LaTeX for linguists


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L
A
T
E
Xäëÿëèíãâèñòîâ
Ã.Ìîðîç
1
Âìåñòîýïèãðàôîâ:
WhyisLaTeXsocomplicated?
ShowcaseofbeautifultypographydoneinTeX&friends
ïîñëåäíÿÿâåðñèÿõýíäàóòà:
http://1drv.ms/1I94klz
(28ÿíâàðÿ2015ã.)
1Â÷åìòåõàòü?..òåøèòü?..
2
2×åãî÷èòàòü?
2
3Äëÿíà÷àëà...
2
3.1T
E
X-êîìàíäû
..................................
2
3.2T
E
X-ôàéëû
...................................
3
3.3Ïðîñòåéøèåêîìàíäû
.............................
4
4ÍåìíîãîìàòåìàòèêèâL
A
T
E
X
5
5Åùåíåñêîëüêîñëîâ...
6
5.1îïðåàìáóëåèîáùåìâèäåäîêóìåíòà
.....................
6
5.2îáèçîáðàæåíèÿõ
................................
6
5.3îòàáëèöàõ
...................................
6
5.4îñêîáêàõ
....................................
6
5.5îáèíêîðïîðàöèèôàéëîââ*.pdf
.......................
7
5.6îäîáàâëåíèèèïåðåíàçíà÷åíèèêîìàíä
...................
7
5.7îïðåçåíòàöèÿõâL
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T
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X:ïàêåòbeamer
....................
8
5.8îïîñòåðàõâL
A
T
E
X
...............................
9
6L
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Xäëÿëèíãâèñòîâ
9
6.1Ïðèìåðûèãëîññèðîâàíèå
...........................
9
6.2Îôîðìëåíèÿïðîãðàììíîãîêîäà
.......................
11
6.3ÂL
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T
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Xìîæíîêîäèòü
.............................
12
6.4ÇíàêèIPA
....................................
12
6.5Âîêàëè÷åñêèåñèñòåìû
.............................
12
6.6Îáîçíà÷åíèÿïðèíÿòûåâìåòðèêå
.......................
13
6.7ÒàáëèöûâÒåîðèèÎïòèìàëüíîñòè
......................
13
6.8Êîíå÷íûåàâòîìàòû
..............................
13
6.9Äåðåâüÿ
.....................................
14
6.10Îòîáðàæåíèåçàâèñèìîñòåéâïðåäëîæåíèè
.................
17
6.11Êàòåãîðèàëüíàÿãðàììàòèêà
.........................
17
6.12ÌàòðèöûHPSGèLFG
............................
17
6.13Ðåïðåçåíòàöèèäèñêóðñèâíûõòåîðèé
.....................
18
1
ßî÷åíüáëàãîäàðåíÂ.Êàïèòîíîâó:èìåííîîíìåíÿäîëãîñîáëàçíÿëL
A
T
E
Xîì,àïîòîì,ñîáëàçíèâ,íåáðîñèëìåíÿíà
âîëþñóäåá,à,ìîæíîñêàçàòü,ïîñòàâèëíàíîãè.Êðîìåòîãîìíåî÷åíüïîìîãëèâèäåîñêóðñàÄ.Ô¼äîðîâûõ.
1
1
Â÷åìòåõàòü?..òåøèòü?..
Íàáèðàòüôàéëû,êîòîðûåïîòîììîæíîñêîìïèëèðîâàòü,ìîæíîãäåóãîäíî,îäíàêîïðîöåññ
íàáîðàìîæíîóïðîñòèòü(äàëüíåéøàÿòèïîëîãèÿóïåðòà
îòñþäà
,òàê÷òîïîäðîáíîñòè
ñòîèòñìîòðåòüâïåðâîèñòî÷íèêå):
6
òåêñòîâûåðåäàêòîðûîáùåãîíàçíà÷åíèÿñïîääåðæêîéTeX(
Emacs
,
vim
,
geany
,
Eclipse
,
Notepad++
,
TextMate
,
SublimeText
èäð.);
6
ñïåöèàëèçèðîâàííûåòåêñòîâûåTeX-ðåäàêòîðû(
TeXworks
,
TeXstudio
,
Texmaker
,
gummi
,
Kile
,
TexShop
,
TeXnicCenter
,
WinEdt
èäð.);
6
âèçóàëüíûåðåäàêòîðû(
LyX
,
TeXmacs
è
BaKoMaTexWord
);
6
web-îðèåíòèðîâàííûå(online)ðåäàêòîðû(
ShareLaTeX
,
LaTeXLab
,
writeLaTeX
,
Papeeria
,
Verboses
èò.ä.);
6
èãðóøêèäëÿR(
Sweave
,
knitr
).
ÊðîìåòîãîíàÂèêèïåäèè
åñòüñòðàíèöà
,ïîñâÿùåííàÿñðàâíåíèþðàçíûõTeX-ðåäàêòîðîâ.
2
×åãî÷èòàòü?
Ñ.Ì.ËüâîâñêèéÍàáîðèâ¼ðñòêàâñèñòåìåL
A
T
E
X
,
È.À.Êîòåëüíèêîâ,Ï.Ç.×åáîòàåâL
A
T
E
Xïî-ðóññêè
,
Ê.Â.ÂîðîíöîâL
A
T
E
Xâïðèìåðàõ
,
Ñ.Â.Êëèìåíêî,Ì.Â.ËèñèíàL
A
T
E
Xèåãîêîìàíäû
,
S.PakinTheComprehensiveLATEXSymbolList
,
DickimawLaTeXBooks
,
ÑïèñîêêîìàíäL
A
T
E
X,ñîñòàâëåííûéNASA
,
TheLaTeXforLinguists
,
âèêè
,
ôîðóì
(ñþäàïîñòóïàåòïðèìåðíîïî5âîïðîñîââ÷àñ),
ìàíóàëûâCTAN
.
3
Äëÿíà÷àëà...
3.1
T
E
X-êîìàíäû
T
E
X-ôàéëûýòîñìåñüòåêñòàèêîäà.Âîáðàáîòêåïîñëåäíåãîó÷àñòâóþòîêîëî10ñèìâîëîâ:

