, two involuntary
are all the more trustworthy as nonverbal cues, especially of
flashbulb eyes are a
Frank Langella consciously
felt true emotion, their eyes would have opened wider still.
Affect Scoring Technique (FAST; Ekman, Friesen, and Tomkins 1971).
contractions of the tarsal muscles. These involuntary muscles of the upper and lower eyelids are
presence or location of objects, features, or forces.
places, or things.
probable language ability.) While animals such as honeybees, e.g., can refer to environmental features,
by contracting the forearm's
the brain of our oldest-known human ancestor,
then lowered" (Delmar 1984:46).
aggressively at the American people and stated, "I did not have sexual relations with that woman, Miss
and Friesen 1969).
adults nearby (see
emotional modules of the forebrain's
skilled gesture, pointing involves
to point. That both disorders may be brought on by injuries to the
adaptation to life on land.
evolved from modules and
ploy used by human beings today. Size displays as encoded, e.g., in
obscure, and pry in every bush and brake, where hap may find the serpent sleeping, in whose mazy folds
inspired rituals controlled by the habit-prone basal ganglia (a motor control area identified as the
accounts for many unquestioned, ritualistic, and recurring patterns in our
recruited for the development of intelligence in birds, specifically, in the
system mobilizes for action (see
when we hear the boss call out our name.
such as the
originating in early fishes, which is central to the expression of negative emotions in man.
also prompts releases of adrenaline and other hormones into the blood stream, thus stepping-up an
systems and is involved in emotions" (Kelly and Dodd 1991:277).
removal of the amygdala, growls, screams,
permanently tight-lipped expression, as shown, e.g., in 1960s photos of FBI director, J. Edgar Hoover.
compression and brow-lowering (combined in the
designed for feeding. The expression is emotionally responsive today as it reflects visceral sensations (i.e.,
open and the
shopping malls, elevators, or subways, e.g., we adopt neutral faces to distance ourselves from strangers.
The blank face is a subtle sign used to keep others a polite distance away. (
Blank faces are considered pleasant or unpleasant, and rarely ever neutral. Imaging studies suggest that
When love is alive and hope is dead
Morgan finally broke down and admitted the truth: She'd been pregnant with his baby. Shell-shocked, Ridge asked where
their child was now. You could hear a pin drop as Morgan finally confessed amid broken sobs, "I had an abortion." --Bold
response to grief,
brows, flared nostrils, tearing eyes,
the head and torso (note the similarities to
contraction of the throat muscles.
stimulates their flow,' says Jeffrey Cottler, Ph.D., professor of counseling at Texas Tech University, and
Women's tears also flow more than men's (which usually well up in the eyes rather than stream down the
born children weep in anger (Eibl-Eibesfeldt 1971:12).
infants) can still cry.
pattern of all human sentences, which normally begin on an ascending, and end on a descending, note.)
In the tearing (i.e.,
mediate displays of
movement established in the jawless fishes remains much the same:
head end. Each pharyngeal arch contained
joints, vestibular apparatus, or viscera, relayed to centers in the spinal cord and brain for processing.
an in-bound sign to be processed) and (2)
outgoing sign produced, e.g., by a
The Shanghai gesture
danger (e.g., flexing the neck to lower and protect the head).
disagreement, disliking, and
influenced by flexion withdrawal, e.g., pulling the hands and arms backward, away from disliked
head and neck away from the stimulus" (Salzen 1979:130).
misunderstanding of a speaker's words.
of the head to express disbelief, sympathy, or grief.
(Darwin 1872; according to Morris [1994:144] it is "widespread").
primate roots in
shopping center "last month" (Conn and Silverman 1991:127).
Disneyland, has, like the theme park itself, become a form of "media in the round." "'In a business that is
as dependent as film or theater on appearances,' the magazine [
police said yesterday
Barbie is an icon because she triggers this worshipful attitude
portable, 11-inch plastic symbol of Americana whose
figure, and infantile schema) appeal to millions of young girls.
consumer materialism. (
human faces, respond--with equal feeling--to Barbie doll faces, rendering them psychologically "real."
Steele [see above, second epigraph] quoted in Span 1995:G5; see
body weight defies earth's gravitational pull.
center of gravity forward, and causing a compensatory
the chopine, called
likely to appear on the endangered-shoes list. (
Copyright 1999 (David B. Givens/
pointed toes ("I am harmless--you may approach"; see, e.g.,
Narrow pumps and high heels, e.g., which incorporate the poulaine's timid taper, are among the most
popular and attractive of women's shoes.
footwear poll of U.S. women aged 25 to 44 (Bonino 1994:B1)
New York runway, fashion wags went berserk. The shoes began appearing in GQ magazine. Stylists
Hush Puppies" (Givhan 1995:C2).
mincing, or showing attitude--but for comfort. The casual, low-profile, laid-back style makes neutral
corporate mood on campus or in the workplace.
Korean soldiers marched on the 50th anniversary of the founding of the Workers Party in 1995. A
was outlawed in West Germany, making it the only human gesture to be officially banned by a state.
during the earlier
body with a partner),
simulates the red, rosy glow of sexual attraction as well),
angling the upper body away ["
hypothalamus coordinates our
have little conscious control. Eye contact with an attractive woman or man thus registers as emotional
stimuli pass from the
that I might be stealing someone else's idea."
resting blink rate of a human is 20 closures per minute, with the average blink lasting one quarter of a
above normal. President Bill Clinton averaged 99 blinks a minute, reaching 117 when asked about
changes to a new topic (Kanfer 1960).
the beginning of words and utterances, usually with the initial vowel of the word . . ." (Condon and
travel from vision centers of the
contractions in the eyelid portion of
established by our brain stem's
stimulates the RAS to act on our midbrain's
developed from modules and
m.y.a. in the Paleocene.
Hand signals I
reach for and to grasp insects, fruits, and berries. Manual dexterity (through advances in
arm movements our species turned
Hand signals II
permitted new movements, such as
hand-over-hand movements of the climbing sequence itself. The
hand over a plump red berry. In such cases, the decision routes through reflexive circuits standing by in
keeps area 5 updated on the primate's
Why do we wish to bear
climbing have become psychic planks in the mind's evolutionary platform, not only of Druids but of
modern folk as well. Bark and limbs still appeal to
reinforced by a
days of tree-worship, when it was the custom to touch the sacred oak to placate the powerful Tree Spirits.
redwood named "Luna" for 738 days, beginning on December 10, 1997. Explaining the significance of
her bold gesture and months of survival on a wooden platform 180' above terra firma in northern
California's Humboldt County, Hill invoked the nonverbal medium of
touched me unlike any malls, cars, make-up and [sic] magazines,' said Hill, who brought the audience to
laughter by simulating the first time she hugged a redwood. 'It was a spiritual level that no cathedral,
Oregon Heritage Tree
bomb fell in the southern Oregon forest in 1942 will be named an Oregon Heritage Tree" (Anonymous
Important in the sacredness of trees, as well, is a spatial concept, i.e., of being at the
centre of the tribal territory . . ." (Eliade 1959).
campus laboratory--known as the
repressed individualism, Americans traditionally have equated a green space around the home with
(shipped from USA's Inland Northwest) on Tiananmen Square. "Across China, cities are planting
presumably people see a lot of it. But for those from inner city areas, green ranks high on their list of
favorites" (Vargas 1986:142).
occupies a central, and often unconsidered, place in America's cultural landscape." --Georges Teyssot
("The American Lawn," quoted in
as we do to our own hair. The compulsion to feed, clip, and groom our yard space is prompted by the
(mental, physical, and social),
Female, North-American college students show uneasiness by sitting
Anneke, and Kerkstra 1984).
softness, and to stimulate pleasure areas for grooming, childcare, and sexuality in the mammalian brain's
Collectively, those primeval parts of our brain and spinal cord which arose in the
the aquatic brain and spinal cord. Though our nervous system has greatly evolved, paleocircuits for
rhythmic, alternating movements of
I. Spinal cord
known vertebrates. Based on studies of newly hatched fishes, e.g., it is likely that touching the skin of
Comparable to our own midbrain's
movements for locomotion and for keeping upright in gravity's downward pull (see
fiberlinks from the
nuclei of the latter released neurohormones into the bloodstream, arousing body movements and postures
autonomic nervous system (see
sized neuro structure which organizes basic nonverbal responses, such as
brought on by stimulation of the lacrimal glands),
vocal satisfaction [e.g., "hmm," "ooh," and "um"],
slowed heart beat rate (and ventricular force) to conserve bodily energy, e.g., to prepare a fish to digest
receptors, from whence impulses travel an evolutionary-old pathway (the anterior spinothalamic tract) to
pleasure areas where the sensations are consciously enjoyed. Protopathic cues draw the body into a
may be calmed through kissing, nuzzling, and gentle massage.)
of the legs, and gluteal area.)
perception evolved from the sense of touch. (The first amphibians, e.g., "heard" vibrations conducted
motions stimulated by circuits of the
enhances the pair bond. For men and women, sex is highly personalized as facial planes and eyes square
face-rubbing among the Gahuku Gama of New Guinea, can be regarded as cultural embellishments of
infantile behaviors" (Givens 1978:352-53).
up their sleeves to reveal the
decelerated, or tilted.
it as well, e.g., in such sports as auto racing, skiing, sky diving, and surfing. Stimulation of motion
cerebellum are engaged, centers in which there is no tomorrow, but only the present moment in time.
kill one or two people a year in the U.S. [Poundstone 1990:124]) scarier than automobiles (which kill
50,000 a year [Wright 1990:263]). The fastest roller coaster in the world (in Gurnee, Illinois) averages
coaster has a top speed of only 38 mph [Poundstone 1990:126].)
plunge, which triggers our innate fear-of-falling reflex, as we grasp the bar in front of us tightly with a
senses positions and movements of the head in space.
