Книга Professional English in Use For Computers..

Thanks 3
0 Learning vocabulary: tips
and techniques 10
A Guessing meaning from context B Organizing vocabulary C Using a dictionary
1 Living with computers 12
A Computers, friend ...
B ... or foe?
C Things we can do on the computer
2 A typical PC 14
A Computer essentials
B Parts of a computer
C Functions of a PC: input, processing, output, storage
3 Types of computer systems 16
A From mainframes to wearable computers
4 Input devices: type, click and talk! 18
AInteracting with your computer
BThe keyboard
CThe mouse
DVoice input
5 Input devices: the eyes of
your PC 20
A Scanners
B Digital cameras
C Digital video cameras and webcams
6Output devices: printers 22
A Technical details
B Types of printers
7 Output devices: display screens 24
A CRTs and LCDs
B Big screens: plasma and projection TVs
8 Processing 26
A The processor
C Units of memory
9 Disks and drives 28
A Magnetic storage
B Optical storage
C Removable flash memory
10 Health and safety 30
A Computer ergonomics B Electronic rubbish C The risks of using mobiles and in-car computers
11 Operating systems and the GUI 32
A Types of software; the operating system (OS)
B The Graphical User Interface
C System utilities
12 Word processing 34
A WP features
13 Spreadsheets and databases 36
A Spreadsheet basics
B Parts of a database
14 Graphics and design 38
A Types of graphics software
15 Multimedia
A A multimedia system
B Recognizing file formats
C Applications
16 Sound and music 42
A Audio files on the Web
B Digital audio players
C Other audio applications
17 Programming 44
A Programming languages
B Steps in writing a program
18 Computers and work 46
A Jobs in computing
B Computers and jobs: new ways, new profiles
19 ICT systems 48
A ICT systems: components and functions
B Types of systems
C Types of devices and services
20 Networks 50
A LANs (Local Area Networks)
B Network topology
C WANs (Wide Area Networks)
21 Faces of the Internet
A What the Internet is
B Getting connected
C Components of the Internet
22 Email
AWhat an email is
BAnatomy of an email
DMailing lists and newsgroups
23 The World Wide Web
A What the Web is
B How to surf the Web
C What you can do on the Web
24 Web design
B Basic elements
C Video, animations and sound
25 Chatting and video
conferencing 60
AIRC and web chat
BInstant messaging
CVideo and voice calls
DVirtual worlds
26 Internet security 62
A Internet crime
B Malware: viruses, worms, trojans and
C Preventative tips
27 E-commerce 64
A Elements of e-commerce
B How to buy on the Internet
C Types of e-businesses
28 Online banking 66
A Online banking basics
B Online banking services
C Online security
29 Mobile phones 68
A Mobile phones: definition and technology
B A brief history
C Features and functions
30 Robots, androids, Al 70
A Robots and automata
B Uses for robots
C Artificial Intelligence
31 Intelligent homes 72
A DomoticsB Control devices and networking
C Automatic operations
32 Future trends 74 74
A Smaller and faster
B Computers everywhere: human-centred technologies
WORD BUILDING 33 Prefixes 76
A Common prefixes
B Verb prefixes
C The prefixes e- and cyber-
34 Suffixes 78
A Common suffixes
B Word families
C We love 'wares'
35 Compounds 80
A Compound nouns
B Compound adjectives
36 Collocations 82
A What a collocation is
B Some types of collocations

39 Describing technical processes 88
A A technical process: how VoIP works
B The use of the passive
C Sequencing a process
40 Troubleshooting 90
A Troubleshooting and help desks
B Describing the problem
C Making guesses and giving advice
Answer key 92Index 110Acknowledgements 118
37 Defining and classifying 84
A Describing function
B Classifying from general to specific
C Classifying from specific to general
38 Qualifying and comparing 86
A Choosing a computer BComparing qualities
Cambridge International Corpus
In writing this book, use has been made of related material from the Cambridge International Corpus.
The Cambridge International Corpus (CIC) is a very large collection of English texts, stored in a computerized database, which can be searched to see how English is used. It has been built up by Cambridge University Press over the last ten years to help in writing books for learners of English. The English in the CIC comes from newspapers, best-selling novels, non-fiction books on a wide range of topics, websites, magazines, junk mail, TV and radio programmes, recordings of people's everyday conversations and many other sources. The CIC currently stands at one billion words.
The Corpus helps us to get a representative picture of how English is used, both in writing and in speech.
It is constantly being updated so we are able to include new words in our books as soon as they appear.
It is 'real' English so we can ensure that examples in our books are natural and realistic.
Professional English in Use
Professional English in Use ICT is part of a new series of Professional English in Use titles from Cambridge University Press. These books offer vocabulary reference and practice for specialist areas of professional English. Have you seen some of the other titles available in the series?
Who is this book for?
ICT stands for Information Communications Technology, and describes the technologies we use in our daily lives to communicate. This book therefore looks particularly at the language of computing and the Internet but you'll also find topics such as mobile phones and video conferencing.
Professional English in Use ICT is designed for intermediate to advanced level learners who need to use the English of computing and the Internet for study and work. Computers have evolved so quickly that thousands of new jargon words are used to describe devices that didn't exist before. That's why this book is also suitable for people who use computers at home and want to improve their general knowledge of English and computers.
You can use this book on your own for self-study, or you can use it with a teacher in the classroom.
Why study ICT Vocabulary?
There are social, linguistic and educational reasons for studying this type of language.
Just read the technical specifications of your PC or explore a few websites and you will soon realize that English is the language of computers and the Internet. For example, lots of professionals, from engineers to desktop publishers, have to read technical documentation in English. In fact, in many companies English has become essential for working with computers. Besides, ICT English offers peculiar vocabulary, syntax and discourse functions that can be beneficial for developing your linguistic competence.
We hope this book will facilitate your interaction with computers and help you communicate more effectively in this digital world.
How is the book organized?
The book contains:
40 thematic units plus one introductory unit, each occupying two pages. The left-hand page presents and explains ICT lexical areas. The right-hand page allows you to practise and extend your vocabulary.
An answer key to the exercises.
An index, which lists all the words and phrases introduced in the book, with the unit numbers where they appear; it also shows you how they are pronounced.
The units cover a wide range of topics from multimedia PCs and Internet issues to mobile phones and robots. It does not, however, require specialist knowledge of computers on either the part of the learner or teacher.
How are the units sequenced?
The introductory unit provides learners with some tips and techniques for learning vocabulary. Then the topics go from computers today to computers tomorrow. Unit 1 is about living with computers; Units 2-9 deal with hardware components; Unit 10 with health and safety; Units 11-18 with software and jobs in computing; Units 19-29 range from computer networks and the Web to e-commerce; Units 30-32 are about future developments; Units 33-36 deal with word-formation processes and collocations. Finally, Units 37-40 focus on some typical language functions in ICT English.
The left-hand page
This page introduces the new words and expressions for the unit. It is divided into sections indicated by letters (A, B, C), with simple, clear titles. Lexis is presented, and shown in bold, using different techniques:
A short definition of a computer term
A paragraph explaining an ICT concept or describing a computer device
A diagram or picture illustrating a technical process, how computers work, etc.
A situation where some words and uses are presented in context
An authentic or adapted text from an original source
The right-hand page
This page contains exercises to practise the lexical items presented on the left-hand page.
Sometimes the exercises concentrate on using words presented on the left-hand page in typical contexts. Other exercises take the form of a crossword or other type of puzzle, or a diagram, which will help you remember computer terms.
There are also matching exercises and word-building activities which revise the use of prefixes, suffixes and compounds. Some units contain true/false exercises and texts to complete.
In some exercises you will be asked to recognize the new word in order to do a task.
A lot of the sentences are taken from the Cambridge International Corpus, from computer magazines and from websites, so they are related to the learner's own experience.
'You and computers' activities
These are an important feature of the book. The main aim is to personalize and develop the language in the unit. There are two types of activities:
■I Follow-up activities
These give you the chance to put into practice the words studied in the unit, and to develop your language skills by writing about or discussing topics relating to your studies or professional situation.
Self-study learners can do these as written work. In the classroom, they can be done as a speaking activity. m Activities based on the Professional English in Use ICT website
These are based on links to external websites which have been carefully selected for their interesting topics and accessible language. You will be asked to look up words, give definitions, answer reading comprehension questions, etc. Answers are provided on the Professional English in Use ICT website. See www.cambridge.org/elt/ict.
The cartoons about computers and the Internet are intended to liven up the technical content of the book. We hope you enjoy them!
How should I use this book?
m The book presents ICT topics in a gradual development, from computer essentials to more sophisticated issues, so we recommend that you go through the units in sequential order. This will help you understand the basic aspects first and then proceed to more complex matters like networks.
■I You may prefer to study only those units you are interested in. For example, you may want
to focus on particular units like Internet security and online banking. m A third possibility is to use the Index at the back of the book. You can use it to look for
specific ICT terms and then go directly to the units in which they appear.
Don't forget!
V Use a notebook or a file on disk to write down important words and expressions.
The Professional English in Use ICT website at www.cambridge.org/elt/ict gives you more opportunities to develop your knowledge through the Web. The site is related to Infotech, a comprehensive English course for computer users, by Santiago Remacha Esteras, published by Cambridge University Press.
If you need access to a dictionary, you can visit the Cambridge dictionaries website at www. dictionary.cambridge.org or an online computer dictionary on the Web, e.g. www.webopedia. com.
Learning vocabulary: tips and techniques
Guessing meaning from context
Some ICT terms are difficult, but others are universally modem, online, chat, email, website, virus and backer;
When you meet an unknown word, first try to guess the meaning from the context - the surrounding words and the situation.
Read the text on the right and see how words have meaning in relation to other words.
You know that a PC is a type of 'computer' and digital music relates to 'music on computers'.
You can guess that are digitizing is a verb because it derives from 'digit', it is in the form of the present continuous, and it goes with the subject 'families' and the object 'home movies'.
Words change their shape by adding prefixes and suffixes; for example, we add the prefix inter- to net and form Internet, and we add the suffix -age to store and form storage. (See Units 33 and 34.)
accepted. You probably know terms like they are part of our everyday life.
The birth of a revolution

Kids use PCs to dohomework, accessinformation via theInternet for research,communicate withpals, play videogames and collectdigital music. Parents, too. use the PC forcommunication and entertainment but alsolet it handle mundane tasks like balancingthe checkbook, monitoring investments,preparing tax returns, and tracking the family'sgenealogy. With the advent of more powerfulPCs with greater storage capacity, families are_digitizing home movies and photos are storedon the home computer.Miami Herald
Organizing vocabulary
Read the text again. You can organize words in your notebook in different ways.
Word class
lexical family
(n), (v), (adj), etc.
word partners, phrases
BrE: chequebook AmE: checkbook
The Internet is a global network of computers, digit (root), digital, digitally, digitize, digitizer, digitized handle = manage; advent = arrival storage - almacenamiento (Spanish) communication (n); communicate (v) Internet; research information; investment; powerful chequebook (cheque + book) access information; handle tasks
Word trees and spidergrams can help you build up your own mental maps of vocabulary areas. You can make diagrams to classify things.
RAM memory
Input devices e.g. mouse
output devices e.g.printer

-10909302759710 storage devices e.g. hard disk
Using a dictionary
A monolingual dictionary gives you a lot of information about words. Look at this entry.
Use a bilingual dictionary if you find it easier. You may like to look at some Cambridge dictionaries at www.dictionary.cambridge.org. For ICT, you can also use an online computer dictionary.

0.1Look at the words in the box. Are they nouns, verbs or adjectives?
1.financial 3.Internet 5. electronic 2.print 6. design microchips
0.2Read A opposite. Complete this text with words from exercise 1. Use the context to help you.
0.3Match the words in exercise 1 with the following definitions.

A digital era
Computers have changed the way we do everyday things, such as
working, shopping and looking for information. We (1)
houses with the help of PCs; we buy books or make flight reservations
on tne (2); we use gadgets that spring to life the
instant they are switched on, for example the mobile phone, the music
1 tiny pieces of silicon containing complex electronic circuits
2 to make or draw plans for something
3 relating to money or how money is managed
4 involving the use of electric current in devices such as TV sets or computers
5 the large system of connected computers around the world
6 to produce text and pictures using a printer
player, or the car ignition, all of which use (3)
Many people now work at home, and they communicate with their office by computer and telephone. This is called 'teleworking'. With the appropriate hardware and software, a PC can do almost anything you ask. It's a magical typewriter that allows you to type and
(4)any sort of document. It's a calculating machine
that makes (5)calculations. It's a filing cabinet that
manages large collections of data. It's a personal communicator that lets you interact with friends. It's a small lab that helps you edit photos and movies. And if you like (6)……….entertainment, you can also use it to relax with games.
mobile phone interact communicator teleworking
calculating calculations typewriter 0.4 Organize these words as in B opposite.
Meaningdefinition(1): working at home, while communicating
with your office by computer or telephone
lexical familycalculate, calculator, (2)(3)
synonymsgadgets = small devices
translationswitch on = (4)
Word building prefixes(5)
Collocations word partnersprint a document; make calculations
0.5Look at this dictionary entry. Put these labels in the correct place.
pronunciation3 example sentence5 word class
definition4 grammar feature
data /'dei.ts/ US I-pi group noun [U]
information, especially facts or numbers, collected for examination
and consideration and used to help decision-making, or information in an electronic form that can be stored and processed by a computer:
The data was/were collected by various researchers. Now the data is being -~ transferred from magnetic tape to hard disk.


Living with computers
A Computers: friend ...
Assistive technology, for people with disabilities, has helped me a lot. I can hardly see, so I use a screen reader, a program that reads aloud onscreen text, menus and icons.
People who have grown up with PCs and microchips are often called the digital generation. This is how some people answered when questioned about the use of computers in their lives.
I I have a &PS, Global "Positioning System, fitted in my car. With this navigation system I never get lost. And the DVD recorder is perfect for my children's
I I use an interactive whiteboard, like a large touchscreen monitor, at school. I find computers very useful in education.'

Th/s new HMD, head-mounted display, allows me to watch flms, and enjoy virtual reality, the artificial environment of the latest video games.

The upgraded wireless network at my university is great: we can connect our laptops, PVAs and Wi-Fi cell phones to the network anywhere in the campus. Communication is becoming easier and easier'

B ... or foe?
Our society has developed technological dependence. When computers are down, our way of life breaks down: planes stop flying, telephones don't work, banks have to close.
Computers produce electronic waste, plastic cases and microchips that are not biodegradable and have to be recycled or just thrown away.
They are responsible for health problems, e.g. computer addiction, an inappropriate and excessive use of computers.
Cybercrime, crime committed with the help of computers, is creating serious problems.
Citizens may feel a loss of privacy because of unauthorized use of personal data or receiving unwanted electronic messages.
A business graph
Web pages and email
Photo editing
A publication
C Things we can do on the computer
A secretary: 'I use computers to do the usual office things like write letters and faxes, but what I find really useful is email. We are an international company and I send emails to our offices all over the world.'
A publisher: 'We use PCs to produce all sorts of texts in digital format. We publish e-books (electronic books) and interactive e-learning programs on CD, and we help a local company to design an online newspaper, displayed on the Web.'
A bank manager: 'We use financial software to make calculations and then generate graphs or charts. We also use a database to store information so that it can be easily searched.'
A home user: 'I like to retouch photos on my computer; I improve them by making a few touches and then save them on a CD. I also enjoy looking at music portals on the Web. I surf the Web every day and I often download files, I copy music files from the Net to my PC
Complete these sentences with words from A opposite.
Theis a piece of software that interfaces with your PC and allows
you, via keyboard commands, to get any text information read to you in synthetic speech.
A-, as popularized by virtual reality, lets the
user immerse him/herself in a synthetically generated environment.
Anis a touch-sensitive device where a special pen or your
finger can act as a mouse.
Tony Adams is now the proud owner of a dark silver Vogue, complete with leather interior,navigation, and awith LCD TV screens.
Which computer use in A do these pictures illustrate?
Read B opposite. What problem do these sentences refer to?
We are sorry to announce that most flights are delayed or cancelled.
He should go to a psychologist. He spends hours surfing the Web.
Technology changes so quickly that we have to scrap computers when they become obsolete.
I've been getting emails about offers for lots of different products.
My computer system has been broken into and some useful information has been destroyed.
Some words often appear together in IT. Complete these computer uses with word partners from C opposite.
FF the Web
design download……………………………….

. and
store ,………………………………
……………………. emails

Parts of a computer
A computer is an electronic machine that accepts, processes, stores and outputs information. A typical computer consists of two parts: hardware and software. Hardware is any electronic or mechanical part of the computer system that you can see or touch.
Software is a set of instructions, called a program, which tells a computer what to do. There are three basic hardware sections.
The CPU is the heart of the computer, a microprocessor chip which processes data and coordinates the activities of all the other units.
The main memory holds the instructions and data which are being processed by the CPU. It has two main sections: RAM (random access memory) and ROM (read only memory).
Peripherals are the physical units attached to the computer. They include: Input devices, which let us enter data and commands (e.g. the keyboard and the mouse).

Output devices, which let us extract the results (e.g. the monitor and the printer).
Storage devices, which are used to store information
permanently (e.g. hard disks and DVD-RW drives).
USB connector USB ports
Disk drives are used to read and write data on disks.At the back of a computer there are ports into which we canplug external devices (e.g. a scanner, a modem, etc.). Theyallow communication between the computer and the devices.
We enter data with a keyboard, a webcam, etc
The data is manipulated according to program instructions.
We can see the result on the screen or in printed form.
We keep data and programs in memory systems where they are available for processing.
Functions of a PC: input, processing, output, storage
2.1Look at A opposite. Read these quotations and say which computer essential they refer to.
'Accelerate your digital lifestyle by choosing a Pentium at 4.3 GHz.'
'Right-click to display a context-sensitive menu.'
'You will see vivid, detailed images on a 17" display.'
'This will produce high-quality output, with sharp text and impressive graphics.'
'Use it when you want to let the grandparents watch the new baby sleeping.'
'Press any key to continue.'
2.2Match the terms with their definitions.
CD/DVD driveaany socket into which a peripheral device may be connected
speakerbdevice used to produce voice output and play back music
modem c mechanism that reads and/or writes to optical discs
portddevice that converts data so that it can travel over the Interne
2.4 Complete the diagram and sentences below with words from C opposite.
2.3Look at B opposite and label this diagram with the correct terms.
Computeris the visible or audible result of data processing – information that can be read, printed or heard by the user.
The CPU will process data as instructed by the programs you're running
includes functions like calculating, sorting, editing, drawing and searching.
DVDs are expected to replace CDs asdevices.
As a scanner, the Sigma-100 can be used tophotographs as well as documents into the computer.
Types of computer systems
From mainframes to wearable computers

A mainframe is the most powerful type of computer. It can process and store large amounts of data. It supports multiple users at the same time and can support more simultaneous processes than a PC. The central system is a large server connected to hundreds of terminals over a network. Mainframes are used for large-scale computing purposes in banks, big companies and universities.