\
ñîáðàòíîãîñëýøàíà÷èíàþòñÿâñåêîìàíäûâL
A
T
E
X;

%
çíàêïðîöåíòàèñïîëüçóåòñÿäëÿòîãî,÷òîáûçàêîììåíòèðîâàòüñòðîêó;

{
è
}
ñêîáêèèñïîëüçóþòñÿäëÿòîãî,÷òîáûçàäàòüñôåðóäåéñòâèÿêàêîé-ëèáîêîìàíäû;

$
çíàêîìäîëëàðàîãðàíè÷èâàþòìàòåìàòè÷åñêèåôîðìóëû,ââîäèòñÿìàòåìàòè÷åñêèé
ðåæèì;

~
òèëüäîéâL
A
T
E
Xêîäèðóåòñÿíåðàçðûâíûéïðîáåë;

_
è
^
ýòèçíàêèîáîçíà÷àþòèíäåêñûâìàòåìàòè÷åñêèõôîðìóëàõ;

&
è
#
ýòèçíàêèèãðàþòâàæíóþðîëüïðèñîñòàâëåíèèòàáëèöèäð;

ïðîáåëâL
A
T
E
Xåîäèí,ñêîëüêîáûâêîäåïðîáåëîâèòàáóëÿöèéíåáûëîíàëÿïàíî;

ïåðåõîäíàíîâóþñòðîêóâL
A
T
E
Xåóñòðîåíñëåäóþùèìîáðàçîì:

îäèíèìåíüøåEnter'îâíè÷åãî;

äâàèáîëååEnter'îâ
îäèí
ïåðåõîäíàñëåäóþùóþñòðîêó.
ßçûê-íåáåññìûñëåííûéêîíâåéåðïîñáîðó
äåòàëåé.ßçûê-ýòîîãðîìíàÿíàïèñàííàÿêíèãà.
Âñå,÷òîìûïðîèçíîñèìèïðîèçíåñåì,
âýòîéêíèãåóæåíàïèñàíî.(Â.À.Ïëóíãÿí)
ßçûê-íåáåññìûñëåííûéêîíâåéåðïîñáîðó
äåòàëåé.ßçûê-ýòîîãðîìíàÿíàïèñàííàÿ
êíèãà.Âñå,÷òîìûïðîèçíîñèìèïðîèçíåñåì,
âýòîéêíèãå%íó-íó,êîíå÷íî...
óæåíàïèñàíî.(Â.À.Ïëóíãÿí)
2
ÊîìàíäûâL
A
T
E
Xìîæíîðàçäåëèòüíà:
6
ãîëûåêîìàíäû,íàïðèìåð,
\LaTeX
L
A
T
E
X;
6
êîìàíäûñîñôåðîéäåéñòâèÿ(àðãóìåíòàìè):
\textbf{ñåé÷àñçèìà}