Until the early 1300s, the length of an hour in London could vary from 38 minutes to 82 minutes. It wasn't because they
had lousy clocks in the Middle Ages. They just had a different attitude toward the passage of that mysterious thing called
Never check your watch at a party, unless it's time to go
time is usually less with attractive, liked, and high-status individuals.)
Americans on the East Coast. The northern Germans and Swiss are particularly punctual" (Vargas
One program is run until finished, and a new one begins with no concern for clock times or schedules"
developed sense of time. So time oriented has our species become that we define distance in
sign produced by the vibration of physical objects (e.g., drum heads, reeds, and strings) or body parts
(e.g., the hands in
Because hearing evolved as a specialized form of touch, sounds share some properties of tactile signals.
toward touching itself (see
size itself (see
authority, and strength.
There, the vibrations are transformed (as electrical signals) in the auditory nerve, which links to auditory
Right brain, left brain II
love them you should tell them through their left ear, research suggests. People are more likely to
and control such auditory reflexes as flinching in response, e.g., to a karate master's yell (see
brain-stem-cervical cord interneurons to anterior horn motor neurons that are linked to spinal nerves in
specialized functions, e.g., to decode information about the frequency, intensity, and timing of sounds.
reliable signs with which to predict subsequent behaviors.
that person in preparation to touch (see
seductively), a sign to help establish
best transacted in an unspoken medium, e.g., through
(Saying "I love you," before showing love in gesture and deed, is apt to scare a partner away.)
signals themselves, however--from a shy head-toss to a subtle display of toe cleavage--are
which can be seen and identified. Love is an intangible, but courtship runs on physical mood signs.
gestures to tell each other (apart from words) to come nearer and nearer until we touch (see
fingertips (used as
achieve sexual intercourse.
first blind climber to scale Mount Everest] says. 'Smooth skin, nice body, muscles--that stuff becomes
negotiation based on nonverbal cues. All vertebrates from reptiles to primates reproduce through mating,
lit lounges documenting these flirtation rituals. Like the ear wiggles, nose flicks and back arches that
signal 'come hither' in rodents, the women smiled, gazed, swayed, giggled, licked their lips, and aided
concept of reptilian. mammalian, and human brain has fascinated me all these years. This may sound funny but, in 1983 I
unthinkingly pout--or show fragments of the pouting cue (esp., contractions of the chin muscle [or
courtship, men and women may unwittingly evert their lips in a pouty look to signal harmlessness and
tense-mouth pouting and contraction of his chin's mentalis muscle (see
(medulla and pons), midbrain, and forebrain (
show "fairly continuous activity" in the chin's mentalis (
other lip cues, in-rolling is controlled by "gut reactive"
In lip-compression, the prime mover is
screwed-out lips of the
dissenting frame of mind. As a mood sign, the lip-purse reflects formation of
in the brain's primary speech center, Broca's area.
contract. The principal muscle, orbicularis oris, is a sphincter consisting
Broca's controls the rounded, pursed-lip movements used to make facial grimaces and emotional calls
when we disagree. As quarrelsome words form in Broca's area, a call goes out through
the facial nerve instruct our lips to round and purse in preparation to disagree.
of neocortex involved in the production of
and squeezed; a knuckle popped. I was glad I wasn't in the middle
position of the fingertips in space, or
material objects, clothing, or body parts (esp. with the
Because our fingers are nerve-linked to
unvoiced thoughts and concealed opinions as well (see
samples, things that have to be unfolded, unrolled, opened" (Delmar 1984:44).
be decoded from its viewpoint as cortically meaningful
Drawing by Aaron M. Huffman, Harvey Danger bass guitarist
sex organs, painted on Upper Paleolithic cave walls in western Europe between 34,000 and 12,000 years
and tummies have been found across Europe from Spain to Russia. The figurines had less to do with
(Miguel de Cervantes,
Chomsky's linguistics was beginning to strike many people as "a theory of the stomach which ignored digestion."
it has recently been called the "second brain."
expresses itself nonverbally in visible "gut reactions." The "full" feeling of satisfaction, the "sick" feeling
appear at the surface, because it is too much involved in the processes of digestion and growth to
(ENS) is now regarded as "a brain unto itself." According to Gershon (1998), "Within those yards of
its tasks in the absence of central nervous system (CNS) control . . . ."
gastrointestinal tract, the enteric nervous system contains ca. 100 million neurons (Willis 1998D:238).
perform most of its diverse functions.
stealthily, swallowing a
implies a conscious decision to withhold information).
Rep. Gary Condit's tight-lipped refusal to discuss his relationship with Washington, D.C. intern, Chandra
dramatized by inserting a brief pause immediately after their delivery. In a lengthier report, pauses may
novel sights, sounds, and smells in the speechless sense-surround of
dangerous person, place, or thing.
Attention-grabbing signals from commercial messages broadcast in the
gross-motor movements. A slowed heart rate (
after the reptilian orienting reflex itself occurs, a mammal may voluntarily attend (i.e., look, listen, and
glossopharyngeal (cranial IX, for
source nuclei for the special visceral efferents of the latter three cranial nerves all originate in the
pharyngeal arch's carotid body to sense CO2 and O2 levels. The accessory nerve (cranial XI) positions
provides the motor pathways to shift the intonation of vocalizations (e.g.,
emotion and to communicate internal states in a social context." (Porges 1995)
(i.e., of slowed hearbeat rate) by the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (cranial X) may have
needs. The ventrolateral motor nucleus of the vagus nerve brakes the bradycardia (Porges 1995).
seclusion behind closed doors (e.g., in bathrooms and bedrooms) and other partitions designed to shield
affects the light, the contrast drops below what the observer can see. This distance is known as the
espionage artifacts (including concealed cameras and listening devices, dead drops, and an Enigma
must help leading women (in skirts and
known skirts were more provocative and revealing than leather. Evidence for the ancient
movements of its own as well (Barber 1991, 1994).
And then it will come to pass that she will rest her eyes on the knight and he will rest his on her, and each will appear to
and animals has relied on the chemical sense. And courtship today is no less reliant on smell, e.g., at a
embellish natural signs to make our sexual preference obvious at a glance.
ideal courting face of an 18-year-old, women cover wrinkles with flesh-colored powders and creams.
on the forehead,
of 17 attractive male bodily traits;
group cohesion because cherishing behavior is primarily understood by the child as friendly. Conversely
interested in your views on the exact relevance of 'the visual' in attraction, and what might happen when this is removed.
satin powder blush; transluscent loose powder; Nude Scene eyeshadow and 2000 Calorie mascara in Rich Black. All made
by Max Factor
infants. It is a fact that youngsters are cared for and protected in virtually all mammalian and bird
research, published in the journal
established, and does not show when looking into an attractive face whose eyes are averted or turned
lower face are products of high levels of estrogen (i.e., the qualities suggest, "I am full of [feminine]
attractive" by college-student observers; Langlois and Roggman 1990).
2000, p. 44)
enjoyment or delight.
of men, women, and children in
Guanahani (San Salvador, Bahamas) regaled the newcomers with such herbs [i.e., tobacco plants]. And
poisonous snakes, insects, and berries.)
Snickers wrapper (copyright 1999 by Mars, Inc.)
shape of the
accent their masculine, feminine,
Fashion statement I
Fashion statement II
bow ties of the Chippendale dancers,
movements of the crouch display.
