ГЛАГОЛЫ ГОВОРЕНИЯ VERBS OF SPEAKING

В английском языке есть две пары синонимов, различающихся между собой значениями и грамматическими конструкциями. Это – TO SPEAK-TO TALK и TO SAY – TO TELL.
I. TO SPEAK – TO TALK
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VERB FORMS
PATTERNS
MEANINGS
EXAMPLES

1
to speak-spoke-spoken
to speak to smb about smth
1 говорить, владеть даром речи

2 говорить, разговаривать с кем-либо (официально)

3 говорить, выступать
(официально)
The baby is leaning to speak.


I’m going to speak to your parents about your marks, Ivanov.
How many people are going to speak at the next meeting?

2
to talk – talked - talked
to talk to smb about smth
1 говорить, разговаривать с кем-либо
2 разговаривать, болтать
My friends and I like to talk about our life.
“Stop talking,” the teacher said.

Note: Memorize these expr
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·Без косвенного дополнения не употребляется!
#
VERB FORMS
PATTERNS
MEANINGS
EXAMPLES

1
to say
(says [sez]) – said [sed] – said [sed]
to say smth to smb
1 сказать что-либо, произнести
2 говорить, сказать (для введения прямой и косвенной речи)
Excuse me, what did you say?
He says, “The day is fine.”*
He says (that) the day is fine.
* Pay attention to English punctuation.

2
to tell – told - told
1 to tell smb smth
2 to tell smth to smb
1 сказать, рассказать кому-либо что-либо
2 говорить, сказать кому-либо(для введения прямой и косвенной речи)


3 велеть кому-либо (что-то сделать)
Who told you this news?

“I am a student,” my new friend told me.*
My new friend told me (that) he was a student.
* Pay attention to English punctuation.
The teacher told us to learn the rule well.

Notes: 1 Memorize these exceptions. (Употребляются БЕЗ косвенного дополнения.)

English
Russian

English
Russian

1
to tell a lie/the truth

4
to tell one’s fortune


2
to tell a story/a joke

5
to tell the difference


3
to tell the time

6
Time will tell.



English
Russian

He was said to be careful
Говорили, что он осторожный.

He was told to be careful.
Ему велели быть осторожным.

2 Compare and memorize:


EXERCISES
1 speak
2 talk
3 say
4 tell

1 Choose the rig
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·e Her voice faltered as she tried to when he was about.

3 Choose the right answer (1, 2, 3 or 4) to complete each sentence.
a Sorry, did you anything?
1 speak 2 say 3 said 4 told
b I can’t you how happy I am to see you.
1 say 2 to say 3 tell 4 to tell
c How dare you have the impudence so!
1 to say 2 say 3 to tell 4 tell
d The politician for an hour without notes.
1 spoke 2 talked 3 said 4 told
e The children were to repeat the teacher’s name.
1 said 2 saying 3 told 4 telling
4 Instructions as above.
a I’ve got something to to you.
1 say 2 tell 3 said 4 talked
b I was bored stiff because everybody shop.
1 said 2 were talked 3 was talking 4 was telling
c The gossip the news to everybody in the village.
1 spoke 2 talked 3 said 4 told
d It is that some people stay young all their lives.
1 saying 2 said 3 told 4 telling
e “Please slowly and distinctly,” is our teacher’s usual request.
1 speak 2 say 3 tell 4 said

5 Complete each sentence with the correct form of the verbs TO SAY – TO TELL.
a What did she in reply?
b What did he you in reply?
c Everyone the rumour is true.
d The man swore the truth.
e Young children find it difficult long words.
6 Instructions as above.
a She everybody that her new friend’s name is Sam.
b This coffee is about half the price of that one and yet you really can't the difference.
c Are you simple enough to believe everything newspapers you?
d He is to be an experienced plumber.
e We were to finish the test.
THE END








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