ñåé÷àñçèìà
;
6
íåêîòîðûåêîìàíäûïèøóòñÿâíóòðèñôåðûäåéñòâèÿ:
{\largeÄëÿëèíãâèñòîâ}

Äëÿëèíãâèñòîâ
;
6
îêðóæåíèÿ:
ýòî
L
A
T
E
Xäëÿëèíãâèñòîâ
\begin{center}
ýòî\\
\LaTeX\äëÿëèíãâèñòîâ
\end{center}
ÊîìàíäûâL
A
T
E
Xíà÷èíàþòñÿñîáðàòíîãîñëýøà\,àçàêàí÷èâàþòñÿ:

äðóãîéêîìàíäîéL
A
T
E
X;

îäíèìèçôóíêöèîíàëüíûõñèìâîëîâ;

çíàêîìïðåïèíàíèÿ;

ïåðåíîñîìñòðîêè;

ïðîáåëîì(îäíàêîâýòîìñëó÷àåïðîáåëëèøüçàêîí÷èòêîìàíäóèíåâñòàâèòïðîáåëà
âèòîãîâûéòåêñò;äëÿâñòàâêèïðîáåëàïîñëåôîðìóëûñòîèòïîñòàâèòü
\
);
L
A
T
E
Xäëÿëèíãâèñòîâ
L
A
T
E
Xäëÿëèíãâèñòîâ
\LaTeX\ äëÿ ëèíãâèñòîâ
\LaTeX äëÿ ëèíãâèñòîâ
Ïðîïèñíûåèñòðî÷íûåáóêâûâêîìàíäàõðàçëè÷àþòñÿ:
\large
,
\Large
è
\LARGE

ðàçíûåêîìàíäû.
3.2
T
E
X-ôàéëû
T
E
X-ôàéëûèìåþòðàñøèðåíèå*.tex,îäíàêîïðèêîìïèëÿöèèâîçíèêàåòêó÷àäðóãèõ
ôàéëîâ,òàê÷òî
âûäåëèòåñâîåìóïðîåêòóöåëóþïàïêó
,èìåííîâíåéáóäåòõðàíèòñÿ
âåñüìóñîð,êîòîðûéíóæåíäëÿêîìïèëÿöèè.
ÏðàâèëüíûéT
E
X-ôàéëñîñòîèòèç
òåêñòà
(îãðàíè÷åíîêðóæåíèåì
\begin{document}
è
\end{document}