Fashion statement III
which seems to say, "I am harmless--you may approach" (see
shoulders' soft skin. Fabrics such as
texture of the arms.
authority of masculine biceps and forearms. With its slimmer sleeves, the
expressive body part, its fragility is either left uncovered for display, or concealed by
courtship, e.g., the neck dimple is revealed to suggest harmlessness and vulnerability, as if to say, "You
masked by button-up collars, scarves, and knotted ties which suggest formality, strength, and reserve, as
generations of self-help books on how to succeed in interviews, or read the signs that your boss fancies
known (surgically) as the suprasternal notch. Thank you for placing your compilation online." S., USA (7/9/00 5:53:48 PM
dogs and wolves) and in reptiles (e.g., crocodilians). The prominence of our neck dimple as we face each
statement, "Yes, I agree," e.g., a protruded tongue may suggest, "I don't agree." Tongue-shows can reveal
negative sign of
produce unwitting tongue movements associated with eating and the sense of smell (Guyton 1996:758-
(arcuate) fiber link, such as the
suggest that basal ganglia circuits may be the key to the unique brain bases of human speech and syntax"
Brodmann's areas 44 and 45) identified in 1861 by Paul Broca as essentially involved in the production
result in language disturbances, including Broca's aphasia, conduction aphasia, speech apraxia, mutism,
language area in the left hemisphere of the human brain and is thought to be an epicenter within a
than nonverbal [see, e.g.,
hemispheric in human beings with left-hemisphere verbal centers.
Can anyone help me?
of) a hand-held
an artifact or object. After an exploratory waiting period (reflected by holding a consumer product, e.g.,
Just need a nose job!
Maoris, and Polynesians, touching another's face or head with the tip of the nose is used as a friendly
uncontrollably widen in anger, as well, when we listen to disagreeable comments made by colleagues
noses--which may be further reduced with makeup to keep from upstaging the
appearance of "youth." (See
eyes, and baby-smooth skin (Givens 1983).
the air we breathe to be cleaned, warmed, and moistened before it enters our lungs. Thus, our nose
suppressed in itself: this spark rekindled in me all my knowledge of the changed features, and I recognized the face of
anthropoid's is the most complex visual cortex on earth, with anatomically separate areas for
recognize a once familiar face. (
different from their own (outgroup), compared with activation while viewing faces from their own racial
group (ingroup) . . ." (Anonymous 2000B).
scenes, e.g., offer police few verbal clues of facial I.D.
describe them. Identity clues used by the Chicago Police, e.g., consist of general, all-purpose words such
The need to describe faces in words is a recent development dating back only a few thousand years to
adaptations for city life, i.e., for urban crime and increasing numbers of strangers. (
April 14, 1999)
inner feelings and moods in time to music's rock-'n-roll beat.
swinging evolved (in tandem with those of the legs) for
walking--and of pumping them while running--is an evolutionary holdover from earlier days, when the
still mediated by the
and out of awareness. Motionless arms (and a shuffling gait), meanwhile, are symptomatic of shortages
of the neurotransmitter,
temptations straight in the face--a readiness unintellectual enough, goodness knows, but without pose--a power of
usually masculine style of upper-body strutting.
sensation!" (Morris 1974:83).
Photo copyright by Yevonde
most remarks to colleagues sitting
difficult, e.g., to gaze directly at, or even to cross lines of sight with, a dominant individual seated nearby
at the same table.
them in a circle or at a table, whereas in social discussions, they are more likely to talk to the person
closure, and tearing.
suggestions or ideas, the yawn signals a
objections or clarify unvoiced concerns.
yawn" (Darwin 1872:291).
inspiration followed by deep exhalation.
Cats and monkeys, monkeys and cats--all human life is there
Many primatologists have experienced a profound change in their attitude towards anthropoid apes after making
organism of the kingdom Animalia (see
cinematographers. They are a major source of companionship, entertainment, symbolism, and food for
have occupied Barnum's Animal Cracker boxes for the past 100 years (Frey 2001). "Looking for a
the dead arthropods they had picked off each other's skin (Dean 1982).
contains water and ground-beef flavoring (for dogs who may turn up their noses at drinking from
1920s as a test pattern (Marschall 1986:13).
in evolutionary history, our human bodies are slowly losing their hair as we move away from the animal
realm where we were open to nature" (Camille Paglia quoted in the
unworthy of humane treatment. The U.S. Animal Welfare Act of 1971, e.g., does not apply to laboratory
rats, mice, or birds (Anonymous 1992D).
smaller invertebrates. Few high-school teams, e.g., choose insects as mascots, despite the fact that insects
outweigh all of earth's vertebrates combined, nine-to-one (Holden 1989:754).
sculpture (of "Tiny" the Bull) is a plastic rendering by scientists in Japan which measures ca. 10 microns
More often than not, [people] expect a painting to speak to them in terms other than visual, preferably in
when a painting or a sculpture needs to be supplemented and explained by words it means either that it has not fulfilled its
function or that the public is deprived of vision
enduring features of objects, surfaces,
knowledge about the particular object, or face, or condition represented on the canvas but to generalize,
executed according to the same convention whereby identifying attributes are attached to a central
nucleus of the body. The result is that the head and limbs are often merely hinted at and, at best, are out
with kyphi--the most expensive scented offering known to the Egyptians compounded from the roots of
soft, tinkling, and rhythmic
and dry (Thorndike 1940).
polished mammoth's molar tooth, also from Tata (Scarre 1993:48).
reality and therefore could not communicate knowledge or truth (Flew 1979:6).
with the arrival of urbanism and the full-time artist and scribe (ca. 6,000 B.P. [before present]). The
To soften rocks, or bend a knotted oak
regards music analogous to aphasia as regards the faculty of
musical faculties do not depend on the speech faculty [i.e., one may suffer from amusia without aphasia,
specialize entirely in
body rolling, prior to the head banging" (De Lissovoy 1962:56).
to lullabyes, breathing becomes shallow and regular like that of a sleeping person. The characteristics of
outdoor rock concert
The question: "
personality, and allegiance to the alternative lifestyle. Fans wore identity-proclaiming belts,
idiosyncratic watches, and screaming tatoos. Band members dressed mostly in black (see
members of Third Eye Blind
Down stare menacingly straight ahead (see
pose with their heads
hands held in aggressively pronated (i.e.,
Surrounded by women, the pushing and shoving was not unlike the ritual clash of elk antlers in the season of the rut.
and that it is situated in the anterior two-thirds of the first temporal convolution and in the anterior half of
the localization of the auditory centers, and has come to the following conclusions: There are several
Photo of The Youngbloods in a tree in Marin County, California, by Linda McCartney (copyright 1992 by MPL
sideward, away from standard
movements of the spine are made by contracting the deep muscles of the back (e.g.,the
contracted to produce rhythmic
is not unlike swimming away in the sea.
extralinguistic transmission of cultural knowledge, practices, and lore.
imitating, or practicing the body movements of someone who knows. In diverse "nonverbal
fundamental knowledge and experience about the business of life and living. Today, even the most
technical knowledge may be transmitted through nonverbal apprenticeships, in which students watch and
them, international graphic symbols--nonverbally, and in a pictorial format--are used to show people
information content in scenes representing hunters, singly and in groups, associated weapons, clothing,
hand shape (Bateson and Mead 1942).
pilot his or her craft. Knowledge is most efficiently transmitted through a combination of verbal and
1936 by Otto Neurath.
space and time.
international graphic symbols
designed to send a cautionary message to human beings 10,000 years in the future about the dangers of
difficulty associating visual signs in space and time.
based on the behavioral patterns of nonverbal communication, but kinesics is still so new as a science
that its authorities can be counted on the fingers of one hand" (Fast 1970:9).
signals in popular magazine and newspaper articles (i.e., as negative, defensive "barriers" to rapport).
channel of human communication apart from spoken and printed words.
through dozens of printings, and is still available in bookstores today. Moreover, thanks to research
LANGUAGE can make you a more perceptive human being, and it may influence your approach to
picture, and his playing in the leading role is a fine example of the value of dramatic under-emphasis and
intelligent modulations in voice and expression" (
for a television documentary on body language--how to read it, and how to modify your own body language in order to
"Our proposed documentary will be for Discovery Channel USA, and will feature a well known British zoologist-turned-
presenter with an expertise in body language. We are looking for contributors with an expertise in reading body language.
facial expressions. You
system are components of the system except as related to different levels of abstractions" (Birdwhistell
it" (Birdwhistell 1952:5).
paralanguage alongside the evolution of verbal language indicates that our iconic communication serves
is unsuited to perform" (Bateson 1968:615).
system for body language, Dr. Birdwhistell says, is to assume that all movements of the body have
meaning. None are accidental" (Fast 1970:157).
of a group of movements which are not identical, but which may be used interchangeably without
affecting social meaning" (Knapp 1972:94-95).