A desktop PC has its own processing unit (or CPU), monitor and keyboard. It is used as a personal computer in the home or as a workstation for group work. Typical examples are the IBM PC and the Apple Macintosh. It's designed to be placed on your desk. Some models have a vertical case called a tower.
A laptop (also called a notebook PC) is a lightweight computer that you can transport easily. It can work as fast as a desktop PC, with similar processors, memory capacity, and disk drives, but it is portable and has a smaller screen. Modern notebooks have a TFT (Thin Film Transistor) screen that produces very sharp images.
Instead of a mouse, they have a touchpad built into the keyboard - a sensitive pad that you can touch to move the pointer on the screen.
They offer a lot of connectivity options: USB (Universal Serial Bus) ports for connecting peripherals, slots for memory cards, etc.
They come with battery packs, which let you use the computer when there are no electrical outlets available.

A tablet PC looks like a book, with an LCD screen on which you can write using a special digital pen. You can fold and rotate the screen 180 degrees. Your handwriting can be recognized and converted into editable text. You can also type at the detached keyboard or use voice recognition. It's mobile and versatile.

A personal digital assistant or PDA is a tiny computer which can be held in one hand. The term PDA refers to a wide variety of handheld devices, palmtops and pocket PCs.
For input, you type at a small keyboard or use a stylus - a special pen used with a touch screen to select items, draw pictures, etc. Some models incorporate handwriting recognition, which enables a PDA to recognize characters written by hand. Some PDAs recognize spoken words by using voice recognition software.
-11029957604760They can be used as mobile phones or as personal organizers for storing notes, reminders and addresses. They also let you access the Internet via wireless technology, without cables.
A wearable computer runs on batteries and is worn on the user's body, e.g. on a belt, backpack or vest; it is designed for mobile or hands-free operation. Some devices are equipped with a wireless modem, a small keyboard and a screen; others are voice-activated and can access email or voice mail.
3.1 Look at A opposite. Which type of computer do these descriptions refer to?
a hand-held computer which can be used as a telephone, a web explorer and a personal organizer
a typical computer found in many businesses and popular for home use
a large computer used for intensive data processing and often linked to many terminals
a small computer that fits into items of clothing
a portable computer that can be closed up like a briefcase, but it can be as powerful as a desktop PC
a full-function PC, though it only weighs 1.2 kg - you can go to a meeting and write your notes on it, like a paper notepad; its screen mode can be changed from portrait to landscape

3.2 Look at the computer advertisement and find this information.
What type of computer is advertised?
What kind of screen does it have?
Which pointing device replaces the mouse?
What type of ports does it have for connecting cameras and music players?
5 What sort of power supply does it use?
3.3 Read this interview with Adam Hawkins, an IT manager, and complete it with words from the PDA section opposite.
Interviewer: What are the basic features of a PDA?
Adam:Well, a typical PDA is a (1)device that
runs on batteries and combines computing, phone and Net capabilities.
Interviewer: And how do you enter information?
Adam:For input, you use a (2)or pen to write and make
selections on a (3); they also have
buttons for launching programs. Some models have a small keyboard.
They may have a (4)system that reacts to
the user's voice.
Interviewer: Do they need special software?
Adam:Yes, most of them run on Windows Mobile. Palmtops supported by Palm "
Inc. use Palm OS. Pen-based systems include (5),
so you write on the screen and the computer recognizes your handwriting and inserts the appropriate letters.
Interviewer: What sort of things can you do with a PDA?
Adam:You can store personal information, take notes, draw diagrams and make
calculations. Many PDAs can access the Net via (6)technology.

Input devices: type, click and talk!
Interacting with your computer
Input devices are the pieces of hardware which allow us to enter information into the computer.

The keyboard
A standard PC keyboard has various groups of keys.
Alphanumeric keys - these represent letters and numbers, arranged as on a typewriter.
A numeric keypad appears to the right of the main keyboard and contains numeric and editing keys; the Num Lock key is used to switch from numbers to editing functions.
Function keys appear at the top of the keyboard and can be programmed to do special jobs.
Cursor keys include 'arrow keys' which move the insertion point, and keys such as Home, End, Page Up, and Page Down, which let you move around documents.
Dedicated keys are used to issue commands or produce alternative characters. For example: Ctrl changes the functions of other keys (e.g. Ctrl + X cuts the selected text).
Caps Lock sets the keyboard in 'CAPITALS' mode; it only affects letters.
Enter (or Return) is pressed to select options from a menu or to start a new paragraph.
Backspace deletes the character to the left of your current position.
The mouse
A mouse is a hand-held device that lets you move a pointer (or cursor) and select items on the screen. It has one or more buttons to communicate with the PC. A scroll wheel lets you move through your documents or web pages The pointer looks like an I-bar, an arrow or a pointing hand.
An optical mouse has an optical sensor instead of a ball underneath.
A cordless (wireless) mouse has no cable; it sends data via infrared signals or radio waves.
Mouse actions:
to click, press and release the left button.
to double-click, press and release the left button twice.
to drag, hold down the button, move the pointer to a new place and then release the button.
to right-click, press and release the right button; this action displays a list of commands.
Voice input
Today you can also interact with your computer by voice with a voice-recognition system that converts voice into text, so you can dictate text directly onto your word processor or email program. You can also control your PC with voice commands; this means you can launch programs, open, save or print files. Some systems let you search the Web or chat using your voice instead of the keyboard.
Look at A opposite. Which input device would you use for these tasks?
to play computer games
to copy images from paper into a computer
to read price labels in a shop
to select text and click on links on web pages
to enter drawings and sketches into a computer
to input voice commands and dictate text
to draw pictures or select menu options directly on the screen
to take and store pictures and then download them to a computer
Complete each sentence by choosing from the following devices: touch screen, trackball, touchpad, webcam.
Ais a stationary device that works like a mouse turned upside down.
You roll the ball with your hand to move the pointer on the screen.
Interactiveare used in museums, information centres and Internet kiosks.
You use your finger to point directly to objects on the screen.
Ais used to send live video images via the Internet.
Ais found on notebook PCs. You use it by pressing the sensitive pad
with a finger.
Label the groups of keys with terms from B opposite. Then identify the keys described below.

It produces upper-case letters, but it does not affect numbers and symbols.
It removes the character to the left of the cursor or any selected text.
It works in combination with other keys, e.g. you press this key and C to copy the selected text.
It is used to confirm commands; in a word processor, it creates a new paragraph.
4.4 Look at C opposite. Complete these sentences with the correct 'mouse action'.
To start a program or open a document you.tmr... on its icon - that is, you
"That must be the new neighbor. I hear he's a real computer geek."
rapidly press and release the mouse button twice.
If you want to select a menu option, you juston the left button.
If you want to find the commands for a particular text, image, etc., you have toon it.
If you want to move an object, press the button andthe object to the
desired location.
Input devices: the eyes of your PC

Input devices such as scanners and cameras allow you to capture and copy images into a computer.
A scanner is a peripheral that reads images and converts them into electronic codes which can be understood by a computer. There are different types.
A flatbed is built like a photocopier and is for use on a desktop; it can capture text, colour images and even small 3D objects.
A film scanner is used to scan film negatives or 35 mm slides - pictures on photographic film, mounted in a frame.
A hand-held scanner is small and T-shaped, ideal to capture small pictures and logos.
A pen scanner looks like a pen; you can scan text, figures, barcodes and handwritten numbers.
Barcode scanners read barcodes on the products sold in shops and send the price to the computer in the cash register. Barcodes consist of a series of black and white stripes used to give products a unique identification number.
The resolution of a scanner is measured in dpi or dots per inch. For example, a 1,200 dpi scanner gives clearer, more detailed images than a 300 dpi scanner.
Most scanners come with Optical Character Recognition software. OCR allows you to scan pages of text and save them into your word
processor; they can then be edited._ . , ,

Digital cameras
Display it on a screen or create a DVD.
A digital camera doesn't use film. Photos are stored as digital data (bits made up of Is and 0s), usually on a tiny storage device known as a flash memory card. You can connect the camera or memory card to a PC and then alter the images using a program like Adobe Photoshop, or you can view the images on a TV set. Many printers have a special socket so that you can print images directly from a memory card or camera.
You can store or export the result.
You can manipulate video images with video editing software. You can cut, paste, add effects, etc.
A digital video (DV) camera
records moving images and converts them into digital data that can be processed by a PC.
Digital video cameras and webcams

Email or put your movie on the Web.

Webcams (short for Web cameras) let you send and receive live video pictures through the Internet. They're primarily used for video conferences - video calls - but they can be used to record photos and video onto your hard disk.
The resolution of webcams is expressed in megapixels (million pixels). Webcams connect to the PC via a USB (universal serial bus) or Fire Wire port; they display video at 24 to 30 frames (pictures) per second. Some include a headset with a microphone and earpiece.

1 P 2 e 3 r 4 i 5 p 6 h 7 e 8 r 9 a 10 l 5.1 Solve the clues and complete the puzzle with words from A and B opposite.
Scanners and cameras aredevices used to
transfer images into a format that can be understood by computers.
Alets you copy photos and printed
documents into your PC.
It has become one of life's most familiar sounds - the
beep of the supermarket till whenever ais
If you need to scan 35mmyou should go for
a dedicated 35mm film scanner which concentrates all its dots into a tiny area.
This scanner has a resolution of 300 x 600
Ascanner is small enough to hold in your hand.
Ascanner is used to capture lines of text, barcodes and numbers.
Most digital cameras use flashcards to store photos.
9 scanners have a flat surface and take at least A4-sized documents.
10 To scan photographic negatives or slides you will need ascanner.
5.2 Decide if these sentences are True or False. If they are false, correct them.
The details detected by a scanner are not determined by its resolution.
A barcode scanner is a computer peripheral for reading barcode labels printed on products.
Scanners cannot handle optical character recognition.
A digital camera uses a light sensitive film instead of a memory card for storing the images.
A digital video (DV) camera is used to take still photographs.
Video editing software allows you to manipulate video clips on the computer.
5.3 Complete this advertisement with words from the webcam section of C opposite.

Having [1]with friends
and family has never been easier or more enjoyable. You get the highest-quality audio and video, no matter which chatting solution you use. With the WebCam Live! Ultra, its CCD image sensor with 640 x 480 (VGA) resolution produces rich, vibrant colours.
Combined with its (2)2.0 Hi-Speed
connection, the result is top-quality, full-motion video
at 30 [3]per second for all your web
conversations, even in dimly-lit rooms. The WebCam Live! Ultra lets you do more. Let your voice be heard clearer than ever before with the
included [4]unlike the built-in microphones in most other [5)
Take still pictures at up to 1.3 (6)resolution (interpolated), and enjoy the many
great features that accompany the bundled award-winning WebCam Center software, such as motion detection, remote security monitoring, timelapse video capture and much more.
Output devices: printers
Technical details
A printer is a device that prints your texts or graphics on paper.
The output on paper or acetate sheets is called printout or hard copy.
A program in your computer, called the printer driver, converts data into a form that your printer can understand.
A print spooler stores files to be printed when the printer is ready. It lets you change the order of documents in the queue and cancel specific print jobs.
The output quality, or resolution, is measured in dpi or dots per inch.
The speed of your printer is measured in pages per minute (ppm).
In a network, users can share a printer connected to a print server, a computer that stores the files waiting to be printed.
A dot-matrix printer
An ink-jet printer and ink cartridges

Types of printers
A dot-matrix printer uses a group, or matrix, of pins to create precise dots. A print head containing tiny pins strikes an inked ribbon to make letters and graphics. This impact printing technology allows shops, for example, to print multi-part forms such as receipts and invoices, so it's useful when self-copying paper is needed. It has two important disadvantages: noise and a relatively low resolution (from 72 to 180 dpi).
An ink-jet (also called bubble-jet) printer generates an image by spraying tiny, precise drops of ink onto the paper. The resolution ranges from 300 to 1,200 dpi, suitable for small quantities or home use.
A standard ink-jet has a three-colour cartridge, plus a black cartridge. Professional ink-jets have five-colour cartridges, plus black; some can print in wide format, ranging from 60 cm up to 5 metres (e.g. for printing advertising graphics).
Some ink-jet based printers can perform more than one task. They are called multi-function printers because they can work as a scanner, a fax and a photocopier as well as a printer. Some units accept memory cards and print photos directly from a camera.
A laser printer uses a laser beam to fix the ink to the paper. A laser works like a photocopier; a powder called toner is attracted to paper by an electrostatic charge and then fused on by a hot roller.
Laser printers are fast and produce a high resolution of 1,200 to 2,400 dpi, so they are ideal for businesses and for proofing professional graphics work.
Lasers use a page description language or PDL which describes how to print the text and draw the images on the page. The best-known languages are Adobe PostScript and HP Printer Control Language.
A professional imagesetter is a typesetting printer that generates very high-resolution output (over 3,540 dpi) on paper or microfilm. It's used for high-quality publications.
A plotter is a special type of printer which uses ink and fine pens held in a carriage to draw detailed designs on paper. It's used in computer-aided design, maps, 3-D technical illustrations, etc.

6.1Complete these sentences with words from A opposite.
The differences inare noticeable: the more dots per inch, the clearer the
A print resolution of between 600and 2,400ensured that
even text as small as 2 pt was legible.
Passengers with an electronic ticket will need aof ticket confirmation or
a boarding pass to be admitted to secured gate areas.
The key advance of recent years is printing speed: the latest generation of ink-jets printsblack-and-white text at 15().
With appropriate software, you can view the images on a computer, manipulate them,or send them to aand produce excellent quality colour copies.
Ais a dedicated computer that connects a printer to a
network. It enables users to share printing resources.
Ais a utility that organizes and arranges any documents
waiting to be printed.
In computers, ais a program installed to control a
particular type of printer.
6.2Choose the most appropriate type of printer for these situations from the descriptions in Bopposite.
a home user who wants to print text documents and family photographs
business people who need to print in large quantities at high quality in an office
engineers who want to make detailed line drawings
professional typesetters in desktop publishing (e.g. to publish catalogues and magazines)
a company that wants to print carbon copies of bills and receipts
6_3 Find terms in B opposite which correspond to these definitions.
a container that holds the ink in an ink-jet printer
powdered ink used in laser printers
small needles that press on the inked ribbon to make the characters on paper
printer technology that produces text and pictures by hammering pins against a ribbon and the paper
a language that tells a printer how to print a document
a peripheral which combines a printer, a fax machine and
photocopying and scanning capability into one device
Output devices: display screens
CRTs and LCDs
The screen of a computer is often known as the monitor, or VDU (visual display unit). Inside the computer, there is a video card which processes images and sends signals to the monitor.
When choosing a monitor, you have to take into account a few basics.
Type of display - the choice is between a CRT or an LCD screen.
The Cathode Ray Tube of a monitor is similar to a traditional TV set. It has three electron guns (one for each primary colour: red, green and blue) that strike the inside of the screen, which is coated with substances called phosphors, which glow and create colours. CRTs are cheap, but they are heavy, can flicker and emit radiation.
A Liquid Crystal Display is made from flat plates with a liquid crystal solution between them. The crystals block the light in different quantities to create the image. Active-matrix LCDs use TFT (thin film transistor) technology, in which each pixel has its own transistor switch. They offer better quality and take up less space, so they are replacing CRTs.
Screen size - the viewing area is measured diagonally; in other words, a 17" screen measures 17 inches from the top left corner to the bottom right.
Resolution - the clarity of the image depends on the number of pixels (short for picture elements) contained on a display, horizontally and vertically. A typical resolution is 1,024 x 768. The sharpness of images is affected by dot pitch, the distance between the pixels on the screen, so a dot pitch of 0.28 mm or less will produce a sharp image.
A colour pixel is a combination of red, green and blue subpixelsBrightness - the luminance of images is measured in cd/m2 (candela per square metre).
Colour depth - the number of colours a monitor can display. For example, a VGA monitor produces 256 colours, enough for home use; a SuperVGA can produce up to 16.7 million colours, so is ideal for photographic work and video games.
Refresh rate - the number of times that the image is drawn each second. If a monitor has a refresh rate of 75 Hertz (Hz), it means that the screen is scanned 75 times per second. If this rate is low, you will notice a flicker, which can cause eye fatigue.
I've got a 52-inch plasma display and really enjoy its advantages: high-contrast images and bright colours, generated by a plasma discharge which contains noble, non-harmful gases. Gas-plasma TVs allow for larger screens and wide viewing angles, perfect for movies!
I use a portable DUP projector tor my business presentations. This is a digital light-processing
device which creates the image with millions of microscopic mirrors arranged on a silicon chip.
/ sometimes use a video projector in my Geography lessons. 1 prepare audiovisual presentations on my laptop and then connect it to a front-screen projector which displays the images on a distant screen or white wall.
I am a home cinema enthusiast. I ve set up a system with a ~D\fD recorder, speakers for surround sound, and a rear projection TV, which has the video projector and the screen within a large TV box. Its a real cinema experience.
Big screens: plasma and projection TV
Read A opposite and then correct these false statements.
The images shown on a monitor are not generated by the video card.
All visible colours can be made from mixing the three primary colours of red, yellow and blue.
Typical CRT-based displays occupy less space than LCD displays.
Active-matrix LCDs do not use a technology called thin film transistor or TFT.
The size of the screen is measured horizontally.
Match each term with the correct definition.
phosphors a the frequency at which a monitor renews its image, measured in Hz
LCD screen b a flat-panel display which works by emitting light through a special liquipixelc the space between a display's pixels
dot pitchd the smallest element in a displayed image
refresh rate e materials that emit light and produce colours when they are activated by an electron beam
Complete the technical specifications of this monitor with words from A opposite.
Complete these sentences with words from B opposite.
If you intend to set up a, consider getting a very big
screen, a DVD recorder and a good set of speakers.
A-takes digital images and displays them on
a screen or wall.
The company announced plans to expand its-
(DLP) cinema technology, which has thrilled test audiences with its dazzling colours and pin-sharp images.
In aTV, a large box contains both the projector and the
screen built in.
The gas mixture in ais not dangerous.
3485515659765The processor
The processor, also called the CPU or central processing unit, is the brain of your computer. In PCs, it is built into a single chip - a small piece of silicon with a complex electrical circuit, called an integrated circuit - that executes instructions and coordinates the activities of all the other units.
Three typical parts are:
the control unit, which examines instructions from memory and executes them;
the arithmetic and logic unit (ALU), which performs arithmetic and logical operations;
the registers, high-speed units of memory used to store and control data.
The speed of a processor is measured in gigahertz (GHz). Thus, a CPU running at 4 GHz can make about four thousand million calculations a second. An internal clock sends out signals at fixed intervals to measure and synchronize the flow of data.
326453582550The main circuit board is known as the motherboard. This contains the CPU, the memory chips, expansion slots and controllers for peripherals, connected by internal buses, or paths, that carry electronic signals. For example, the front side bus carries all data that passes from the CPU to other devices.
Expansion slots allow you to install expansion cards which provide extra functions, e.g. a video card or a modem. Laptops have PC cards, the size of a credit card, which add features like sound, memory and network capabilities.
RAM and ROM Fitting an expansion card
When you run a program, the CPU looks for it on the hard disk and transfers a copy into the RAM. RAM (random access memory) is temporary or volatile, that is, it holds data while your PC is working on it, but loses this data when the power is switched off.