ïðåàìáóëû
,ãäåïåðå÷èñëÿþòñÿõàðàêòåðèñòèêèäîêóìåíòà,âñå
äîïîëíèòåëüíûåïàêåòû,êîòîðûåèñïîëüçîâàíûâòåêñòå,ïåðåíàçíà÷àþòñÿêîìàíäûèäð.
ËþáîéôðàãìåíòT
E
X-ôàéëìîæåòõðàíèòüñÿâäðóãîìT
E
X-ôàéëå.Âòàêîìñëó÷àåíóæíûé
ôðàãìåíòäîëæåííàõîäèòñÿâòîéæåïàïêå,÷òîèîñíîâíîéôàéë,àââîäèòñÿêîìàíäîé
\input{
íàçâàíèåôàéëà
}
.Íàïðèìåð,ïåðâûåñòðîêèäàííîãîõýíäàóòàâûãëÿäÿòòàê:
\input{preamble}
\begin{document}
\begin{center}
{\Large\LaTeX\äëÿëèíãâèñòîâ}
\end{center}
...
\end{document}
Òàêîéñïîñîáïîçâîëÿåòðàçäåëèòüäîêóìåíòíàôðàãìåíòûèðåäàêòèðîâàòüèõíåçàâèñèìî,
÷òîèìååòñìûñëïðèíàïèñàíèè,ñêàæåì,êíèãèèëèñîâìåñòíîéñòàòüè.
3
ïîäâîéíîìóêëèêóíàèêîíêóîòêðîåòñÿ
øàáëîíïðåàìáóëû
,âêîòîðîéóæåóêà-
çàíûîñíîâíûåëèíãâèñòè÷åñêèåïàêåòû
2
.×òîáûäîáàâèòüíåäîñòàþùèéïàêåò,äîñòàòî÷íî
íàïèñàòüâïðåàìáóëå
\usepackage{
íàçâàíèåïàêåòà
}
.Îáÿçàòåëüíîíóæíîïîìíèòü,÷òî
íåêîòîðûåïàêåòûìîãóòâñòóïàòüäðóãñäðóãîìâêîíôëèêòû,ïîýòîìóäëÿíåêîòîðûõ
ïàêåòîââàæíî,âêàêîìïîðÿäêåîíèäîáàâëåíû.
3.3
Ïðîñòåéøèåêîìàíäû
ïîëóæèðíûé
\textbf{ïîëóæèðíûé}
ïîä÷åðêèâàíèå
\underline{ïîä÷åðêèâàíèå}
èòàëèê
\textit{èòàëèê}
íàêëîííûé
\sl{íàêëîííûé}
ìàëûåïðîïèñíûå(smallcaps)
\textsc{ìàëûåïðîïèñíûå(smallcaps)}
áåççàñå÷åê
\sf{áåççàñå÷åê}
ïèøóùàÿìàøèíêà
\tt{ïèøóùàÿìàøèíêà}
âðàìêå
\fbox{âðàìêå}
-
------
òåêñòâ¾êàâû÷êàõ¿
``òåêñò''âêàâû÷êàõ☥┦┥☥�☥┦┥☥�
âûðàâíèâàíèåïîöåíòðó
\begin{center}\end{center}
âûðàâíèâàíèåïîëåâîìóêðàþ
\begin{flushleft}\end{flushleft}
âûðàâíèâàíèåïîïðàâîìóêðàþ
\begin{flushright}\end{flushright}
Ðàçìåð
{\tinyÐàçìåð}
Ðàçìåð
{\scriptsizeÐàçìåð}
Ðàçìåð
{\footnotesizeÐàçìåð}
Ðàçìåð
{\smallÐàçìåð}
Ðàçìåð
{\normalsizeÐàçìåð}
Ðàçìåð
{\largeÐàçìåð}
Ðàçìåð
{\LargeÐàçìåð}
Ðàçìåð
{\LARGEÐàçìåð}
Ðàçìåð
{\hugeÐàçìåð}
öâåòíîéòåêñò
\color{CornflowerBlue}{öâåòíîéòåêñò}
öâåòíîéôîí
\colorbox{YellowGreen}{öâåòíîéôîí}
çàäàòüðàçäåëûèèõíàçâàíèÿ
\section{},\subsection{},\subsubsection{}
ñãåíåðèðîâàòüîãëàâëåíèå
\tableofcontents
ñäåëàòüêîììåíòàðèé
\footnote{}
ñíîâîéñòðîêè
\\
àáçàöíûéîòñòóï
\par
óáèðàåòîáÿçàòåëüíûéàáçàöíûéîòñòóï
\noindent
ñîçäàíèåîáúåêòàññûëêè
\label{}
ññûëêàíàðàçäåëñîáúåêòîì
\ref{}
ññûëêàíàñòðàíèöó
\pageref{}
url-ññûëêà
\href{http://www...}{êëèêàòüñþäà}
×òîáûíàéòèíåñòàíäàðòíûéñèìâîëìîæíîèñïîëüçîâàòü
ýòîòðåñóðñ
.
Îòîìêàêçàäàòüíóæíûéöâåòìîæíîïîñìîòðåòü
çäåñü
.
2
Ôóíêöèþîòêðûòèÿâëîæåííûõôàéëîâïîääåðæèâàþòäàëåêîíåâñåñðåäñòâàäëÿïðîñìîòðà*.pdf.Òî÷íîïîääåðæèâàþò
ïëàòíûå
AdobeAcrobat
è
PDF-XChangeViewer
.
4
4
ÍåìíîãîìàòåìàòèêèâL
A
T
E
X
ÂL
A
T
E
Xðàçëè÷àþòîáû÷íûéðåæèìèìàòåìàòè÷åñêèéðåæèì,êîòîðûéèñïîëüçóåòñÿäëÿ
ââîäàôîðìóë.Âìàòåìàòè÷åñêîìðåæèìåðàçëè÷àþòñÿôîðìóëûâíóòðèòåêñòà(èõñòîèò
ââîäèòüîêðóæåíèåì
$6x+2$
)èôîðìóëû,çàíèìàþùèåöåëóþñòðîêó(èõñëåäóåòââîäèòü
äâîéíûìçíàêîì
$
):
Òîåñòüìîæíîçàïèñàòü
6
x
+2
èëè:
6
x
+2
;
èíîãäàýòîáûâàåòâàæíî.
Òîåñòüìîæíîçàïèñàòü$6x+2$èëè:
$$6x+2,$$
èíîãäàýòîáûâàåòâàæíî.
Èíîãäàáûâàåòíóæíîïåðåéòèâîáû÷íûéðåæèìâíóòðèìàòåìàòè÷åñêîãî,âòàêèõ
ñëó÷àÿõèñïîëüçóåòñÿîêðóæåíèå
\mbox{}
.
x
0
=1
äëÿâñåõ
x:
$x^0=1\mbox{äëÿâñåõ}x.$
Äàëååñëåäóåòïåðå÷åíüêîìàíä,íèñêîëüêîíåïðåòåíäóþùèéíàïîëíîòó:
5