linguistic analogy was popular in the 1970s, e.g.: "This [the authors'] model draws its components from
grammar" (Duncan and Fiske 1977:xi).
normal patterns of
hoarding a restricted range of physical
engage in property destruction. ". . . more than anything, autism is a defect of communication--an
responses to the environment. Unlike autism, however, cognitive and communicative skills may be
the physical appearance of the mouth, lower jaw, and ears, and
scans show that the fusiform gyrus, which mediates facial recognition in non-autistic children, fails to
activate when autistic children view pictures of faces (LaFee 2002).
unusually attractive [perhaps due to a diminutive lower jaw and chin; see
certainly normal in stature, with normal-to-large heads" (Rodier 2000:60).
are low compared with the center of his upper lip, and the top of his ears flop over [and are 'lower than
facial expression, body posture, and gestures to regulate social interaction" (diagnostic criteria for 299.00
exaggerate an expression, it often becomes 'fake' or 'you're laughing at my nonverbal' to normal people! This is why
environment that is not used to autistic people. Even Aspergers with an IQ of 170, a wife, two kids, and a job leading a
olive (an auditory relay station) may be missing entirely (Rodier 2000:58). The
with cubicles, senior staff may table-slap the dividers of junior staff members at will, but the latter may
not slap a supervisor's partition, railing, or office door. On a subordinate's cubicle partition, the table-slap
answer the call. Each subsequently
ability to recognize figures drawn on the skin.)
auditory association areas
face we adopt alone when, e.g., at home while resting, reading, or watching TV.
In shopping malls, elevators, or subways, e.g., we adopt neutral faces to distance ourselves from
strangers. The blank face is a subtle sign used to keep others a polite distance away. (
prototypical expression of basic emotion" (Carrera-Levillain and Fernandez-Dols 1994:282).
Faces, like emotions themselves, are considered pleasant or unpleasant, rarely ever neutral. Imaging
Copyright 1998, 1999 (David B. Givens/
superiority, arrogance, and disdain (Eibl-Eibesfeldt 1970, Hass 1970).
group, components of which reach to the skull's occipital bone to produce extension movements of the
head as well. These deep muscles of the back and neck are basic
by the spinal nerves directly, without relay through the cervical plexus or brachial plexus. Thus, we have
less voluntary control of our haughty head-and-trunk postures than we have, e.g., of our hand-and-arm
unconscious attitudes of power and
lifts higher than the other, the eye openings narrow, the mouth corners depress, the lower lip raises and
become a worldwide sign of threat. The world's most exaggerated chin jut was that of
person is rolling their eyes back in their head? It often is accompanied by a
and have encountered others who do this, and am not sure the source of such a gesture, or what it might suggest
consuming food products.
promotes sociability through the reptilian principle of "acting alike" and "doing the same thing" (see
as evidenced by arrangements of cut and broken big-game bones found in sites at Olduvai Gorge,
front of an automobile, truck, or bus.
beckon for deference, demeanor, and respect on the road.
Originally, in the Ford family, e.g., the 1903 Model A had neither a grille nor a vertical front-end, but
aggressive, tooth-showing grille of 1946, which resembled an angry bulldog poised to bite. After 1946,
mouth motifs predominated, and subsequent nose shapes inadvertently damaged sales of less expensive
cars. Edsel's ill-fated "horse-collar" grille of 1958, e.g. (modeled after Packard's vertical center grille),
personality. It's not quite as boring as some might say a full-on rectangle is, because it doesn't have any blunt
been found in the anterior
defensive behaviour" (MacLean 1973:16).
perceived by the sense of taste.
of any of these.
staples of Chinese, Thai, and many other cuisines around the world; and
general communication, more or less directly, with all the other apartments
act of bringing in the outside cues of
look and feel more like the outside world our forebears knew. (
people moving with reds, oranges, and rich browns" (Vargas 1986:151).
Sky & sun signs
with travel posters of oceans, mountains, and trees. We paint our ceilings in light colors to suggest the
miss sunshine nearly as much as we miss the company of human beings. In offices without direct
the world (Mallery 1972). Drawings of
facings, and walls of weathered brick, e.g., can add refreshing contrast to otherwise flat, featureless
Touch cue III
communication in courtship's fourth (or
which may or may not produce laughter), and
waist with one's poking fingertips. (
endorphin, enkephalin, dopamine, noradrenaline, and adrenaline. Mutual laughter stimulated by tickling
him giggle. Tickle him a second time to make him laugh longer. Tickle Elmo a third time to make him
shake and laugh uncontrollably. There is an auto shut-off for longer battery life (batteries included)"
scientific study was published in1872 by Charles Darwin.
"The anthropoid apes . . . likewise utter a reiterated sound, corresponding with our own laughter, when
they are tickled, especially under the armpits" (Darwin 1872:197-98).
A study in
(group C unmyelinated fibers) for
tickling by oneself of one's own body does not lead to laughter. Imaging studies suggest that the brain's
cerebellum anticipates the tickling movements, and thus unconsciously nullifies the required element of
of rubber, latex, or
presence, and personality, sneakers communicate "who we are" much as do
teen cohort in
specific emotions (e.g., of
It might also be that people here are acting more realistically by not grinning at every Tom, Dick, and
Harry. "In any big town, you're surrounded by strangers," says McNeill. "It can become suspicious if you
Regional habits of facial expression evolve in curious ways that haven't been studied extensively.
Perhaps it's like truisms, those cultural cliches supported by so much anecdotal evidence that we don't see
"When New Englanders go south, Southerners want to know why they are so glum, and when
Southerners go north, New Englanders want to know what's so funny," says LaFrance. And everyone
Body language and facial expression are age-old elements of human communication, but our
understanding of them is just beginning to form. "Words haven't really evolved to replace the signs and
Charles Darwin laid out many of the fundamentals of nonverbal communication in his 1872 book,
"Darwin said emotions are not unique to humans, that we share them with animals, which many people
thought was extreme and wrong," Ekman says. "The animal rights people today would love Darwin, but
their eyes while lifting the corners of their mouths may be missing out big time.
other direction and voluntarily trigger emotions in our brains. He likens the process somewhat to the
that the reverse is a weak kind of a shadow that probably doesn't have much practical use."
Perhaps this far from the savannah, people have progressed past their need to smile. Given Boston's
success from its early days as a cradle of liberty to current triumphs in technology, education, business,
When someone dares to smile at you, what do you do? Grimace or grin?
Copyright 2000 (
percent as high as the point from whence it was dropped.
forth reciprocity of releasing and catching a Superball is a "whole brain" workout which stimulates the
"say," especially to children--and to the young at heart. Nonverbally, its body-language motions are
V1f = [(Mr - 1) / (Mr + 1)]V1i + [2 / (Mr + 1)]V2i
or, if V1i = V2i = Vi
V1f = [(-Mr + 3) / (Mr + 1)] Vi
and Mr --0,
V1f = 3Vi . . . [and thus,] the smaller ball will gain
Superball its charming "personality." The diminutive size confers cuteness, and (like human skin itself)
Imitation bouncy balls (various brands) amid fragments of Superball package (copyright 1999 by WHAM-O®)
(Spokane, Washington: Center for Nonverbal Studies Press)
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horizontal arms, usually designed to be occupied by a single person.
styled furniture item.
"Office seating has been extensively studied" (Kantowitz and Sorkin 1983:480).
diminishes effects of the
powerful psychological advantage in bargaining and negotiations. Through the nonverbal principle of
bedecked with symbols of heraldry, power, and wealth. They have become the everyday totems of status
attorney, now chair designer in Rathdrum, Idaho], 41, says, believing forces out of his control pulled him
of oak, without upholstery or other cushioning" (Manchester 1982:72).
Vehicular seating I
treated largely according to
"Clever Hans" phenomenon (Pfungst 1911):
-century time, there lived a world-famous horse named Clever Hans, who displayed
amazing mathematical ability. If somebody asked him to add, say, five plus seven, Hans would faithfully
stomp 12 times, astounding all present. For years, puzzled scientists were baffled by how the animal could
expressions may show positive expectations; while
enjoyment, and value (see, e.g.,
products more expressive (e.g., more "lively") and fun to use.
beings have designed products so as to maximize their appeal to emotions, feelings, and moods. Today
our palm, the "soft" sensation is carried by
vertebrate skin. Today, the soft or
motor vehicle just below the windows.
illusion, horizontal stripes suggest that cars are both "longer" and "lower" to the ground. Horizontal
1927 LaSalle. According to its inventor, Harley Earl, "This strip was placed there to eat up the
overpowering vertical expanse of that tall car" (Patton 1992:185).
theme or plot" (Patton 1992:185).
greater verticality and physically imposing height (see
cortex contains specialized
with an object (e.g., a pencil or pen) held in the
attention, e.g., from
nonverbal ritual before the game, McGwire
(Stern and Bender 1974:245).