However, ROM (read only memory) is permanent and contains instructions needed by the CPU; the BIOS (basic input/output system) uses ROM to control communication with peripherals, e.g. disk drives.
The amount of RAM determines the number of programs you can run simultaneously and how fast they operate. It can be expanded by adding extra RAM chips.
Units of memory

The electronic circuits in computers detect the difference between two states: ON (the current passes through) or OFF (the current doesn't); they represent these states as 1 or 0. Each 1 or 0 is called a binary digit or bit. Bits are grouped into eight-digit codes that typically represent characters (letters, numbers and symbols). Eight bits together are called a byte. For example, 01000001 is used for the character A. Computers use a standard code called ASCII for the binary representation of characters.
In order to avoid complex calculations of bytes, we use bigger units. A kilobyte (KB) is 1,024 bytes; a megabyte (MB) is 1,024 kilobytes; a gigabyte (GB) is 1,024 megabytes; a terabyte (TB) is 1,024 gigabytes. We use these units to describe the RAM memory, the operating capacity of disks and the size of a program or document.
8.1 Look at A and B opposite. Then match the sentence beginnings (1-6) with the correct endings (a-f).
a areas within the CPU.
b you can't make changes to it.
c controls the way instructions are executed,
d the computer is turned off.
e coordinates the other parts of the computer,
f calculations: add, subtract, multiply and divide.
The CPU processes data and
The control unit is the part of the CPU that
The arithmetic and logic unit is able to make
The registers are high-speed storage
Data contained in RAM is lost when
ROM memory can only be read:
35534601259840Processor and memory:
. Intel Core 2 Duo processor at 2.4 GHz
. 533 MHz Front Side Bus
. 1,024 MB of RAM; can be expanded up
to 4 GB 200 GB Hard disk Double Layer DVD +/-R/RW drive Microsoft Windows
8.2Solve the clues and complete the puzzle with wordsfrom the opposite page.
Intelare used in many computers.
Each 0 or 1 is called a bit, short for
Special cards can be inserted into expansion
Acontrols the timing within the PC by
sending signals to synchronize its circuits and operations.
The processor speed is measured in
6.....carry signals between different parts of a PC.
7cards improve the computer's performance.
Theuses ROM to control the input/output
of data.
The main printed circuit board is called the
Down: The brain of a computer
8.3 Read this product description and answer the questionsbelow.
How fast is the CPU?
Which term is used to describe the CPU data bus?
How much RAM does the computer have?
Can you add extra RAM chips? How many?
8.4 Look at C opposite. Fill in the blanks with the correctunit of memory.
4 One ………..
represents about 1,000,000,000 characters (about 1,000 books).

1 One
2 One
3 One
represents about one million characters (about the text of a small book).
5 One
represents about 1,000,000,000,000 characters (about one million books in a big library).
represents one character.
represents 1,024 characters (about a small page of text).

Disks and drives

Magnetic storage
Magnetic devices store data magnetically. A disk drive spins the disk at high speed and reads its data or writes new data onto it.
The inside of a hard disk drive

A floppy disk drive uses 3.5 inch diskettes which can only hold 1.44 MB of data; it's often called A: drive and is relatively slow.
Most PCs have one internal hard disk, usually called C: drive, which can hold several gigabytes of data. It's used to keep the operating system, the programs and the user's files easily available for use.
When you format a disk, or prepare it for use, its surface is divided into concentric circles called tracks. Each track is further divided into a number of sectors. The computer remembers where information is stored by noting the track and sector numbers in a directory.
The average time required for the read/write heads to move and find data is called access time; it is measured in milliseconds (ms). Don't confuse 'access time' with 'transfer rate', the rate of transmission of data from the disk to the CPU (e.g. 15 megabytes per second).
A portable hard drive is an external unit with the drive mechanism and the media all in one sealed case. You can use it to make a backup, a spare copy of your files, or to transport data between computers.
Optical storage
Optical drives use a laser to read and write data, so they are not affected by magnetic fields; but they are slower than hard drives. Modern DVD recorders accept all CD and DVD formats.
DVDs (digital versatile discs) are similar in size to CDs (both are 1.2 mm thick), but they differ in structure and capacity. DVDs have more tracks and more pits (tiny holes) per track, and can store from 4.7 GB to 17 GB of data, movies, high-definition sound, etc., so they will probably replace CDs. DVD formats include:
DVD-ROM (read-only memory)
DVD-R or DVD+R (recordable only once)
DVD-RW or DVD+RW (rewritable, so it can be erased and reused many times).

C CDs (compact discs) can store up to 650-700 MB of data.
CD-ROMs (read only memory) are 'read-only' units, so you cannot change data stored on them (e.g. a dictionary or a game).
CD-R (recordable) discs are write-once devices which let you duplicate CDs.
CD-RW (rewritable) discs enable you to write onto them in multiple sessions, like a hard disk.

43548306055360 Portable DVD players let you watch movies or TV, play games and listen to music, wherever you are. They usually run on batteries, have a widescreen (rectangular 16:9 format) LCD and support multi-format playback, allowing you access to many file formats including DVD video, JPEG pictures, MP3 music, etc. They have two built-in stereo speakers, or headphones if you don't want to disturb other people.
CompactFlash memory card
Removable flash memory
Mini flash drives
Flash memory is solid-state, rewritable memory; it is non-volatile, so it retains data when the power is turned off. This explains its popularity in small devices.
Flash memory cards such as CompactFlash or Secure Digital are found in cameras, PDAs and music players.
Flash drives, also known as thumb or pen drives, are connected to a USB port of the computer. They let you save and transfer data easily.

9.1 Read A opposite. Choose a term from this word web to complete the sentences below.
The first rule of data storage is to make aof all important files.
Ais slower than a hard drive and can only hold 1.44 MB disks.
Theinside your PC is made of aluminium alloy covered with a
magnetic coating. This makes the disk itself a rigid plate, hence its name.
Theare circles around a disk and theare
segments wit hin each circle.
This hard drive is a 60 GB IBM model with a fastof 8 ms.Theis the rate of transmission of data from the disk to the CPU.
This is usually described in megabytes per second.
Apple's iPod music player can double as afor transporting
computer data.
9.2 Look at the opposite page and find:
43618151103630the CD and DVD formats that can be rewritten many times
the CD and DVD formats that can be written to by the user only once
the CD and DVD formats that can be read by a computer but not written to
the type of cards used in digital cameras
a type of drive that plugs into a USB port and lets you share photos and music with friends
the memory without moving parts; it is erasable, non-volatile and used in small devices
the expression that means to 'initialize a disk and prepare it to receive data'
9.3 Complete this product description with words from B opposite.
The Panasonic DVD-LS91 is a top-of-the-range (1)
which provides pure entertainment wherever you go.
It has a big 9 inch built-in (2)LCD, so you can really
enjoy movies. The built-in stereo speakers allow you to listen along,
or if you want to listen alone, just plug in a pair of (3)
This portable machine provides (4)-
Panasonic portable
DVD player
so you can play DVD Audio/Video, CD-R/RW, DVD-RAM, DivX and MP3 files.Its compact design features a built-in rechargeable 6 hour battery pack.
I forgot to make a backup copy of my brain, so everything I learned last semester was lost."
The DVD-LS91 allows 6 hours of playback, and provides a perfect way to entertain yourself and your kids during long trips.
Health and safety
Computer ergonomics
There are a number of health and safety problems that may result from continuous use of computers.
Typing constantly at high speed may provoke repetitive strain injury or RSI, which causes pain in the neck, arms, wrists, hands and fingers.
Bad work postures and sitting in uncomfortable chairs may cause backache and stress.
Looking at the screen for long periods of time, and lights reflecting off the screen, can cause headaches and eye strain, pain and fatigue of the eyes.
Cathode Ray Tube monitors can emit electromagnetic radiation which can be dangerous to health.
The study of how people interact safely and efficiently with machines and their work conditions is called ergonomics. In computing, ergonomics is about designing computer facilities so they are safe and comfortable. Here are a few tips.
49866552265680Get an adjustable chair so you can change its height and angle.
Make sure your feet rest firmly on the ground or on a foot rest.
Ensure you have enough leg room under the desk.
Put the monitor at eye level or just below.
An ergonomic keyboard helps you type in a more natural, relaxed position
Sit at arms' length from the monitor (40-80 cm). Don't sit near the sides or back of CRT monitors; or use LCD screens, which are free from radiation.
Use a document holder, in line with the screen, to reduce awkward neck and eye movements between the document and the screen.
Position the keyboard at the same height as your elbows, with your arms parallel to the work surface. Try to keep your wrists straight and flat when typing.
Take regular breaks from the computer and look away from the screen at regular intervals.
5310505centerElectronic rubbish
Irresponsible disposal of electronic waste, from old computers and mobile phones to hi-fi and video systems, can cause severe environmental and public health problems. For example, children or workers who come into contact with the toxic components of electronic products may suffer from skin and breathing problems.
We should recycle or treat ICT equipment (e.g. plastics from mobiles could be used to make pens and rulers).
Manufacturers should pay to finance recycling programs.
The risks of using mobiles and in-car computers
Frequent use of mobile phones has been the cause of concern and there is ongoing research into whether radiation emitted causes health problems.
A serious risk is the use of mobiles and navigation systems in cars; this can distract the driver and cause accidents.
48247306875780Don't use your mobile while driving.
Another health problem is Internet addiction, including obsessive game playing, gambling, etc.
If you are an Internet addict, you should ask for help from specialists.
Talking on a mobile phone when driving is illegal in most countries
Match the numbers in the picture to the correct tips in the checklist.

Tips for a user-friendly workstation
a Consistent chair support for the lower back. Seat height and angle adjustable.
b Feet flat on the floor.
c Document holder beside the screen, at the same height and distance as the screen.
d Text on the screen in line with the eyes.Viewing distance at arm's length,
e Thighs horizontal, with feet on the floor.Adequate room for legs beneath the desk,
f Keyboard height at a comfortable open angle for the elbows and arms,
g Wrists and hands in a neutral position,in line with the forearms. Optional rest for wrists at the same height as the
Complete the sentences with words from the opposite page.
Experts believe the best way to reduce musculoskeletal injuries is through
- designing jobs to fit people instead of making people fit the job. It can mean everything from adjusting the height of a desk to buying a new chair or overhauling a production line.
The Safetype ergonomic keyboard may look strange, but its makers claim that it canpreventor RSI.
Visual problems, such asand irritation, are often reported
by computer users. Causes of these problems include glare, poor lighting, and focusing the eyes on the screen for a prolonged period.
Some companies have begun to test ways toand dispose of
For example, Epson Portland sponsored an electronics collection day
this year on Earth Day.
Road safety campaigners say motorists usingwhile driving are six times
more likely to crash.
When a person is spending so much time on the Internet that their lives are affectednegatively, they are suffering from
Linux mascot
Operating systems and the GUI
Types of software; the operating system (OS)
System software controls the basic functions of a computer, e.g. operating systems, programming software and utility programs.
Application software lets you do specific jobs such as writing letters, doing calculations, drawing or playing games. Examples are a word processor or a graphics package.
An operating system is a set of programs that control the hardware and allow people and applications to communicate with the hardware. Typical functions of the OS are handling input/output operations, running programs and organizing files on disks. The OS also gives access to networks and allows multitasking: a user can run several programs (and do various tasks) at a time. Examples are:
the Windows family - designed by Microsoft and used on most PCs
Mac OS - created by Apple and used on Macintosh computers
Unix - found on mainframes and workstations in corporate installations, as it supports multi-users
Linux - developed under the GNU General Public License; anyone can copy its source code, modify and redistribute it. It is used on PCs and in appliances and small devices.
The Windows environment is a typical example of a GUI
The Graphical User Interface
A GUI makes use of a WIMP environment: Windows, Icons, Menus and Pointer. This type of interface is user-friendly, where system functions are accessed by selecting self-explanatory icons (pictures representing programs or documents) and items from menus. A drop-down menu, or pull-down menu, is a list of options that appear below a menu bar when you click on an item.
The pointer is the arrow, controlled by the mouse, which lets you choose options from menus.
The background screen that displays icons, representing programs, files and folders (directories) is called the desktop. Double-clicking a folder icon opens a window which shows the
programs, documents and other folders contained within the folder.
System utilities
These are small programs included with an OS that improve a system's performance. They can be desk accessories, device drivers, or system extensions activated when you turn on the PC.
A crashed disk rescuer is used to restore disks and corrupted files.
An accessibility program makes a PC easier for disabled users to use.
A compression utility rewrites data so that it takes less space on disk.
A media player lets you watch DVDs, play music and listen to the radio on the Web.
11.1 Read A and B opposite and find the following.
the difference between system software and application software
software that enables users and programs to communicate with hardware
the meaning of 'multitasking'
a multi-user OS used on large, powerful computer systems
the operating system that is freely distributed
the operating system designed by Apple
the OS created by Microsoft
the meaning of WIMP in a graphical user interface (GUI)
the expression used to describe a system that is easy to use
IL2 Look at B opposite and then identify these interface elements.
desktop window drop-down menu
pointer folder program icon
document icon Apple Macintosh programs use a graphical user interface

"Susan! ... Are you trying to tell me we have an interface problem?"
113 Look at C opposite. Which utility would you use to do these tasks?
to play and organize multimedia on your PC
to diagnose and repair damaged disks
to help computer users with sight, hearing or mobility difficulties
to make files smaller, so you can send them with emails
Word processing features

Match words from the opposite page with these definitions.
a program used for preparing documents and letters
a row of words that open up menus when selected
the distinctive design of letters and characters, e.g. Arial, Courier
text printed in the top margin
text printed in the bottom margin
the way text is arranged on the page, including margins, paragraph format, columns, etc.
a function that enables you to combine two files into one
Label these word processing icons with the correct function.
a cut and paste b graphics C align left d undo e insert hyperlink

Complete these statements with a term from A opposite.
Aconsists of three elements: typeface, type style and type size; for example Arial bold at 9 points.
2 Notice that when you get to the end of each line, Word starts a new line automatically. Itmoves the word you are typing to a new line when it enters an invisible margin running downthe right-hand side of the screen. This feature is called
3 andlets you find a word and change it into another word
throughout the text.
A goodprogram can be used not only to rectify accidental spelling
mistakes and typing errors, but also to speed typing input.
Many word processors include a, so you can look for words with similar meanings.
Thecontains a row of icons that perform particular actions when clicked.
7 a paragraph involves moving your writing in from the margins of the page. For
example, a left indent is the distance between the left margin and the text.
Spreadsheets and databases
Spreadsheet basics
A spreadsheet program helps you manage personal and business finances. Spreadsheets, or worksheets, are mathematical tables which show figures in rows and columns.
A cell can hold three types of data: text, numbers and formulae.
Formulae are entries that have an equation which calculates the value to display; we can use them to calculate totals, percentages, discounts, etc.
Spreadsheets have many built-in functions, prewritten instructions that can be carried out by referring to the function by name. For example, =SUM(D2:D7) means add up all the values in the cell range D2 to D7.
The format menu lets you choose font, alignment, borders, etc.

Parts of a database
Database basics
A database is essentially a computerized record-keeping system.
Each unit of information you create is called a record and each record is made up of a collection of fields. Typically, a single record consists of a set of field names like: Title, FirstName, Surname, JobTitle, TelNo and ID. You fill in a form with the relevant information for each field to add a new record to the database. There are different data types.
A database file stores information in fields grouped on records
Text - holds letters and numbers not used in calculations
Number - can only hold numbers used in calculations and reports
Memo - can store long texts
Date/Time - a date or time or combination of both
AutoNumber - assigns a number to each record
OLE Object - (object linking and embedding) holds sounds and pictures
Yes/No - for alternative values like true/false, yes/no, on/off, etc.
Hyperlink - adds a link to a website
Once you have added data to a set of records, indexes must be created to help the database find specific records and sort (classify) records faster. An index performs the same function as in the back of a book or in a library. For example, if you regularly search your database by surname, the index should be defined on this field.
Relational databases
Two database files can be related or joined as long as they hold a piece of data in common. A file of employee names, for example, could include a field called 'DEPARTMENT NUMBER' and another file, containing details of the department itself, could include the same field. This common field can then be used to link the two files together.
Extracting information from a database is known as performing a query. For example, if you want to know all customers that spend more than Ј9,000 per month, the program will search the name field and the money field simultaneously.
Look at A opposite and find the terms which correspond with these definitions.
software which allows data to be displayed and managed in a table format
it goes up and down and has letter labels
it goes across and has number labels
an area in a spreadsheet which contains data
the current cell where you enter information
mathematical equations that help you calculate and analyze data
ready-to-use formulae that help you perform specialized calculations, e.g. SUM, AVERAGE, etc.
Study the tables and then complete the text below with words from B opposite.
Relationship between tables: the key field has the same value in both tables
A (1)program allows the user to store, change and retrieve information.
A database file is a collection of records. Each (2)contains a set of fields.
Each (3)holds a separate piece of information; for example, a student file
contains a list of records, each of which consists of several fields which give their name, address, birthday, etc.
In a (4)database, information is stored in tables that have a connection or
link with one another (see tables above).
A database lets you create an (5), a list of records ordered according to
the content of certain fields; this helps you search and (6)records into
numerical or alphabetical order very fast. It also has a (7)function which
allows you to extract information that meets certain criteria.
26974805607685Look at this form of a music collection. Label the data types with words from B opposite.
Form designed with Microsoft Access, a typical database program
Graphics and design
Windows Paint Toolbox
3D wireframe drawing
Types of graphics software
Computer graphics are pictures created, changed or processed by computers. There are two categories.
Bitmapped graphics represent images as bitmaps; they are stored as pixels and can become a bit distorted when they are manipulated. The density of dots, known as the resolution and expressed in dots per inch, determines how sharp the image is.
Vector graphics represent images as mathematical formulae, so they can be changed or scaled without losing quality. They are ideal for high-resolution output.
There are different types of graphics software.
Image manipulation programs let you edit your favourite images. For example, you can scan a picture into your PC or transfer a photo from your camera and then add different effects, or filters.
Painting and drawing programs, also called illustration packages,
offer facilities for freehand drawing, with a wide choice of pens and brushes, colours and patterns. One example is Windows Paint. rightcenter
Business graphics programs, also called presentation software, let
you create pie charts, bar charts and line graphs of all kinds for slide shows and reports. You can import data from a database or spreadsheet to generate the graphs.
Computer-aided design (CAD) is used by engineers and architects to design everything from cars and planes to buildings and furniture. First they make a wireframe, a drawing with edges and contour lines. Then if they want to colour the objects and add texture, they create a surface for the object; this is called 'filling the surface'. Finally, the design is rendered to make the object look realistic. Rendering is a process that adds realism to graphics by using shading, light sources and reflections.
Desktop publishing (DTP) is based around a page layout program, which lets you import text from a word processor, clip-art (ready-made pictures) from graphics packages, and images from scanners or cameras, and arrange them all on a page. It is used to design and publish books, newspapers, posters, advertisements, etc.
Digital art, or computer art, is done with applets that use mathematical formulae to create beautiful bright shapes called fractals. A fractal is a geometrical figure with special properties, e.g. the Koch snowflake or the Mandelbrot set. Fractals can also be used to model real objects like clouds, coastlines or landscapes.
Computer animation uses graphics programs (e.g. digital cartooning systems) to create or edit moving pictures. Each image in a sequence of images is called a 'frame'.
Geographic information systems (GIS) allow cartographers to create detailed maps.
Read A opposite and decide which type of graphics software is best for these users.

