Baza_ANGL

~Тема 1. Составление вопросов

Дополните вопрос: you live with your parents?
Does
@Do
Did
Are

Дополните вопрос: Was a first-year student 5 years ago?
we
@she
they
it

Дополните вопрос: Where our grandmother live?
is
do
@does
-

Дополните вопрос: Who English in your family?
study
@studies
does study
do study

Дополните вопрос: Is in good health?
I
my friends
her parents
@his grandfather

Дополните вопрос: Where you 20 minutes ago?
was
are
@were
did

Дополните вопрос: Victor serve in the army 2 years ago?
@Did
Do
Does
Is

Дополните вопрос: Victor the only child in the family?
Does
@Is
Do
Are

Дополните вопрос: Where he?
does
are
@is
lives

Дополните вопрос: My daughter was a housewife 3 years ago,
@wasn’t she?
didn’t she?
wasn’t he?
was she?

Дополните вопрос: What Institute she submit an application for admission last year?
does
is
@did
do

Дополните вопрос: Peter is in the third form, ?
is he
does he
doesn’t he
@isn’t he

Дополните вопрос: you an office worker or a soldier?
Do
Does
@Are
-

Дополните вопрос: At the age of seven she didn’t begin to attend school, ?
didn’t she
@did she
was she
doesn’t she

Дополните вопрос: When did you short-time courses training book-keepers?
took
taken
takes
@take

Дополните вопрос: Who in this room ten minutes ago?
is
were
@was
did

Дополните вопрос: Does dream of becoming a book-keeper?
I
you
@he
we

Дополните вопрос: Last year he became a first-year student of this Institute, ?
@didn’t he
doesn’t he
did he
wasn’t he

Дополните вопрос: they on friendly terms with their cousins last summer?
Was
@Were
Did
Do

Дополните вопрос: your sister work?
@Does
Do
Did
Is

Дополните вопрос: his brother study at school or at the Institute?
Do
Is
@Does
-

Дополните вопрос: My nephew doesn’t take a post-graduate course, ?
@does he
doesn’t he
does she
don’t he

Дополните вопрос: My sister isn’t two years my junior, ?
doesn’t she
does she
isn’t she
@is she

~Тема 2. Модальные глаголы

Вставьте пропущенный модальный глагол: One of the advantages of the credit card system is that you carry cash.
cannot
@don’t have to
shouldn’t

Вставьте пропущенный модальный глагол: When the prime rate is small, you borrow money from the bank on the easiest terms.
must
@may
ought to

Вставьте пропущенный модальный глагол: Naturally the bank put their money where it brings them the highest profit. If they don’t - they will go bankrupt.
may
@must
can

Вставьте пропущенный модальный глагол: The credit card system is rather new for this country. Some twenty years ago you have any credit card.
can not
may not
@could not

Вставьте пропущенный модальный глагол: You buy anything with your credit card after you have exhausted the credit.
@won’t be able to
have to
won’t have to

Вставьте пропущенный модальный глагол: When he was young, he run a mile in less than five minutes.
can
may
@was able to

Вставьте пропущенный модальный глагол: We meet him at the station at six o’clock, but he didn’t come.
had to
could
@were to

Вставьте пропущенный модальный глагол: You get a Higher Education Diploma if you don’t undertake a project.
can
@can’t
may

Вставьте пропущенный модальный глагол: If you lose your plastic card, you get your grant.
won’t have to
won’t be allowed to
@won’t be able to

Вставьте пропущенный модальный глагол: You failed your test in English. You have studied better.
@should
must
were to

Вставьте пропущенный модальный глагол: You go to the library. I have many books at home, so you’re welcome.
must not
@need not
cannot

Вставьте пропущенный модальный глагол:
- Excuse me, are you a resident of Kazan?
- Yes, what I do for you?
@can
may
must

Вставьте пропущенный модальный глагол: According to the law, everybody pay taxes.
has to
@must
should

Укажите эквивалент выделенного глагола. You NEED NOT book a hotel room before you go abroad, because there are usually a lot of vacancies.
must not
@don’t have to
should

Укажите эквивалент выделенного глагола. As fodder crops cover 36% of the sowing area of Tatarstan, the Republic CAN provide itself with agricultural products.
is able
has to
@is able to

Дополните предложение. You wear shoes if you enter a mosque.
@must not
don’t have to
should not

Дополните предложение. You drive carefully on a busy road.
@should
shouldn’t
may

Дополните предложение. You change your money before you go to America, because there are a lot of 24 hour banks there.
should
have to
@don’t have to

~Тема 3. Местоимения some, any, no и их производные

Заполните пропуск подходящим местоимением:He never puts sugar in his coffee.
@any
no
some

Заполните пропуск подходящим местоимением:These flowers are dying. There has been rain for several days.
any
@no
some

Заполните пропуск подходящим местоимением:Give me information about this lecture.
any
no
@some

Заполните пропуск подходящим местоимением:Give me sugar, please, there is none in my tea.
any
no
@some

Заполните пропуск подходящим местоимением:Have you read articles about financial resources of our country?
@any
no
some

Заполните пропуск подходящим местоимением:Here are biscuits for you.
any
no
@some

Заполните пропуск подходящим местоимением:Are there illustrations in that book?
@any
no
some

Заполните пропуск подходящим местоимением:Have you money on your account?
@any
no
some

Заполните пропуск подходящим местоимением:For breakfast Ann has a cup of tea and sandwiches.
any
no
@some

Заполните пропуск подходящим местоимением:I want to copy this text.
@someone
anyone
anything

Заполните пропуск подходящим местоимением:I haven’t a credit card with me, so I cannot buy
nothing
@anything
something

Заполните пропуск подходящим местоимением:If calls while I am out, ask him to wait.
@anybody
everyone
something

Заполните пропуск подходящим местоимением:Today is Sunday. There is in the bank.
@nobody
someone
everybody

Заполните пропуск подходящим местоимением:I cannot find the newspaper .
somewhere
@anywhere
nowhere

Заполните пропуск подходящим местоимением:If wants to make some purchases, he can do it without paying in cash.
everybody
@anybody
any

Заполните пропуск подходящим местоимением:They are so lazy. wants to wash dishes.
@Nobody
Everybody
Somebody

Заполните пропуск подходящим местоимением:There is at the door. May be it is a postman?
nobody
anybody
@somebody

Заполните пропуск подходящим местоимением:The institute is still the same. has changed.
@Nothing
Everything
Anything

Заполните пропуск подходящим местоимением:We left the house without saying .
@anything
nothing
anybody

Заполните пропуск подходящим местоимением:I cannot believe that knows how to get to the trolley-bus stop.
@nobody
everybody
somebody

Выберите единственно правильный вариант перевода:Кто-нибудь приходил сюда, когда я был в институте?
@Did anybody come here, when I was at the institute?
Did somebody come here when I was at the institute?
Did someone come here when I was at the institute?

Выберите единственно правильный вариант перевода: Вы говорили с кем-нибудь о чем-либо?
@Have you spoken with anyone about anything?
Have you spoken with someone about something?
Have you spoken with anyone about nothing?

Выберите единственно правильный вариант перевода:Никто из нас не пойдет туда сегодня.
@None of us is going there today.
Somebody is going there today.
Nobody is going there today.

Выберите единственно правильный вариант перевода:Никого не было дома, когда я вернулся.
Anybody was at home, when I returned.
@Nobody was at home, when I returned.
Nobody wasn’t at home, when I returned.

Выберите единственно правильный вариант перевода:Кто-то забыл заправить постель.
Somebody forgets to do the bed.
Anybody forgot to do the bed.
@Someone forgot to do the bed.

Выберите единственно правильный вариант перевода:Любой может понять это.
Any can understand it.
Someone can understand it.
@Anybody can understand it.

Выберите единственно правильный вариант перевода:Никому ничего не говори.
Don’t tell anybody nothing.
@Don’t tell anybody anything.
Do not tell nobody anything.

Выберите единственно правильный вариант перевода:Никто не знает их адреса.
@No one knows their address.
None knows their address.
No one doesn’t know their address.

Выберите единственно правильный вариант перевода:Дайте мне, пожалуйста, спички.
@Give me some matches, please.
Give me something like matches, please.
Give me any matches, please.

Выберите единственно правильный вариант перевода:Никто не хочет готовить домашнее задание.
Nobody doesn’t want to prepare home assignments.
@No one wants to prepare home assignments.
Anybody wants to prepare home assignments.

Выберите единственно правильный вариант перевода: Где моя чековая книжка? Я где-то ее оставил.
@Where is my checkbook? I’ve left it somewhere.
Where is my checkbook? I’ve left it anywhere.
Where is my checkbook? I haven’t left it anywhere.

Выберите единственно правильный вариант перевода: Мы никого не встретили в столовой.
@We didn’t meet anybody in the refectory.
We met somebody in the refectory.
We didn’t meet nobody in the refectory.

Выберите единственно правильный вариант перевода: Я никому об этом не сказал.
I have told nothing to anybody.
@I haven’t told anybody about it.
I haven’t told anything to anybody about it.

~Тема 4. Степени сравнения прилагательных

Выберите правильный вариант ответа: The prices for travelling tickets in winter are getting
low
@lower
the lowest

Выберите правильный вариант ответа: One of advantages of credit cards is that you don’t have to carry cash, even a checkbook
big
bigger
@the biggest

Выберите правильный вариант ответа: New computers can store more information and
fast
@faster
the fastest

Выберите правильный вариант ответа: Prices have gone up. Things are not as as they used to be
@cheap
cheaper
the cheapest

Выберите правильный вариант ответа: Investments to the building companies are three and a half times than during the previous years
great
@greater
the greatest

Выберите правильный вариант ответа: In The USA it’s to keep the money in the banks, than in Russia
profitable
@more profitable
the most profitable

Выберите правильный вариант ответа: The old method was effective than the new one
little
@less
the least

Выберите правильный вариант ответа: African oil is much than Middle Eastern oil
light
@lighter
the lightest

Выберите правильный вариант ответа: Everybody is interested in possible economic development
good
better
@the best

Выберите правильный вариант ответа: Чем быстрее мы закончим нашу работу, тем скорее мы пойдем домой
As soon as we finish our work, we’ll go home
@The quicker we finish our work, the sooner we’ll go home
If we finish our work earlier, we’ll go home

Выберите правильный вариант ответа: На следующий урок вы должны выучить как можно больше слов
@For the next lesson you must learn as many words as possible
For the next lesson you must learn many English words
For the next lesson you must learn many English words if possible

Выберите правильный вариант ответа: Бензин стал в 2 раза дороже, чем он был в прошлом году
Petrol is twice more expensive than it was last year
Petrol is not so expensive as it was last year
@Petrol is twice as expensive as it was last year

Выберите правильный вариант ответа: Чем больше вы учите английских слов, тем легче вы их запоминаете
If you learn many English words you’ll remember them easier
@The more English words you learn, the easier it is for you to remember them
It is easier for you to remember English words as you learn a lot of them

Выберите правильный вариант ответа: В этой стране самый высокий уровень занятости
@This country has the highest possible level of employment
This country has higher level of employment
The employment in this country is very high

Выберите правильный вариант ответа: Большой завод требует столько же электричества сколько маленький город.
A large plant demands a lot of electricity as a small town
@A large plant demands as much electricity as a small town
A large plant demands less electricity than a small town

Выберите правильный вариант перевода: Фильм не такой интересный, как книга
The film is more interesting than the book
The book is less interesting than the film
@The film is not as interesting as the book

Выберите правильный вариант ответа: Они пытаются достигнуть наилучших результатов в изучаемой ими области.
They try to attain the highest possible results in their field of study
@They try to attain the best possible results in their field of study
They try to attain the high possible results in their field of study

~Тема 5. Настоящее время

Выберите правильный вариант ответа: The Board of Directors once a month to discuss current affairs.
is meeting
@meets
has been meeting

Выберите правильный вариант ответа: The company in oil for many years.
@has been trading
trades
is trading

Выберите правильный вариант ответа: The Vice President an important position within the corporation.
@occupies
is occupying
has been occupying

Выберите правильный вариант ответа: We our share of the world’s cosmetics markets at the moment.
increase
@are increasing
have been increasing

Выберите правильный вариант ответа: Economically, the country steadily these past ten years.
improves
is improving
@has been improving

Выберите правильный вариант ответа: Every Christmas a company its customers gifts.
@gives
is giving
has been giving

Выберите правильный вариант ответа: “I to confirm our order № 65732”.
write
@am writing
have been writing

Выберите правильный вариант ответа: The banks on Saturday.
@don’t open
doesn’t open
are not opening

Выберите правильный вариант ответа: Many governments expenditure on defense at present.
reduce
@are reducing
have been reducing

Выберите правильный вариант ответа: Our company regularly 20% of its turnover in research and development.
@invests
is investing
has been investing

Выберите правильный вариант ответа: Capitalism the free exchange of goods and services in the world market.
@is based upon
is being based upon
are based upon

Выберите правильный вариант ответа: How long for the manager?
are you waiting
do you wait
@have you been waiting

Выберите правильный вариант ответа: Companies annual reports to inform the public about the previous years activities.
@publish
are publishing
have been publishing

Выберите правильный вариант ответа: Internal promotions usually on the notice board.
@are posted
are being posted
is posted

Выберите правильный вариант ответа: During the last few years the plant hard to increase its industrial output.
works
@has been working
is working

Выберите правильный вариант ответа:
- What are you doing here?
- I some cheques.
@am cashing
cash
cashes

Выберите правильный вариант ответа: The company presently new ways of expanding its market.
looks for
@is looking for
has been looking for

Выберите правильный вариант ответа: There huge price reductions in many shops during the summer sales.
is
@are
have been

Выберите правильный вариант ответа, чтобы дополнить предложение: As a rule, government certain deductions of taxes to stimulate business activity.
@introduces
is introducing
has been introducing

Выберите правильный вариант ответа: The Director currently talks in the USA.
has been having
has
@is having

~Тема 6. Прошедшее время

Выберите правильный вариант: When these documents?
you signed
have you signed
@did you sign

Выберите правильный вариант: Since 1990 both taxes and inflation .
@have increased
increased
has increased

Выберите правильный вариант: The company of business when he became the Managing Director.
@went out
has gone out
have gone out

Выберите правильный вариант: “ Robert at his job place lately? ”
Did you see
@Have you seen
You have seen

Выберите правильный вариант: Last year the prime rate of the Federal Reserve Bank 5%.
were
@was
has been

Выберите правильный вариант: George never on business trips.
went
have gone
@has gone

Выберите правильный вариант: Yesterday the company its first fall in profits.
@announced
has announced
have announced

Выберите правильный вариант: Unemployment recently the 2 million mark.
have reached
reached
@has reached

Выберите правильный вариант: I ever anyone work so hard in my whole life.
didn’t see
@haven’t seen
hasn’t seen

Выберите правильный вариант: When he his job he ran into debt.
have lost
@lost
has lost

Выберите правильный вариант: In 2000 Brazilian companies a lot of money into developing advanced technologies.
@put
have put
has put

Выберите правильный вариант: How long in this business?
@have they been
are they
was they

Выберите правильный вариант: When Mr.Smith was 30 he finally moved to Paris and his own business.
@set up
has set up
have set up

Выберите правильный вариант: Two months ago the bank the house at $100 000.
@valued
have valued
has valued

Выберите правильный вариант: I just that we have won the export award.
@have heard
heard
has heard

Выберите правильный вариант: How long ago trading?
they started
@did they start
have they started

Выберите правильный вариант: I already a lot about management at the courses.
learnt
has learnt
@have learnt