Our brain's cerebral neocortex devotes a disproportionately large part of its surface area to
"enormous" lips is an efficient form of
expressions, gestures, and other forms of human communication apart from words.
printed words, verbal narration, and voice-over speech.
This new video examines how and why different cultures differ
dramatically in the foods seen as "edible," "delicious," or
can inspire horror and disgust in people from very different
This video is about about language and vocal "paralanguage"--i.e.,
what is revealed about a person from the nuances of their
voice and speech? The video explores the important clues
have had, where we grew up, and a long list of other items--e.g.,
our identity, age, emotions, charisma, dysfluencies, sarcasm,
importance (and excitement) of understanding the nature and richness
of cultural differences. (Instructor's Guide).
"A WORLD OF GESTURES: Culture and Nonverbal Communication"
This video is a visual "tour" of the remarkable variation
in the hand gestures used in different cultures. People
range of hand gestures--friendly gestures, obscene gestures,
gestures for intelligence and stupidity, gestures about
These two video "self-tests" enable viewers to see how accurately
facial expressions, and gestures--is essential to ensuring public security today.
people are doing--and why. Moreover, they are able to project themselves, through empathy, into the
crossed into Washington State from British Columbia via the Port Angeles ferry.
intercept, and praised the customs officers for responding to nonverbal cues.
(using delay tactics) drew inspector Mark Johnson's attention.
Ressam finally got out of his car and stood next to Johnson, while a third inspector, Dan Clem, inspected the trunk. When
Clem found white powder hidden in the wheel well, Ressam ran away. Inspectors intercepted him as he tried to car-jack a
watch closely for unusual behavior and nervous passengers. From thousands of hours of flying,
attendants internalize an experiential blueprint for what is "normal," which helps them spot the
U.S. Customs Today
Michael Phillips, who recently graduated from the Basic Inspector Training Course at the U.S. Customs Service Academy,
wasted little time in putting acquired skills to use in the field. Little did he know that within hours of donning his uniform
Phillips immediately departed the Training Center for his duty station at Atlanta International Airport.
Mysterious bulges, inappropriate clothing
On one particular flight, Inspector Phillips gave all passengers an extra level of scrutiny because it had originated from a
Phillips' newly-acquired training and natural instincts led him to suspect that passenger was using the blazer as a
concealment device. As he began to question the traveler, his suspicions grew stronger.
referred the passenger to secondary, where she was asked to remove the blazer.
Bulges under the woman's blouse were quite apparent. A patdown--authorized and performed by a supervisor -- was
types of soft sign have been identified:
horizontally across the view-field while taking a bite of food or drinking from a cup, bottle, or glass.
individuals (e.g., in elevators and waiting rooms), though it occurs at regular intervals (usually with each
© 1998, 1999, 2000 by David B. Givens, Ph.D.
Willis Bradley ("Bill") Givens, an independent thinker,
who encouraged his son to think independently as well
over a period of several months in the Year 2000.]
The first two or three years of my life I really don't remember anything, but I do remember that my
grandmother taught me how to read and write before I was four.
Mostly in pecans
those days. There was a creek at the edge of our property--or her property--that adjoined my Uncle Joe's
My grandmother couldn't do anything, because of her old age at that time. We just lived there in this old
The back of the house was a long, long, long porch, and she had canvas there which she could pull down
to keep the sun out in the evenings. It was a wonderful play area for me when I was that age.
was a squirrel up in the attic who would come down and watch my grandmother while she was quilting.
I would try to catch the squirrel, and one time I really caught the squirrel, and he caught me, and he bit
me on my little finger. His sharp nails went right into my finger, too. Actually, I screamed and yelled and
But my grandmother said poor varmints didn't mind biting people except for self defense. She taught me
more about animals after that, and said you just have to respect them.
Many, many's the time when one of my uncles would come to see their mother. The things we ate the
most were pecans, because we grew a lot of them. My uncle would take his knife and cut the ends off
Some of the neighbors would bring my grandmother food. We didn't have a lot to eat, but what we had
was rich back in those days.
And all the neighbors around would take care of my grandmother, who was also taking care of me. It was
We also had a cellar in the back of our yard, and my grandmother and I spent many a night in the cellar
waiting for a cyclone to go over.
had what you'd call a "Second Tuesday." The second Tuesday of every month, people would go in and
Our first home there was an old three-story frame house about three blocks from my Aunt Martha's
because I thought it might be colored water. My grandmother explained that colored water was for
It was really, really, really bad back in those days, with the oppression of the black people . . . .
money came from. In 1925 and 1926, it was in the depression era. Nobody had any money, and almost
We lived about one and a half or two miles away from school, and I would walk to school in the morning
and walk back in the evening. No one had any money. It was just amazing how much poverty there was
one time was a nickel milk shake--a chocolate milk shake--and I thought I'd died and gone to heaven. It
Looking back, when I was that young, everything was so fun.
luggage, because I was so skinny they felt sorry for me. And one thing I did a lot of was play dominoes
So, in a way, I had a lot of help when I was a little kid working--I mean staying--with my grandmother.
And it's fun for me to kind of look back, back in those days, at all the things that happened to me, and to
When I was about eight years old my grandmother and I went up to visit one of her sons in Hardborough,
Oklahoma. He had 40 acres of farmland, and he raised broom straw. Broom straw is what you make
Eat the hearts out
raised rattlesnake watermelons, and also blue moon and star melons. Really, really delicious. You would
My uncle also had a lot of farm animals. He had lambs and pigs and chickens, turkey, cattle and horses,
and all those things that farmers had back in those days.
It was my birthday, and my uncle asked me what I would like to eat for my birthday. And he said, "How
about some lamb?"
A bad memory
grabbed the little lamb and cut its throat. Well, you can imagine what happened to me that night, because
Before my grandmother died, she was sick, and my uncle took me to Houston before she died. After she
died, I did not go to the funeral, because they did not go back to Bowie for her funeral.
Norwalk was really a nothing sort of town, and there was really nothing--it was the heart of the
Depression. People were making--if they did have a job--$5 or $10 a week, and millions and millions of
I didn't really know what was going to happen to me when I got there, but the people I was with dropped
me off in downtown Los Angeles, in an area I'd never been in before. I caught a bus in L.A. to the little
. . .
room. I hadn't had much sleep for several days, and I slept for almost a day and a half.
After I recovered from my sleep, it began to dawn on me: What have I really done? I've left Houston, I've
left the place where I've known all the people around, even though it was hard living with my relatives
And, back there, I got a job at a roofing company, making three dollars and a half a week, and that really
wasn't my bag. I went to work with a friend of mine, in a geologist place working for oil wells. He took
And I missed living with my brother for four years. He and I had fun times, at times. We'd swum across
a thrashing machine, I worked in a little café, I worked in a grocery store--it was a one-man shop. I
I became a crew chief and I got two cents a tree, so I made a lot of money. And you didn't have any days
Well, there came a time when we had a lot of east wind blowing, and the ranch decided not to do any
work for ten days, and they gave us ten days off.
week. They were open in the morning from 8 to 6, and closed on Sundays, and the guys were working
So, as I was walking out after Amer Asher had fired me, John O'Neil said, "Why don't you come to work
And I said, "Well, I'm not going to work ten hours a day doing this kind of work."
week if you'll be my assistant manager."
He said, "What do you know about produce?"
about a year, and he kind of almost adopted me. He had three daughters and he would invite me every
And I really enjoyed the O'Neil family. Pat O'Neil and Sug O'Neil and a little girl named Tootsie, who
was what they called a spastic. She couldn't speak and she couldn't understand it, and she couldn't really
And I worked for John O'Neil for a year plus. But one day I told him, you know, I haven't any education
other than high school. I really believe I should go back to school--go to college--because otherwise I'll
And he thought it was a brilliant idea, because he'd always kind of thought of me as an adopted son. And
I made a deal with Whittier College to work moving pianos or mow the grass during my recesses and
hours off. I worked out a deal with a man named Jack Feral to run the Campus Inn. I could wash the
I'd bus dishes five nights a week for seven day's meals. I could have the same meals as the sports guys. If
they had steak, I had steak. I also helped Mrs. Hadley at the rooming house--the room I was staying in
rooming house, for $12 a week. I also worked out a deal with the gas company to clean out their place. I
So, all in all, I was really a busy young man. I really had too much to do, and not enough time to study. I
was very fortunate that I had an excellent memory. I did not have to take notes, and I made a deal with
a slave for 40 dollars but not 35 dollars. And I worked there for a little while longer. I stayed with a
So I drove back to Houston and went to work in Brown Shipyard. My job was like a steam fitter.