5

5=125
$5\times5\cdot5=125$
5
z

6
x
6
4
y
$5z\geqslant6x\leqslant4y$
a
+
b
c
=
d
$\frac{a+b}{c}=d$
2

21
x
6
=2

3
7
x
$2^{-21x}\ne2^{-3^{7x}}$
a
n
=
a
n

1
+
d
=
a
1
+
d

(
n

1)
$a_n=a_{n-1}+d=a_1+d\cdot(n-1)$
(
x;y
)
j
x
2
+
y
2
=1
${(x,y)\midx^2+y^2=1}$
6
p
x
3
y
=
p
x
y
$\sqrt[6]{x^{3y}}=\sqrt{x^y}$
P
n
i
=1
n
2
=
n
(
n
+1)(2
n
+1)
6
$\sum_{i=1}^nn^2=\frac{n(n+1)(2n+1)}{6}$
n
P
i
=1
n
2
=
n
(
n
+1)(2
n
+1)
6
$\sum\limits_{i=1}^nn^2=\frac{n(n+1)(2n+1)}{6}$
Q
n
i
=1
(
n
)=
n
!
$\prod_{i=1}^n(n)=n!$
n
Q
i
=1
(
n
)=
n
!
$\prod\limits_{i=1}^n(n)=n!$
n
ñëàã.
z
}|
{
1+3+
:::
+(2
n

1)=
n
2
$\overbrace{1+3+...+(2n-1)}^{\mbox{$n$ñëàã.}}=n^2$
1+3+
:::
+(2
n

1)
|
{z
}
n
ñëàã.
=
n
2
$\underbrace{1+3+...+(2n-1)}_{\mbox{$n$ñëàã.}}=n^2$
lim
x
!
0
sin
x
x
=1
$\lim_{x\rightarrow0}\frac{\sinx}{x}=1$
lim
x
!1
1
x
=0
$\lim\limits_{x\rightarrow\infty}\frac{1}{x}=0$
ln(
x

y
)=log
e
(
x
)+log
e
(
y
)
$\ln(x\cdoty)=\log_{e}(x)+\log_{e}(y)$
1
R
0
e

t
t
z

1
dt
$\int\limits_0^\inftye^{-t}t^{z-1}dt$
R
1
0
e

t
t
z

1
dt
$\int_0^\inftye^{-t}t^{z-1}dt$

n
k

=
n
!
k
!(
n

k
)!
${n\choosek}=\frac{n!}{k!(n-k)!}$
~a
+
�!
AB
\vec{a}+\overrightarrow{AB}$
4
ABC
4
DFQ
$\triangle{ABC}\sim\triangle{DFQ}$
\
ABC
6\
DFQ
$\angle{ABC}\leqslant\angle{DFQ}$
AB
k
DF
$AB\parallelDF$
8
x
9
c
(
x

c
=
x
)
$\forallx\existsc(x\timesc=x)$
:
(
A
_
B
)=
:
(
A
)
^:
(
B
)
$\neg(A\lorB)=\neg(A)\land\neg(B)$
A
4
B
=(
A
[
B
)
n
(
A
\
B
)
$A\triangleB=(A\cupB)\textbackslash(A\capB)$
A