~Тема 7. Действия в будущем времени

Вставьте глагол в соответствующей форме: On Monday morning he to Berlin. Everything is arranged for his trip.
will fly
@is flying
is going to fly

Вставьте глагол в соответствующей форме: The plane at 18.05.
@leaves
is leaving
will leave

Вставьте глагол в соответствующей форме: When he arrives, he in Plaza Hotel .
is staying
@will stay
stays

Вставьте глагол в соответствующей форме: I hope the economy of that country soon.
recovers
is recovering
@will recover

Вставьте глагол в соответствующей форме: He money in some profitable business. But he still doesn’t know what business to choose.
@is going to invest
will invest
invests

Вставьте глагол в соответствующей форме: The annual meeting of shareholders next week.
will hold
is held
@is being held

Вставьте глагол в соответствующей форме: He new job. That’s why he buys so many newspapers.
@is going to find
finds
will find

Вставьте глагол в соответствующей форме: I hope the credit system in our country soon.
@will be introduced
is introduced
is introducing

Вставьте глагол в соответствующей форме: The bank a new branch next week. Everything has been arranged (for that).
opens
will open
@is opening

Вставьте глагол в соответствующей форме: The local office of this international company at 9 o’clock.
@opens
will open
is opening

Вставьте глагол в соответствующей форме: They a joint venture, but the details haven’t been discussed yet.
are setting up
will set up
@are going to set up

~Тема 9. Страдательный залог «Passive Voice»

Заполните пропуск соответствующей формой пассивного залога: Jobs where society needs them.
have been created
were created
@are created
had been created

Заполните пропуск соответствующей формой пассивного залога: Certificates of ownership of bonds from seller to buyer without any formalities.
was being transferred
is transferred
@can be transferred
has been transferred

Заполните пропуск соответствующей формой пассивного залога: In a few days possibilities for increasing the number of jobs.
are studied
are being studied
have been studied
@will be studied

Заполните пропуск соответствующей формой пассивного залога: Two hours later we by other students of the group.
have been joined
will be joined
@were joined

Заполните пропуск соответствующей формой пассивного залога: When by your teacher last?
will you be asked
@were you asked
are you being asked
are you asked

Заполните пропуск соответствующей формой пассивного залога: the last art exhibition by many people?
Is attended
Will be attended
@Was attended

Заполните пропуск соответствующей формой пассивного залога: The work by us tomorrow
@will be finished
is finished
has been finished
is being finished

Определите, в каком предложении подлежащее следует переводить на русский язык существительным в творительном падеже (кем? чем?).
Great attention had been given to the process of privatization in agriculture.
Professor Brown was asked to be the chairman.
@This new office building is admired by everybody

Определите, в каком предложении подлежащее следует переводить на русский язык существительным в винительном падеже (кого? что?)
@They had been anxiously expected all the afternoon.
We are not allowed to take exams ahead of schedule.
Foreign specialists were shown the new electronic equipment

Определите, в каком предложении подлежащее следует переводить на русский язык существительным в дательном падеже (кому? чему?)
@New export industries were given every opportunity to expand and establish markets.
The desire to expand friendly ties between our countries has been expressed by both sides.
New TV program is being watched with great interest

Выберите точный вариант перевода предложения: Ann is often asked questions.
Аня часто задает вопросы.
Аня часто задавала вопросы.
@Ане часто задают вопросы.
Ане часто задавали вопросы

Выберите точный вариант перевода предложения: A liar is believed by nobody.
Лжец сам никому не верит.
@Лжецу никто не верит.
Всякий верит лжецу.
Лжецу никто не поверит

Выберите точный вариант перевода предложения: He was forgiven his absence.
@Ему простили его отсутствие.
Он простил ему его отсутствие.
Он попросил прощения за свое отсутствие.
Ему не простили его отсутствие

Выберите точный вариант перевода предложения: Your mistakes must be paid attention to.
На твои ошибки надо было обратить внимание.
Ты должен обратить внимание на свои ошибки.
@Надо обратить внимание на твои ошибки.
Обрати внимание на свои ошибки

Выберите точный вариант перевода предложения: Weak students must be helped.
Отстающие студенты нуждаются в помощи.
Помогите отстающим студентам.
Помощь надо было оказать отстающим студентам.
@Отстающим студентам надо помогать

Выберите точный вариант перевода предложения: The agreement on the commercial relations has been signed by our countries.
Именно наши страны подписали соглашение о торговле.
@Нашими странами подписано соглашение о торговле.
Соглашение о торговле будет подписано нашими странами.
Под договором о торговле подписались наши страны

Выберите точный вариант перевода предложения: The conference was proceeded by comprehensive preparation work.
Ведется всесторонняя подготовительная работа к конференции.
@Конференции предшествовала всесторонняя подготовительная работа.
Конференция предшествовала всесторонней подготовительной работе.
За всесторонней подготовительной работой последовала конференция

Выберите точный вариант перевода предложения: This financial aid was asked for by the Government.
@Правительство попросило о финансовой помощи.
Правительство попросили о финансовой помощи.
Финансовая помощь была оказана правительством.
Правительству оказали финансовую помощь

Выберите точный вариант перевода предложения: His lectures are always listened to very attentively.
Он всегда слушает лекции очень внимательно.
Его лекции всегда нужно слушать очень внимательно.
Нужно было внимательно слушать его лекции.
@Его лекции всегда слушают очень внимательно

Выберите точный вариант перевода предложения: Measures should be taken to ensure high reliability of equipment.
В целях обеспечения высокой надежности оборудования были предприняты (определенные) меры.
@Для обеспечения высокой надежности оборудования, необходимо предпринять (определенные) меры.
Высокая надежность оборудования обеспечивалась благодаря принятию (определенных) мер.
При условии принятия (определенных) мер будет обеспечена высокая надежность оборудования

~Тема 15.Татарстан

Подставьте подходящее по смыслу слово. It is a big city with population of 110000 people. The population is mostly in industry.
situated
@engaged
divided

Подставьте подходящее по смыслу слово. KamAZ is in Naberezhnye Chelny.
founded
established
@located

Подставьте подходящее по смыслу слово. industries of the region are automobile and chemical industries.
Former
Total
@Major

Подставьте подходящее по смыслу слово. This country a lot of oil.
@extracts
expands
exists

Подставьте подходящее по смыслу слово. For cattle breading we need to grow
grain crops
@fodder crops
spring wheat

Подставьте подходящее по смыслу слово. This village doesn’t now.
exceed
expand
@exist

Подставьте подходящее по смыслу слово. This motor-car works heavy excavators.
@manufactures
works out
extracts

Подставьте подходящее по смыслу слово. sales we rank second in the industry.
@In terms of
In spite of
In the middle of

Подставьте подходящее по смыслу слово. Before 1914 the general level of prices a little, falls were as common as rises.
rose
declined
@fluctuated

Подставьте подходящее по смыслу слово. The output has increased by 2% in comparison with last year. So there was
a fall of 2%
@a rise of 2%
a drop of 2%

Подставьте подходящее по смыслу слово. The bank cut its interest rate from 9% to 8%. This made borrowing easier for individuals
@decline of 1%
fall 1%
increase of 1%

Подставьте подходящее по смыслу слово. Last year earnings were 6% less than this year. So we say that they rose
from 6%
to 6%
@by 6%

Из данных вариантов подберите синоним к слову: Works
@plant
jobs
vacancies

Из данных вариантов подберите синоним к слову: Lorry
track
@truck
trend

Из данных вариантов подберите синоним к слову: To be finished
@to be over
to be under
to be among

Из данных вариантов подберите синоним к слову: Independent
major
@sovereign
foreign

Из данных вариантов подберите синоним к слову: Sharply
gradually
@dramatically
slightly

Из данных вариантов подберите синоним к слову: To reduce
to reach
to remain
@to cut

Из данных вариантов подберите синоним к слову: Automobile industry
machine-tool industry
machine-building
@motor car industry

Из данных вариантов подберите синоним к слову: Construction
@building
development
manufacturing

~Тема 17. Кредиты

Вставьте соответствующий предлог: To penetrate system
on
under
@into

Вставьте соответствующий предлог: Agreed upon advance
on
@in
at

Вставьте соответствующий предлог: to be purchased credit
in
@on
at

Вставьте соответствующий предлог: A report expenses
at
@on
in

Вставьте соответствующий предлог: Payment installments
on
with
@in

Вставьте соответствующий предлог: Depending your solvency
@on
in
from

Выберите правильный перевод слова: Expenses
доходы
@расходы
покупки

Выберите правильный перевод выражения: To allow credit
@предоставлять кредит
получать кредит
покупать в кредит

Выберите правильный перевод выражения: Credit card holders
@владельцы кредитных карт
кредитная система
покупатели кредитных карт

Выберите правильный перевод выражения: Purchases
@покупки
доходы
расходы

Выберите правильный перевод выражения: Lump sum
большая часть суммы
частями
@вся сумма сразу

Выберите правильный перевод выражения: Credit rate
условия кредита
@кредитная ставка
обязательства по кредиту

Выберите правильный перевод выражения: To issue smb. a credit card
@выдавать кому-либо кредитную карточку
предоставлять кому-либо кредит
оплачивать по кредитной карточке

Выберите нужный фразовый глагол: Выплачивать
@to pay out
to pay for
to pay in

Выберите нужный фразовый глагол: Согласованный
agreed with
@agreed upon
agreed in

Выберите нужный фразовый глагол: Израсходовать
@to use up
to use out
to use over

Выберите нужный фразовый глагол: Платить за что-либо
to pay out
to pay in
@to pay for

Подберите синоним к слову: To exhaust
@to use up
to spend
to pay for

Подберите синоним к слову: To purchase
@to buy
to sell
to render

Подберите синоним к слову: To render
@to provide
to indicate
to accept

~Тема 18.Деньги, банки

Дополните предложение. If you get more money than you have invested, it means that you
are after profit
@make a profit
keep money in circulation

Дополните предложение: When the Federal Reserve Bank announces a change in the prime rate level businessmen have to
regulate financial well-being of the country
invest chiefly in real estate
@reassess profitability of their business operations

Дополните предложение. When a bank “buys” money, it
@borrows money from other banks
lends money out to population
attracts buyers

Дополните предложение. Any bank seeks to “sell” money
cheaply
chiefly
@dearly

Дополните предложение. The main purpose of a bank is to lend money out
@at a certain interest rate
at a reduced lending rate
on the easiest terms

Дополните предложение. Every bank is obliged to
shift money of various costs from sphere to sphere of economy
@take out insurance
cater to individual population centres

Дополните предложение. Prime rate is looked upon as a of the country’s financial system.
so called annual rate
@vital component
ramified network

Верно ли данное утверждение: Real estate trade is a quick-paying business.
верно
@неверно

Подберите синоним к слову: To reduce
increase
assess
@cut

Подберите синоним к слову: To promote
@stimulate
compensate
regulate

Подберите синоним к слову: To make up for
stimulate
circulate
@compensate

Подберите перевод к слову: In the final analysis
в финале
@в конечном счете
при завершающем анализе

~Тема 20. Предпринимательство

Дополните предложениe: When the owner of a one-person firm fails, it means that he
is fired
gets into business
@goes out of business

Дополните предложениe: For anyone who has some trade it is easier to entrepreneur
@turn into
turn down
set up

Дополните предложениe: When the government lowers taxes it
respects flourishing business
runs some promising business
@encourages business

Дополните предложениe: He earns very little. So he can hardly
afford to work
work by himself
@make both ends meet

Дополните предложениe: Jake wants to have a business of his own. He is going
to have some trade
to work for someone else
@to set up a firm

Дополните предложениe: Jane is putting money aside. It means that she
lends money
@saves up money
gives money to charities

Подберите наиболее точное соответствие данному выражению: Knowledge and skills which you acquire during all your life
@experience
education
school background

Подберите наиболее точное соответствие данному выражению: To be fired
@to lose a job
to get a new job
to become an employee

Вставьте подходящие предлоги: An entrepreneur takes responsibility other people.
for on
@on for
on to

~Тема 23. Высшее образование в Великобритании

Дополните предложение подходящим словом или выражением:Overseas students on-campus accommodation.
@are provided with
are provided for
is guaranteed

Дополните предложение подходящим словом или выражением:Usually four students a flat in the hostel
live
accommodate
@share

Дополните предложение подходящим словом или выражением:Part-time students for one day a week.
released from work
@are released from work
get partial support

Дополните предложение подходящим словом или выражением:In their final year undergraduates are obliged to undertake
@pre-employment experience
non-credit program
post-graduate course

Дополните предложение подходящим словом или выражением:An American Style credit system will be soon introduced at our institute.
accommodation
@accumulation
application

Дополните предложение подходящим словом или выражением:Working hard throughout the course of studies students knowledge and prepare themselves for their final exam.
assess
apply
@accumulate

Дополните предложение подходящим словом или выражением:Continuous assessment of knowledge students to work hard not only for their written exams.
@encourages
requires
supports

Заполните пропуск соответствующим предлогом:Full-time students in the UK get a grant and apply some loan.
@for
from
to

Заполните пропуск соответствующим предлогом:Passes 5 subjects in GCE are enough to get you to this University.
for
@in
on

Заполните пропуск соответствующим предлогом:What are the requirements for admission this institute?
for
in
@to

Заполните пропуск соответствующим предлогом:Studies correspondence usually take longer.
for
@by
to

Заполните пропуск соответствующим предлогом:What does the amount of grant depend ?
for
from
@on

~Тема 26. Безработица

Дополните предложение. A person becomes unemployed when he
@is laid off
retires
looks for a job

Дополните предложение: Their services are free. It means that
@they charge nothing for their services
they don’t have to pay for their services
they don’t require an advance payment

Дополните предложение. When you start your business you need to have your own clientele and establish
temporary enterprise
an operating firm
@business connections

Дополните предложение. “A decline in business activity” means
unemployment
@recession
expansion of production

Подберите наиболее точное соответствие выделенному слову (из предлагаемых вариантов). Some employment agencies require a deposit, and you have to pay up THE REMAINDER after you get the job.
the advance payment
the deposit
@the rest

Подберите наиболее точное соответствие выделенному слову (из предлагаемых вариантов). If you try to get a job via private employment agencies you have to pay them A FEE.
a deposit
@a charge
in advance

Подберите наиболее точное соответствие выделенному слову (из предлагаемых вариантов). If a person is afraid to become jobless, he usually PUTS MONEY ASIDE for a “rainy day”.
acquires some sideline
@saves up
pays special dues

Подберите наиболее точное соответствие выделенному слову (из предлагаемых вариантов). You may experience in doing business while working for somebody else ACQUIRE
@accumulate
earn
require

Подберите наиболее точное соответствие выделенному слову (из предлагаемых вариантов). If a person is at the RETIREMENT AGE it means that
he works somewhere
he has a vacation
@he doesn’t work because of the age

Подберите наиболее точное соответствие выделенному слову (из предлагаемых вариантов). JOB-PLACEMENT - this is what employment agencies are busy doing.
job-hunting
@getting you a job
looking for a job

Подберите наиболее точное соответствие выделенному слову (из предлагаемых вариантов). If you are AN EMPLOYEE, it means that
@you are hired
you are the boss
you are retired from service

Подберите наиболее точное соответствие ВЫДЕЛЕННОЙ фразе (из предлагаемых вариантов).If employees ARE LAID OFF «WHOLESALE» it means that
they are fired in few number
@they are fired in great number
they are not fired

~Тема 27. Реклама

Вставьте пропущенный предлог. They sold many useful goods a discount.
@at
on
in

Вставьте пропущенный предлог. Funds are spent manufacture of goods and this accelerates economic growth.
@on
of
to