a person who wants to edit photos at home
an economist who wants to present statistics in a form that can be easily understood
engineers who need to design the interior and exterior of a new aeroplanea company which needs to design and publish a magazine
an artist who wants to produce illustrations and freehand drawings for a book
an organization that needs to make maps and 3D virtual models of the surface of the Earth
computer animators who make movies like Toy Story and Shrek
a mathematician who wants to make fractal shapes of natural phenomena
Complete the sentences with words from the box.
wireframe bitmap fractals
rendering filters clip-art
Painting programs work by giving a colour to each pixel in an
image, creating aUnlike vector graphics, the image
is a single layer, so once something is painted, it becomes part of the whole picture.
In painting programs and image editors,are special
effects that can be applied to a picture, including drop shadows,textures, distortions, etc.
Themodel is the simplest interpretation of a true three- fractal
dimensional object. Here the object is represented by its edges and contours and is therefore similar in form to a normal engineering drawing or sketch.
4 adds textures to each surface, and generates realistic reflections, shadows and highlights.
5Most illustration packages come with a bundle of resources that include ready-madeimages and a selection of fonts.
6 are geometrical patterns that are repeated at a small scale to generate
irregular shapes, some of which are similar to objects in nature.
Look at the Windows Paint toolbox opposite and find the tools that match these definitions.
This is like a magnifying glass which changes your view of a drawing.
This brush lets you paint in different shapes and patterns.
This is used to draw curves in different thicknesses.
This rubs out the part of the picture you drag it over.
This tool lets you pick a colour from an area of an image, instead of choosing the colour from the colour palette.
This tool is used to fill a shape with a colour of your choice.
This makes straight lines.
This basic tool is used to draw freehand, i.e. to draw free-form shapes.
This group of tools is used for drawing shapes: rectangles, ellipses and polygons.
This produces individual pixels of colour in a spray pattern.
These tools let you make rectangular or freehand selections around the things you want to select.
This is used to type text.
A multimedia system
Multimedia refers to the technologies and applications that integrate different media: text, graphics, sound, video and animation.
Its power resides in interactivity, hypertext and hypermedia. Multimedia software is usually interactive, so you can choose what you want to watch, listen to or write. Hypertext means that you can click on a word and jump to another screen with more information; hypermedia is similar, but works with sounds and images (e.g. the Web).
An IT student says:
'I use multimedia for m-j extracurricular activities. I download music from the Net and burn music onto CDs - I copy songs onto CDs. I talk with my friends on the Messenger. I also retouch digital pictures and edit video clips. To run multimedia software you need a fast CPU, expandable RAM and a large hard disk. But what marks a computer out as a multimedia PC is its audio and video capabilities: a sound card, a microphone, a decent pair of speakers, a high-quality monitor and a PVD writer; and its performance depends on all these components working in harmony'
Recognizing file formats
To identify the type of file, an extension is added to the filename when it is saved on disk.

In public places (e.g. museums and stations), there are information kiosks that use multimedia.
In education, it is used in presentations and computer-based training courses.
On the Web, audio and video are integrated into web pages. For example, RealPlayer supports streaming, which lets you play sound (e.g. from radio stations) and video files as a continuous stream while they are downloading.
In virtual reality, users interact with a simulated world: doctors train using virtual surgery; pilots use flight simulators to do their training; people visit virtual exhibitions, etc.
You can play games on a computer or video games on a dedicated machine, called a video console, which you connect to a TV set. You can also play games on the Net; some websites have a multiplayer facility that enables lots of people to play the same game at the same time.
Look at A and B opposite and find the following.
the type of text that contains links to other texts
the expression that means 'to record music onto a CD'
a system that combines hypertext and multimedia
the most common extensions for graphics files
the most common text formats
three popular video formats
three common file formats for storing audio data

Solve the clues and complete the puzzle with words from the opposite page.
1A series of still images shown in sequence.
2 files are processed by sound software.
In medicine, doctors use virtualsystems to
simulate particular situations.
The suffix placed after a dot at the end of a filename.
A format used to compress and transmit movies over the Web.
People use special programs toand
decompress files so that they occupy less disk space.
A video format developed by the Moving Picture Experts Group.
A system of filming, processing and showing moving pictures.
.gif stands forinterchange format.
10 The technique which allows you to play music and watch video before the entire file has downloaded.
Down: The combination of moving and still images, sound, music and words.
5.3 Complete the article with the words from the box.
graphics interactive video games consoles multiplayer
Video Games
There are games you play on video (1)such as Nintendo, Sega, and the PlayStation.And there are games you play on a computer, either alone or at multiplayer online sites such as Microsoft's Internet Gaming Zone and HYPERLINK "http://Battle.net" Battle.net.
(2)have been made into films, such as Mortal Kombat 7 and 2, and film stars now sometimes appear in video games. The (3)in many games have taken on such a high degree of realism that they almost seem like film. The X-Files game was practically an (4)
movie, full of actors from the show and sections of dialogue and video. Some people claim that the Blade Runner video game was better than the movie - not only were the sets incredible but you also got to control the action and the ending.
(5)online gaming is the next wave in the video game world. It provides a better gaming experience, simply because people are more creative and more challenging adversaries than computers. Thousands of people can play simultaneously all over the world.
Sound and music
I enjoy podcasting: I publish my own radio programmes as podcasts, audio Hies which I make available over the Internet for playback on people s computers. Also, I subscribe to other people's podcasts so that I can hear their radio programmes.
Audio files on the Web
I’ve just started a new audioblog. It's a blog, an Internet journal, which includes audio clips.

I ask my students to listen to audio books and get information from audio lectures and spoken tutorials on the Web.
My son downloads and listens to MP3 files he fnds on fileshare sites, where you search and download music from other people s computers using software such as Kazaa or etAule.
I can listen to real-world or online radio stations with Internet radio everywhere in the world.

All the people above describe different types of webcasts, broadcasts on the Web. These require either suitable audio player software (e.g. WinAmp or iTunes) that allows streaming a technique that means you can listen to an audio file while it's being downloaded; or a plug-in (e.g. RealPlayer or Windows Media Player), a program that interacts with your web browser to play audio files through the browser interface.
Digital audio players

An iPod Nano enables you to store lots of music in a very small device
The different types of digital audio players are often referred to as MP3 players. MP3 is short for MPEG audio layer 3, a type of compression used to reduce large files, such as songs, to manageable sizes. They come in different formats. Broadly speaking, hard drive versions, which include iPods, store greater amounts of music. Built-in or flash memory, which is more common in mini-MP3 players, holds fewer songs, but as there are no moving parts there are no problems with skipping. You have to upload the music from a CD onto a computer, rip a CD, or else download it from the Internet and then transfer it to the player.
DAWs enable the creation of digital music
With a suitable ID3 editor or jukebox program you can create ED3 tags, a set of data added to MP3 files, to organize your MP3 collection with information about the artists, albums, songs, etc.
Other audio applications
Music can be composed, mixed, recorded and played back using MIDI, musical instrument digital interface, a standard protocol that enables computers and synthesizers to communicate with each other exchanging musical information. DAWs, digital audio workstations, record, edit and play back digital music.
The human voice can be decoded by a computer with suitable speech recognition software, allowing continuous speech dictation. This technology also enables spoken commands to control the computer.
Computers can produce sounds similar to a human voice with speech synthesis technologies, also called text-to-speech systems.
Solve the clues and complete the puzzle with words from A opposite.

Auxiliary programs used to play multimedia files.
Students may be interested in this type of book and lecture.
The type of site where you can find and exchange music files.
An online journal with sound.
1 The technology needed to publish radio programmes on the Web.
A podcast and a spoken
tutorial are different types of
This technique allows you to listen to live online radio programmes.
5 radio includes both traditional and online radio stations.
Complete this text about digital audio players with words from B opposite.
Before buying your digital audio player, or (1)as they are usuallyknown, you should take certain things into account. First, size. Most (2)models tend to be bigger and heavier. On the other hand, if you buy a lighter version with flash (3)you won't be able to store so many songs, but the batteries will last longer and you'll be able to take it on your morning run as there won't be any problems with skipping.
(4)used to come in hard drive versions only, but the latest Nano model has
Whatever you choose, you'll have to download the music files from the Web or (6)..............your CDs and then compress the songs into the (7)………………… format. Finally, to make your playlists it's a good idea to install an [8]………… editor program that creates (9)with the name of the song, artist, etc.
Which audio application in C opposite are these people interested in?
I was fed up with typing long documents or dictating them to someone else. Now I just have to speak to my computer.
I enjoy manipulating the sounds I create with a synthesizer.
I'm a teacher in a school for the visually impaired. My pupils find this new technology very helpful.
I need this device to create digital music.

Programming languages
Programming is the process of writing a program using a computer language. A program is a set of instructions which a computer uses to do a specific task (e.g. a solution to a Maths problem).
The only language a PC can directly execute is machine code, which consists of Is and Os. This language is difficult to write, so we use symbolic languages that are easier to understand. For example, assembly languages use abbreviations such as ADD, SUB, MPY to represent instructions. The program is then translated into machine code by software called an assembler.
Machine code and assembly languages are called low-level languages because they are closer to the hardware.
High-level languages, however, are closer to human languages; they use forms resembling English, which makes programming easier. The program is translated into machine code by software called a compiler. Some examples are:
FORTRAN - used for scientific and mathematical applications
COBOL - popular for business applications
BASIC - used as a teaching language; Visual BASIC is now used to create Windows applications
C - used to write system software, graphics and commercial programs
Java - designed to run on the Web; Java applets are small programs that run automatically on web pages and let you watch animated characters, and play music and games.
The languages used to create Web documents are called markup languages; they use instructions (markups) to format and link text files. Examples are:
HTML - the code used to create Web pages
VoiceXML - it makes Internet content accessible via speech recognition and phone. Instead of using a web browser on a PC, you use a telephone to access voice-equipped websites. You just dial the phone number of the website and then give spoken instructions, commands, and get the required information.
346837018415Steps in writing a program
To write a program, software developers usually follow these steps.
First they try to understand the problem and define the purpose of the program.
They design a flowchart, a diagram which shows the successive logical steps of the program.
Next they write the instructions in a high-level language (Pascal, C, etc.). This is called coding. The program is then compiled.
When the program is written, they test it: they run the program to see if it works and use special tools to detect bugs, or errors. Any errors are corrected until it runs smoothly. This is called debugging, or bug fixing.
Finally, software companies write a detailed description of how the program works, called program documentation. They also have a maintenance program. They get reports from users about any errors found in the program. After it has been improved, it is published as an updated version.
Match the terms from A opposite with their definitions.
programmingabasic language which consists of binary codes
machine codebprogramming language such as C, Java or Visual BASIC
assembly languagecwriting computer programs
high-level languagedlow-level language translated into machine code by an assembler
Java appletesoftware which converts a source program into machine code
compilerflanguage used to create and format documents for the Web
markup languagegsmall self-contained program written in Java
Look at B and then put these programming steps into the correct order.

Document and maintain the program
Test the program and detect bugs
Make flowchart
Write code and compile
Analyze the problem
Debug and correct it if necessary
Complete this article about the VoiceXML application language with the words from the box.
HTML dial VoiceXML commands speech recognition
Internet- Voice recognition takes off
You don't need a sophisticated cell phone to surf the Internet when you're on the road - just your own voice. That's the idea behind a new breed of voice sendee that is popping up all over the place.Subscribers (1)a toll-free phone number and use spoken (2)..................to listen to anything from weather conditions to stock quotes, or flight information to news stories. Half a dozen of these services - such as Audiopoint, BeVocal, TellMe and TelSurf Networks - have already gone live or are testing their systems.
These launches are all happening because two crucial technologies have come of age.
(3)software from companies such as Lucent, Nuance and
Speechworks can now understand a wide range of accents and diction without having to be trained to a specific voice. And computer languages such as VoiceXML make it as easy to write voice services as (4)........has made it to write web pages. With (5)......., the human voice becomes a substitute for a computer mouse and the spoken command for a click. It doesn't, however, call up conventional web pages, but content which is specially composed for a telephone:sound clips, numbers, music, spoken texts.
Computers and work
Jobs in computing
Most ICT-related jobs have developed to meet the need to analyze, design, develop, manage or support computer software, hardware or networks.
All the people involved in the different stages of development of a computer project, i.e. analysts, programmers, support specialists, etc. are controlled by a project manager.
A database analyst is in charge of the research and development of databases; network analysts study the network requirements and recommend the most suitable type of network; systems analysts decide what ICT system will cater for the requirements of a specific institution.
Web designers, also called webmasters, create and maintain web pages and web applications for websites.
Software engineers, either application programmers or systems programmers, plan, design, and test computer programs.
Hardware engineers design and develop ICT devices.

Security specialists specialize in the design of software and hardware to protect information from malware: viruses, spyware, etc.
Network or computer systems administrators install and maintain networks. Database administrators manage the accuracy and efficiency of databases.
Computer operators control computer data processing.
Help desk technicians are in charge of troubleshooting, the solution of technical problems. Computer training instructors or trainers
teach people how to use hardware and software.a computer operator is in charge of
Technical writers write the instructions for ICT systems. computer data input and processing
Computers and jobs: new ways, new profiles
I;ve become a teleworker, a person who can work at home, thanks to teleworking or telecommuting, so I can work away from my official workplace. High-speed communications have made it possible.
I started my career as a typesetter. Now I work as a desktop publisher: I create documents with DTP software.
I'm training to work as an online teacher. I want to be a specialist in e-learning, distance education via the Internet.
With the development of ICT, there has been a change in the way lots of jobs are done.
ICT has made my job much better and easier. Now I like to call myself a computer animator: with my computer I create cartoons I couldn t think of before.
I like this new aspect of my job: I practise telemedicine - it's like having a long-distance surgery. ~Real-time data transmissions and virtual operations enable me to cure people who are far away.
software engineer help desk technician database administrator
trainer network analyst systems analyst
hardware engineer network administrator Classify these jobs under the heading that best describes their function. They all appear in A opposite.

Draw lines between the columns to make true sentences about jobs in A opposite.
A technicaldesignercontrols all the operations and people in a project.
A projectwriterwrites documentation of a program or device.
A webspecialistplans and keeps websites updated.
A securitymanagerdesigns applications against viruses.
The successful candidate will be responsible for maintaining logical and physical database models as well as managing the database.
Job Requirements
Bachelor's degree in Computer Science, a related field or equivalent experience Analytical skills and a proficiency in developing structured logic
We are seeking a person to operate peripheral computer equipment, and perform report distribution duties and backup procedures on our servers.
Major Responsibilities
Operating printers and unloading reports from the printer and distributing them through the internal mail system
Performing backups on various operating systems
Analysing and troubleshooting problems in the Data Centre reported by Help Desks or IT support associates
What jobs in A opposite are being offered in these advertisements?
Complete the text with words from B opposite.
The use of ICT has caused the development of new ways of working. People no longer need to be stuck in an office. Laptops, the Internet and wireless technologies allow (1)................What's more, there are more and more people who have decided to become (2)and so have no need to travel to work at all.
The Internet has also enabled doctors to practise (3)and educators to work as (4)ICT technologies have introduced changes in the artistic world, too. Cartoons are now made by (5)and (6)........produce materials ready for publication.
ICT systems
ICT systems: components and functions
ICT systems are much more than computers. An ICT system involves the use of computers or other types of hardware to meet a specific need. A LAN, local area network, can be an example of an ICT system, but interactive television and the database of a library are types of systems too.
ICT systems have these components:
software, instructions and data
hardware, computers and other devices
personnel, people who use, design, control or benefit from the system.
The components perform these basic functions:
input, the data is collected and entered
processing, data is changed or manipulated
output, the results are shown
communication and feedback, the results are sent out and new data is collected and entered in the system
memory or storage of data.
Types of systems
ICT systems are classified according to their aim.
'In our hospital we have set up an information system to manage data and information about our patients.'
'My house is an example of a control system. Its main aim is to control the different devices, e.g. switches that turn lights on and off as a security measure, sensors that detect smoke and set off the alarms, etc'
'The Internet is a good example of a communication system; other examples are a mobile phone network or digital television. This type of system is designed for sending data between different devices.'
Types of devices and services
At present most of the devices used in ICT systems are multi-purpose: mobile phones can be used as digital cameras or agendas, printers are also scanners and faxes. Not only is there media integration in the hardware, but also in the services offered by these telecommunication systems.

Call centres are one example of computer telephony integration where companies use databases and telephones for telemarketing.
Digital television uses digital technology to increase the number of channels and their quality of image. It also enables viewers to interact with the content and provide feedback to the programmer via telephone line, cable or satellite.