And from that time on I never really had another best friend. Helen has always been my best friend. All
my friends that I'd had were in the past. From then on, Helen and I were a couple. We loved doing things
"I'd like to propose to you a new way of doing things. I'd like to have six percent of the gross take, which
would only be about $60--only about a $10 raise--but maybe it will give me an incentive to do more."
over $1000 a day. So that gave me $60. John would give me $50 a week, and then at the end of the week
John O'Neil was always a great man in my life
We found a house that we could buy for $5000, and we didn't really have any money to speak of saved
away. And I got my boss, John O'Neil to loan me the down payment. John O'Neil was always a great
Again, John was a great man on these things, and I worked my tail off for him because of it. Had it not
been for John, we wouldn't have had some things. He also had a truck I could borrow from time too time.
No furniture, period
sidewalks in the front. But again, the house was an old house, and one day, we had a septic tank in the
on the side of the hill. We hung a pool on the side of the hill. And it was a wonderful place for our kids to
And fortunately, Helen never had to work, because that was our prenuptial agreement I gave her. I said I
would make enough money to support us, and her job would be to spend it. And when we had friends
But it was always a wonderful thing for her to be there when the children came home from school, even
though they really didn't need her, it was a comfort for them to know that she was there. And it just made
During this period of time when we lived on Rideout, we were blessed with more children. Christine and
Susan rounded out our family of children. And, you know, Helen and I certainly enjoyed all three of
Later on, Helen was very active with being a scout leader for our two girls' Brownie troop. And she was
also a den mother for David when he first started. It was a great, great young family. We certainly
I really longed to have a family of my own . . .
kids grow up, and Helen and I were a part of it.
We lived in that part of the world until David almost finished high school, and I got transferred to San
In San Diego, I went down and worked for two months before I moved the kids down, and Helen. I lived
in a motel for two months, and Helen stayed at our Rideout home and took care of the children. Helen
. . . it looked like billions and billions and billions of stars!
burn in our fireplaces. Because we hadn't had a fireplace since we'd moved out of our Midway home, and
would run and play, and the dogs, and it was a lovely place to be.
We had a horseshoe pit, and we had a place where we'd play darts on the lawn. And it was a big place,
with an acre in the front lawn, and an acre in the back lawn. We kept our dogs in a fenced area in the
tape-recorded it over a period of several months in the Year 2000.]
new store in Pasadena, and that was my primary function for awhile, to concentrate on that one store. I
you sold a head of cauliflower for anywhere from two to 12 cents. And lots and lots and lots of work.
You had many seasons on apples. The first season on apples was a white astrican [looked like a pippin]
apple, and it was so doggone sour that it took five pounds of sugar for each one pound of apple to make it
Later came the gravenstein apple, which was primarily an applesauce apple. And it was a very short-
lived apple, and a very tender apple, and it didn't last very long. Then came the jonathans and the
And there were three or four months out of the year when you had no apples in your store. You didn't see
String beans you didn't see after a certain time. Many things were seasonal in those times, because they
hadn't perfected shipping as we know it today, or refrigeration as we know it today.
I remember years ago we bought some grapes from Chile. They were flown in, and they'd been packed in
sawdust, and 60% of the grapes were dried up. But they were a novelty just having them in the store--you
Apples are year round, uh, they perfected refrigeration to make them last. They keep them at almost 32
degrees--almost freezing--and they put gas in the chambers at the same time, and when you finally take
It was an abuse of how we handled frozen foods. But the company gave me that assignment.
doing about six percent of the grocery sales. I took over that responsibility, and really changed the way
is no longer on line.]
And in the meantime, the cookie company in the L.A. area had gone to warehousing, and quit going
direct, to give Mothers Cookies a chance to move into Southern California. They were only serving about
. . . they finally conned me into going to work for them.
accounts, they could do that.
little while, they decided to give me a driver to drive me around to the stores, and I stayed on as an
I worked for Mothers as a temporary for quite a little while, and finally decided to join as a permanent
with them. I guess that was one of the luckiest things I've ever had to do, because it really worked out
happened to be a kind of a luck-out when I came on at that time, because we had in our 10th period that
And then, the next year was the best year ever the company ever had.
And occasionally they'll make telephone calls and come and have lunch with me and we'll talk over some
And my advice to them is that there are several ways of going, and it is up to them to choose what to do
So, that's about all I have to say at this moment.
tape-recorded it over a period of several months in the Year 2000.]
A little later on, Christine got married. A little later on, David got married. And the only one left was
Susie, and Helen and I at home.
Life went on, and things began to happen a little differently. It seemed funny not having Chris and David
Whittier College, and then moved away with two other girls and lived on campus. She put in about three
became grandparents many times. We have seven, and later a grandson, Aaron, so we have eight.
With that many grandchildren, well, as they grew up a little bit, past five or six years old, we'd invite
them up to our home. It was really fun teaching them how to play cards and all those things. Their
During those 30 years, too, Helen's mother got sick and came to live with us for a short time. She was put
into a rest home, because we really couldn't take care of her. And she stayed in the rest home for several
time for us to move back to San Diego if we could possibly do it. And we began to do some investigation
So, that's up to now where we are. And it, like I say, as of tomorrow we're going up to Oceanside to my
great-granddaughter's fifth birthday, if you can imagine that. It's amazing how fast time goes by.
. . . you have to learn to cope with it.
from thinking. And when I'm sitting or laying down, I really feel good. So it's just one of those things,
working part-time at the San Diego Zoo, and she's learning to be a person who knows how to
nonverbal communication, tailored to diverse audiences and needs. Fees range from pro
624-4794; or e-mail us at
Tom Hanks is such a master of the subtle gesture that one could happily watch him, say,
Washington Speakers Bureau, Seattle
204 West 23
Spokane, WA 99203
Washington in Seattle. He served as Resident Anthropologist and Director of Information Services and
currently developing the
Jolla, California. His expertise lies in nonverbal communication, anthropology and the brain. Givens's
executive editor of the
Institution, National Academy of Sciences, New York Life Insurance Company, South Carolina Trial
204 West 23
Spokane, WA 99203
Givens, David B. (1983).
Spokane, Washington, Center for Nonverbal Studies Press. Portions reprinted in
Concepts and Skills
--American Library Association
Givens, David B. (1977A). "Shoulder Shrugging: A Densely Communicative Expressive Behavior." In
Givens, David B. (1977B). "Infantile Reflexive Behaviors and Nonverbal Communication." In
Givens, David B. (1978A). "The Nonverbal Basis of Attraction: Flirtation, Courtship, and Seduction." In
Givens, David B. (1978C). "Social Expressivity During the First Year of Life." In
(20), pp. 251-274. (Observations incorporated in "Baby's Talking: Are You Listening?" Videotape,
Brown & Company, 1988.)
Givens, David B. (1985). "Does Your Body Style Beguile," p. 129,
Givens, David B. (1987). "Animal Optimism: The Predator Within Us Knows that Life is Good and
Great Things are Possible." Guest Column in
Givens, David B. (1980). "The Way Others See Us." In
Givens, David B. (1981). "Posture is Power." In
(Spring), pp. 14-16 & 55-56. (Reprinted in San Diego Trial Lawyers Association
Givens, David B. (1986).
Association, Washington, D.C.
Givens, David B. (1986).
Association, Washington, D.C.
Givens, David B. (1986). "What is Anthropology." In Susan Quarles (ed.),
(Department of Anthropology, University of Washington), Vol. X, No. 1.
Givens, David B. (1985). "People & Parting Shots," pp. 1-6,
Anthropology, University of Washington), Vol. XI, No. 2.
Givens, David B. (1987). "Doctor Rate Update," pp. 1, 12, 21,
Macmillan, New York, 1993 (reprinted in
Givens, David B. (1994). "Anthropology," pp. 121-23,
Macmillan, New York, 1994 (reprinted in
Givens, David B. (1995). "Anthropology," p. 125,
New York (reprinted in
Givens, David B. (1996). "Anthropology," pp. 136-38,
Macmillan, New York (reprinted in
Givens, David B. (1996). "Careers in Anthropology," pp. 167-69,
Givens, David B. (2001). "Body Language,"
This contribution represented a quantum leap in psychological treatment, which far outweighs the impact of his technical
(From Beach Wear to Vehicular Grille)
American Anthropological Association, Chicago Hilton & Towers Hotel,
Brothers suit and the vehicular stripe as examples, this paper shows how nonverbal signs work to (1)
This 72 year-old consumer product is embossed, or made of
enamel, vinyl, chrome, or steel. Through an optical illusion,
Your diagnosis is:
A messaging feature is:
decoration, symbol, gloss, color, aroma, spice, cadence, tone, edging,
than, e.g., to provide functionality, durability, or strength)
the overpowering vertical expanse of that tall car."