Вставьте пропущенный предлог. time time you receive invitations to visit exhibitions.
Between and
@From to
Either or

Вставьте пропущенный предлог. They suggest you to have a look their new model.
@at
for
through

Вставьте пропущенный предлог. Commercials are very expensive and not all companies can afford them.
for
@----
of

Вставьте пропущенный предлог. Sometimes producers pay ad.
to
----
@for

Подберите синоним к выделенному слову. Another way of advertising is distribution of GIFTS.
@presents
purchases
ads

Подберите синоним к выделенному слову. This does not mean that the goods sold at a discount are of INFERIOR quality.
best
good
@worse

Подберите синоним к выделенному слову. You got a call from a company with a SUGGESTION that you have a look at their new model.
request
saying
@proposal

Подберите синоним к выделенному слову. Your time to test drive a new car is COMPENSATED by a gift.
paid
served
@made up for

Подберите синоним к выделенному слову. COMMERCIALS are very expensive and not all companies can afford them.
@television ad
billboard ad
newspaper ad



~Тема 28. Оne, ones, one's

Вставьте пропущенное слово: The International Leatherware Association (ILA) represents leather goods manufacturers and retailers. ... of its main functions is to promote the use of leather for new products.
@one
ones
one's

Вставьте пропущенное слово: The only items remaining on the agenda were the ... listed in the Journal for 12 April.
one
@ones
one's

Вставьте пропущенное слово: If one wants to encourage private and public investment in Europe ... has to apply for the stability package.
@one
ones
one's

Вставьте пропущенное слово:
-I'd like to cash this cheque, please.
-How would you like the money?
-Four fives and ten ..., please.
one
@ones
one's

Вставьте пропущенное слово: A public company - ... whose shares are quoted on the Stock Exchange - must lodge its accounts in Companies House, where they are available to the public and to possible inverstors.
@one
ones
one's

Вставьте пропущенное слово: Every country relies on ... own resources.
one
ones
@one's

Вставьте пропущенное слово: Tokyo-Japan's most serious problem - and the ... that is least discussed - is overpopulation.
@one
ones
one's

Вставьте пропущенное слово: That country cannot satisfy ... own requirements in fact.
one
ones
@one's

Вставьте пропущенное слово: ... this book was famous but nobody reads it today
Ones
@Once
Ot once

Вставьте пропущенное слово: Equity is the total value of a company, ... all liabilities have been paid.
ones
one's
@once

Вставьте пропущенное слово: Some businessmen think that older workers are more reliable than younger ... .
one
@ones
once

Вставьте пропущенное слово: It's necessary to replace this inefficient equipment with the new ... .
@one
ones
once

Вставьте пропущенное слово: These transactions are similar to the ... we are planning.
@ones
one's
once

Вставьте пропущенное слово: Modern computers are replacing the outdated ...
@ones
one's
once

Вставьте пропущенное слово: ... you have signed the contract, you are obliged to fulfil it.
Ones
One's
@Once

Вставьте пропущенное слово: Everyone must know ... duties.
ones
@one's
once

Замените выделенные слова и словосочетания на данные варианты: I can't do two things AT THE SAME TIME (simultaneously).
ones
once
@at once

Замените выделенные слова и словосочетания на данные варианты: I hope to find a job somewhere abroad, in case there is no opportunity to obtain JOB in this country.
@one
ones
once

~Тема 29. Функции «it»

Выберите точный перевод из данных вариантов: It is said that ...
известно, что
@говорят, что
требуется

Выберите точный перевод из данных вариантов. "It takes ..."
захватывает
он берет
@требуется

Выберите точный перевод из данных вариантов. It is known that ...
говорят, что
@известно, что
было подсчитано

Выберите точный перевод из данных вариантов. It turns out (that) ...
требуется
известно, что
@оказывается

Выберите точный перевод из данных вариантов. It seems that ...
говорят, что
бесполезно
@похоже, что

Выберите точный перевод из данных вариантов: It's no use ...
известно
оказывается
@бесполезно

Выберите точный перевод из данных вариантов. "It is planned ..."
@планируется
это запланировано
оценивается

Выберите точный перевод из данных вариантов. It is considered ...
@считается
планируется
бесполезно

Выберите точный перевод из данных вариантов. It should be said that...
@следует сказать, что
говорят, что
нужно сказать

Выберите точный перевод из данных вариантов. It proved to be impossible ...
было невозможно
доказано, что невозможно
@оказалось невозможно

Выберите точный перевод данного русского предложении: Легко представить последствия этого шага.
It is difficult to imagine the consequences of this step
@It is easy to imagine the consequences of this step
You can easily imagine the consequences of this step.

Выберите точный перевод данного русского предложении: Требуется много времени и усилий, чтобы подготовиться к такому экзамену.
@It takes much time and effort to prepare for such an exam.
Much time and effort is needed to prepare for such an exam
Preparation for such an exam demands much time and effort

Выберите точный перевод данного русского предложении: Лучше иметь письменное соглашение с производителем.
You'd better have a written agreement with a manufacturer.
A written agreement with a manufacturer is a good thing.
@It is better to have a written agreement with a manufacturer.

Выберите точный перевод данного русского предложении: Это печальная история, потому, что люди оказались без работы.
It is sad because people lost their jobs.
It is an interesting case because people lost their jobs.
@It is a sad story because people lost their jobs.

Выберите точный перевод данного русского предложении: Важно отметить, что нет другого выхода из этой ситуации.
It should be noted that there is no other way out of this situation.
@It is important to note that there is no other way out of this situation
The fact that there is no other way out of this situation is very important.

Выберите точный перевод данного русского предложении: Гораздо разумнее пустить деньги в обращение.
@It is much wiser to allow money to circulate
To allow money to circulate is wise
It is wise to allow money to circulate.

~Тема 30. Функции «that»

Какое слово заменено на "those" в следующем предложении. The days in winter are shorter than those in summer
@days
winter
summer

Какое слово заменено на "those" в следующем предложении. The rivers in Europe are not so long as those in Asia.
long
are not
@rivers

Какое слово заменено на "those" в следующем предложении: The streets in our modern cities are broader than those in ancient towns
towns
@streets
cities

Какое слово заменено на "that" в следующем предложении. This book is more difficult than that you gave me last week
difficult
you
@book

Какое слово заменено на "that" в следующем предложении. My knowledge of English is much poorer than that of my brother
@knowledge
English
brother

Какое слово заменено на "that" в следующем предложении. The rise in food prices was 47% to 50% of the overall indicator of inflation; that in non-food prices - 35%; and that in the rates for services - 15% to 18%.
food
inflation
@rise

Какие слова заменены на "those" в следующем предложении. The Bank of England provides a wide range of services similar to those offered by commercial banks to their clients
@services
a wide range
banks

Какое слово заменено на "those" в следующем предложении. The interests of the economy as a whole and those of industrial enterprises are essential issues on today's agenda.
@enterprises
issues
interests

Выберите точный перевод следующего предложения. Именно на этой площади проходили спортивные соревнования в прошлом году.
@It is on this square that sports events took place last year.
Sports events took place on this square last year.
Sports events took place exactly on this square last year.

Выберите точный перевод следующего предложения. Как раз на французском языке мой брат говорит хорошо.
My brother speaks French very well
My brother speaks only French
@It is French that my brother speaks well

Выберите точный перевод следующего предложения: Только прошлой ночью они обсуждали эту проблему.
@It was last night that they discussed this problem
They discussed this problem last night
It was this problem that they discussed last night.

Выберите точный перевод следующего предложения: Именно эту книгу я читал вчера.
It was me who read the book yesterday.
@It was this book that I read yesterday.
It was yesterday that I read the book

Выберите точный перевод следующего предложения. Именно компания IBM установила стандарт для персональных компьютеров.
@It was IBM that set the standard for the PC
Standard for the PC was set by IBM
It was the standard for the PC that IBM set.

Выберите точный перевод следующего предложения. Ему нужны как раз такие условия для проверки этих устройств.
It is the devices that he needs for testing
@It is these conditions that he needs for testing the devices.
It is he who needs conditions for testing the devices.

Выберите точный перевод следующего предложения. Как раз такие компьютеры пользуются спросом сейчас на рынке.
It is nowadays that computers are in high demand in the market
Computers are in high demand in the market nowadays.
@It is this type of computers that is in demand in the market nowadays.

Выберите точный перевод следующего предложения: Он выступал именно за радикальные изменения в стратегии компании.
He was in favour of radical changes in the company's strategy
It is him who was in favour of radical changes in the company's strategy
@It is the radical changes in the company's strategy that he was in favour of.

Выберите точный перевод следующего предложения. Именно Америка будет рисковать своими инвестициями.
@It is America that will risk its investments
It is the investments that America will risk
America will risk its investments.

Заполните пропуск подходящим словом или фразой. ... it rained so much this year is fortunate for farmers.
So that
@That
Which

Заполните пропуск подходящей фразой. Banks keep their money in circulation ... it should breed more money
now that
so much that
@so that

Заполните пропуск подходящим словом. The yield of this crop is three times as great as ... of wheat
@that
it
those

Заполните пропуск подходящим словом или фразой: ... the oil majors are the first to enjoy tax rebates.
So that
@The point is that
This is what

Заполните пропуск подходящим словом или фразой. The length of railways in our country was half ... in the USA
@that
that is
so that

Заполните пропуск подходящим словом или фразой. After ..., situation in the market became stable.
them
@that
him

Заполните пропуск подходящим словом. For ... who had never travelled abroad, this was a new experience
they
he
@those

Заполните пропуск подходящим словом или фразой. ... experts have estimated that investments in securities could total around 150 billion rubles.
That
@Those
This

Заполните пропуск подходящим словом или фразой. We shouldn't forget ... private savings are a huge potential investment resource.
it
he
@that

Заполните пропуск подходящим словом или фразой. ... the building burned down is a terrible shame.
It
@That
Those

~Тема 31.Функции «what» и «which»

Как следует переводить ВЫДЕЛЕННОЕ слово (без учета падежа, в котором оно используется в предложении)?: At WHAT stage is the development of this enterprise?
что
то, что
@какой

Как следует переводить ВЫДЕЛЕННОЕ слово (без учета падежа, в котором оно используется в предложении): The results of WHAT has been done by this month are very important?
что
@то, что
какой

Как следует переводить ВЫДЕЛЕННОЕ слово (без учета падежа, в котором оно используется в предложении): All products have WHAT is traditionally called "Product life cycle".
что
@то, что
какой

Как следует переводить ВЫДЕЛЕННОЕ слово (без учета падежа, в котором оно используется в предложении)?: One has to admit that WHAT we produced before isn't profitable now.
что
@то, что
какой

Как следует переводить ВЫДЕЛЕННОЕ слово (без учета падежа, в котором оно используется в предложении): WHAT they produce is very profitable.
что
@то, что
какой

Как следует переводить ВЫДЕЛЕННОЕ слово (без учета падежа, в котором оно используется в предложении): It's important to know WHAT needs of consumers are.
что
какие
@каковы

Как следует переводить ВЫДЕЛЕННОЕ слово без учета падежа, в котором оно используется в предложении: Marketing research helps to determine WHAT customers need.
@что
какие
каковы

Как следует переводить ВЫДЕЛЕННОЕ слово (без учета падежа, в котором оно используется в предложении): One should know WHAT forms of marketing communication promotion includes.
что
@какие
каковы

Как следует переводить ВЫДЕЛЕННОЕ слово (без учета падежа, в котором оно используется в предложении): Lots of plants were closed because of the economic crash, WHICH caused unemployment.
который
какой
@что

Как следует переводить ВЫДЕЛЕННОЕ слово (без учета падежа, в котором оно используется в предложении): Competitiveness of domestic goods has increased, WHICH affected economic development of the country.
который
какой
@что

Как следует переводить ВЫДЕЛЕННОЕ слово (без учета падежа, в котором оно используется в предложении): Board members are appointed by the President, WHICH gives them independence from changes in sentiment in the Congress.
который
какой
@что

Как следует переводить ВЫДЕЛЕННОЕ слово (без учета падежа, в котором оно используется в предложении)?: The decision was made to cardinally change monetary policy, that is the way to reach the ultimate goal WHICH means a steady growth of the economy.
@что
какой
то, что

Как следует переводить ВЫДЕЛЕННОЕ слово (без учета падежа, в котором оно используется в предложении): The report shows WHAT results have been achieved this month.
который
@какой
что

Как следует переводить ВЫДЕЛЕННОЕ слово (без учета падежа, в котором оно используется в предложении): The product must always perform the function for WHICH it is intended.
@который
какой
что

Как следует переводить ВЫДЕЛЕННОЕ слово (без учета падежа, в котором оно используется в предложении): Owners of a business need some accounting information in order that they may understand WHAT the accountant is telling them.
какой
@что
который

~Тема 33. Условные предложения

Дополните предложение, выбрав глагол в соответствующей форме. If the government ......... more than it receives through taxation, it can still avoid creating new money itself.
@spends
spent
will spend

Дополните предложение, выбрав глагол в соответствующей форме. If the government ......... to improve the general working conditions, they can make new laws.
wanted
@wants
will want

Дополните предложение, выбрав глагол в соответствующей форме. If we ......... together we would have saved more money.
worked
@had worked
have worked

Дополните предложение, выбрав глагол в соответствующей форме. If the bank ......... the amount it spends to the amount it collects, then it would create no new money.
@could match
can match
could have matched

Дополните предложение, выбрав глагол в соответствующей форме. If the employees .........new better conditions they might increase their productivity.
expect
@expected
have expected

Дополните предложение, выбрав глагол в соответствующей форме. If anyone ........., tell them I'll be back at 11:00.
phoned
would phone
@phones

Дополните предложение, выбрав глагол в соответствующей форме. If I .........how difficult the job was, I wouldn't have taken it.
@had known
have know
knew

Дополните предложение, выбрав глагол в соответствующей форме. If we ......... more than 500 books, what discount can you offer us?
will buy
@buy
would buy

Дополните предложение, выбрав глагол в соответствующей форме. If we ......... by letter of credit, then we'll have to pay within 30 days.
will pay
paid
@pay

Дополните предложение, выбрав глагол в соответствующей форме. If you ......... now we will give you a discount.
will order
@order
would order

Дополните предложение, выбрав глагол в соответствующей форме. If the government ......... some extra money would you be prepared to create a subsidiary in our country?
finds
would find
@found

Дополните предложение, выбрав глагол в соответствующей форме. If the law ......... a week ago it would have helped many people.
@had been adopted
have been adopted
was adopted

Дополните предложение, выбрав глагол в соответствующей форме. The economy can't develop if the finances ......... in a bad state.
would be
@are
were

Выберите наиболее точный вариант ответа. If the ministers decided to hold an inquiry, we ......... it.
will welcome
would have welcomed
@would welcome

Выберите наиболее точный вариант ответа. The trouble ......... more serious if the banks get their sums wrong.
would be
@will be
would have been

Выберите наиболее точный вариант ответа. If the government wants to borrow a lot of money, it ......... to offer a higher rate of interest in order to attract that money.
would have
would have had
@will have

Выберите наиболее точный вариант ответа. The economy ......... smoothly if there is too much or too little money in circulation.
@will not work
didn't work
wouldn't work

Выберите наиболее точный вариант ответа. If the contract had been fulfilled in time, we ......... commodities long before.
would receive
will receive
@would have received

Выберите наиболее точный вариант ответа. If the government spent more money on medicine, there ......... children's death.
won't be
@wouldn't be
wouldn't have been

Выберите наиболее точный вариант ответа. The recession ......... avoided if the prices hadn't fallen.
could be
can be
@could have been

Выберите наиболее точный вариант ответа. If a client buys a car in the garage, the garage owner ......... some extra services for the car.
@will provide
would provide
provided

Выберите наиболее точный вариант ответа. We ......... the price by 10% if you give us a firm order in advance.
would reduce
had reduced
@will reduce

Выберите наиболее точный вариант ответа. If people worked more, they ......... more money.
@would earn
will earn
would have earned

Выберите наиболее точный вариант ответа. If I lost my job, I ......... back to university.
went
@would go
will go

Выберите наиболее точный вариант перевода. If you won a lot money, what would you do with it?
Если ты выиграешь много денег, что ты с ними сделаешь
@Если бы ты выиграл много денег, что бы ты с ними сделал (в настоящем)
Если бы ты выиграл много денег, что бы ты с ними сделал (в прошлом)

Выберите наиболее точный вариант перевода. If you had asked me I would have lent you my car.
@Если бы ты попросил меня, я бы одолжил тебе свою машину (в прошлом)
Если ты попросишь меня, я одолжу тебе свою машину
Если бы ты попросил меня, я бы одолжил тебе свою машину (в настоящем)

Выберите наиболее точный вариант перевода. If I go to university I'll get a better job.
Если бы я пошел учиться в университете, я бы получил хорошую работу.
Если бы я пошел учится в университет, я бы получил хорошую работу (в прошлом)
@Если я пойду учиться в университет, я получу хорошую работу.