Teletext is
Radio has also adopted the digital technology DAB, Digital Audio Broadcasting. Most digital radio stations are broadcast together with television signals.
-12274557412355Faxes or telefaxes use
telecommunication technology to send copies of documents through telephone lines.
The Internet, a global network of computers, enables users to exchange files, send emails and surf the Web to find information, take part in e-commerce, etc.
a text-based information service provided by television companies. It uses part of the TV signal and is visible on sets with suitable decoders.
Fill in the diagram of components and functions of ICT systems with words from A opposite.
How would you define the following systems? Use the words in B opposite.
the registration system of a university
a robot at a car assembly line
an unmanned spaceship
a radio network
the CIA World Factbooka video conferencing system
Solve the clues and complete the puzzle with words from C opposite.
303085548190151 A new radio communication system.
A system that integrates telephonesand computer is acentre.
A global system of networks of integrated services.
A device used to send and receive exact copies of documents.
Similar to interactive TV.
Written information you get on your TV screen.
LANs (Local Area Networks)
Networking allows two or more computer systems to exchange information and share resources and peripherals.
LANs are usually placed in the same building. They can be built with two main types of architecture: peer-to-peer, where the two computers have the same capabilities, or client-server, where one computer acts as the server containing the main hard disk and controlling the other workstations or nodes, all the devices linked in the network (e.g. printers, computers, etc.).
Computers in a LAN need to use the same protocol, or standard of communication. Ethernet is one of the most common protocols for LANs.
A router, a device that forwards data packets, is needed to link a LAN to another network, e.g. to the Net.
Most networks are linked with cables or wires but new Wi-Fi, wireless fidelity, technologies allow the creation of WLANs, where cables or wires are replaced by radio waves.
To build a WLAN you need access points, radio-based receiver-transmitters that are connected to the wired LAN, and wireless adapters installed in your computer to link it to the network.
Hotspots are WLANs available for public use in places like airports and hotels, but sometimes the service is also available outdoors (e.g. university campuses, squares, etc.).
The three basic network topologies
Network topology
Topology refers to the shape of a network. There are three basic physical topologies.
Star: there is a central device to which all the workstations are directly connected. This central position can be occupied by a server, or a hub, a connection point of the elements of a network that redistributes the data.
Bus: every workstation is connected to a main cable called a bus.
Ring: the workstations are connected to one another in a closed loop configuration.
There are also mixed topologies like the tree, a group of stars connected to a central bus.
WANs (Wide Area Networks)
WANs have no geographical limit and may connect computers or LANs on opposite sides of the world. They are usually linked through telephone lines, fibre-optic cables or satellites. The main transmission paths within a WAN are high-speed lines called backbones.
Wireless WANs use mobile telephone networks. The largest WAN in existence is the Internet.
Read the information opposite and correct the following statements.
LANs link computers and other devices that are placed far apart.
In a client-server architecture, all the workstations have the same capabilities.
The word protocol refers to the shape of the network.
Routers are used to link two computers.
Access points don't need to be connected to a wired LAN.
Wireless adapters are optional when you are using a WLAN.
Hotspots can only be found inside a building.
The Internet is an example of a LAN.
Wireless WANs use fibre and cable as linking devices.
Use the words in the box to complete the sentences.
LAN nodes hub backbones
WLAN peer-to-peer server All the PCs on aare connected to one, which is a powerful
PC with a large hard disk that can be shared by everyone.
The style ofnetworking permits each user to share resources such as
The star is a topology for a computer network in which one computer occupies thecentral part and the remainingare linked solely to it.
At present Wi-Fi systems transmit data at much more than 100 times the rate of a dial-up modem, making it an ideal technology for linking computers to one another and tothe Net in a
All of the fibre-opticof the United States, Canada and Latin America
cross Panama.
Ajoins multiple computers (or other network devices) together to form a
single network segment, where all computers can communicate directly with each other.
Read these descriptions of different physical topologies of communication networks and match them with the terms in B opposite.
All the devices are connected to a central station.
In this type of network there is a cable to which all the computers and peripherals are connected.
Two or more star networks connected together; the central computers are connected to a main bus.
All devices (computers, printers, etc.) are connected to one another forming a continuous loop.
A network administrator has set up a new network in a school. Which topology has she chosen?
We have decided to install computers in all the departments but we haven t spent a lot of money on them. Actually, only the one in the staff room is really powerful (and expensive!). They all have common access to the Net and share a laser printer. The teachers in this school have built up a general fie of resources kept in the main computer to which all the others in the network have access
"When I was a student, wireless data transmission meant passing notes in class."

Faces of the Internet
What the Internet is
The Internet is an International computer Network made up of thousands of networks linked together. All these computers communicate with one another; they share data, resources, transfer information, etc. To do it they need to use the same language or protocol: TCP / IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) and every computer is given an address or IP number. This number is a way to identify the computer on the Internet.
Basic connection components

Getting connected
To use the Internet you basically need a computer, the right connection software and a modem to connect your computer to a telephone line and then access your ISP (Internet Service Provider).
The modem (modulator-demodulator) converts the digital signals stored in the computer into analogue signals that can be transmitted over telephone lines. There are two basic types: external with a cable that is plugged into the computer via a USB port, and internal, an expansion card inside the computer. A PC card modem is a different, more versatile option for laptops and mobile phones.
At first most computers used a dial-up telephone connection that worked through the standard telephone line. Now a broadband connection, a high data transmission rate Internet connection, has become more popular: either ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line), which allows you to use the same telephone line for voice and fast access to the Internet, or cable, offered by most TV cable providers.
The basic equipment has changed drastically in the last few years. You no longer need a computer to use the Internet. Web TV provides email and access to the Web via a normal TV set plus a high-speed modem. More recently, 3Generation mobile phones and PDAs, personal digital assistants, also allow you to go online with wireless connections, without cables.
Telephone lines are not essential either. Satellites orbiting the earth enable your computer to send and receive Internet files. Finally, the power-line Internet, still under development, provides access via a power plug.
Components of the Internet
The Internet consists of many systems that offer different facilities to users.
WWW, the World Wide Web, a collection of files or pages containing links to other documents on the Net. It's by far the most popular system. Most Internet services are now integrated on the Web.
Email, or electronic mail, for the exchange of messages and attached files.
Mailing lists (or listservs) based on programs that send messages on a certain topic to all the
computers whose users have subscribed to the list.
Chat and instant messaging, for real-time conversations; you type your messages on the keyboard.
Internet telephone, a system that lets people make voice calls via the Internet.
Video conference, a system that allows the transmission of video and audio signals in real time
so the participants can exchange data, talk and see one another on the screen.
File Transfer Protocol (FTP), used to transfer files between computers.
Newsgroups, where people send, read and respond to public bulletin board messages stored on a central computer.
TELNET, a program that enables a computer to function as a terminal working from a remote computer and so use online databases or library catalogues.
Read A and B opposite and decide if these sentences are True or False. If they are false, correct them.
The Internet and the World Wide Web are synonyms.
Computers need to use the same protocol (TCP / IP) to communicate with each other.
Web TV can provide access to the Net.
ADSL and cable are two types of dial-up connections.
External, internal and PC card are types of connections.
Information can be sent through telephone lines, satellites and power lines.
The computer IP number is a way to identify it on the Internet.
What Internet system from C opposite should these people use?
'I like receiving daily updates and headlines from newspapers on my computer.'
'I'm doing some research and need computer access to the University library.'
'I'd like to avoid flying to Japan to attend the meeting but I want to see what's going on there.'
'I want to read people's opinions about environmental issues and express my views.'
'I have designed a web page and want to transfer the data to my reserved web space.'
'I'd like to check my students' draft essays on my computer and send them back with my suggestions.'
'I don't want to spend too much money on international phone calls but I love hearing his voice.'
'I live in a small village where there are no other teenagers. I wish I had the chance to meet and chat with friends.'
Choose the correct alternatives to complete this newspaper article.
Sharing your broadband connection with your neighbours is either the best way of making friends or the fastest way to lose them. Thanks to new European legislation, (1) modem I wireless I telephone technology and a firm called MyZones, several households within 300 metres of each other can now share the cost of fast (2) broadband I dial-up I phone access. But the more peopleusing your network, the slower it gets. If four people are using it at once, the surfing speed is 128k. Clive Mayhew-Begg, chief executive of MyZones, says: 'Sharing broadband is just the start of a new generation of consumer-based Internet services.' It starts on July 25 when MyZones will start selling Ј150 starter kits. These include a wi-fi (wireless technology) point and ADSL (3) 3GI modem IWeb TVhuX. not the wi-fi adapters you and your neighbours will need. These will cost an extra Ј60 or so for each computer logged on to the wireless network.
The Mirror

What an email is
An email is an electronic message sent from one computer to another that can also include attachments: documents, pictures, sounds and even computer programs.
Although it's much faster and easier to use than the post, snail mail, the two have many things in common: you send an email to a mail server (an electronic post office) where it is stored in a mailbox, which holds incoming mail until the recipient downloads it. Users are given an email address and a password by an Internet Service Provider (ISP).
A typical email address has three parts.
[email protected]
A person's name or nickname
The domain name or network address: the mail server wher the account is located. The final part of it, The @ sign the top-level domain,
adds information about it, e.g. .com = company, .org = non profit institution, . HYPERLINK "http://co.uk" co.uk = a company in the UK, .es = Espaha, etc.
means 'at'
Anatomy of an email

Emails usually have two main parts.
The header generally includes these: TO (name and address of the recipient)
CC (carbon copy sent to another addressee)
BCC (blank / blind carbon copy) SUBJECT (topic of the message)
The body (the message itself)

Some email programs also include a signature, with added information about the sender, at the end of the message.
You can make your message look more expressive or attractive by using smileys (also called emoticons): little pictures either made with characters from the keyboard such as :-) for happy, :-o surprised, :-( sad, etc. or downloaded images and animations.
Spam, or junk email, is the name given to unwanted messages,
mainly commercial advertising. Some companies, spammers, use it extensively because it's cheaper than other types of advertising: you or your Internet Service Provider pay for it.
Mailing lists and newsgroups
A mailing list is a basic type of discussion group that uses email to communicate. The messages are distributed to all the subscribers, i.e. everyone who belongs to the list.
Newsgroups are similar. The main difference is that the message is not sent to someone's mail server but to a bulletin board where everybody can read and answer the message.
22.1Find words in A and B opposite that match these definitions.
a file that has been included as part of an email message
conventional mail delivered very slowly in contrast with email
symbols used to express emotions in an email
the part of the email address that identifies the user of the service
the computer that provides you with mail service
a facility that allows users to send and receive messages via the Internet
the part of the email where you write the information about the addresses and subject
the part of the email address that identifies the server
the place where your Internet Service Provider stores new email for you
22.2Look at the main parts of an email message in B. Where would you write the informationbelow? What additional information do the TLDs (top-level domains) of the addresses giveyou?
[email protected] Richardson Manager
[email protected]: [email protected] tickets
I've already booked the plane tickets to attend the Managers' Conference. Mary and Susan are joining us. Best wishes
22.3A manager is giving his colleagues some advice on how to prevent spam. Complete thesentences with the words in the box.
I mailing listspamemail addressnewsgroups spammers
Never ever reply to aemail or click on a link within the mail - this
will lead to more junk email being sent to you. Unsubscribing only confirms you do actually exist, so they've hit the jackpot.
Don't let your email address be displayed anywhere on the Internet, including, chat rooms or any websites.
Never forward a spam to other people -might be able to track their
addresses too, and you could end up losing friends!
Send your emails on a strictly 'need to know' basis; don't include everyone on aunless it is really necessary.
Treat yourlike your phone number - don't give it out randomly. Try
Married couple communicating via email at home
to use a different one when shopping online.
The World Wide Web
What the Web is
The World Wide Web, Web or WWW is a network of documents that works in a hypertext environment, i.e. using text that contains links, hyperlinks to other documents.
The files, web pages, are stored in computers, which act as servers. Your computer, the client, uses a web browser, a special program to access and download them. The web pages are organized in websites, groups of pages located on the Web, maintained by a webmaster, the manager of a website.
The Web enables you to post and access all sorts of interactive multimedia information and has become a real information highway.
How to surf the Web
To surf or navigate the Web, access and retrieve web pages or websites, you need a computer with an Internet connection and a web browser. After you have launched it, you must type the website address or URL (Uniform Resource Locator), which may look like this:

indicates the type of protocol that the server and browser will use to communicate.
Here it is Hypertext Transfer Protocol
www. shows that it is a resource on the World Wide Web.
HYPERLINK "http://cup.org" cup.org is the domain name of the web server that hosts the website.
education is the path, the place where a web page is located.
sample.htm is the filename or name of a single web page.
The different parts are separated by full stops (.) and forward slashes (/). When we say URL, we say dot (.) and slash (/).
To find interesting sites you can use search engines, where the website information is compiled by spiders, computer-robot programs that collect information from sites by using keywords, or through web indexes, subject directories that are selected by people and organized into hierarchical subject categories. Some web portals - websites that offer all types of services, e.g. email, forums, search engines, etc. - are also good starting points.
The most relevant website addresses can be stored in your computer using the bookmarks or favourites function in your browser.
Websites usually have a beginning page or home page. From this starting point you can navigate by clicking your mouse on hyperlinks in texts or images.
BrE: favouritesWhat you can do on the WebAmE: favorites
In my weblog, an electronic journal I maintain on the Web, you can read and post opinions in chronological order. In my role as blogger, the manager of a blog, I can promote this new type of discussion.
Online shopping, i.e. cybershopping or e-commerce, saves you time and gives you the comfort of buying from your personal computer. The goods are then sent to you, so its very easy.
E-learning, education via the Web, is a great opportunity for people like me who haven t got time to attend classes.
The Web is an open door to a universe of multimedia resources that people use in many different ways. Here are just a few.
Solve the clues and complete the puzzle with words from the opposite page.
The WWW is also called the information
A link in a web page.
A website that offers a variety of services.
The first page of a website is thepage.
A person who keeps a blog.
The manager of a web page is its web.................
An animal closely linked to the Web.
Another word for directory. rrAnother word for bookmark. -g
The hidden word is, text with links. p

Complete these instructions about how to navigate with the words in the box.
client web page surf web browser
search engine web server website URL
Start up your computer and connect to the Internet.
Open your
Type theto access a website.
Your web browser sends the request to the correct
The server looks for the document and sends it to thecomputer.
Your web browser displays the selectedon the screen.
From the home page of theyou canto other pages by
clicking on hyperlinks.
If you want to find more websites, use a
Some students accessed the websites below. What did they use the Web for? Use words from C.

Sunday, November 20
Blog comment spam: Fighting it
Regular posters will notice that I have turned off comments on the blog. This is because of the amount of comment spam I was getting - I was spending almost all my time deleting adverts and offensive comments! This is a temporary measure but when I turn comments back on you'll have to register to be able to comment.
400057846060What are the main parts of this URL? How would you say the URL?
Web design
Web pages are created with a special language HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language), which is interpreted by a web browser to produce hypertext, a blend of text, graphics and links.
You can view the source or raw HTML code by choosing the View Source option in your web browser.
To build a website you could learn how to write HTML tags, the coded instructions that form web pages, or else use an HTML editor, a WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) application that converts a visual layout into HTML code. A simpler option is to use a web template provided by a web-based site builder, where you just fill in the information you want on the page.
Basic elements
Some of the basic elements that can be found on a web page are:
Text, which may be displayed in a variety of sizes, styles and fonts
Links, connections from text or graphics on the current web page to different parts of the same page, to other web pages or websites, or to external files
Graphics, pictures created with formats such as JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group), which is ideal for pictures with a wide range of colours, e.g. photographs, and GIF (Graphical Interchange Format), which is good for pictures with fewer colours or with large areas of the same colour, e.g. buttons, banners and icons
Tables, intended for the display of tabular data, but often used to create page layouts
Frames, subdivisions of a web page allowing the display of different HTML documents on the same page.
Instructions for the presentation, the styling of elements on a page such as text or background colour, can be included in the HTML code. However, it is becoming more common to use CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) to separate style from content. This makes pages easier to maintain, reduces download time and makes it easy to apply presentation changes across a website.
Video, animations and sound
Web pages can also include multimedia files: animations, audio and video files. Sounds are recorded with different audio formats. MIDI, WAV, AU and MP3 are some of the most popular ones.
Shockwave and Flash are technologies that enable web pages to include video and animations.
Java applets, specific applications using that programming language, may be used to add interactivity to web pages.
To see or hear all these files, you need to download the right plug-in, the additional software that enables the web browser to support this new content.
Solve the clues and complete the puzzle with words from A opposite.