This 91 year-old, usually curvilinear product expresses
"emotion" by mimicking perioral features, esp. our lips,
1932 Lincoln: nose-like, V-type radiator was "high-brow"
(Note: nasal illusions help sales of "aristocratic" vehicles, such as Jaguar
and Mercedes-Benz, which "look down their noses" at lesser automobiles)
[slide 9 (fig. C)]
long prehistory in time.
oxygen molecules provide complex onion, chocolate, nutty, fruity,
amygdala and the emotional limbic system
This 399 year-old product enabled men to seem "bigger," and
present "larger" versions of themselves in public. Today its
IV. Conclusion: Your Nonverbal Skills in Counseling
* Caps designate entries in
David B. Givens, Ph.D.
La Jolla, Calif.
Study Guide for Midterm Exam:
Our midterm exam will have about 30 fill-in-the-blank type questions and one or two essay questions. Don't worry
about any of the reading or textbook sections we didn't explicitly talk about in class. Do worry (a little) about
available data sources for a prompt media response;
(1) favorable to stem-cell research or (2) against stem-cell research;
"fairness," based on the relative number of plus and minus paragraphs in the piece; and
VII. Case Study of Sports Promotion on the Gonzaga Campus
Washington case study which is representative of a larger, national phenomenon;
length of the top of the grille, (2) the horizontal length of the bottom of the grille, and (3) the vertical height of the grill
X. Using Chi-Square Calculator for Bivariate Results of Coin & Tack Flipping Trials
record the number of heads (flat-side down) and tails (pin down);
XI. Sampling from Generation X and Y: Is Androgyny evident--and statistically significant--in Footwear?
Standard Deviation Calculators
COMM 306 -
Class Participation & Class Projects = 25%
Midterm Exam = 25%
2. Hand back Project I - discussion; overhead example, FYI
1. Share & discuss resource venues for Project II
Week III (Survey Questionnaires)
2. How to do a
1. Designing survey questions
1. How to
Week IV (Quantitative Data Analysis)
2. Introducing our Team Research Project (Team A & Team B)
1. Class workshop on computing statistics from survey data matrix
Week V (Qualitative Data Analysis)
2. Class Project V: Qualitative Survey Analysis
Week VI (Content Analysis)
2. Discuss teams and rationale for our Individual/Team Research Project
1. Discuss Content Analysis
Week VII (Theory & Researchable Topics)
Topics and Questions")
1. Hand back and go over midterm exam
4. Discuss final Individual/Team Research Project
3. For additional information on the WIPP project, please see
2. Discuss Individual/Team Research Project - What's your topic?
6. Calculating and using indices
1. How to measure people, phenomena, and products
Week XI (Sampling)
7. Class Project XI: Are Generations X and Y Androgynous? A Footwear Case in Point
1. Key issues in sampling as presented by Project XI
4. Using Chi Square to assess the significance of findings in Project XI
5. What is a
1. Project XI's conclusions on sampling
Week XII (Observation Techniques)
2. Participant, unobtrusive, and systematic observation
Wed. - Thanksgiving Holiday
Week XIII (Experimental Research - No Class Project)
2. What is experimental research?
1. Thoughts on Projects
Week XIV (Catch-up Week - No Class Project)
1. What are qualitative interviews?
1. What is evaluation research?
1. Final catch-up items
Week XVI (Semester Examinations)
Make-up Final (by appointment)
Months of debate--and one lucky break--led to the President's compromise. The
Senate pro-lifers like Orrin Hatch and Strom Thurmond on the side of those who want federal funding,
Poffenberger said East Sprague was very busy last year when construction often limited the freeway to
one lane. Now that most of the Interstate 90 construction is done there is no congestion on Sprague. In
fact, she says, it's often deserted.
If the road needed to be built at all, Poffenberger said county officials should have designed both roads
for two-way traffic. That way those who wanted to avoid the business district could use Appleway
Following is the text of President Bush's speech Thursday announcing his decision to limit federal
funding of research on stem-cells taken from human embryos only to an estimated 60 existing lines of
Good evening. I appreciate you giving me a few minutes of your time tonight so I can discuss with you a
complex and difficult issue, an issue that is one of the most profound of our time.
The issue of research involving stem cells derived from human embryos is increasingly the subject of a
national debate and dinner table discussions. The issue is confronted every day in laboratories as
from umbilical cords that are discarded after babies are born, from human placentas. And many scientists
However, most scientists, at least today, believe that research on embryonic stem cells offers the most
promise because these cells have the potential to develop in all of the tissues in the body.
Scientists further believe that rapid progress in this research will come only with federal funds. Federal
dollars help attract the best and brightest scientists. They ensure new discoveries are widely shared at the
The United States has a long and proud record of leading the world toward advances in science and
medicine that improve human life, and the United States has a long and proud record of upholding the
donate them to science so they can be used for good purpose instead of wasting their potential.
Others will argue there is no such thing as excess life and the fact that a living being is going to die does
not justify experimenting on it or exploiting it as a natural resource.
At its core, this issue forces us to confront fundamental questions about the beginnings of life and the
ends of science. It lives at a difficult moral intersection, juxtaposing the need to protect life in all its
phases with the prospect of saving and improving life in all its stages.
America and throughout the world.
And while we're all hopeful about the potential of this research, no one can be certain that the science
will live up to the hope it has generated.
including by framing or similar means, is expressly prohibited without the prior written consent of
.c The Associated Press
(Aug. 10) -- Roman Catholic leaders condemned as ''morally unacceptable'' President Bush's support of
limited federal funding for embryonic stem cell research. Conservative Protestants said they were
After weighing the issue for months, Bush announced Thursday night that he would support federal
funding for the research, but only on existing lines of embryonic stem cells, restricting research to cells
''The fact that he is not putting federal funds in the support of killing additional babies is a very critical
position on embryonic stem cell research but has said it ''merits cautious scrutiny.'' Utah Sen. Orrin
The Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) was alone among major Protestant denominations in endorsing
embryonic stem cell research. The church backed the research for medical goals that could be achieved
Nathan Diament, policy director for the Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of America, which had
urged Bush to lift the ban on federal funding, felt comfortable with the president's limited approach. The
''There's nothing wrong with going slow,'' Diament said. ''He basically said he wants this research to
proceed slowly but carefully, and that's OK.''
published, broadcast, rewritten or otherwise distributed without the prior written authority of The
.c The Associated Press
``Really it's exercising a responsibility to take all this energy and goodwill that people have directed
toward me and redirect it in the right direction,'' he said.
Copyright 2001 The Associated Press. The information contained in the AP news report may not be
published, broadcast, rewritten or otherwise distributed without the prior written authority of The
c The Associated Press
WASHINGTON (Aug. 27, 2001) - The National Institutes of Health on Monday identified 10 companies
and research laboratories with embryonic stem cell colonies that the Bush administration says are eligible
When it comes to flirting what isn't said can often be much more important than what is. Before
Givens' laboratories over the past 20 years have consisted of numerous, dimly lit establishments that are
the stomping grounds for hormone-ridden humans looking for love.
Documenting the Chase
"I've logged a lot of time sitting at tables in bars, watching the behavior of men and women during
important for them to see that you can be soft and gentle, youthful and playful, so you can lure them in
Jennifer Rogers is a freshman at the University of Florida, she's seen what Givens is talking about when
it comes to mega-macho displays. "I do notice that when guys walk in a room they have a sort of
they try to look powerful and intimidating."
That's not what she is attracted to. As Givens research suggests, Rogers definitely prefers the gentle
just beneath the Adam's apple -- exhibit even greater vulnerability and thus approachability.
people who are intimate that it is a real sign of endearment when they come up behind someone and put
indicates coyness, submission and self-protection. Those indications signal to a potential partner that
there is nothing to be afraid of.
As strange as it may sound, men might want to consider showing off their wrists and hands. They may
not be the first body parts that come to mind when one thinks of attracting women, but according to
"Women have a liking for the male
parts. Slightly pouted lips can signal to the opposite sex that one is harmless and available. Draw the lips
back into a smile and love is in the air - showing the pearly whites is a fairly universal signal that one is
The lips can also be damning. Beware of the tense mouth. This expression characterized by compressing
and narrowing the lips into a thin line evokes emotions of anxiousness, nervous tensions, anger and
One such "tense mouth" moment will go down in history. Givens noticed the expression on President
Bill Clinton's mug before he said, "Indeed, I did have a relationship with that woman . . . Ms. Lewinsky .