Выберите наиболее точный вариант перевода. If your company went bankrupt, what would you do?
Если ваша компания разорится, что вы будете делать?
@Если бы ваша компания разорилась, что бы вы сделали?
Если бы ваша компания разорилась, что бы вы сделали? (в прошлом)

Выберите наиболее точный вариант перевода. If they keep to an agreement, I'll give them the money.
Если бы они выполнили договор, я бы дал им денег (в настоящем)
Если бы они выполнили договор, я бы дал им денег (в прошлом)
@Если они выполнят договор, я дам им денег

Выберите наиболее точный вариант перевода. You'll be alright if you take some travellers' cheques.
@У вас будет все хорошо, если вы возьмете с собой дорожные чеки
У вас бы было все хорошо, если бы вы взяли с собой дорожные чеки
У вас бы было все хорошо, если бы тогда взяли с собой дорожные чеки

Выберите наиболее точный вариант перевода: I would have taken them to court if they hadn't paid me what they owed.
@Я бы подал на них в суд, если бы они не заплатили мне то, что должны (в прошлом)
Я подам на них в суд, если они не заплатят мне то, что должны
Я бы сейчас подал бы на них в суд, если бы они не заплатили мне то, что должны

Выберите наиболее точный вариант перевода. If you had to live in another country, where would you go?
Если вам придется жить в другой стране, куда вы поедите?
@Если вам придется жить в другой стране, куда бы вы поехали? (в настоящем)
Если бы вам пришлось бы жить в другой стране, куда бы вы поехали? (в прошлом)

Выберите наиболее точный вариант перевода. We might move to Moscow if Peter got the job.
Мы можем переехать в Москву, если Питер получит работу
@Мы могли бы переехать в Москву, если бы Питер получил работу (в настоящем)
Мы могли бы переехать в Москву, если бы Питер получил работу (в прошлом)

Выберите наиболее точный вариант перевода. If I knew the answer to that question, I would tell you.
Если бы я знал ответ на этот вопрос, я бы тебе сказал (в прошлом)
Если я узнаю ответ на этот вопрос, я скажу тебе
@Если бы я знал ответ на этот вопрос, я бы сказал тебе (в настоящем)

~Тема 34. Функции инфинитива

Проанализируйте предложения и выберите то, в котором инфинитив следует переводить глаголом в неопределенной форме вместе с союзом "чтобы".
To run a company effectively became the main objective.
@To raise funds for its needs an enterprise issues shares.
To get the state subsidies means to raise additional resources.

Проанализируйте предложения и выберите то, в котором инфинитив следует переводить глаголом в неопределенной форме вместе с союзом "чтобы".
@To make progress in this field additional resources are needed.
To get good marks is the main aim of all students.
To cooperate with other firms was the main task for us at that time .

Проанализируйте предложения и выберите то, в котором инфинитив следует переводить глаголом в неопределенной форме
To satisfy all the people's needs we must create the abundance of goods.
To make their national currency convertible they need to know its exact purchasing power.
@To spend more than 50mln dollars for new equipment would be more useful.

Проанализируйте предложения и выберите то, при переводе которого следует использовать слово "должен".
@The company was to increase wages and salaries by the end of the year.
Their duty is to provide the best conditions for the work of energy systems.
The main task for the nearest future was to develop these vast territories.

Проанализируйте предложения и выберите то, при переводе которого следует использовать слово "должен".
The ultimate goal of any business is to generate profit.
@Funds from the state budget are to be used to finance the construction of this project.
The purpose of the new agreement was to accomplish the work in time.

Проанализируйте предложения и выберите то, где при переводе следует использовать слово "который".
At night the sole proprietor figures if he has enough money to pay the rent for the building.
@The report recommends the minimum of your expenses to be defrayed before the end of the month.
The Federal government has many ways of using the income tax as a means to regulate the state of the economy.

Проанализируйте предложения и выберите то, где при переводе следует использовать слово "который".
Companies are to persuade bankers to lend money for new projects.
The interbank credit market was to watch the credit activity of many firms.
@Britain was the first country in the world to increase the pace of economic growth.

Проанализируйте предложения и выберите то, где при переводе следует использовать слово "который".
@The second requirement to be met is to lower the rate of inflation.
Your time to go to a shop and drive a new car is compensated by a gift.
Anyone who has experience in business will not turn down an opportunity to become an entrepreneur.

Подберите правильный перевод ВЫДЕЛЕННОЙ части предложения. The idea of sales is to attract customers to the shops offering a discount AND WAIT FOR THEM TO BUY GOODS at regular prices.
... и ждать покупки товаров для них
... и ждать их для покупки товаров
@... и ждать, что они купят товары

Подберите правильный перевод ВЫДЕЛЕННОЙ части предложения. There is NOT ENOUGH WORK FOR SPECIALISTS TO BE BUSY all day long.
недостаточно работы, которой занимаются специалисты
недостаточно работы для занятия специалистов
@недостаточно работы, чтобы специалисты были заняты

Подберите правильный перевод данного предложения. What does Russia have to do for this to happen?
Что должно случиться в России для этого?
@Что необходимо сделать России, чтобы это случилось?
Что сделано Россией, чтобы это случилось?

~Тема 35. Инфинитив сложном дополнении, в сложном сказуемом

Выберите наиболее точный вариант перевода. Do you WANT your product to be advertised in this journal?
@Хотите ли вы, чтобы ваш товар рекламировался в этом журнале?
Вы хотите рекламировать ваш товар в этом журнале?

Выберите наиболее точный вариант перевода. We WOULD LIKE these documents to be attached to the registration form.
@Мы хотели бы, чтобы эти документы были приложены к регистрационному бланку.
Мы хотели бы приложить эти документы к регистрационному бланку.

Выберите наиболее точный вариант перевода. The changes in the budget ARE LIKELY to be announced in April.
В апреле будет объявлено об изменениях в бюджете.
@Вероятно об изменениях будет объявлено в апреле.

Выберите наиболее точный вариант перевода. You ARE UNLIKELY to see fast rises in these share prices.
Вам не понравится наблюдать за быстрым ростом цен на эти акции.
@Вряд ли вы увидите быстрый рост цен на эти акции.

Дополните предложение. The director was expected ... present at the meeting.
be
@to be
have been

Дополните предложение. Do you want the work ... today?
to finish
finishing
@to be finished

Дополните предложение. This internal reform is supposed ... the company back on its feet.
@to put
to be put
put

Дополните предложение. I consider these qualities ... the most important for a good manager.
be
@to be
were

Дополните предложение. You ... to see fast rises in the share prices.
@are likely
to be likely
was likely

Дополните предложение. What makes foreign businessmen ... about discrimination?
to speak
@speak
speaking

Дополните предложение. They want their business ... much bigger.
@to be
was
has been

Дополните предложение. A franchising operation ... to be a very effective way of expanding the company quickly.
have proven
@has proven
prove

Дополните предложение. I would like you ... at some interesting statistics.
look
@to look
looked

Выберите наиболее точный вариант перевода ВЫДЕЛЕННОЙ части предложения. Moscow APPEARS TO HAVE FOUND economic reasons for maintaining closer relations with this country.
по-видимому, имеет основание
@кажется, нашла
оказывается, основала

~Тема 37. Типы коммерческих предприятий

Заполните пропуск в предложении. Small shops go out of ... very quickly.
@business
fashion
European Community

Заполните пропуск в предложении: Normal ... are between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m.
@business hours
business relationships
schools

Заполните пропуск в предложении: The new Italian restaurant is a good place to go for a ...
discussion
@business lunch
business trip

Заполните пропуск в предложении: She set up her own company and proved to be a very good ...
secretary
accountant
@businesswoman

Заполните пропуск в предложении: I am ... the company's debts.
proud of
satisfied with
@liable for

Заполните пропуск в предложении: The company had to sell off its ...
@assets
officers
brands

Заполните пропуск в предложении: The ... is discussing the annual pay rise.
student
housewife
@Board of Directors

Заполните пропуск в предложении: The fall in profits was a result of bad ...
@management
weather
communication

Заполните пропуск в предложении: The company has accepted ... for the damage to the cargo.
@responsibility
prize
bonus

Заполните пропуск в предложении: You must take a more ... approach to your job.
careless
meaningless
@businesslike

Заполните пропуск в предложении: You should give a ... to every customer you meet.
business plan
business lunch
@business card

Подберите продолжение к данному предложению. The Chairman of the Board of Directors is
responsible for recruitment and selection of personnel
@in overall control and may not be the head of any one department
in charge of a department's day-to-day running

Подберите продолжение к данному предложению: The manager of a department is
responsible for strategic planning and for making decisions
in overall control of the company
@in charge of department's day-to-day running

Подберите продолжение к данному предложению: Marketing Department
reports to Sales Manager
keeps a record of all payments made and received
@carries out market research

Подберите продолжение к данному предложению: Personnel Department is
responsible for strategic planning and for making decisions
@responsible for recruitment and selection
in charge of department's day-to-day running

Подберите продолжение к данному предложению: Accounting Department
reports to Sales Manager
advises on corporate regulations
@keeps a record of all payments made and received

Соответствует ли содержание данного предложения действительности. Выберите правильный вариант ответа. If you go into business alone, it is called one-person business.
@true
false

Соответствует ли содержание данного предложения действительности. Выберите правильный вариант ответа. If you go into business alone, you have to consult partners or Board of Directors.
true
@false

Соответствует ли содержание данного предложения действительности. Выберите правильный вариант ответа. Partnership is an association of 2 or more people to carry on business for charity.
true
@false

Соответствует ли содержание данного предложения действительности. Выберите правильный вариант ответа. Partnerships have limited liability.
true
@false

Соответствует ли содержание данного предложения действительности. Выберите правильный вариант ответа. To form a corporation one should apply to the Board of Stock Exchange.
true
@false

Соответствует ли содержание данного предложения действительности. Выберите правильный вариант ответа. Obtaining the charter the stockholders hold a meeting to choose the company's officers.
@true
false

Соответствует ли содержание данного предложения действительности? Выберите правильный вариант ответа. Unlimited liability means that business is legally separated from its owners.
true
@false

Соответствует ли содержание данного предложения действительности. Выберите правильный вариант ответа. Corporations are very efficient in amassing capital for the formation and growth of very large companies.
@true
false

Соответствует ли содержание данного предложения действительности. Выберите правильный вариант ответа. Most companies have Finance, Sales, Marketing, Production, R&D and Personnel Departments.
@true
false

~Тема 38. Совместное предприятие

Выберите наиболее точный вариант, чтобы дополнить предложение: Two or more companies agreed to work on a project. It means that they have set up ...
an alliance
@a joint venture
a takeover

Выберите наиболее точный вариант, чтобы дополнить предложение: After the procedure of registration the joint venture can be named as ...
@a juridical person
legislative body
an individual

Выберите наиболее точный вариант, чтобы дополнить предложение: is formed by way of annual deductions from the profits of a joint venture ...
charitable fund
@reserve fund
authorized fund

Выберите наиболее точный вариант, чтобы дополнить предложение: The Board of Directors of a joint venture ...
@sets up the strategy of a company
determines day-to-day management
reports to all company departments

Выберите наиболее точный вариант, чтобы дополнить предложение: If the company pays out part of money it earns, such company is ...
tax deductable
exempt from tax
@subject to a tax

Выберите наиболее точный вариант, чтобы дополнить предложение: Some joint venture has broken up or ceased to exist. It means that it has been ... ... ...
@dissolved
established
repatriated abroad

Выберите наиболее точный вариант, чтобы дополнить предложение: Joint venture may open a bank account and conclude agreements and contracts ...
on its own name
at its own name
@in its own name

Выберите наиболее точный вариант, чтобы дополнить предложение: One of the main features of interest to Russian participant is to ... foreign technology.
@attract
reject
сreate

Выберите наиболее точный вариант, чтобы дополнить предложение: The foundation documents and the Feasibility Study are needed for the ... procedure.
retirement
@application
producing

Выберите наиболее точный вариант, чтобы дополнить предложение: The authorized fund may be ... from the profits of a joint venture.
established
deducted
@supplemented

Выберите наиболее точный вариант, чтобы дополнить предложение: The company decided to ... to the third party court.
appear
@appeal
appoint

Выберите наиболее точный вариант, чтобы дополнить предложение: He earns about $800 a month after tax and insurance ...
@deductions
contributions
constructions

Выберите наиболее точный вариант, чтобы дополнить предложение: The ... fund is created to develop production.
authorized
reserve
@research and development

Выберите синоним к выделенному слову: Russian enterprises have the right to SET UP joint ventures with foreign firms on the territory of Russia.
include
cover
@establish

Выберите синоним к выделенному слову: Feasibility study covers the OBJECTIVES of a company.
accounting records
@goals
assets

Выберите синоним к выделенному слову: Joint-stock companies were established with the view to realizing export-import TRANSACTIONS.
@deals
deans
dealers

Выберите синоним к выделенному слову: Some Russian companies PARTICIPATE in the European projects.
carry out
negotiate
@take part

Выберите синоним к выделенному слову: There are several MAIN features of interest to Russian participants of a joint venture.
principle
@principal
political

Выберите синоним к выделенному слову: Our government is trying to improve the DOMESTIC market.
@national
overseas
foreign

~Тема 39. Маркетинг

Подберите синоним к слову: Rival
complicated
present
main
supplies
large diversity
fast
@competitor
goods

Подберите синоним к слову: Rapid
complicated
present
main
supplies
large diversity
@fast
competitor
goods

Подберите синоним к слову: Wide range
complicated
present
main
supplies
@large diversity
fast
competitor
goods

Подберите синоним к слову: Items
complicated
present
main
supplies
large diversity
fast
competitor
@goods

Подберите синоним к слову: Deliveries
complicated
present
main
@supplies
large diversity
fast
competitor
goods

Подберите синоним к слову: Complex
@complicated
present
main
supplies
large diversity
fast
competitor
goods

Подберите синоним к cлову: Current
complicated
@present
main
supplies
large diversity
fast
competitor
goods

Закончите предложение. The four controllable factors in marketing are ...
the consumers opinions and interests, hobbies, favourite sports
introduction, growth, maturity and decline
@price, product, place and promotion

Закончите предложение. Industrial goods are ...
@products bought by corporations or institutions
products bought by individual consumers
products bought by households

Закончите предложение. Demand analysis is ...
@determining the needs of prospective customers
developing techniques / methods for marketing research
part of market segmentation

Закончите предложение. The stages of the product life cycle are ...
product, price, place and promotion
introduction, production, growth and promotion
@introduction, growth, maturity and decline

Закончите предложение. "Distribution" means ...
@the movement of goods and services from producers to consumers
determining the needs of prospective customers
the satisfaction of customer needs and profitability

Закончите предложение: An important role of marketing is ...
to manufacture something and make another person want it
@to find out what the needs of customers are and to undertake necessary actions to satisfy those needs
to be constantly engaged in product development.