4What you see is what you get.
You can make a web page using an HTML
You just have to fill it in to create a web page.
Templates are found in a web-based site
The instructions in HTML.
Another word for raw HTML code.
5The language used to make web pages.
Complete this advice about web design with words from B opposite.
A well-designed website should be neat and organized. Words should be surrounded by sufficient white space. Use dark (1)on a light (2)........, preferably white. You can divide the page into columns with a (3)........or use (4)..........to create the page layout. Usually the navigation bar appears on the left side of the page. You can display it on all the pages of your website by using a(5).........It is a good idea to put a (6).......to the top of the page at the bottom of a long text.
The graphical element of a web page is crucial. (7).......load slowly, so use them sparingly and for good reason. There are two common picture formats: (8),for pictures with lots of colours and (9), which is ideal for buttons and banners.
Look at C opposite. Match the sentence beginnings with the correct endings.
A plug-in isa let you interact with information on the screen.
Shockwave and Flashb usually needed to enjoy audio and video files.
Multimedia files can be includedc are some of the common audio formats.
Java appletsd applications help to create animations.
MIDI, WAV, MP3 and AUe in web pages.
Chatting and video conferencing
IRC and web chat
IRC (Internet relay chat) is a system that allows Internet users to meet in channels
(or chat rooms) in order to have live conversations on the topic of the chosen channel.-
To participate you need to install a chat client, a special type of software, on your computer to connect to the chat server, the computer where the meeting takes place.
Once you have logged into an IRC server or a web chat site, you have to choose a username or nickname that will identify you during the chat.
After choosing the channel, you can read the conversations, type and send messages. You can post messages to everyone in the channel or have private conversations with someone.
Channels are run by channel operators, 'chanops' or just 'ops' who control the content and the people who join and may ban users or ask them to leave the room.
ICQ screenshot
Instant messaging
IM (instant messaging) programs allow Internet users to communicate in one-to-one conversations; they are a chat room for just two people.
With programs such as ICQ (I seek you) and MSN Messenger you can maintain a list of people, called a buddy list or contact list.
The program opens up a small window where the people engaged in the conversation type their messages.
40932104936490The latest IM programs also incorporate telephone, video and file-sharing facilities and are becoming an alternative to traditional video conferencing programs.
Video and voice calls
A video conference allows live visual and spoken communication
Avatar image
Video conferencing (video call) systems allow a live connection between two or more participants in separate locations using the Internet to exchange audio and video data. The users need a computer with broadband access, a webcam, a microphone and speakers. Some popular programs are CU-SeeMe and Windows Netmeeting.
The Net can also be used for online telephone conversations, either computer-to-computer or computer-to-phone, which require special software (e.g. Net2Phone) or an applet, a Java application that runs from the browser when you access a web page, and also a microphone, sound card and speakers.
This type of communication uses VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol), which turns analogue audio signals, like the ones on the telephone, into digital data that can be sent via the Internet.
Virtual worlds
Internet users can also communicate in three-dimensional environments.
Instead of nicknames, people choose Avatars or 3D characters in order to interact with other people.
A popular language used to create interactive simulations within the Net is VRML (Virtual Reality Modelling Language).
Solve the clues and complete the puzzle with words from the opposite page.
3903345359410One of the systems used for chat rooms.
The protocol needed for online phone conversations.
The language used to build virtual simulations.
Avatars are threecharacters.
Video calls transmitand video data.
Another word for channel operators.
You must install a chaton your computer.
The conversation takes place on aserver.
A type of Java program whose name sounds like a fruit.
A synonym of a buddy list is alist.
buddy video conferencing nicknames
chat room messaging avatars
Chats can also take place on the.........
1 Always show respect for other people in a...............,......Never send anyunpleasant or threatening email messages.
Most instantprograms have what is called alist. Each user's screen shows a box with theof the people he/she chats with.
The company hopes to have virtual open-plan offices, where researchers from around the world can collaborate. Individuals would be represented by, personalized electronic figures with perhaps a name badge or a picture of the owner's face.
Fear of flying is producing a surge of interest in, in which business people meet face-to-face even though they are hundreds or thousands of miles apart.
Be polite. You're speaking to a human being not to a machine.
Don't use CAPITAL LETTERS! This is considered as shouting.
Have a look at the tone of the conversation in the room before you take part. You may not like that channel.
Ignore those people who don't follow these rules.
Don't believe all the things people might tell you. Some people lie just for fun.
Don't give personal information (your real name, address, password, etc.).
Protect your computer. Use a firewall and antivirus programs.
Don't accept files from people you don't know. They might be or contain trojans.
In short, follow the same rules as in real life.Enjoy your chat and have fun!
Internet security
Internet crime
Crackers are a new type of criminal
The Internet provides a wide variety of opportunities for communication and development, but unfortunately it also has its dark side.
Crackers, or black-hat hackers, are computer criminals who use technology to perform a variety of crimes: virus propagation, fraud, intellectual property theft, etc.
Internet-based crimes include scam, email fraud to obtain money or valuables, and phishing, bank fraud, to get banking information such as passwords of Internet bank accounts or credit card details. Both crimes use emails or websites that look like those of real organizations.
Due to its anonymity, the Internet also provides the right environment for cyberstalking, online harassment or abuse, mainly in chat rooms or newsgroups.
Piracy, the illegal copying and distribution of copyrighted software, information, music and video files, is widespread.
But by far the most common type of crime involves malware.
Malware: viruses, worms, trojans and spyware
An email virus spreads through an email address book
Malware (malicious software) is software created to damage or alter the computer data or its operations. These are the main types.
Viruses are programs that spread by attaching themselves to executable files or documents. When the infected program is run, the virus propagates to other files or programs on the computer. Some viruses are designed to work at a particular time or on a specific date, e.g. on Friday 13th. An email virus spreads by sending a copy of itself to everyone in an email address book.
Worms are self-copying programs that have the capacity to move from one computer to another without human help, by exploiting security flaws in computer networks. Worms are self-contained and don't need to be attached to a document or program the way viruses do.
Trojan horses are malicious programs disguised as innocent-looking files or embedded within legitimate software. Once they are activated, they may affect the computer in a variety of ways: some are just annoying, others are more ominous, creating a backdoor to the computer which can be used to collect stored data. They don't copy themselves or reproduce by infecting other files.
Spyware, software designed to collect information from computers for commercial or criminal purposes, is another example of malicious software. It usually comes hidden in fake freeware or shareware applications downloadable from the Internet.
Preventative tips
Don't open email attachments from unknown people; always take note of the file extension.
Run and update antivirus programs, e.g. virus scanners.
Install a firewall, a program designed to prevent spyware from gaining access to the internal network.
Make backup copies of your files regularly.
Don't accept files from high-risk sources.
Use a digital certificate, an electronic way of proving your identity, when you are doing business on the Internet. Avoid giving credit card numbers.
Don't believe everything you read on the Net. Have a suspicious attitude toward its contents.
Identify the Internet crimes sentences (1-6) refer to. Then match them with the advice below (a-f).
Crackers try to find a way to copy the latest game or computer program.
A study has revealed that half a million people will automatically open an email they believe to be from their bank and happily send off all their security details.
This software's danger is hidden behind an attractive appearance. That's why it is often wrapped in attractive packages promising photos of celebrities like Anna Kournikova or Jennifer Lopez.
4 There is a particular danger in Internet commerce and emails. Many people believe they have been offered a special gift only to find out later they have been deceived.
'Nimda' spreads by sending infected emails and is also able to infect websites, so when a user visits a compromised website, the browser can infect the computer.
Every day, millions of children spend time in Internet chat rooms talking to strangers. But what many of them don't realize is that some of the surfers chatting with them may
be sexual predators
a People shouldn't buy cracked software or download music illegally from the Internet,
b Be suspicious of wonderful offers. Don't buy if you aren't sure,
c It's dangerous to give personal information to people you contact in chat rooms,
d Don't open attachments from people you don't know even if the subject looks attractive.
e Scan your email and be careful about which websites you visit,
f Check with your bank before sending information.
Fill in the gaps in these security tips with words from the box.
Malicious software,
(I), can be avoided
by following some basic rules.
Internet users who like cybershopping
should get a (2)
an electronic
identity card.
digital certificate malware virus scanner spyware firewall antivirus
If you have been hit by a
(5), don t panic!
Download a clean-up utility and always remember to use an
(6)program, for
example, a virus (7)
To prevent crackers from breaking into your internal network and obtaining your data, install a(3)......It will protect
you from (4)


Elements of e-commerce
E-commerce or online shopping is the process of buying and selling products and services using the Internet. It has similarities with traditional commercial activity.
A product or service, from plane tickets to books, is offered in an online shop, the seller's website. Customers select and order products, which are then paid for and delivered. The main difference is that most of the processes take place on the Web.
E-commerce websites use the following components:
A shopping cart program, a web-based software application to keep a record of the products chosen by the customer.
A secure socket layer (SSL) certificate, to verify that the credit card information has been securely transmitted; this is usually shown by a small padlock on the web page.
A payment gateway, an interface between the website and the bank
that accepts the electronic payment.
How to buy on the Internet
The first thing to do is to look for the product in a search engine or, even better, in a comparison engine or bargain finder, to find the lowest price.
Most online shop websites are designed so that customers follow these steps to do their virtual shopping.
You start by adding the items you want to buy to the shopping basket, or virtual shopping trolley.
When you have selected the items that you want to buy, you proceed to the payment section by clicking on the checkout button.

You may have to log in, provide your username and password, or sign up, by providing your personal data, billing and shipping address, etc., if this is the first time you have accessed the site.
You will be given an account, so you are recognised as a customer. You will be asked to enter payment details, e.g. credit card numbers, etc. Before the transaction is completed you will be asked to confirm the order and check that all the information is correct.
Finally, you log out and leave the website.
There are different types of electronic payment: credit cards or debit cards. A digital wallet, the electronic equivalent of a wallet for online shopping, holds credit card data and passwords for logging into websites. PayPal, Microsoft's Passport and Yahoo! Wallet are examples of digital wallets.
Types of e-businesses
Companies whose activity is centred on the Internet are called dotcoms, after their web addresses. However, most e-commerce businesses are bricks and clicks, as they have both a physical and online presence.
Although there are some examples of B2B commerce, business to business, e-commerce is mainly used for B2C, business to consumer, or even for C2C, consumer to consumer. Internet auctions, websites like eBay where people offer products and sell them to the highest bidder, are an example of C2C e-commerce.
Solve the clues and complete the puzzle with words from A and C opposite.

1 One of the programs used to help shopperswhile ordering on the Internet is called acart program.
5 The most common type of e-commerce.
7 The exchange of goods and services over the Web.
Type of certificate used to make credit card transactions secure.
Anshop is an Internet shop.
The interface needed to pay online is a payment
The type of commerce that links two firms.
6 A type of e-commerce that some websites, e.g. eBay, have made popular.
Put these steps from shopping websites in the right order to explain the process of buying online.

There are some drawbacks to e-commerce and people are not always happy with it. Complete the sentences with words from the opposite page.
1 is great until you have a complaint. Unlike a shop you have
nowhere to go.
There have been problems with both, web only businesses, and
, high street names with a web presence. Computing experts say a

large part of the problem lies with the software available for customer support online.
Since the National Consumers' League started tracking Internet fraud some years ago, one type of e-commerce has come top for complaints
about fraud: InternetFour out of ten
buyers reported problems such as never receiving what they had bid for.
If you want to reduce the risks while buying on the
Web, use aas a way of
"No thanks, just browsing."
holding securely credit card numbers, shipping and mailing addresses.
Online banking
Online banking basics
Electronic banking is the general term given to the possibility of performing banking transactions through electronic communications, mainly the Internet. That's why many people prefer to use the terms online banking or Internet banking.
Online services can be provided by traditional banks, brick-and-mortar banks, which through the use of these new technologies become brick-and-click banks. Banks that don't have physical branches or ATMs are called virtual or Internet banks.
To use these services you need a computer with Internet access. Customers can also log in with a mobile phone or a PDA. The use of wireless networks to access financial institutions is known as wireless banking.

Brick-and-click banks are probably the best option to start with
Online banking services
What do you use online banking for?
'I pay bills online. I've got a list in my computer with all my payment recipients' names and account details. When I have to pay, I select the amount and the name of the payee. I can also schedule the payments, or fix the date for payments. The bank will transfer the funds, or send the money, to the selected account.'
'I check account balances. I can access and view my accounts any time, from any PC. Also, I don't need to wait for the post to get written statements from the bank. I can see and then save online statements on the bank's website. It saves time and paper.'
'I find online banking extremely convenient. I don't need to remember when my credit card expires or the date of a payment. My Internet bank sends short message notifications, warnings or other information services to my email or mobile phone.'
'I trade stocks online. I contact an online broker to invest my money, and to buy and sell shares.'
37890455774690Online security
Most online banks have introduced the concept of two-factor authentication, the simultaneous use of at least two different devices or layers of security to prevent fraud.
When you open an Internet account, you are given a confidential PIN, personal identification number, and a password and username.
For some transactions, customers are required to use a TAN, transaction authorization number, from a list provided by the bank. It can only be used once, and it acts as a second password.
Security tokens are microchip-based devices that generate a number that has to be typed by the user or read like a credit card. They are becoming a common form of two-factor authentication.
Security tokens provide a secure approach to online banking
One of the best methods of identifying the user of a bank account is biometric authentication, the use of a physical trait, such as a fingerprint, to allow a person to log in. Some laptops have built-in fingerprint readers, which makes online banking easier and more secure.
Find expressions in A opposite which have the following meanings.
Banks that offer physical locations and online services.
The type of banking where you can use mobile phone networks to perform transactions.
Banks that only do business over the Internet, (two possibilities)
Banking services (transactions, payments, etc.) offered on the Internet, {two possibilities)
Banks that don't have a Web presence.
The general term that includes all sorts of banking that make use of ICT technologies.
Read B opposite and choose the right alternative for these electronic banking transactions.
send I trade stocks
pay I save bills
check I trade account balances
save online statements I stocks
transfer short message notifications I funds
schedule funds I payments
pay I send short message notifications
Complete this text with words from C opposite.
Most financial institutions offering Internet-based products should use (1)-
authentication to reduce the risks of account fraud and identity theft.
At present, most authentication methodologies involve three basic factors:
Something the user knows (e.g. a (2), the confidential number given by the
Something the user has (e.g. a (3), the keyring-like
identification number generator)
Something that shows who the user is, i.e. (4)authentication (e.g. a
Authentication methods that depend on more than one factor are more reliable; for
example, the use of a (5), a TAN (something the
user knows) to log in, and then a token (something the user has) to transfer funds.
'Jason feels insecure if he's too far from his money ... but electronic bank statements have cured that!"
Adapted from Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council
antenna and transce Cells and base stations
Mobile phones
Mobile phones: definition and technology
Mobile phones, or cellular phones, are devices that enable communication to all types of telephones while moving over a wide area called the coverage area.
The term 'cellular' comes from the fact that the phone calls are made through base stations, communication towers or antennas, which divide the coverage area into cells. As you move from cell to cell, the calls are transferred to different base stations belonging to the same or a different telephone company. This capability of mobile phones is called roaming. The phone is said to be out of range when it cannot communicate with a base station.
A brief history
1G, First Generation phones started in the 1980s when Motorola introduced the first hand-held phones. They used analogue technology and the main drawback was the small number of channels that could be used at a time.
In the 1990s, 2G mobiles introduced digital transmission methods that converted voice into binary information, increasing the number of channels, the speed of transmission between the phone and the base station and enabling a reduction in size. The most common standard, GSM, Global System for Mobile communications, started to be used at this stage. One of the features of this technology is the use of SIM cards, a type of smart card that contains the user's information, the connection data and the phonebook. It also enables the user to change service provider without changing the handset.
3G phones offer a high-speed data transfer capability. Some of these phones are called smart phones and combine PDA capabilities with the usual functions of a digital phone. The new communication standard, UMTS, Universal Mobile Telecommunications System, enables the multimedia transmissions that are becoming common nowadays.
New standards are being developed that will open the way to new 4G phones with an emphasis on multimedia, real-time television and radio.
Features and functions
My mobile has programmable ring tones, so I can personalize my phones melodies or sounds, and changeable faceplates, which make the front look different. I used to just send SMS (short message service), short text messages. Now I can also take and send pictures with the built-in digital camera.
I've bought a new mobile with Uluetooth, a wireless technology, to connect my phone to other devices at home or in my office. It also has WAT3, Wireless Application "Protocol which enables access to the wireless Web, and an integrated "PDA, a digital assistant, where I keep my appointments and sales records.
Mobiles have become an essential part of our lives and there are many uses for them.
This mobile also has a speakerphone: I can talk without holding the handset. I also use it when I want several people to participate in the call.'
I m very concerned about safety in the car. Thafs why I bought a hands-free kit, so I can drive and talk on the phone without taking risks.
I m mad about music, so I love having a mobile which integrates radio and MP3, the most usual music file format on the Web. I can download music from the Net and listen to it on my mobile.

Complete this text about basic principles of mobile telephony with words from A opposite.
Mobile phones, also called (1), or cell phones for short,
need a network of towers or antennas to transmit calls. In a cellular system, a city
is divided into smaller sections or (2)where the (3)
usually occupy a central position. When you are outside your service
provider's (4)area, your telephone may become out of (5)
unless your telephone allows (6), i.e. the ability to use another service
provider's network.
Read B opposite and decide if these sentences are True or False. If they are false, correct them.
1G phones had a slower transmission speed than 2G.
2G phones introduced analogue technology.
GSM started to be used in the 80s.
Smart phones can be used for other purposes, e.g. as a personal digital assistant.
People won't be able to watch live TV on 4G phones.
SIM cards enable users to keep important information.
UMTS, the standard used in 3G phones, has made video phones a commercial reality.
Read C opposite and match the CNET.com phone reviews (1-5) to the descriptions of users whomight be interested in them (a-e).
1 This phone is the best for teens, with an eye-catching pop-up display, vibration feedback for game playing, programmable ring tones and changeable faceplates.
b People who prefer writing to phoning
3 This model is the best phone for SMS addicts, with a QWERTY keyboard and multiple messaging options.
1 This is the best multimedia phone, with a 1.3-megapixel digital camera, TransFlash card slot, Bluetooth and an MP3 player,
4 This is the best status-symbol phone, with a striking design, beautiful display and speakerphone; it's a world phone. Hands-free kit included.
2 This is the best smart phone, with wireless support (Bluetooth and Wi-Fi), WAP and email.
a People who love talking, playing games and unusual ring tones
c Phone users who love taking pictures and watching videos, and music lovers
d People who want email and to surf the Web

e Mobile phone fanatics who travel a lot and want to make an impression
Robots, androids, AI

Robots and automata
A robot is a computer-programmed machine that performs actions, manipulates objects, etc. in a precise and, in many cases, repetitive way.
Robots may be automata, or man-like machines, whose basic components are similar to a human body.
They have mechanical links, joints, which connect their movable parts.
Their heart and muscles are the electric or pneumatic motors or systems, the actuators, which create the movement.
Robots also have hands, usually tools or grippers, called end effectors.
They may be equipped with cameras or infrared controls, sensors, which transmit information to the central system in order to locate objects or adjust movements.
43268902872740Finally, robots depend on a computer system, the brain that directs the actions.
Uses for robots
The word robot comes from robota, meaning compulsory labour in Czech; similarly, robots are helpful in activities which are too dangerous, too boring or too precise for human beings.
Robots in industry
Robotic arms are common in industry
Robotic arms, telescopic or bending arms, are widely used in the automobile industry to paint, weld and assemble car parts. Robots are also used in electronic assembly of microchips where precision of movements is essential.
Robots and space
Planetary rovers, remotely-operated vehicles, and space probes, unpiloted spaceships, are used to explore space.

Robots and health
Surgical robots, which help human surgeons, are programmed to assist in very delicate microsurgery operations or mimic the surgeons' movements in telesurgery operations.
Robots and safety
Mobile robots, vehicles controlled by human operators, are used for defusing bombs and handling hazardous materials.

Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the science that tries to recreate the human thought process and build machines that perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. It has several applications.
44881807549515Androids are anthropomorphic robots designed to look and behave like a human being. Most androids can walk, talk and understand human speech. Some react to gestures and voice inflection. Some 'learn' from the environment: they store information and adapt their behaviour according to a previous experience.
Expert systems is the term given to computer software that mimics human reasoning, by using a set of rules to analyze data and reach conclusions. Some expert systems help doctors diagnose illnesses based on symptoms.
Neural networks are a new concept in computer programming, designed toreplicate the human ability to handle ambiguity by learning from trial and error.They use silicon neurons to imitate the functions of brain cells and usuallyinvolve a great number of processors working at the same time.
Complete the article with words from A opposite.
Scientists at Aberystwyth University are working on a machine which they hope will recognize objects with cameras that will work as (1)......... and retrieve objects with an arm that will be its (2).........Although the arm will have (3)...........that will link its muscles and an electric motor that will be the (4)........, this new (5).........won't move like a human, i.e. it won't be like the (6)........of science-Action films: forget Star Wars' C3PO. It will be desk based: no walking, or climbing stairs.
The team hopes to discover how the brain performs 'multi-tasking' and to use that information to develop the (7)........to create a robot that can think for itself.
(4)also known as knowledge-based systems, mirror the structure of an experts thought.
The term (I)
is defined as the automation of intelligent behaviour, but can (2)really be intelligent?
Match the pictures below to the types of robots in B opposite.
Complete the extracts with words from C opposite.
(3)are made of units that resemble neurons. They are often used to simulate brain activity and are effective at predicting events.

Intelligent homes
Domotics, from the Latin word domus plus robotics, also known as automation, involves the use of information technology applied to domestic appliances in order to create intelligent systems inside the house.
Basic intelligent devices, traditional devices with an embedded processor, have been with us for a while, e.g. microwave ovens and washing machines with computerized controls.