For people who think the science of nonverbal communication is poppycock, Givens offers a bit of
empirical evidence. "I think the greatest example that I can think of that shows that anybody in any
wrists on that girl?" any more than you would expect women to exclaim, "Boy, he's got a really nice neck
Much of this behavior is picked up on subconsciously. Which also means that just because the sexes
aren't talking about these signals, doesn't mean they aren't noticing them.
The woman sits alone in a noisy cafe. Her legs are tightly crossed; her fingers clasp the edge of the table;
sends in her direction. At a glance, you can guess how she is feeling. Her
really aren't thinking about how we do it. To become more aware, says anthropologist David Givens,
Ph.D., "you have to have some kind of strategy for it."
Communication experts study such things as gestures, facial expressions, posture and voice, but Givens
recommends a simpler approach. Director of the
Givens suggests focusing on "the three most telling and expressive parts of the body:" the lips, the
THE BIG CITY
New York Times
What we have here is a failure to communicate. New York's
One of them is Gridlock Sam, a k a Samuel I. Schwartz, who
city's Department of Transportation. "With traffic at record
levels, we need to give drivers a way to lower the rage level,"
said Mr. Schwartz, now a consultant and the traffic columnist
but he found it ineffective. Some people resented its political
connotations; some thought he was flashing a victory sign; some
Wash., is an anthropologist working on the first
"The Forehead Tap," he said, "might show you're angry at
yourself, but it's not a sign of appeasement, and it can be
ambiguous. In some Mediterranean regions, it means 'I'm crazy'
Incidentally, even the raised middle finger is not universally
understood. Although it has a long history--ancient Romans
called it the "digitus impudicus," or indecent finger--it's not an
automatic reflex. "The finger is an iconic gesture," Dr. Givens
But some gestures are automatically understood by all
goodwill that he has concocted: the Bowing Thumb Waggle. It
incorporates gestures that vertebrates have been programmed to
make--and to recognize in others--since amphibians and
"When we feel meek or friendly, our
the world, when people feel helpless or contrite, they hold up
their open palms, and when they want to be friendly, they wave
hello with an open palm."
To make the Bowing Thumb Waggle, you display the open palm
and wave gently, with the fingers spread slightly apart and the
thumb folded across the palm. "It looks as if you have only four
gesture says, 'I mean no harm, as you can see by my open palm
and poor thumbless hand.' It can't be confused with any other
cultural cue anywhere, not even in the Middle East."
The Bowing Thumb Waggle has not been tested in the field, but
Dr. Givens is confident it could make New York a friendlier
place. "You could do it out the window of your car to apologize
Can Speak to Juries
Associated Press Writer
What they see, especially when they see a judge doing it,
also makes an impression on jurors and others in courtrooms,
A judge who turns his back, frowns and purses his lips when
"If a judge's opinion is clear, people will try to follow her
lead," said Givens, a University of Washington
impartiality, and the non-verbal signals they impart are
Givens, commissioned by the Washington State
Administrator for the Courts to study the impact of judicial
"He used an evangelistic, sermonizing voice to reinforce
dominance over those in court. Conversational speaking
The judge held himself stiffly erect, appearing anxious, "and
his tone of voice accented a holier-than-thou orientation."
The judge, said Givens, admitted to liking his work less and
less and felt "people just don't like judges."
Givens showed the judge the videotape, and discussed the
judge's on-the-bench behavior. The judge began adding
becoming of greater interest in the scientific community, and
Anthony Wartnik, King County Superior Court judge in
Seattle, said judges consciously try to maintain a feeling of
Since he has been working with Givens, he said, he has
become more aware of his actions.
"I think one thing I tend to do is over-concentrate on note-
taking, which results in my back turned somewhat to the
He said he also has had to learn to hold his reactions in check
when confronted with shocking testimony, and maintain a
But it doesn't mean the court should be emotionless, he said.
Michigan, are also using kinesics in training materials for
them," he said. Likewise, a judge should know and
Givens said training and willpower were needed for judges to
keep a show of impartiality in force.
"Bias leaks easily in non-verbal behavior because evolution
has programmed our feelings to show," he said in the
unkindness applies equally to all.
With more and more videotaping being done in courtrooms,
Language of Love Shares
New York Times
who is writing a book about evolution and behavior. "In the first phase of courting, humans broadcast
From hundreds of hours of observations in bars and at parties, Dr. Givens discovered that women, more
than men, tend to promenade, making numerous trips to the woman's room, for instance, both to scout
and postures humans use to send this message are shared with other mammals, particularly primates.
Charles Darwin, who noted the same gestures in his 1872 book, "The Expression of the Emotions in Man
with the intellect, with our great neocortex."
The nonverbal repertoire for flirting is "part of a natural sequence for courtship worldwide," said Dr.
Helen Fisher, an anthropologist at Rutgers University in Brunswick, N.J., and author of "The Anatomy of
Coyness is not seen in species where the female does not need the sustained help or resources of a male
to raise her young, said Dr. Lancaster. In species where a single act of copulation is the only contact a
But in species where two parents appreciably enhance the survival of offspring, "females don't want to
mate with a male who will abandon them," said Dr. Lancaster. In such species, "the courtship dances are
gamely tried to persuade us to call the study of it "
from zero to 18 inches - "in public is not considered proper by adult, middle-class Americans," Hall
writes, "even though their young may be observed intimately involved with each other in automobiles
library, sitting in chairs deemed out of bounds by the laws of personal space. Students grew irritated,
comprehensive glossary of the tiny gestures we use to guard our invisible zones.
"Even 500 million years ago, the evidence suggests, living creatures displayed a significant sensitivity to
spatial issues - and this territorial neural wiring has evolved in humans to such an extent that a tiny
despite the torrents of words uttered at them, they are, Givens says, basically
message when you're trying to promote an idea,' says Dr. Givens." (Lauren Picker, "Posture, Please!", pp.
particularly good at addressing our
gestures and postures humans use to send this message are shared with other mammals, particularly
Marsa, "Bomb Shelter: Warning the Future of Our Lasting Nuclear Legacy," p. 20,
can be subtle." (Susan Gervasi, "Dressing for the Mall," B5,
Generations," I-C 7,
Copyright 1998, 1999 (David B. Givens/
Tell You That Words
The most successful lawyers, teachers and salespeople, among others, have one thing in common: A
Q Mr. Givens, why is it important for people to understand body language--that is, communication
by means of movements and gestures?
language and put it to profitable use. They adapt their presentation to the messages they pick up.
For example, the most successful trial lawyers are those who can look at a jury and a judge and pick up
little cues that tip off what people are thinking. An observant lawyer may notice that the judge is
Such signals are used constantly, even though people generally don't realize they are communicating
through their movements, posture and mannerisims.
Q What kinds of information is nonverbal language likely to reveal?
For example, a person may
a good indication that he or she is uncertain about an idea or perhaps disagrees with it, even without
Q Would you give some examples of the most common indicators of approval and disapproval?
other. Such signs are unmistakable forms of body language.
Q Do people more often than not try to exhibit dominant behavior in the presence of others?
Media citing CNS-staff ideas and research on nonverbal communication include
"The Hit or Myth of Love at First Sight," U.S. Airways
People to Really Listen to You?" 58, 60-1
"No Way: Slashed Circles are 'Busting' Out All Over; Everyone Can Understand the Symbol, Which May
September 16, 2001
NEW YORKERS have long kept their facial expressions guarded, for
emotional tax that you pay when you live in New York City," he
said. "Now, people have left it behind and are looking at each
Outside the 69th Regiment Armory on Lexington Avenue at 26th
mournful intimacy usually reserved for lovers, parents or siblings.
seen? My dad, 82nd floor."
In Bryant Park on Thursday evening, Mike Shattuck, a college
student, caught the eye of a young man who looked, in dress and
manner, a lot like him. Both men gave a semi-
Mr. Shattuck said that he wasn't sure why he had exchanged
grief is known as
tenses the lips. Dr. Givens said that President Bush used lip
"It is a very emotional and compassionate signal with the lips,"
Dr. Givens said. "We know when you combine it with a little
said he has noticed more signs of consideration on New York
mobility of the muscles. . . .
And too strong to be suppressed.
that only the soul of the wise can really understand.
of us . . . her compassion and her humanity.
and, one might almost say, in accordance with an elaborate
forehead was clouded now and then by her thoughts, like a
mirror which is momentarily breathed upon; and from her
quick analysis of cause and effect which gives the charm to
myself to see what others overlook
was to explore the mere: it knew how to
so that foe's grip might not harm his heart, or grasp of angry
wringing a cloth in her hands