Закончите предложение. The ultimate objective of a business corporation is ...
to negotiate the sale and purchase
to supply reliably
@to generate profits.

Закончите предложение. In marketing it is customary to organize different marketing sectors into broad groups:
product, price, place and promotion
@consumer goods, industrial goods and services
soft drinks, detergents, pharmaceuticals, electric appliances.

Закончите предложение: The product must always perform the function for which it is intended and ...
@meet quality standards
cover costs
supply reliably

Закончите предложение. Promotion includes ... ... ...
product planning, marketing research, pricing
transporting , storing and selling goods
@advertising, direct mail, customer service, special events

Закончите предложение. The following marketing sectors belong to the group of consumer goods:
soft drinks, pharmaceuticals, machine tools
@detergents, electric appliances, computers
soft drinks, detergents, aircrafts

Заполните пропуск: Marketing ... all business activities connected with the movement of goods and services from producers to consumers .
is made up
facilitates
@includes
is guided
connected
to generate

Заполните пропуск: Marketing ... by two basic principles: the satisfaction of customer needs and profitability.
is made up
facilitates
includes
@is guided
connected
to generate

Заполните пропуск: Marketing ... of such activities as transporting, storing and selling goods.
@is made up
facilitates
includes
is guided
connected
to generate

Заполните пропуск: The ultimate objective of a business corporation is ... profit.
is made up
facilitates
includes
is guided
connected
@to generate

Заполните пропуск: Market segmentation ... market development, pricing decisions, distribution and promotion selling.
is made up
facilitates
includes
@is guided
connected
to generate

~Тема 40. Менеджмент

Подберите к данному слову соответствующее определение: Personnel manager
the ability to direct and control people effectively
@deals mainly with human activities
looks at the business objectively as a whole
top management, middle management, operating management
president, vice-president, general manager
the most important responsibility of a manager
directing, controlling, staffing, innovating

Дополните предложение: Top management includes
the ability to direct and co
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·Дополните предложение. Management functions include
the ability to direct and control people effectively
deals mainly with human activities
looks at the business objectively as a whole
top management, middle management, operating management
president, vice-president, general manager
the most important responsibility of a manager
@directing, controlling, staffing, innovating

Дополните предложение. Managing director
the ability to direct and control people effectively
deals mainly with human activities
@looks at the business objectively as a whole
top management, middle management, operating management
president, vice-president, general manager
the most important responsibility of a manager
directing, controlling, staffing, innovating

Дополните предложение. Leadership is
@the ability to direct and control people effectively
deals mainly with human activities
looks at the business objectively as a whole
top management, middle management, operating management
president, vice-president, general manager
the most important responsibility of a manager
directing, controlling, staffing, innovating

Дополните предложение. Management levels include
the ability to direct and control people effectively
deals mainly with human activities
looks at the business objectively as a whole
@top management, middle management, operating management
president, vice-president, general manager
the most important responsibility of a manager
directing, controlling, staffing, innovating

Дополните предложение. Decision making is
the ability to direct and control people effectively
deals mainly with human activities
looks at the business objectively as a whole
top management, middle management, operating management
president, vice-president, general
·the most important responsibility of a manager
directing, controlling, staffing, innovating

Дополните предложение: Financial manager shows preference for ...
@the quantitative aspects
human activities
the business as a whole

Дополните предложение. Operating management includes ...
directors
plant managers
@foremen

Дополните предложение. The process of finding the right person for each job is ...
@staffing
organizing
firing

Дополните предложение. Management is the art and science of ...
manufacturing something and making another person want it
finding out what the other person wants and then manufacturing it for him
@getting things done through other people

Дополните предложение. A lack of ... leads to misunderstanding between managers and employees.
foreign language skill
stamina
@communicative skill

Дополните предложение. Systematic decision making can be hard work, particularly if you're ... complicated situations.
@dealing with
planning
innovating

Дополните предложение. The ability to generate new ideas and perspectives which lead to the success of the company is ... .
@creativity
adaptability
leadership

Дополните предложение. To make people think that your may is right means to ... them.
@persuade
respect
follow

Дополните предложение. When you simply can't do all tasks, you may pass some of them to the other people, in other words you ...
seek new way
@delegate responsibilities
force your staff

Дополните предложение. The overall responsibility ... decision making contains some managerial functions.
of
@for
to

Дополните предложение. One of the problems of any specialist is learning how to look ... the business objectively, as a whole.
@at
for
out

Дополните предложение. You have to rely ... information given to you by local businesses and by your local reps.
for
@on
with

Подберите синоним к выделенному слову. This report summarizes the results of a survey CARRIED OUT by the consumer magazine.
@implemented
started
finished

Подберите синоним к ВЫДЕЛЕННОМУ слову: Companies should hire or APPOINT people especially for this kind of work.
fire
select
@choose for a position

Подберите синоним к выделенному слову: This new job requires good management ABILITY
@skill
effort
task

Подберите синоним к выделенному слову: Who IS RESPONSIBLE for monitoring the activities of travel agents?
@is in charge of
is engaged in
is busy with

Подберите синоним к выделенному слову: Language AFFECTS negotiating strategy more than cultural considerations.
@influences
changes
helps

Подберите синоним к выделенному слову: A good manager is someone who knows how TO HANDLE staff well.
@manage
control
accept

~Тема 41. Биржи

Подберите синоним к слову: Dealings
categories
regulations
@transactions

Подберите синоним к слову: Exchange
duty
order
@trade

Подберите синоним к слову: Short-fall
@deficit
abundance
investment

Подберите синоним к слову: Variety
personality
@diversity
security

Подберите синоним к слову: Demand
supply
growth
@need

Подберите синоним к слову: Overseas
domestic
@foreign
incorporated

Подберите синоним к слову: To entitle
to conduct
to issue
@to give the right

Подберите синоним к слову: Commitment
spending
@obligation
opportunity

Подберите синоним к слову: Ordinary
@common
preference
gilt-edged

Подберите синоним к словам: Off-board market
listed securities market
@unlisted securities market
foreign securities market

Подберите синоним к словам: Fixed interest stocks
equities
@gilts
ordinary shares

Подберите синоним к слову: To quote
to trade
@to fix
to choose

Подберите синоним к слову: Bond
part of ownership
@a form of borrowing
preference share

Подберите соответствующее определение к слову: Flotation
a market with a tendency for rise
a person or a security house which trade on an exchange
last reported price at which a security was sold
specialists responsible for funds entrusted to them
a market with a tendency to fall
number indicating how prices of shares have fluctuated
stocks or shares not bearing fixed interest
a part of the common stock
@going public for the first time
highly priced papers
an offer for sale
getting additional investments
different kinds of investments

Подберите соответствующее определение к словам: Share index
a market with a tendency for rise
a person or a security house which trade on an exchange
last reported price at which a security was sold
specialists responsible for funds entrusted to them
a market with a tendency to fall
@number indicating how prices of shares have fluctuated
stocks or shares not bearing fixed interest
a part of the common stock
going public for the first time
highly priced papers
an offer for sale
getting additional investments
different kinds of investments

Подберите соответствующее определение к слову: Equities
a market with a tendency for rise
a person or a security house which trade on an exchange
last reported price at which a security was sold
specialists responsible for funds entrusted to them
a market with a tendency to fall
number indicating how prices of shares have fluctuated
@stocks or shares not bearing fixed interest
a part of the common stock
going public for the first time
highly priced papers
an offer for sale
getting additional investments
different kinds of investments

Подберите соответствующее определение к словам: Exchange member
a market with a tendency for rise
@a person or a security house which trade on an exchange
last reported price at which a security was sold
specialists responsible for funds entrusted to them
a market with a tendency to fall
number indicating how prices of shares have fluctuated
stocks or shares not bearing fixed interest
a part of the common stock
going public for the first time
highly priced papers
an offer for sale
getting additional investments
different kinds of investments

Подберите соответствующее определение к слову: Issue
a market with a tendency for rise
a person or a security house which trade on an exchange
last reported price at which a security was sold
specialists responsible for funds entrusted to them
a market with a tendency to fall
number indicating how prices of shares have fluctuated
stocks or shares not bearing fixed interest
a part of the common stock
going public for the first time
highly priced papers
@an offer for sale
getting additional investments
different kinds of investments

Подберите соответствующее определение к слову: Share
a market with a tendency for rise
a person or a security house which trade on an exchange
last reported price at which a security was sold
specialists responsible for funds entrusted to them
a market with a tendency to fall
number indicating how prices of shares have fluctuated
stocks or shares not bearing fixed interest
@a part of the common stock
going public for the first time
highly priced papers
an offer for sale
getting additional investments
different kinds of investments

Дополните предложение: Market price is
a market with a tendency for rise
a person or a security house which trade on an exchange
@last reported price at which a security was sold
specialists responsible for funds entrusted to them
a market with a tendency to fall
number indicating how prices of shares have fluctuated
stocks or shares not bearing fixed interest
a part of the common stock
going public for the first time
highly priced papers
an offer for sale
getting additional investments
different kinds of investments

Дополните предложение. Fund managers are
a market with a tendency for rise
a person or a security house which trade on an exchange
last reported price at which a security was sold
@specialists responsible for funds entrusted to them
a market with a tendency to fall
number indicating how prices of shares have fluctuated
stocks or shares not bearing fixed interest
a part of the common stock
going public for the first time
highly priced papers
an offer for sale
getting additional investments
different kinds of investments

Подберите соответствующее определение к словам: Blue chips
a market with a tendency for rise
a person or a security house which trade on an exchange
last reported price at which a security was sold
specialists responsible for funds entrusted to them
a market with a tendency to fall
number indicating how prices of shares have fluctuated
stocks or shares not bearing fixed interest
a part of the common stock
going public for the first time
@highly priced papers
an offer for sale
getting additional investments
different kinds of investments

Подберите соответствующее определение к словам: Bull market
@a market with a tendency for rise
a person or a security house which trade on an exchange
last reported price at which a security was sold
specialists responsible for funds entrusted to them
a market with a tendency to fall
number indicating how prices of shares have fluctuated
stocks or shares not bearing fixed interest
a part of the common stock
going public for the first time
highly priced papers
an offer for sale
getting additional investments
different kinds of investments

Подберите соответствующее определение к словам: Investment products
a market with a tendency for rise
a person or a security house which trade on an exchange
last reported price at which a security was sold
specialists responsible for funds entrusted to them
a market with a tendency to fall
number indicating how prices of shares have fluctuated
stocks or shares not bearing fixed interest
a part of the common stock
going public for the first time
highly priced papers
an offer for sale
getting additional investments
@different kinds of investments

Подберите соответствующее определение к словам: Raising capital
a market with a tendency for rise
a person or a security house which trade on an exchange
last reported price at which a security was sold
specialists responsible for funds entrusted to them
a market with a tendency to fall
number indicating how prices of shares have fluctuated
stocks or shares not bearing fixed interest
a part of the common stock
going public for the first time
highly priced papers
an offer for sale
@getting additional investments
different kinds of investments

Подберите соответствующее определение к словам: Bear market
a market with a tendency for rise
a person or a security house which trade on an exchange
last reported price at which a security was sold
specialists responsible for funds entrusted to them
@a market with a tendency to fall
number indicating how prices of shares have fluctuated
stocks or shares not bearing fixed interest
a part of the common stock
going public for the first time
highly priced papers
an offer for sale
getting additional investments
different kinds of investments

Заполните пропуск подходящими по смыслу словами. The process of taking part in a capital market begins with a corporation selling ...
goods
wealth
@stock.

Заполните пропуск подходящими по смыслу словами. The market value of the ... is about $ 120 billion.
share index
borrowers
@securities

Заполните пропуск подходящими по смыслу словами. As a shareholder you are ... of the company.
@an owner
an intermediary
an agent

Заполните пропуск подходящими по смыслу словами. ... earn a fixed income.
Ordinary shares
@Preference shares
Equities

Заполните пропуск подходящими по смыслу словами. You can also buy ... which are a form of long-term borrowing.
goods
@bonds
commitments

Заполните пропуск подходящими по смыслу словами. For steady long-term investment you should consider ...
share index
share price
@gilts

Заполните пропуск подходящими по смыслу словами. Generally a share price ... according to interest rate movements.
sets
gets stability
@fluctuates

Заполните пропуск подходящими по смыслу словами: Two prices are always ...
listed
@quoted
seen

Заполните пропуск подходящими по смыслу словами. Some guilts are undated, with no fixed ... .
exchange rate
@redemption date
circulation date

Заполните пропуск подходящими по смыслу словами. Share prices are determined by the ...
outflow of capital
new registered companies
@supply and demand

~Тема 42. Банки

Выберите подходящее по смыслу слово или словосочетание, чтобы завершить предложение: The document showing how much the card holder has spent during a month is ...
a bank reference
@a bank statement
a standing order

Выберите подходящее по смыслу словосочетание, чтобы завершить предложение. If a person signs a standing order, the bank ...
keeps enough money on his account
issues cheques regularly to him
@sees that his regular bills are paid every month

Выберите подходящее по смыслу слово или словосочетание, чтобы завершить предложение. If a bank customer wants to purchase a house, he should apply for ...
a bank reference
an overdraft
@a personal loan

Выберите подходящее по смыслу слово или словосочетание, чтобы завершить предложение. To open a loan account is the most common way of ...
@borrowing money
lending money
depositing money

Выберите подходящее по смыслу слово или словосочетание, чтобы завершить предложение. One of the functions of a bank is to keep safe valuable ...
loanable money
@private possessions
liquid assets

Выберите подходящее по смыслу словосочетание, чтобы завершить предложение. The term "bank crashing" means that the bank ...
is making large loans to foreign businesses
is able to repay its depositors when they want their money back
@is insolvent

Выберите подходящее по смыслу слово или словосочетание, чтобы завершить предложение. Bank customers who need capital are ...
depositors
lenders
@borrowers

Выберите подходящее по смыслу слово или словосочетание, чтобы завершить предложение. When you put money into a bank account, you ...
accept money
@deposit money
withdraw money

Выберите подходящее по смыслу слово или словосочетание, чтобы завершить предложение: British banks dealing mainly with businesses are ...
savings banks
commercial banks
@merchant banks

Выберите подходящее по смыслу слово или словосочетание, чтобы завершить предложение. The Central Bank arranges international payments ...
in its own name
@on behalf of the Government
in favour of the Government

Выберите подходящее по смыслу слово или словосочетание, чтобы завершить предложение. ATM withdrawals are ...
sums of money transferred to an account electronically
@sums of money taken out of a bank account via an automatic teller machine
statements issued by an automated telling machine

Выберите подходящее по смыслу слово или словосочетание, чтобы заполнить пропуск. The value of the money of the country compared to that of another is shown by the ... rate.
interest
growth
@exchange