Intelligent homes are a wider concept: all the systems and devices are connected in a LAN, local area network, where they communicate with each other and are controlled by a central computer sometimes installed in one of the machines.
Control devices and networking
Intelligent homes are controlled with different types of interfaces, devices that facilitate communication between the user and the system: physical switches, touch screens, IR (infrared) remote controls, computers either at home or at a distance, telephony.
The different elements perform one of these two functions: they are either command initiators, e.g. a brightness sensor that is programmed to send an instruction when it gets dark, or command receivers, e.g. a light that turns on when it receives an instruction sent by the sensor.
Household appliances, sound and video systems, optical and thermal sensors, etc. can be linked with wired and wireless systems. Wired LANs use different types of cables and also electrical wiring.
WLANs, wireless networks, use radio-frequency systems: Bluetooth, a short-range radio system used to communicate between portable devices (laptops, PDAs, mobile phones, etc.), is now frequently used to design PANs (personal area networks) inside the home.
Automatic operations
Intelligent systems are able to perform a series of activities to improve these areas.
Security ■Turn on and off alarm systems and phone emergency services if needed
■Open and close doors and gates, blinds or curtains
Safety ■ Control heat and smoke sensors
Comfort and economy ■Control heating, air conditioning and electricity
■Detect motion and switch on and off lights accordingly
■Switch on and off hi-fi sets and home cinema; select music and programs
■Have everything ready when you wake up: the bath running, the electric kettle on, the news headlines on your computer, etc.
■Keep a list of the products in the fridge, make an order to a supermarket and suggest recipes
■Provide intelligent garden watering, e.g. only when the soil is dry
Assistive technology ■ Raise and lower motorized cupboards and sinks for people with mobility problems

Solve the clues and complete the puzzle with words from A and B opposite.
3 A wireless standard used for PANs.
Touch screens, remote control and computersare different types of
The adjective which describes networks without cables.
9 A smoke sensor is an example of a command
The automatic operation of a system or process.
The term domotics comes from domus and
The adjective used to describe homes and devices that use IT technology.
A light switch can be used as a command
LANs where the devices are connected withcables or electrical wiring are
Personal Area Network.
Read the text and answer the questions below.

'Smart' homes not far away
Picture this scenario: it is a Friday night in the middle of winter and you are driving to your holiday home in the mountains for the weekend. On your way there, you send your second residence a text message which will activate the heating, so the place is nice and warm by the time you arrive. Your main residence, meanwhile, may be vacant, but you can send it an SMS to turn the lights on and off a few times, giving the impression to potential burglars that someone is there.You can also monitor what is happening inside the house on your mobile phone - cameras inside the house will send real-time images direct to your phone. If disaster strikes, and the washing machine leaks while you are not there, your house is so clever that it will
automatically turn off the water at the mains and alert you that a plumber may need calling.
Sounds far-fetched? For one family of four, these are the capabilities their home already has. They are living in an Eneo Labs show home outside Barcelona, trying out the company's smart home concept. Javier Zamora. manager of Eneo Labs, says that in as litde as two years many of us will be enjoying these features. He explains that smart homes have two main components: an 'information network', which is like a human body's nervous system in that all devices inside the house are connected to it; and a 'brain', which coordinates what is inside the home and connects it to what goes on outside. He says that in the future the house will respond to voice commands.
Adapted from umw.cnn.comWhich of the areas in C opposite are improved in this 'smart' home: security, safety, comfort and economy, assistive technology? Which one is not?
Build your dream home
What operations is the system able to perform to improve those areas?
3 What interface is used to connect the user to the LAN? What might be used in the future?

Artist's impression of a nanobot on a red blood cell
Smaller and faster
Nanotechnology, the science of creating and using materials or devices at molecular and atomic sizes, is going to represent a new technological revolution. These devices will fall in the range of 1 nanometre, which is equal to one billionth of a metre, to 100 nanometres (nm).
Nanobots, robots formed from molecules or molecular components, will be used in medicine to control and diagnose diseases. For example, they will be injected and will move through blood vessels destroying cholesterol molecules or cancer.
Nanocomputers, molecule-sized computers, may have the power of 100 workstations but only be the size of a grain of sand. There will be two main types of molecular computers:
Quantum computers, based on quantum mechanics, may be millions of times faster than current computers. They will be so fast because they will be able to examine all possible
answers to a query at the same time. This capability is made possible by qbits, quantum bits which can be 0 or 1, or something in between, simultaneously.
DNA computers will use DNA biochips to perform the same functions as silicon microchips do today but at a much faster speed.
Computers everywhere: human-centred technologies
The relationship between people and computers will be closer.
In the near future we II be able to swim in the immersive Internet, a technology that will change the two-dimensional world of the Internet into a 3-D experience with three-dimensional sound and images and even the sense of touch.
By the year 2040 there might be intelligent robots, machines that will be able to think creatively. The processing power of computers may have reached 1,000,000,000 MIPS (millions of instructions per second), the estimated speed of human thought
Computer chips can be injected under the skin: 'RFID, radio-frequency identification tags, might be used to track or identify people or to store information, such as medical data, although there are concerns about privacy and personal safety.
User interfaces, the systems that facilitate communication between people and computers, will resemble human communication. There will be gesture interfaces based on facial-hand recognition systems.
ICT devices will be mobile and multimedia: we II watch mobile TV programmes on our phones, which will also access the Internet and work as a mobile office.
Computers will be embedded, or hidden, in a variety of items. For example, we'll have wearable computers that will be embedded in a belt or a piece of jewellery, etc18167356494780
Read these extracts and replace the words in italics with words in A opposite.
1.A computer of this type is a molecular computer that works biochemically. It 'computes' using enzymes that cause chain reactions.
2. In a computer of this type, data is processed by exploiting the strange qualities of quantum physics; the building blocks of computation are not transistors but caged atoms or qbits.
3.It has the potential to revolutionize the way we live, from creating miniaturized 'Star Trek'-like electronic gadgets to delivering medicines to specific places within the human body.
4. The government plans to fund a study examining the feasibility of molecule-sized robotic devices that would position atoms to build complex substances and products.
Write a caption under each picture illustrating the future trends from B opposite.
5 Scientists at an Israeli institute have developed a very small one - so small that a trillion of its kind fit into a test tube.
a microchip made with organic materials
b the speed at which the CPU processes instructions
c the device or program used to interact with a computer
d subatomic particles used in quantum computers
e fixed, integrated.

Match the terms with their definitions.
quantum bits
DNA biochip
user interface
Common prefixes
We can form new words by using prefixes and suffixes, e.g. micro-process-or
prefix + root + suffix.
Word parts are like puzzle pieces
Prefixes come before the root word and
usually change its meaning. Here are some common ones in ICT.
An extranet is like an extended intranet
Negative prefixes meaning 'not': non- Non-volatile memory retains its content when the power is turned off. un- An unformatted disk has not been 'initialized'; it doesn't allow data to be stored.
Prefixes of location: trans- (= across) Data transmission can be wired or
inter- (= between) The Internet consists of millions of
computers interconnected in a global network, intra- (= within) An intranet is a private network,
restricted to a company's internal use. extra- (= outside, in addition to) An extranet links a
company with its customers and suppliers, tele- (= over a distance) Teleconferencing enables users
in different places to talk to and see each other.
Prefixes of size: super- (= large, better) A supersite offers links to other
websites on a certain topic, semi- (= half, partly) A semiconductor is neither a
good conductor nor a good insulator (e.g. silicon,
used to make computer chips), micro- (= small) A microbrowser is designed to display web pages on PDAs and mobiles. Prefixes of size are also used in units of memory like megabyte and gigabyte.
Another common prefix is re- in words like reprint, rewritable and reboot, to start the computer again.
Verb prefixes
Prefixes used to form verbs which mean 'to cause to be something':
en- encrypt: to change data into a secret code so that only someone with a key can read it up- update: to modify data in a file and thus ensure the file reflects the latest situation
upgrade: to add or replace hardware or software in order to expand the computer's power upload: to send files to a central, often remote computer; compare with 'download'
Prefixes that mean 'the opposite of an action' or 'to reverse an action':
de- decrypt: to convert secretly coded (encrypted) data back into its original form
decompress: to restore compressed data back to its original size
debug: to correct errors in a program or system
defragment: to reorganize data stored on disk by putting files into contiguous order un- uninstall: to remove hardware or software from a computer system
The prefixes e- and cyber-
The e- prefix means 'electronic'; cyber- describes things relating to computer networks,e-The term e-learning refers to the use of ICT to provide education and training.
An e-zine is a magazine or newsletter published online.
E-commerce is the buying and selling of products or services over the Internet,
cyber- The electronic space in which online communication takes place is called cyberspace. Cyberslacking means using a company's Internet access for activities which are not work-related, e.g. emailing friends, playing games, etc.; it is also called 'cyberloafing'.
Use words from A opposite to complete these sentences.
1Medical researchers in many countries exchange information through email and
2 memory (e.g. ROM or flash memory) is able to hold data when switched off.
3Blogs and web portals are examples of; they offer news, opinions and web links.
4 are used for making integrated circuits and computers.
I'll post the agenda for next week's meeting on the company's
A home network is two or more computersto form a local area network.
Complete these definitions with words from A opposite.
1.............: a disk that is completely blank, so information can't be recorded onto it
2.............: a network that allows communication between a company and the people it
deals with
3.............:the process of sending data over a communication channel
4.............:to restart the computer, without switching it off completely
5.............: a web browser designed for small screens on hand-held devices
Complete these sentences with words from B opposite and make any necessary changes.
The program ran so slowly, I had to uait.
Your financial information is fully en.and cannot be accessed.
Messages encrypted using a public key can only be deby someone with
the corresponding private key.
The computer compresses and dea colour image in less than a second.
Once you've written a program, you have to test it and deit to remove all
the errors.
In cyberspace, 'up' means to send a file.
You can easily upyour files by adding or deleting information.
To deyour hard disk you need a disk optimizer, a program that will
reorder your files.
There are minimum system requirements for your PC to be suitable forto
Windows Vista.

Complete this text with words from C opposite.
The term 'cyber' first appeared in the word 'cybernetics', coined by Norbert Wiener in 1948 as the science of communication and control. In the 1960s new 'cyber' words emerged, such as cybermen and cyborg, referring to a being that is part robot, part human. In 1984 William Gibson popularized the term (1) .............in his novel Neuromancer. He used it to describe a futuristic, virtual world of computers, but now it refers to the Internet. Other common words are cyberworld, cybercafe, and cyberphobia (a fear of computers). Companies are now worried about (2)..................: employees using the Net to do things that have nothing to do with their jobs, e.g. chat with friends. The e- prefix is often added to activities that have moved from the physical world to the electronic alternative, e.g. ema/7 and e-shopping. Other well-known examples are: (3).................., small magazines that are available on the Internet; (4)..............., doing business electronically on the Net; and (5)............, providing instruction via optical discs, the Web or satellite TV.
Common suffixes
Suffixes change the class of the root word. For example, by adding the suffix -er, the verb publish becomes the noun publisher. Suffixes can tell you if a word is a noun, adjective, verb or adverb.
Suffixes for jobs:
-er manufacturerThe two major manufacturers of processor chips are Intel and AMD.
-eer engineerGreg is a software engineer, which means he writes computer programs.auctioneer
-or animatorHe worked as a computer animator on Toy Story,operator
-ant IT consultantShe's a computer consultant and specializes in e-commerce, data protection
IT assistantand IT strategies,
-ian technicianA computer technician installs, troubleshoots and upgrades hardware
electricianand software,
-ist typistAnyone who works as a typist may develop a problem with their hands.
Other common suffixes in ICT:
Nouns -ion, -ment, -ics, -itycompression, management, robotics, electricity(activity, state)
Adjectives -able, -ible (able to be)programmable (keyboard), convertible (format)
-ful (full of), -less (without)colourful, colourless (picture)
Verbs-ize, -ise (to make)synthesize (music - to make it with a synthesizer)
Word families
It is useful to know how to build up word families by adding suffixes. Look at these examples:
NounsVerbsAdjectives Adverbs
magnet, magnetismmagnetizemagnetic, magnetized magnetically
recorder, recordingrecordrecordable, recorded
digitizer, digitizingdigitizedigital, digitized digitally
Adding a suffix may change the pronunciation. Look at how the stress changes in these words:
photograph photographer photographic photographically

We love 'wares'
The suffix -ware refers to products of the same type. In computing, software refers to programs executed by a computer, as opposed to the physical devices on which they run - the hardware. It is commonly used to form jargon terms for classes of software.
freeware: available free of charge, but protected by copyright; it differs from 'free software', which can be changed and distributed subject to licenceshareware: distributed similarly to freeware, except that it requires payment after a trial period
malware: designed to infiltrate or damage a computer (e.g. viruses, trojan horses, spyware)
spyware: designed to monitor the actions of your computer and send this data via the Net
adware: devised to display advertisements; some includes spyware
groupware: enables a group of people connected to a network to work on the same project
Which IT professionals from A opposite are described here?
a person who designs and maintains software applications
a person who gives expert, professional advice
a person who uses graphics software to make or edit animated pictures
a person who is employed to type letters, reports and other documents
a person or enterprise that produces goods in large numbers, using machines
a specialist in the technical details of computers
Complete each sentence using the word in brackets and the correct suffix from A opposite.
IBM's BlueGene is the mostsupercomputer. (POWER)
Most library databases arevia the Internet. (ACCESS)
I'll email my report to you as an(ATTACH)
This book will show you how toyour small business. (COMPUTER)
Anoptical disc allows data to be deleted and new data to be recorded on
it. (ERASE)
The growth of the Internet has increased the need for effective data(SECURE)
The combination ofand new textile materials has made it possible to
create musical jackets and smart shirts that can read our heart rate. (ELECTRON)
Bluetooth is atechnology designed to connect computers, mobile phones
and other devices, replacing direct cable links. (WIRE)
Aircraft flightis used to train pilots. (SIMULATE)
Look at the word families in B opposite and complete these sentences with the correct word.
From kitchen magnetsto computer disks,plays
a central role in the technology of everyday life.
Hard disks are

A videois
used to convert analogue video into digital video files.
Sound and pictures can
be stored,
as on a CD.
Mv digital voicehas a storage capacity
of 2 GB.
Blu-Ray Disc is a newoptical disc
format developed by nine electronic manufacturers.
Look at C opposite. What type of software do these descriptions refer to?
1 software that transmits data about your Web surfing habits without your consent
also known as 'try before you buy' software
short for malicious software
software that periodically pops up advertising material
collaborative software
programs that you don't have to pay for

An experimental robot receiving voice-activated instructions
Compound nouns
Compound nouns consist of two or more words used together as a single word, e.g. bard drive. In a compound there is a headword and one or more modifiers.
| ink-jet | | printer |
modifier head
Modifiers can refer to different things:
material, e.g. silicon chip = a chip made of silicon
use or function, e.g. search engine = a program used to find information on the Web
activity or profession, e.g. software engineer = a person who designs software
place, e.g. web portal = a site on the Web that acts as a gateway to other sites
Compound nouns are written in different ways:
as two separate words, e.g. control panel = a utility that lets you configure and adjust a system
as two words joined with a hyphen, e.g. self-test = an automatic examination of a device
as one word, e.g. clipboard = a holding place for text or graphics you've just cut or copied
Unfortunately there are no rules. For example, you may see clip art, clip-art and clipart. Some compounds change over time, for example two words - web site - become hyphenated after a time, and then eventually end up as one word - website.
The two parts may be:
noun + noun address bus = a set of wires that identifies locations, addresses, in the main
bandwidth = the rate at which data flows through a cable or network mail merge = a tool that combines a standard letter with a mailing list to create personalized letters
adjective + broadband = high-speed connection, e.g. cable or ADSL Internet accessnounshortcut = a small file, 1KB in size, that links to a real file stored elsewhere
smart card = a plastic card that contains a small chip
verb or verbal scrollbar = part of a window that lets you move through a document noun + noun recording head = a mechanism that transfers data to a disk
verb + particle add-on = a hardware or software module that can be added to a computer
set-up / setup = the way in which a program or device is configured Compound nouns normally have the main stress on the first part and a secondary stress on the second part, e.g. screen saver /'skrkn tseivs(r)/.
Compound adjectives
Compound adjectives are made up of two words, normally with hyphens between them. The second part is often a past participle.
A menu-driven program lets you select a command from a menu.
A voice-activated product is activated by the user's voice.
Object-oriented programming is based on objects and their effects
on each other, rather than on a series of instructions.
Other common patterns include:
noun + present participle Space-saving PCs take up very little desktop space.
noun + adjective A hands-free device does not require the hands for operation. A stand-alone computer or business can operate on its own.
Look at A opposite. Which compound do these definitions refer to?
a small piece of silicon which is used in computers
a site that offers email, news, forums, web searching, online shopping and links to other sites
a utility used to adjust computer settings such as fonts, sound and networks
the read/write head of a disk drive
a computer bus used by the CPU to communicate memory locations Complete these sentences with a compound from A opposite.
1 enables you to combine two files, one containing names and addresses
and the other containing a non-specific letter intended for multiple recipients.
A USB headset is a useful, the ideal accessory for your computer games
and music.
The printer'sdidn't identify any errors.
Because the Web has no central organization, every Web surfer needs a
- a special site that locates other sites based on words or phrases you type in.
They are seeking ato help write and test a new operating system.

Complete the puzzle with compound nouns.
1 the configuration of hardware and software
a bar that allows you to select the portion of the document you want to see
an area that holds the things you copy, ready to be pasted anywhere else
a type of data transmission that provides fast Internet access
a special file which redirects to another file or program
a small card with an embedded microchip
the amount of data that can be transmitted along a channel

Complete these sentences with a compound adjective from B opposite.
A-telephone allows people with
limited mobility to dial and answer the phone with just the sound of their voice.
A fax machine is a-device, so it does
not require any other device to function.
A-application is operated by making
choices from menus instead of giving instructions on a keyboard.
In some countries it is obligatory to use a-
car kit when you are using a mobile phone while
An-language like C++ lets the
programmer concentrate on individual units (e.g. a piece of text, a graphic or a table) and give each object functions which can be changed easily.
6They've launched a new-computer, an entire PC
embedded inside a keyboard.
What a collocation is
A collocation is a pair or group of words that are often used together. You need to learn them in order to sound natural in English. For example, in computing we say 'attach a file', not 'enclose a file'.
New collocations are particularly common in ICT. Notice the combinations that are worth learning from these reviews.

With the Nokia 770 Internet Tablet you can browse your favourite sites and catch up on your email - from right where you are. Whether you're relaxing on the sofa or enjoying the moment at your favourite cafe, if you have broadband access over Wi-Fi, the Nokia 770 Internet Tablet gives you instant wireless access to the Web. You can also stream1 files, tune in to Internet radio and News Reader, or play your favourite videos and music.