Выберите подходящее по смыслу слово или словосочетание, чтобы заполнить пропуск. The rate of interest fixed by a Central bank is the ... rate.
@prime
exchange
deposit

Выберите подходящее по смыслу слово или словосочетание, чтобы заполнить пропуск. By using debit or purchases cards customers ... money directly from their bank account to the shop's account.
withdraw
@transfer
transform

Выберите подходящее по смыслу слово или словосочетание, чтобы заполнить пропуск. Having a ... account, a bank customer can issue personal cheques.
credit
@current
deposit

Выберите подходящее по смыслу слово или словосочетание, чтобы заполнить пропуск. Interest is paid by the bank on a ... account.
current
@deposit
loan

Выберите подходящее по смыслу слово или словосочетание, чтобы заполнить пропуск. Banks are closely concerned with the ... of money in and out of the economy.
fluctuations
float
@flow

Выберите подходящее по смыслу слово или словосочетание, чтобы заполнить пропуск. Lending the deposited money to customers who need capital ... interest for the bank.
@earns
enables
endorses

Выберите подходящее по смыслу слово, чтобы заполнить пропуск. Borrowers wish to ... capital.
allocate
@obtain
provide

Выберите подходящее по смыслу слово или словосочетание, чтобы заполнить пропуск. Traveller's cheques are ... by shops in almost every country in the world.
arranged
allocated
@accepted

Выберите подходящее по смыслу слово или словосочетание, чтобы заполнить пропуск. To obtain cash from the bank at which one has an account means ... cash.
to transfer
to carry
@to withdraw

Выберите подходящее по смыслу слово или словосочетание, чтобы заполнить пропуск. Interest rate determines the sum which ... pay to creditors for the use of their money.
lenders
@borrowers
depositors

Выберите подходящее по смыслу слово или словосочетание, чтобы заполнить пропуск. Bankers lend some of the deposited money to other customers ... called "interest".
@for a charge
for keeping safe
for a change

Выберите подходящее по смыслу слово или словосочетание, чтобы заполнить пропуск. By ... borrowers more than they paid to depositors, bankers made a profit.
lending
@charging
paying

Подберите соответствующий предлог. "To repay" means "to pay money ..." .
in
out
@back

Подберите соответствующий предлог. Credit card-holders can pay ... all their purchases with one cheque.
out
-
@for

Подберите соответствующий предлог. You may ask a bank clerk about the interest you might get ... your money.
@on
for
from

Подберите соответствующий предлог. This bank's charges ... all services are rather high.
on
@for
in

Подберите соответствующий предлог. He would like to change roubles ... dollars.
on
@for
to

Подберите соответствующий предлог. This is a cheque for 100 dollars ... my name.
on
to
@in

Подберите соответствующий предлог. If you don't have a credit card with you, you may pay ... cash.
@in
by
out

Подберите соответствующий предлог. Travellers' cheque can be exchanged ... cash.
to
by
@for

Подберите синоним к фразе: To make loan
to lend money
@to borrow money
to deposit money

Подберите синоним к фразе: To draw money (out)
@to take money from an account
to put money into an account
to deposit money

Подберите синоним к слову: To have
to provide
to prevent
@to possess

~Тема 43. Бухгалтерский учет

Выберите верное определение предложенного термина: Cashflow
@Money from sales and money going out to meet costs
Cash available to pay debts
Payment of fixed costs, including salaries

Выберите верное определение предложенного термина. Liquidity problem
Not paying debts
Customers who are late in making payments
@Not enough cash available to pay for costs

Выберите верное определение предложенного термина. Liquid assets
@Wealth that can easily be changed into cash
Property that cannot be easily changed into cash
Stocks and shares in drinks companies

Выберите верное определение предложенного термина. To go into liquidation
To have a lot of money, especially cash
@To go bankrupt and stop trading
To be taken over by another company

Выберите верное определение предложенного термина. Capacity problem
Workers are not able to meet production needs
@The company is already producing the maximum quantity possible, but there is demand for more
Costs are at the maximum level the company can afford

Выберите верное определение предложенного термина: Equity
The total value of a company once all liabilities have been paid
Pre-tax earnings
@Property and investments that can be easily converted into cash

Выберите верное определение предложенного термина. Depreciation
The total amount borrowed from a bank
@The fall in value of equipment over time
Regular costs and money owed

Выберите верное определение предложенного термина. Fixed assets
Assets which can be used to make immediate payments
Working capital
@Property, land and equipment which is not normally intended for immediate sale

Выберите верное определение предложенного термина: Overheads ...
The price of the materials in the product
@Distribution costs
All costs associated with a product

Выберите верное определение предложенного термина. Cash advance
@A loan in cash against a future payment
Payment when the customer receives the goods
Payment of a bill with cash

Выберите наиболее точный вариант, чтобы закончить предложение. ... shows how a business might make profits. It is calculated from the relationship between profit and the capital invested in the company, and between profit and turnover.
@Profitability
Gross profit
Net profit

Выберите наиболее точный вариант, чтобы закончить предложение. The ... of a business is the total amount of sales, before costs are deducted.
profitability
@turnover
income

Выберите наиболее точный вариант, чтобы закончить предложение. The ... is the profit the business makes before costs are considered.
income
@gross profit
revenue

Выберите наиболее точный вариант, чтобы закончить предложение. The ... are the costs involved in creating a new business.
Manufacturing costs
Selling costs
@Setting-up costs

Выберите наиболее точный вариант, чтобы закончить предложение. The ... are the normal costs of a business, which do not change if production rises. They are also referred to as indirect costs or fixed costs.
@overheads
taxes
investments

Выберите наиболее точный вариант, чтобы закончить предложение. The ... is a calculation of profit after deducting the costs of sales and overheads.
gross profit
turnover
@net profit

Выберите наиболее точный вариант, чтобы закончить предложение. The ... are all costs directly concerned with getting customers to buy products and moving them to the consumer.
labour costs
@selling costs
storage costs

Выберите наиболее точный вариант, чтобы закончить предложение. Most general term for money we receive for our work or investments is ...
@income
revenue
earnings

Выберите наиболее точный вариант, чтобы закончить предложение: The total annual income of the state from taxes is called ...
earnings
@revenue
receipts

Выберите наиболее точный вариант, чтобы закончить предложение. Increase in wealth, profit is ...
returns
revenue
@gains

Выберите наиболее верный термин к предложенному определению. What, in financial terms, a business hopes to make.
@profit
margin
interest

Выберите наиболее верный термин к предложенному определению. The name for all the property, equipment, investments and money, owned by a company
wealth
@assets
income

Выберите наиболее верный термин к предложенному определению. The total amount of sales in a year
profit
@turnover
cashflow

Выберите наиболее верный термин к предложенному определению. The name for everything that a company owes
debtors
creditors
@liabilities

Выберите наиболее верный термин к предложенному определению. What a company has to prepare every year for presentation to its owners and to the relevant authorities
forecast profit
net sales
@financial statements

Выберите наиболее верный термин к предложенному определению. A formal description of income and costs for a time period that has finished
@profit and loss account
letter of credit
cash budget

Выберите наиболее верный термин к предложенному определению. A formal description of a company's financial position at specified moment
@balance sheet
profit and loss account
opening balance

Выберите наиболее верный термин к предложенному определению. A plan of cash income and spending for a specific period of time
balance sheet
@cash flow statement
forecast

Выберите наиболее верный термин к предложенному определению. Money owed to the government by any company
sales costs
capital costs
@taxes

Выберите наиболее верный термин к предложенному определению. People who owe money to the company
owners
@debtors
creditors

~Тема 44. Международная торговля

Вставьте наиболее подходящее слово в предложение: An official paper giving permission to take items in or out of the country is known as an import or export ...
certificate
@licence
agreement

Вставьте наиболее подходящее слово в предложение. Customs ... are imposed on imported as well as exported goods.
@duties
fees
penalties

Вставьте наиболее подходящее слово в предложение. As soon as one's luggage is cleared through the ... special stamps are put on it.
tax department
@customs
export-import department

Вставьте наиболее подходящее слово в предложение. To declare a commodity means to name an item, stating its ... and other details.
cost
@value
price

Вставьте наиболее подходящее слово в предложение. What does the ... value of the consignment amount to?
summary
general
@total

Вставьте наиболее подходящее слово в предложение. Sometimes the packages have special shipping marks, e.g. "... with care", "Top", "Do not turn over".
@Handle
Treat
Behave

Вставьте наиболее подходящее слово в предложение. Invoice, bill of lading and ... policy are the main documents necessary for carrying on any export-import transaction.
security
@insurance
safety

Вставьте наиболее подходящее слово в предложение. The difference between the price of a product or service and the cost of producing it is called profit ... .
yields
proceed
@margin

Какому слову наиболее точно соответствует данное определение. The people responsible for transporting cargo.
@clearing and forwarding agents
intermediaries
stockists

Какому слову наиболее точно соответствует данное определение. A list of bills of lading covering all the cargo on the vessel.
a certificate
@a manifest
a price-list

Какому слову наиболее точно соответствует данное определение. The form of international trade which is used for long-term contracts and supported with huge credits.
counterpurchase
barter
@buyback

Какому слову наиболее точно соответствует данное определение. A supply of raw materials or finished goods kept for sale by a firm or a shop.
reserves
sources
@stocks

Какому слову наиболее точно соответствует данное определение. A direct sale of goods in exchange for commodities, with little or no money used in the deal.
buyback
@barter
counterpurchase

Какому слову наиболее точно соответствует данное определение. The government department responsible for collecting taxes on imported goods and making sure that illegal goods are not imported or exported.
tax ministry
foreign agency firm
@customs authorities

Какому слову наиболее точно соответствует данное определение. A person or business that buys things in order to sell them to someone else or helps to arrange business deals for other people.
clearing agent
@middleman
merchant

Вставьте подходящий предлог из предложенных. Nowadays, countries specialize in producing some commodities and exchange them ... those produced by other countries.
to
@for
on

Вставьте подходящий предлог из предложенных. The governments sometimes put restrictions ... imported goods.
for
to
@on

Вставьте подходящий предлог из предложенных. This year we've had a surplus of grain and have a great amount of it ... stock.
@in
at
on

Вставьте подходящий предлог из предложенных.
- How are you going to market these goods?
- I'm planning to get in touch with my foreign agent and send goods ... consignment.
for
in
@on

Вставьте подходящий предлог из предложенных. Russia and most East-European countries have a long experience of trading. They have been carrying ... trade in many sectors of economy for decades.
for
@on
of

Вставьте подходящий предлог из предложенных. If you don't agree to the delivery of this make of cars, could we send you something ... equal value?
@of
for
in

Вставьте подходящий предлог из предложенных. Selling ... middlemen takes a much shorter period, for they know the structure of home market in foreign countries better than producers do.
by
with
@through

Вставьте подходящий предлог из предложенных. It took me about two hours to be cleared ... the customs.
with
at
@through

Вставьте подходящий предлог из предложенных. In Britain such goods as oil, spirits, beer, tobacco and many others are subject ... customs duties.
for
@to
through

~Тема 46. Бессоюзное подчинение

Выберите из трех предложений то, которое содержит бессоюзное присоединение придаточного предложения.
When money is borrowed, the amount to be repaid next year is measured in units of national currency (pounds of sterling for the UK, for example)
@Money can be used to buy things we wish to consume.
Money is a store of value, for it can be used to make purchases in future.

Выберите из трех предложений то, которое содержит бессоюзное присоединение придаточного предложения.
@The information the economist relied upon was outdated.
It is desirable that as much information as possible about consumer demand should be obtained before planning business strategy.
The number of people who are using the internet is growing, so this is a company with a great future.

Выберите из трех предложений то, которое содержит бессоюзное присоединение придаточного предложения.
On a pay-day, government is taking that money out of circulation for a while.
@There are four methods the government can use to control the money supply.
If at any one time the government wants to borrow a lot of money, it will have to offer a higher rate of interest in order to attract that money.

Выберите из трех предложений то, которое содержит бессоюзное присоединение придаточного предложения.
The goods bought in this country consisted of traditional export commodities.
@The country the goods were exported to was in the tropical climate.
The increased international demand for goods results in greater production and more extensive use of raw materials and labour, which means the growth of domestic employment.

Выберите из трех предложений то, которое содержит бессоюзное присоединение придаточного предложения.
Software Company reports bad news for business, which faces another 0,5% increase in the cost of borrowing money.
@The report the workers' delegation made on returning home was listened to with great interest by members of the trade union.
The report concludes that for British Industry these three areas are crucial.

Выберите из трех предложений то, которое содержит бессоюзное присоединение придаточного предложения.
@The output of an agricultural commodity this year depends on decisions the farmer made last year.
There are not enough resources to produce sufficient quantities of commodities to satisfy human wants.
The central economic problem for society is how to reconcile demand for goods and services and the resources which can be allocated for the production of these goods and services.

~Тема 47. Деловое письмо

Выберите правильное высказывание:
@the name and address of the addressee are at the top of the left
the writer's name and title are at the top of the left
the name and address of the addressee are under the signature

Выберите правильное высказывание:
@Each paragraph in a business letter starts at the left-hand margin
The paragraphs are never separated by a line
Each paragraph ends at the right-hand margin

Дополните высказывание: If you refer to a company you should open the letter with ...
@"Dear Sirs"
"Dear Gentlemen"
"Dear Sir/Madam"

Дополните высказывание: If you don't know whether a woman is married or unmarried, you should open the letter to her with ...
@"Dear Ms Smith"
"Dear Mrs Smith"
"Dear Miss Smith"

Дополните высказывание: If you refer to a man you should open the letter with ...
@"Dear Mr Smith"
"Dear John Smith"
"Dear Sir Smith"

Дополните высказывание: General rule for closing a letter is
@If you know the name of addressee, you end the letter with "Yours sincerely", but if you do not know the name, you end the letter with "Yours faithfully"
If you know the name of addressee you end the letter with "Yours faithfully ", but if you do not know the name, you end the letter with "Yours sincerely "
If you refer to a man, you end the letter with "Yours faithfully", but
if you refer to a woman, you end the letter with "Yours sincerely"

Выберите правильный вариант: Часть делового письма, содержащая фразу "Yours sincerely", называется:
salutation
@complimentary close
signature

Часть делового письма содержащая краткое указание на содержание тему письма, называется ...
enclosures
references
@subject title

Дополните предложение. Part of the letter which usually talks about the future is ...
@the close
main message
an opening

Выберите фразу, представляющую собой начало делового письма:
@We are writing in connection with your advertisement in the newspaper
I hope that this information will help you
I look forward to receiving your reply

Выберите фразу, которая используется в заключительной части делового письма:
Thank you for your letter of 15th January concerning my visit to Japan
@I look forward to receiving your order
We are happy to tell you that the above mentioned company has always paid our bills on time

Выберите заключительную фразу делового письма:
@Please feel free to contact me if you need any information about our other branches
Thank you for your telephone call today, enquiring about our prices
We are writing to enquire about the prices of the air conditioners

Дополните предложение из делового письма: With reference to your order for some cupboards, ... we have had to increase the price.
@I regret to inform you that ...
I am delighted to inform you that ...
this is due to the fact that ...

Выберите начало предложения из делового письма: ... your application for a post as a secretary, I am happy to tell you that we would like you to start work as soon as possible.
@With reference to ...
This is owing to ...
This is due to ...

Дополните предложение из делового письма: I am writing in connection with our telephone conversation this morning. ... that your car is now ready for you to collect.
@I am pleased to inform you ...
I am sorry to tell you ...
I regret to inform you ...

Выберите фразу, в которой приносятся извинения:
@We hope that this has not caused you any inconvenience
We would be grateful if you could send us your payment without delay
We would appreciate it if you could give us some further details about your prices

Выберите предложение, в котором содержится вежливая просьба в предоставлении информации:
@We would appreciate it if you could give us some details about your passport.
Could you please arrange an appointment for ten o'clock.
We are extremely sorry for losing your order.

Выберите фразу, которая является логическим продолжением данного предложения. Unfortunately, one of the machines you sent us was damaged.
Please could you send us your cheque before 30 June.
@We would be grateful if you could send us a replacement.
We would appreciate it if you send your price list as soon as possible.

Выберите фразу, которая является логическим продолжением данного предложения. Unfortunately, we have not received the filing cabinets.
@Please could you deliver them soon.
We really must apologize for the delay in delivering these cabinets.
I should like to point out that we have already paid for these cabinets.











Какая фраза НЕ подходит для использования в данном предложении: ... to meet you yesterday. I found many of your ideas very interesting.
@I was sorry ...
It was good ...
It was a pleasure ...

Какая фраза НЕ подходит для использования в данном предложении: ... that you could not come to the meeting on Saturday. I am sure that you would have found it quite interesting.
@It was a pleasure ...
It was a pity ...
I am sorry







2 часть экзамена -
·Е
·
·
·Ы
1. Even in a bad economy, one truth about marketing stands: you have
to spend more to make more. When business drops off, many entrepreneurs
listen to their accountant's advice and cut back on advertising and promotion.
That's the worst thing you can do. When times get tough, your job is to promote more, not less.
Promotion is a six-week cycle. That means if the company promotes today, business increases six weeks later. Many businesses violate the six-week
cycle. They promote for, say, four weeks, and because nothing happens, they
stop. Two weeks later, there's a sudden increase in business. For four weeks,
business remains strong. Then, just as suddenly, business drops off, because
six weeks earlier, the entrepreneur had stopped promoting.
It is very important to never stop promoting: promote whether the economy is strong or weak; promote even when you may not have the money. Ifyou have no money, stand on a street corner at lunchtime with a sign hanging
around your neck promoting your product or service. Not only will you meet
new customers, but you might also save money on lunch, lose some weight
and get a suntan.
Obviously, it takes more than just promotion to do well. To be successful, a business also requires strong fundamentals and a desirable product or
service. During tough economic times, though, even some good businesses
fail; some businesses shrink and others grow. When a business closes, its
customers migrate to the business that fights hard and stays open. Businesses that promote while others cut their ad budgets have a better chance of
getting bigger even if the economy is shrinking.
2. All too often, day-to-day responsibilities get in the way of making a
business more successful. In today’s highly competitive, ever-changing world
market, small to midsize manufacturers that want to continue their success
need to do more than just build a product and hope people will come. They
need to utilize advanced technologies and good business practices, such as
market assessments. Manufacturers need to revaluate their marketing efforts,
groom customer lists, and revisit old customers to see about new projects.
Manufacturers Resource Center, a nonprofit organization created to help
small and midsize manufacturers grow and remain competitive, recommends
an independent market assessment. According to MRC, a market assessment
is not just for challenging times; manufacturers should look at doing an assessment on a frequent and ongoing basis to open their eyes to opportunities
for growth.
MRC, which is affiliated with Lehigh University in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, conducts its research in three segments. They interview management
team members independently about the company’s core competencies,
strengths, and weaknesses, in many cases learning what one team member
would never share with another. The consultants then interview trusted advisors such as the corporate lawyer or accountant or even family members who
influence corporate decisions. In the second segment, the consultants interview the manufacturers’ current customers, former customers, and customers
it wants to secure. The third segment focuses on secondary database research.
With this information, the MRC consultants look for common points of
alignment, for opportunities that match up with the manufacturer’s core
competencies. Then the consultants provide recommendations to help the
manufacturers discover new opportunities, in new markets, sales distribution,
and existing or new product lines. An outside, third-party assessment can
quickly pay for itself by helping manufacturers keep to a successful path.
3. Brand is a collection of images and ideas that represents a business.
When we see a logo, slogan or design and we know immediately what the
product is, then the branding is successful. The slogan should be short, a
maximum of six words, and easy to understand. We instantly associate the
product with ideas such as quality, reliability or performance.Companies have to identify the qualities associated with their product.
They find a name linked to the identity and design a logo and slogan. Packaging is extremely important for communicating brand identity and they must
create a marketing strategy and advertisements.
In many cases a brand is the same as a manufacturer, for example GAP
or L’OREAL. In other cases the brand is the name of a product e.g. Crest – not
a manufacturer. The first case allows the company to promote different products. Some companies, such as Coca Cola or Mc Donald’s, have an international brand, built up over many years. Their message is the same for every
product and in every market around the world.
Most branded goods are expensive, so stores’ own brand goods can compete by offering a lower price. Smaller firms make clones of branded products
such as computers and clothes. And there is an illegal global trade in pirated
copies of branded goods such as DVDs. Negative information about a company, such as unethical behavior, can have a devastating impact on the
brand.
4. 1998 was undoubtedly the year of the merger. More companies than
ever before joined together in deals that totaled $2.25 trillion and created the
world's largest ever bank and the world's biggest oil company. Faced with
plummeting oil prices, oil giants Exxon and Mobil sought to achieve economies of scale through a $250bn merger.
There are several factors behind the increase in mergers and acquisitions.
Firstly, the accelerated rate of globalisation has left companies desperately
seeking overseas acquisitions in order to remain competitive. Another factor
behind the increase in merger activity is the record performance of stock markets, which has enabled companies to finance major acquisitions on the
strength of their inflated share prices.
Not all mergers, however, are the result of global economic trends, political change or technological innovation. BMW's takeover of the Rover Group injected much needed investment into the struggling UK car manufacturer
whilst extending BMW's product range. And when the UK pharmaceutical firm
Zeneca merged with Swedish drug company Astra, the new company started
life with strong combined R&D capabilities, further strengthened by the
world's best selling drug Losec in its portfolio of products.
Despite all these potential benefits and their promise of competitive advantage, mergers and acquisitions are not risk-free ventures. Such alliances
are more than just financial agreements; they also involve the coming together
of different corporate and, in many cases, national cultures. This can have a
destabilising effect on a workforce and may mean projected efficiencies are not
delivered. A further destabilising effect is the prospect of redundancies.
5. Many businesses as well as political organizations are international,
that is to say their activities cover several countries, rather than just one. International business organizations which operate in many countries are called
multinationals’. A multinational is a parent company with branches or subsidiaries in several countries. It arranges its production, finance and commer-cial operations in an international way. For example, multinationals can
switch production or new projects away from one country which has strong
trade unions and a bad history of industrial relations, to another country in
which they operate and which may have weaker trade unions.
The operations of multinationals are often harmful to the economic independence of countries in which they have subsidiaries. Some of them are very
large, especially in the oil and motor-car industries. Moreover, their activities
are very difficult to control and can cause great economic problems to economies which, in some cases, they dominate. They do, however, have vast financial resources and are able to achieve the economies of large-scale production.
Multinationals are a relatively recent phenomenon, and so are international political and economic organizations. In fact, they really began with the
end of the Second World War. In 1944 the representatives of many nations
gathered to consider solutions to the economic problems which had existed
before the war – unstable and limited international trade. The meeting, the
Bretton Woods Conference, led to the creation of the International Monetary
Fund. The object was to achieve international economic stability, international
monetary cooperation, the stabilization of exchange rates and the expansion
of world trade.
The IMF operates by lending funds to member countries which have balance of payments difficulties so that they can stabilize their exchange rates.
Each of its members pays into a fund in proportion to the importance of international trade in its economy. Members can borrow from the fund. However, there is a limit to the size of the loan and the period of time in which the
loans, dictating the way in which the country should attempt to manage its
economy.
6. Demand is the quantity of a good that buyers wish to buy at any price.
Other things equal, at low prices the demanded quantity is higher. Supply is
the quantity of a good that sellers wish to sell at any price. Other things equal,
when prices are high, the supplied quantity is high as well.
The market is in equilibrium when the price regulates the quantity supplied by producers and the quantity demanded by consumers. When prices
are not so high as the equilibrium price, there is excess demand (shortage)
raising the price. At prices above the equilibrium price, there is excess supply
(surplus) reducing the price.
There are some factors influencing demand for a product, such as the
prices of other goods, consumer incomes and some others. As consumer income is increased, demand for a normal product will also increase but demand for an inferior one will decrease. A normal product is a one for which
demand increases when incomes rise. An inferior product is a one for which
demand falls when incomes rise.
As to supply, some factors are assumed as constant. Among them are
technology, the input price, as well as degree of government regulation. An
improvement in technology is as important for increasing the supplied quantity of a good as a reduction in input prices. Government regulates demandand supply, imposing ceiling prices (maximum prices) and floor prices (minimum prices) and adding its own demand to the demand of the private sector.
7. Inflation is a steady rise in the average price and wage level. The rise
in wages being high enough to raise costs of production, prices grow further
resulting in a higher rate of inflation and, finally, in an inflationary spiral. Periods when inflation rates are very large are referred to as hyperinflation.
The causes of inflation are rather complicated, and there is a number of
theories explaining them. Monetarists, such as Milton Friedman, say that inflation is caused by too rapid increase in money supply and the corresponding
excess demand for goods. Therefore, monetarists consider due government
control of money supply to be able to restrict inflation rates. They also believe
the high rate of unemployment to be likely to restrain claims for higher wages.
People having jobs accept the wages they are being paid, the inflationary spiral being kept under control. This situation also accounts for rather slow increase in aggregate demand.
On the other hand, Keynesians, that is, economists following the theory
of John Maynard Keynes, suppose inflation to be due to processes occurring
in money circulation. They say that low inflation and unemployment rates can
be ensured by adopting a tight incomes policy.
The longer inflation continues, the more the economy learns to live with
it. Indexation is a means to reduce the costs of some inflation effects. Indexed
wages or loans mean that the amount to be paid or repaid will rise with price
level. Indexation has already been introduced in countries that had to live
with inflation rates of 30 or 40 percent for years. And the more countries adjust their economies to cope with inflation, the closer they come to hyperinflation. Indexation means that high rates of inflation are much more likely to