A Blu-ray Disc is a new optical disc that provides five times more data storage than a DVD, with a capacity of 25 GB (single-layer), 50 GB (dual-layer) and 100 GB (four-layer). Unlike current DVDs, which use a red laser to read and write data, Blu-ray uses a blue laser (which is where the format gets its name). Blu-ray discs can record and play back high-definition television and digital audio, as well as computer data.
1Listen to audio or watch video directly from the Internet rather than downloading and saving it first
2Able to share data with older systems
Blu-ray Disc players are fully backward compatible2 with CD/DVD formats. They also let users go online and download subtitles.
Some types of collocations
Verb + noun
The easiest way to connect to the Internet is by using a DSL modem. A DSL modem can transmit data at high speed.
Your ISP will probably give you a CD with instructions on how to install the software on your PC.
Once you are online, you can access the Web or send and receive emails.
You may like to burn CDs, i.e. copy your favourite songs or important files onto CDs.
Verbs with particles
Can you show me where the microphone plugs into the computer?
If you want to log onto your account you will need your user ID and password.
Computer criminals are getting better at hacking into other people's computers.
Adjective + noun
High-speed networks and multimedia phones allow customers to view live TV.
To send outgoing mail and retrieve incoming mail, you need to configure the email settings.
Most teenagers use instant messaging to chat with friends.
Electronic commerce - from a PC, digital TV or mobile phone - offers competitive prices. Wireless hotspots provide Wi-Fi Internet access in airports, hotels and other places. Users can interact with a virtual environment through the use of VR displays and data gloves. Typical interactive TV uses are voting in polls, video on demand and shopping from home.
Adverb + adjective
Don't send highly sensitive information via email or fax unless it is encrypted.
This movie is freely available on the Internet, so it can be downloaded free of charge.
When you chat in a chat room, you are interacting in real time since it is immediate. A USB device is a good example of plug and play; you install it and use it immediately. To drag and drop, just click on the object and drag it to a different location.
Look at A opposite. Match each word on the left with its partner on the right.
1 high-definition a Internet radio
2 read and write b Disc
3 Play c videos and music
4 tune in to d television
5 broadband e Data
6 optical f your favourite sites
7 browse g compatible
8 fully backward h Access
Answer these questions using collocations from B opposite.
What sort of locations or access points can be used to surf the Net without wires?
What feature allows an electronic device to be used as soon as it is connected to a computer?
If you are gaining illegal or unauthorized access to computer data, what are you doing?
If you want to move a picture to a new location, what do you do?
What expression is used to refer to personal, confidential or classified information?
Read these statements by computer users and complete them with suitable collocations.
'I have a program that monitors both incoming andmail and also blocks spam.'
'With a webcam you can add video to online chats andmessaging. Simply...........the software included, plug the webcam..........your PC, and start having video conferences.'
'This software enables you to burn...........and DVDs containing any data files.'
'I use a media player to........audio and video files from the Web; I can play them
'NetMeeting allows us to perform video conferencing intime, without any delay.'
'We have decided to make the materialavailable on the Web.'
'I often logmy Internet bank account to make payments; I never forget to log off.'

Complete the collocations in this text.
Fast connections
Connecting to the (1)using DSL lines, cable TV and satellite increases
bandwidth dramatically, making the Web more useful. Increased speed has ignited
an explosion of (2)commerce, video on demand, telecommuting,
collaborative scientific projects, video conferencing and (3)environments.
Internet!, shaping the future
Internet2 is not a single network, but a consortium of hundreds of (4)networks linked
by fibre-optic backbones that span the United States and link to other countries. The network transmits
(5)at speeds up to 2.4 gigabits per second - 45,000 times faster than a 56 Kbps modem
- allowing scientists to test their laboratory discoveries in the real world.
The next-generation network went (6)in February 1999, linking a number of
universities around the world. When it is in commercial use, services will be available like(7)television, virtual 3-D videoconferencing, and much more.
A new kind of Web
While PCs were once the primary means of accessing the Internet, we're now seeing Internet-enabled
devices such as PDAs and cell phones that send and receive (8)and access the
(9)Soon, everything from your car to your refrigerator will be connected to the global
network, all communicating with each other wirelessly. www.learnthenet.comDefining and classifying

Describing function
We define an object by describing its function and properties. For example, we can define a 'router' like this:
A router is a device used to transmit data between two computers or networks.
There are other ways of describing its function:
for + -ing (for transmitting)
relative pronoun + verb (which/that transmits)
relative pronoun + is used + to + infinitive (which/that isused to transmit)
4117975-6350We can define people and places like this:
A blogger is a person who keeps a Web log (blog) or publishes an online diary.
An address bar is the area in your browser display where the web address is displayed.
We use which or that to refer to things.
We use who or that to refer to people.
We use where (= at which) to refer to places.
A wireless router
is a device which
allows computers to
communicate via radio waves
Classifying from general to specific
'Classifying' means putting things into groups or classes. We can classify types of music, parts of a computer, classes of software, etc.
Typical expressions
... are classified into X categories ... ...can be divided into X types...
Examples: classifying storage media
Storage media are often classified into three categories: magnetic, optical and flash memory.
... include
... consists of
... is made up of
...is composed of
... comprise
Magnetic storage media include tape cartridges, floppies and hard disks. A hard disk consists of several disks (platters) and their read-write heads.
Optical storage media comprise CDs, DVDs and high-definition video discs, which include two competing formats: HD-DVD and Blu-ray.
There are X classes of ... categories

There are two basic types of flash memory: flash memory cards - used in digital cameras - and USB flash drives, also called pen drives.
Classifying from specific to general
We can also classify from the specific to the more general. We can say, for example, that 'a word processor (specific) is a type of software (general)'.
OCR is a type of software which recognizes characters.
A PC card radio and a router are two basic components of a wireless network. The RAM and the ROM constitute the main memory. The System and Finder programs make up the Mac OS.

Typical expressions
... is a type of
... are parts/components of
... constitute
... make up
Look at A opposite. Match the two halves to make correct definitions.
a where emails are kept when they are received. b used for displaying web pages.
с who is new to an activity such as using a PC or the Internet, d used to provide data and services to other computers. e which is used to extract files from a CD/DVD and convert them to other formats.
A web browser is a program
A host is a computer
The inbox is the location
A ripper is a piece of software
A newbie is somebody
Correct the underlined errors in these definitions. Use who, that, which or where.
Mobile TV Broadcasting is a system who lets you watch TV on a PDA or mobile phone.
A computer geek is someone which is an enthusiastic user of computers, sometimes toan obsessive degree.
The Recycle Bin is the folder that deleted files are stored until you decide to delete themcompletely.
Digital Terrestrial TV is a technology where allows you to receive more channels and abetter picture through a conventional aerial instead of a satellite dish.
Look at В and С opposite. Underline all the classifying expressions in this text.

Computer organization
A computer consists of hardware and software. The CPU, main memory and peripherals constitute what is known as hardware - the physical parts. The control unit, the arithmetic-logic unit and the registers are the basic parts of the CPU. The RAM and the ROM make up the main memory. Peripherals are classified into three types: input, output and storage devices.
Software can be divided into two categories: (i) system software, which includes operating systems, programming software and system utilities, and (ii) application software, which comprises programs that let you do specific tasks (e.g. graphics, email).
Complete the sentences with a classifying expression from the box.
there are two types of ... ... are made up of
1 microchips: (i) microprocessors, used as CPUs in computers, (ii) memory
chips, used to store data, (iii) digital signal processors, used in mobiles and digital TVs, and (iv) application-specific integrated circuits, used in cars and appliances.
In the future, people may have biochips inserted under their skin. Biochipstwo components: a small chip, called a transponder, and a scanner.
A networktwo or more computers connected together to share
information and resources.
4 network architecture: peer-to-peer, where all PCs have the same
capabilities, and client-server (e.g. the Internet), where servers store and distribute data, and clients access this data.
5Bluetoothwireless technology for transferring data between devices.
... is composed of
there are four main classes of
... is a type of
Qualifying and comparing
Choosing a computer

How to make the right decision
What to look for in a computer? How much do I need to spend? Where should I start?
Ibp Personal Computer hopes to help you make the right decision.
The first question you have to ask yourself is what you'll use the computer for. Then you can decide what system will fit your needs by considering the following factors:
You need expert advice when buying a new computer
The quality you need and the price you are willing to pay:you can buy a low-end, mid-range or high-end computer.
Three basic features make a big difference: the CPU speed, theamount of RAM and the size of the hard drive. To run highly
demanding applications you'll need a fast processor, plentiful RAM and a spacious disk.
If you already have peripherals and software, you'll have to ensure they are compatible andcan be used with the new computer.
If you want to use the system for some time, it should be expandable, i.e. it should allow youto add on new peripherals.
Most standard computers offer integrated, built-in, sound cards. If you're keen on music youshould also buy separate, external, speakers.
Finally, make sure the system you buy is reliable, i.e. it's not likely to go wrong. Check thatyou will receive a warranty and good technical support.
Comparing qualities
Comparison A flat-panel monitor is slimmer than a CRT.
A PDA is more manageable than a laptop.
Laser printers offer higher quality than ink-jet models but
ink-jet printers cost less money. You can type more easily with a separate keyboard
Free programs are as good as proprietary ones.
A broadband line is the best option to download multimedia.
While consoles are a better option if you just want to play games, PCs support more applications and are
easier to upgrade
41440107679690The more memory you have, the faster you'll be able to load your files.
While a dial-up connection is usually cheap, it is very slow. A scanner can be useful but it isn't an essential peripheral. Unlike CRT monitors, TFT ones are light.
Both brand name and clone computers have similar features. Online shops as well as local retailers offer good value hardware
Comparing and finding differences or similarities are common functions in ICT. When you want to buy a new device, or you read articles about the latest computer or mobile phone, or need to make a decision about the most suitable ICT system for you, you may have to use and understand expressions like the ones in these examples.
Complete the extracts with adjectives from A opposite.
I wanted a powerful computer to work
with (I)
multimedia applications, so / decided to
buy a (2)computer with
a (3)microprocessor,
good graphics and sound cards and(4)RAM.
I didn't know whether to buy a new or a used desktop. I just need it to write documents, but I ivas advised to buy as much as I could afford. Finally I bought a(5).................but new desktop with I 756 megabytes of memory, enough for my needs.

I didnt want my new computer to become outdated too quickly. Thats why
I made sure it would be easily (6)...........with enough space for add-in cards.

Complete these sentences with adjectives from A opposite.
1Although many computers on the market have hard disk drives with a capacity of 80
to 160 GB, many home users want moredrives because of their need for
additional storage.
2This 'Wireless Enterprise Communicator' is the first realistic alternative to carrying
arounddevices. It offers anmobile phone, GPS, barcode
reader and hand-held computer.
Before you subscribe to a music subscription service, make sure you have aplayer that supports the music formats available.
Systems and devices are becoming more and morebecause reliability
means manufacturers save money by having fewer tech support calls.
Complete the text about the advantages and disadvantages of laptops and desktops with words from В opposite.
(1)desktops and laptops have (2)components but they are built in a
different way.
(3)desktops have (4)space to expand the system, they are less
manageable (5)laptops. On the other hand, laptops are fully portable: they are lighter
and (6)and so more practical if you travel a lot and need to take your computer with
(7)desktops, the screen, keyboard and mouse of a laptop are integrated. However,
most laptop owners prefer to have a separate mouse (8)the touchpad. Similarly, as the
keyboard is miniaturized, some people buy an external one for use at home. You can type
(9)easily if you use a full-size keyboard.
A laptop's CPU is slower (10)access to data may be quicker, so its performance can
be (11)good as a desktop's.
It's hard to say what the (12)option is. But remember: in the computer world,
(13)smaller the device, the more money it costs.
Describing technical processes
A technical process: how VoIP works

WithVoIP Voice over Internet Protocol, your voice is digitized and then broken into small data packets.
To make a phone call, an analogue telephone must be hooked up, linked, to an ATA, an analogue telephone adaptor. When you pick up the receiver and dial a number, the tones are converted by the ATA to digital data and temporarily stored. When your friend picks up the phone, a session is set up, established, between both computers. During the conversation the systems transmit packets of data that are sent back and forth through yourVolP company's call processor.They are received by the ATA and converted to the analogue audio signal that you hear. When you hang up, a signal is sent by the ATA to finish the session.
VoIP calls can also be delivered via an IP telephone with an Internet connection. Adapted from How Stuff Works
When describing a technical process, we often use the present simple passive, e.g. is digitized I are converted I is set up, to explain how something is made or used. The agent is not as important as the process. Compare these sentences:
Someone sets up a session. The ATA receives packets.
A session is set up.
Packets are received by the ATA.
The use of the passive
The passive is often used to describe areas of computing. Look at these examples: Input, process, output
The data is fed into the computer system. Instructions are processed by the CPU. The results are displayed on the monitor.
Today a lot of information is held, kept, on optical discs.
The data in the hard disk should be defragmented, rearranged, so it can be accessed more quickly.

Computer components and configuration
The icons and taskbar can be customized, configured, to cater for your needs.
Your computer system may need to be upgraded, improved, by adding devices or updating software.
Messages are posted, sent, to a newsgroup where they are threaded, grouped, by subject.
Files can be uploaded, transmitted, to another computer by using FTP, File Transfer Protocol.
Sequencing a process
Typical connectors
First... Then / Next ... Finally
As ...
After / Once ...
Before ...
The use of time and sequence connectors means we can show the different stages of a process.
First the computer is switched on. Then the OS is booted. Finally the application is run.
As the laser printer drum rolls, the toner gets stuck to it and reproduces the original image.
After you have had a program for a while, it may have to
be updated.
Once a CD-R has been written to, you can't alter the data.
Before you can recover the files that have been deleted, you must unformat the hard disk.

Complete the sentences with verbs from A and В opposite.
1In order for your voice to travel over the Net as email does, it must befrom
an analogue to a digital signal, i.e. it must be, and then broken into small
envelopes of data called Internet Protocol packets. Voice communication that is
in this way is what's known as Voice over IP.
The Pocket Weather Tracker, which is the size of a mobile phone, measures temperature,humidity and barometric pressure. The results areon an easy-to-read LCD screen.
One football coach who uses high-tech training methods says: 'We have 11 camerasstrategically positioned on the stands and they film an entire match. Then the recording is
into a main computer and 24 hours later we have a CD-ROM disc which
presents everything in a tactics board format.'
Solve the clues and complete the puzzle with verbs from A and В opposite.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Across
1 It has been.................., i.e. laid out according to the
user's specifications or needs.
6The web page will be...................to the server, where
it will be published.
Different peripherals can be.....................up to a PC.
More data is..........................on a DVD than on a CD.
2 After my computer had been.......................by adding
more RAM, it had better performance.
In an Internet discussion group the messages are............in reply to an initial post.
The disk was...................to optimize the data storage.
A video conference was....................up to present the
new products to the customers.
Rearrange the paragraphs in the text below by referring to the connectors in С opposite.
a Then a pure silicon crystal is cut into thin wafers, which are covered with two other layers of protective materials.
b First engineers design the construction plans for the chip.
с After the chemical treatment, the chip undergoes a process that alters its electrical properties.
d Chip production today is based on photolithography. Here is a sequential description of the process.
e Finally when all the components are ready, metal is added to connect the components to each other,
f Next UV-light is shone through the mask and onto the wafers. The protective materials break apart on the parts of the chip that are hit by light. Then it has to be treated with chemicals before the protective material can be removed.
7A lot of responses to that controversial messagewereto the newsgroup.

Troubleshooting and help desks
Sally Harrison is a help desk technician. She works at a help desk, a computer support centre where people phone for help with their computer problems.
'In my job I have to talk to the computer user to
find the source of a problem and try to fix it on the
We offer computer assistance for all types of
problems. Some people prefer to use the word
debugging when we solve programming errors
and use troubleshooting when we solve problems
encountered while using information technology
Sometimes there are no problems with either of
them and it's a PEBCAK, the problem exists between
the chair and keyboard, i.e. it's a user's problem.
I generally start by asking the customer if there has been an error message, a warning of a
problem displayed by the application inside a dialogue box, a small window that provides
information about the problem and an interface of communication with the user.
One of the most frightening messages is the one shown with a BSoD, or Blue Screen of Death,
a blue screen that shows an unrecoverable system error.'
Describing the problem
People ask the help desk technician for help with problems like these.
'My printer is producing fuzzy, not clear, printouts.'
'I get a lot of error messages. Some of my files won't open. They're corrupted,damaged.'
'The monitor flickers, the image is unsteady.'
'My optical drive fails: it won't read or write discs.'
'My machine is running very slowly and it shows low memory error messages.'
'My computer is behaving strangely. I think it's got a virus.'
'I get a 401 message: I'm unauthorized, not allowed to enter that website.'
'I've tried to access a website but I get a 404 Not Found message, as if it didn't exist.'
'I try to connect but I get this message: Network connection refused by server.'
Making guesses and giving advice
Help desk technicians have to sort out the different reasons for the problem and suggest ways to fix it. Look at some of the expressions that can be used.
Turn the computer off and on again. It often works.
You should check that dust is not affecting the computer cooling fan, the device that preventsthe parts inside the computer from overheating.
Why don't you reboot, restart, the system again?
If this doesn't work, use a recovery tool, a software application to restore your deleted data.
You should back up your files in the future, make copies.
If I were you, I'd get a UPS, an uninterruptible power supply, a device to maintain thecontinuous supply of electric power.
Complete these sentences with words from A opposite.
1Your computer may have a virus if it has symptoms like these:
Windows won't start and antells you that it's because important
files are missing.
An unfamiliar message pops up in aThe message is usually
unrelated to programs you're running or asks for confidential information such as passwords.
A bug is a coding error in a computer program. That's why some people say thatis the art of taking bugs out - programming is the art of putting them in.
The company is improving thefor computer users. They are
introducing 'answer-express' to handle all kinds of technology support and online advice.
4The firm is seeking ato join the team. The
successful candidate will be responsible forand resolving problems for internal
staff as well as external users.
Match the pieces of advice (a-i) with the problems (1-9) in В opposite.
a Haven't you got any antivirus software installed? If I were you, I'd try a free online scan.
b Why don't you reset the refresh rate of your monitor?
с You may have made a mistake while typing your password. You can't access a website if you
aren't recognized as a guest. Try typing it again. d The computer may be overheating. Check there's nothing blocking the flow of air. You should
also use a recovery tool to retrieve your files.
e Your system must be running short of memory. You'd better add some more RAM. f That message shows the web server is busy. Why don't you wait and try again later? g Your discs or perhaps your lens might be dirty. Use some special disc polish. h It might mean that the page is no longer on the Internet. Check the URL again. If that doesn't
work, you could use a search engine to find similar pages. i The print heads of your printer must be clogged, obstructed with ink. Run the clean cartridge
routine or wipe them with a cloth and distilled water.
Here are some preventative tips to stop disasters before they start. Complete the text with words from С opposite.
■Your PC has a mortal enemy: heat. Since the most common cause of overheating is dirt, you should
ensure that your CPU (I)doesn't become clogged by cleaning it with
compressed air.
Check your power protection: if there are frequent voltage spikes or power outages in your area, geta (2)to power your PC.
Remember your (3)software is essential so you won't lose important
information. It's always essential to (4)all the files you'll need in the
Evaluate your hard disks health with its error-checking utility.
Finally, if disasters do happen, remember that its always useful to (5)off and on the
computer or (6)the OS.
Adapted from PC World Magazine: 'Complete PC Preventive Maintenance Guide'

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