continue and even to increase.
8. Many people argue that globalization has served to bring the world
closer together creating a more cooperative environment. The impact of new
Information and Communication Technologies has changed the way people
learn, work and live. Despite these advantages, the reality is that many people
work hard and are underpaid for their labor. The current form of globalization
primarily serves the interests of powerful nations and corporations who shape
the terms of world trade. Many factory workers and field laborers are exploited
by large companies and paid pennies for products that are sold for large profits.
Globalization has opened new possibilities for both employers and job
seekers. One off-shoot of this is the practice of outsourcing jobs (hiring lowerpaid service workers in foreign countries to do work previously done by
higher-paid workers) has been a contentious issue in high-income countries,
especially the United States. Many American citizens dispute this industry
trend because it takes away jobs for Americans, while others dispute it for the
ethical implications of exploiting overseas workers. But even in high-income
countries like the United States, millions of workers earn minimum wage at
full-time jobs and still cannot afford basic necessities. And when people areforced to work for low wages in poor working conditions, workplace safety and
health is severely compromised.
Another facet of this phenomenon is the need for creation of sustainable
livelihoods which has become an important factor in the present day world,
especially in developing countries and among disadvantaged populations.
Sustaining the progress calls for an explicit consideration of future generations. Youth will inherit many of the environmental, economic and social
problems created over the past decades and incorporating their opinions and
concerns into policies at all levels is critical for a country’s progress.
Globalisation also stands as a major cause for unequitable distribution
of Resources. Women and children are the major sufferers and are the most
economically disadvantaged of all groups. Women’s work makes up a large
component of the informal economy – work that does not receive compensation, but that is integral to a functioning economy. The Millennium Development Goals (UN campaign to eliminate extreme poverty by 2015) is an international response to improve economic and social conditions including access
to early education, gender equality, sustainable development, and extreme
poverty.
9. One of the most important concepts in sales management and marketing is product life cycle. This is a historical record of the life of a product,
showing the stage the product has reached at a particular time. By identifying
the stage that a product is, companies can formulate better marketing plans.
All products have lives’ where they are created, sold with varying profitability
over a period of time, and then in the end are replaced or simply no longer
produced. A product’s sales position and profitability can fluctuate over time.
So, at each stage in the product’s cycle, it is necessary to adopt different tactics.
The two main features of the product life cycle are unit sales and unit
profit. The unit sales figures usually jump on introduction. This is generally
followed by a leveling off – the length of this period depends on the use to
which the product is put. Then, unit sales rise steadily through the growth
phase to the maturity phase, and so on to saturation level. Eventually, the
product’s sales decline when better versions enter the market and competition
becomes too strong.
Most firms know what happened to their products from launch to withdrawal. They can get this information from the records of unit sales. Unfortunately, unit sales are not the complete story and the decisive factor is the unit
profit. At launch, the product is accurately priced on the basis of production
costs plus selling costs. When a competitor appears, the original firm has to
respond to similar products in order to maintain its market position. It can
run special sales promotions or sales. Often extra expenditures are not accurately charged to the product. The result is that, long before unit sales are noticeably falling, the unit profit has already fallen.
The product life cycle presents a picture of what happened in the product’s lifetime’ and how can this help management decision-making. Every
sales manager has a chart on which the progress of sales is marked and thiscan be used as a guide to the stage of development each product is currently
in. An essential management skill is to be able to interpret sales results and to
decide where each stage begins and ends.
10. The amount of money sent home by migrant workers to their families
in Latin America has reached more than $62bn. According to the InterAmerican Investment Bank, the figure could reach $100bn in four years' time.
Money from migrant workers now exceeds the combined total of all direct
foreign investment and foreign aid to Latin America - sixty-two-point-three billion dollars. Twenty-three billion dollars of that was sent back to Mexico,
mostly from workers living in the United States. It now ranks along with oil
and tourism as Mexico's biggest foreign currency earner.
The Inter-American Development Bank, which supports the region with
aid and other help, says the remittances, as they're known, will increase by
about fifteen percent a year during the next four years, topping one-hundred
billion dollars by 2010. The bank describes the money as a very effective poverty reduction programme because it keeps between eight and ten million
families above the poverty line. But it says it also means the economies of the
region are not generating enough jobs to keep workers from leaving in the first
place.
Another problem is that as much of the money is sent back in small
amounts, it's difficult to track. The average is between a hundred and a hundred-and-fifty dollars a month. That in turn makes it an unpredictable source
of revenue for governments to tap into. The bank says it wants people to get
away from what it calls cash to cash flows and into account to account transfers but the bank says the recent crackdown on illegal immigrants by the
American authorities could hinder efforts to get migrants to use banks.
Задача 11. Oil and the Economy
Some of the largest economic fluctuations in the U.S. economy have
originated in the oil fields of the Middle East. Crude oil is a key input into the
production of many goods and services, and much of the world's oil comes
from Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and other Middle Eastern countries. When some
event (usually political in origin) reduces the supply of crude oil flowing from
this region, the price of oil rises around the world. U.S. firms that produce
gasoline, tires, and many other products experience rising costs.
The first episode of this sort occurred in the mid-1970s. The countries
with large oil reserves got together as members of OPEC, the Organization of
Petroleum Exporting Countries. OPEC was a cartela group of sellers that attempts to prevent competition and reduce production in order to raise prices.
And, indeed, oil prices rose substantially. From 1973 to 1975, oil approximately doubled in price. Oil importing countries around the world experienced
simultaneous inflation and recession. In the United States, the inflation rate
exceeded 10 percent for the first time in decades. Unemployment rose from
4.9 percent in 1973 to 8.5 percent in 1975.
Almost the same thing happened again a few years later. In the late
1970s, the OPEC countries again restricted the supply of oil in order to raisethe price. From 1978 to 1981, the price of oil more than doubled. Once again,
the result was stagflation. Inflation, which had subsided somewhat after the
first OPEC event, again rose above 10 percent per year. Unemployment rose
from about 6 percent in 1978 and 1979 to about 10 percent a few years later.
The world market for oil can also be a source of favorable shifts in aggregate supply. In 1986 the disagreement took place among members of OPEC.
Member countries refused to restrict oil production. In the world market for
crude oil, prices fell by about half. This fall in oil prices reduced costs to U.S.
firms. As a result, the U.S. economy experienced the opposite of stagflation:
output grew rapidly, unemployment fell, and the inflation rate reached its
lowest level in many years.
Задача 12. Talking about my generation.
Do you think you are an individualist? That no one else is quite like you?
Well, you may be in for a surprise. You’ll find that market researchers and
trend spotters have been studying your generation’s habits and they have
given it a name! If you were born last century between 1978 and 2000 then
you belong to Generation Y. You are addicted to all technological things.
Marketers have been identifying groups of people for a long time. The
first generation to get a name was the “baby boomers” born in the 1950s, and
Generation X, born between 1960 and 1980. And the term Yuppie (young urban professional) appeared in the 1980s to describe a generation of high earning young people who liked to spend money.
So what is Generation Y like? We asked university student, Lauren,
“What have you been doing this afternoon?” She replied, “I’ve been doing a
quiz online for my coursework in advertising, I’ve been writing to classmates
on a message board and I’ve been downloading some new music. But at the
same time I’ve also been watching my favorite soap, and keeping up with my
text messages, so I know where to meet my friends later”. Lauren is part of a
new digital generation which experts have recently called the MySpace generation. They chat together in a huge virtual world on site such as MySpace. They
learn about new music from the Net rather than from magazines, TV or shops.
For Generation Y there is no real distinction between online and real world interactions. They enjoy socializing on the net as much as face to face. And they
multitask on a variety of media at the same time, like Lauren.
Generation Y prefers to find out about things on the Internet. The pop
group Arctic Monkeys became famous before they released an album through
online file sharing. Even before songs were released officially, fans sang along
with the songs at concerts! Big companies are worried by this trend. They use
the blog site YPulse, which does market research, to get updates about the
most popular websites. And multinationals such as Apple and Coca-Cola are
now trying to reach the MySpace generation through a very old technique –
word of mouth.
Задача 13. Employment in manufacturing industry
Factory owners have been adding jobs slowly but steadily since the beginning of the year, giving a lift to the fragile economic recovery. And becausethey laid off so many workers more than two million since the end of 2007
manufacturers now have a vast pool of people to choose from. Yet some of
these employers complain that they cannot fill their openings. Plenty of people
are applying for the jobs. The problem, the companies say, is a mismatch between the kind of skilled workers needed and the ranks of the unemployed.
Manufacturers who want to expand find that hiring is not always easy.
During the recession, domestic manufacturers appear to have accelerated the
long-term move toward greater automation, laying off more of their lowestskilled workers and replacing them with cheaper labor abroad. Now they are
looking to hire people who can operate sophisticated computerized machinery,
follow complex blueprints and demonstrate higher math proficiency than was
previously required of the typical assembly line worker. Makers of innovative
products like advanced medical devices and wind turbines are among those
growing quickly and looking to hire, and they too need higher skills. But the
problem is the people that are out of work just don’t match the types of jobs
that are here, open and growing.
A number of manufacturers say that even if demand surges, they will
never bring back many of the lower-skilled jobs, and that training is not yet
delivering the skilled employees they need. Employers say they are looking for
aptitude as much as specific skills. They are trying to find people with the
right mindset and intelligence. A significant portion of applicants fail tests and
companies are disappointed by the quality of graduates from training programs.
Employers are worried that the skills shortage now will be exacerbated
once baby boomers start retiring. About 30 percent of manufacturing workers
will be eligible for retirement by 2016.
Задача 14. Inspirational leadership
Firstly, good leaders have to be trustworthy and honest – they earn respect by being fair. Secondly, they must really like people and be good at
communicating – they need to have emotional intelligence and be able to listen to their staff.
Good leaders are committed to excellence and believe that their staff can
deliver it. They must be enthusiastic so that they become a source of inspiration, and calm in a crisis. They work as a part of the team, and encourage all
their staff to work towards the same goal, asking their employees’ opinions
and actively involving them. However, good leaders must be confident about
their decisions – it is difficult to follow someone who seems unsure. And they
must also be able to take risks without being afraid.
Good leaders give their staff the freedom to make their own decisions,
but also create a sense of structure and order. They are good at delegating.
They praise people’s achievements - this is essential to getting good results
and motivating people. Staff enjoy what they are doing, and are willing to do
extra to make the company a success.
Bill Gates believes that leaders have to develop their staff so the staff do
their jobs better than their managers. This can be threatening for managers,
but gets great results. A leading basketball coach, Pat Summit, advises, Seein others more than they see in themselves. Your job as a manager is to identify the potential of others and make sure they fulfil it.’
Задача 15. The Global Money Market
Foreign exchange trading in Britain is centered in London. The London
foreign exchange market is a telephonic market consisting of 3 groups: authorized banks, 11 foreign exchange brokers and the Bank of England. British
operations are to some degree overseen and controlled by the Bank of England, which limits outstanding positions and calls regular returns. Sterling is
thereby protected against undesirable speculations. This control has never
prevented the involvement in world money operations necessary to strengthen
the commercial base.
Continuous contact between dealers in banks in many cities around the
world is, in essence, the international market. They fix the international conversion value of one currency against another and conflicting opinions are
swiftly ironed out by the movement of funds. At any one moment of time, the
value of sterling against the American dollar is the same, whether you deal in
London, Germany, Tokyo or San Francisco.
The major controlling factors that affect exchange rates are speculation,
interest rates and the balance of payments. In the past, speculation against
the dollar in favour of other currencies has led to the sale of dollars and the
consequent purchase of other currencies. Interest rates dictate the flow of
money from one foreign centre to another as money seeks higher yields. So
the impact of a balance of payments surplus or deficit is quite apparent. It follows that the currency of a country with a constant surplus will always be in
demand. But other things quite apart from financial factors affect the foreign
exchange market. Political events can move the market quite significantly.
At one point exchange rates were controlled and monitored by the central
banks under the Bretton Woods Agreement. This affected member countries of
the International Monetary Fund, which meant simply that all such countries
would have a parity for their currency against the American dollar, itself tied
to gold, and their currency would be protected against the dollar to a maximum spread of 3/4 per cent either side of this parity. All commercial companies working on a wider commercial profit margin could rely on the rate
movement staying within agreed boundaries.
Задача 16. Bullying
Has anyone ever criticized you all the time, ignored you or made you feel
small in front of other people? Then you have experienced bullying. We often
think that bullying only happens in school, but it is very common in the
workplace as well. In fact studies show that about one in five people have
been bullied at work. Bullies are often managers but they can be co-workers.
They make their victims look incompetent, feel a failure and lose all belief in
themselves.
Bullying consists of threatening or offensive behaviour, constant criticism, unrealistic or changing goals and not being included in work and socialevents. It is a form of psychological and emotional violence which affects people’s health and career prospects and can cause depression.
Bullying reduces companies’ profits. There are huge losses each year due
to absenteeism and resignations, all the result of bullying. Eighty-two percent
of people who are bullied leave their workplace. Companies need to make sure
they have policies to fight bullying.
Firstly, you need to get support from a colleague or a trade union. Secondly, keep a written record of what is happening to you. Then you need to
confront the person and say you don’t like the way you are being treated. This
is best done with someone else present or in writing. Nowadays bullying is
recognized as a problem, and there are many organizations that can help. So
if you are bullied, just remember you are not alone.
17. Franchising and how you can benefit from it
Franchising is a system of business that has grown steadily in the last
50 years and is estimated to account for more than one-third of the world’s retail sales. There are few of us now who are not touched by the results of franchising. Franchising is not restricted just to fast food outlets and gardening
contractors. There are now franchises for mentoring managers and sportspeople and franchises for internet shopping. Why, over the last 10 to 20 years,
has franchising become the fastest growing way of doing business in just
about every country in the world?
Franchising may be defined as a business arrangement which allows for
the reputation (goodwill), innovation, technical know-how and expertise of the
innovator (franchisor) to be combined with the energy, industry and investment of another party (franchisee) to conduct the business of providing and
selling of goods and services. In franchising, a franchiser by building a successful brand through marketing, good practice and innovation creates goodwill which is utilised by the franchisees to further add value to the business.
The franchisor in order to successfully impart his knowledge and to assist
franchisees will communicate his methods via basic operating procedures
manual, quality assurance manuals and training manuals. The franchisee will
undoubtedly pay for this attractive force and the immediate customer recognition that it brings to a “new” business in the franchise arrangement.
There are a number of reasons why franchises have become the fastest
growing way of doing business but the most worthy explanation is that franchising and franchises are simply filling a market need. The 1980’s and
1990’s brought radical changes to the employment market and the way people
worked. A series of oil-shocks and severe stock market corrections, a freeing
up of the world economy, reduction in subsidies, government deregulation
and downsizing has thrust into the job market capable, energetic and resourceful people who want to work for themselves.
The main advantage of owning a franchise is the feeling of freedom that
being self-employed brings. Owning a franchise should also provide a semimonopoly environment in which to conduct business in a particular area.
Generally, there is also a ready-made customer base. Besides, you usually
have exclusive rights in your territory. The franchisor won't sell any otherfranchises in the same territory. And financing the business may be easier.
Banks are sometimes more likely to lend money to buy a franchise with a
good reputation. A franchise also offers the franchisee the ability to capitalise
on the know-how and systems that have been proven to be successful. The
quality of the product or service provided is therefore in many ways guaranteed.
18. Monetary Policy and Fiscal Stabilization
The Federal Reserve System's operation has evolved over time in response to major events. The Congress established the Federal Reserve System
in 1913 to strengthen the supervision of the banking system and stop bank
panics that had erupted periodically in the previous century. As a result of the
Great Depression in the 1930s, Congress gave the Fed authority to vary reserve requirements and to regulate stock market margins (the amount of cash
people must put down when buying stocks on credit).
Still, the Federal Reserve often tended to follow the elected officials in
matters of overall economic policy. During World War II, for instance, the Fed
subordinated its operations and that helped the U.S. Treasury borrowed
money at low interest rates. Later, when the government sold large amounts
of Treasury securities to finance the Korean War, the Fed bought heavily to
keep the prices of these securities from falling (thereby pumping up the money
supply).
The Fed reasserted its independence in 1951. But the central bank still
did not stray too far from the political orthodoxy. During the fiscally conservative administration of President Dwight D. Eisenhower (1953-1961), for instance, the Fed emphasized price stability and restriction of monetary growth,
while under more liberal presidents in the 1960s, it stressed full employment
and economic growth.
During much of the 1970s, the Fed allowed rapid credit expansion in
keeping with the government's desire to combat unemployment. But with
inflation increasingly ravaging the economy, the central bank abruptly tightened monetary policy beginning in 1979. This policy successfully slowed the
growth of the money supply, but it helped trigger sharp recessions in 1980
and 1981-1982. The inflation rate did come down, however, and by the middle
of the decade the Fed was again able to pursue a cautiously expansionary policy. Interest rates, however, stayed relatively high as the federal government
had to borrow heavily to finance its budget deficit. Rates slowly came down,
too, as the deficit narrowed and ultimately disappeared in the 1990s.
19. Regulation and Control in the U.S. Economy
The U.S. federal government regulates private enterprise in numerous
ways. Regulation falls into two general categories. Economic regulation seeks,
either directly or indirectly, to control prices. Traditionally, the government
has sought to prevent monopolies such as electric utilities from raising prices
beyond the level that would ensure them reasonable profits. At times, the government has extended economic control to other kinds of industries as well.
In the years following the Great Depression, it devised a complex system tostabilize prices for agricultural goods, which tend to fluctuate wildly in response to rapidly changing supply and demand.
Another form of economic regulation, antitrust law, seeks to strengthen
market forces so that direct regulation is unnecessary. The government --
and, sometimes, private parties -- have used antitrust law to prohibit practices or mergers that would unduly limit competition.
American attitudes about regulation changed substantially during the final three decades of the 20th century. Beginning in the 1970s, policy-makers
grew increasingly concerned that economic regulation protected inefficient
companies at the expense of consumers in some industries. At the same time,
technological changes spawned new competitors in some industries, such as
telecommunications, that once were considered natural monopolies. Both developments led to a succession of laws easing regulation.
While leaders of both political parties generally favored economic deregulation during the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s, there was less agreement concerning regulations designed to achieve social goals. Social regulation had assumed growing importance in the years following the Depression and World
War II, and again in the 1960s and 1970s. But during the presidency of
Ronald Reagan in the 1980s, the government relaxed rules to protect workers,
consumers, and the environment, arguing that regulation interfered with free
enterprise, increased the costs of doing business, and thus contributed to inflation. Still, many Americans continued to voice concerns about specific
events or trends, prompting the government to issue new regulations in some
areas, including environmental protection.
20. Leadership Styles for a good leader.
Leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal. One of the ways for leaders to carry out
this process is to use leadership styles. Leadership style is the manner and
approach of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people.
Kurt Lewin (1939) led a group of researchers to identify different styles of
leadership. This early study has been very influential and established three
major leadership styles:
1) Authoritarian or autocratic
2) Participative or democratic
3) Delegative or Free Reign
Authoritarian (autocratic)
This style is used when leaders tell their employees what they want to be
done and how they want it to be accomplished, without getting the advice of
their followers. Some of the appropriate conditions to use it is when the leader
has all the information to solve the problem, he is short of time, and his employees are well motivated. Some people tend to think of this style as a vehicle
for yelling, using demeaning language, and leading by threats and abusing
their power. This is not the authoritarian style, rather it is an abusive, unprofessional style called “bossing people around.”
Participative (democratic)This style involves the leader including one or more employees in the decision making process (determining what to do and how to do it). However, the
leader maintains the final decision making authority. Using this style is not a
sign of weakness, it is rather a sign of strength that employees will respect.
This is normally used when the leader has part of the information, and employees have other parts. A leader is not expected to know everything this is
why he employs knowledgeable and skillful employees. Using this style is of
mutual benefit it allows subordinates to become part of the team and allows the leader to make better decisions.
Delegative (free reign)
In this style, the leader allows the employees to make the decisions.
However, the leader is still responsible for the decisions that are made. This is
used when employees are able to analyze the situation and determine what
needs to be done and how to do it. The leader must set priorities and delegate
certain tasks. This style can be used when the leader fully trusts and is confident in people below. A good leader uses all three styles, depending on the
situation.
Ко всем 20 текстам относятся следующие типовые вопросы (зада-
ния):
1. определите, является ли утверждение:
2. определите, является ли утверждение:
3. определите, является ли утверждение:
4. укажите, какому из абзацев текста (1,2,3,4) соответствует следующая
идея:
5. укажите, какому из абзацев текста (1,2,3,4) соответствует следующая
идея:
6. ответьте на вопрос
7. определите основную идею текста
15

Приложенные файлы

  • doc 15907890
    Размер файла: 442 kB Загрузок: 0

Добавить комментарий