B

B

A
$A\subsetB\equivB\supsetA$





a
a
a
b
a
c
a
f
a
e
a
d
a
g
a
h
a
i





Ìîæíîåùåïîïðîáîâàòü
îêðóæåíèÿmatrixèpmatrix.
$\begin{vmatrix}
a_{a}&a_{b}&a_{c}\\
a_{f}&a_{e}&a_{d}\\
a_{g}&a_{h}&a_{i}
\end{vmatrix}$
5
5
Åùåíåñêîëüêîñëîâ...
5.1
îïðåàìáóëåèîáùåìâèäåäîêóìåíòà
êëàññûäîêóìåíòîâ
\begin{itemize}
\begin{enumerate}
5.2
îáèçîáðàæåíèÿõ
subfigure
Äëÿñîçäàíèÿïðîñòûõñõåììîæíîèñïîëüçîâàòüðàçíûåáåñïëàòíûåïðîãðàììû
(
TikzEdt
,
GeoGebra
),êîòîðûåïðèñâîåìWYSIWYG-ôîðìàòåñîçäàþòêîäâ
tikz
.
Îäíàêîïðåæäåâñåãîýòàïðîãðàììàïðåäíàçíà÷åíàäëÿìàòåìàòè÷åñêèõñõåì,òàê÷òî
ïîòðåáóåòñÿíåêîòîðîåìàñòåðñòâîèóìåíèåðàçáèðàòüñÿâêîäå
tikz
,ïðåæäå÷åìïîëó÷èòñÿ
ñäåëàòü÷òî-òîïóòíîå.Âîò,ïðèìåðñåìàíòè÷åñêîéêàðòû,ñîçäàííîéâTikzEdt:
instrumentwitha
functionaledge
knife,saw
clow
instrumentwitha
functionaledge-point
arrow,spear
objectwitha
sharpform
toe,nose
German,stumph
Ñåìàíòè÷åñêàÿêàðòàïðèçíàêà`òóïîé'(Ì.Êþñåâà,Ä.Ðûæîâà)
5.3
îòàáëèöàõ
Êðîìåòîãîâàæíîñêàçàòü,÷òîñóùåñòâóåò
ðåñóðñ
(àòàêæå
åùåîäèíïîõóæå
,ñäåëàí-
íûéKevinM.Ryan),êîòîðûéñîçäàåòêîäòàáëèöL
A
T
E
X,ïðåäîñòàâëÿÿáîëååïðèâû÷íûé
èíòåðôåéñäëÿðåäàêòèðîâàíèÿòàáëèö.Òîåñòüòàáëèöóìîæíîíåêîäèðîâàòü,àñîçäàâàòü
íàweb-èíòåðôåéñåèëèæåâëþáîìîáû÷íîìòåêñòîâîìðåäàêòîðå,àïîòîìêîïèðîâàòü
íàweb-èíòåðôåéñ.
5.4
îñêîáêàõ
Âñåñêîáêèìîæíîíàáðàòüñêëàâèàòóðû,êðîìåôèãóðíûõ,äëÿýêðàíèðîâàíèÿêîòîðûõ
òðåáóåòñÿïîñòàâèòüîáðàòíûéñëýø.Îäíàêîáûâàåòòàê,÷òîâòåêñòåïîÿâëÿþòñÿîáúåêòû,
êîòîðûåçàíèìàþòáîëüøåìåñòà,÷åìñòðî÷êàèòîãäàñêîáêèäîëæíûáûòüðàñòÿíóòû.
Ýòîäîñòèãàåòñÿâìàòåìàòè÷åñêîìðåæèìåïðèïîìîùèêîìàíä
\left
è
\right
ïåðåä
ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèìèñêîáêàìè.Ïðèýòîìïîñëåêàæäîéèçêîìàíäìîãóòáûòüðàçíûåñêîáêè
èëèäàæåìîæåòèõíåáûòü(íîäàæååñëèêàêîé-òîñêîáêèáûòüíåäîëæíî,âñåðàâíî
íóæíîïðèâîäèòüêîìàíäó,íîñïóñòûìàðãóìåíòîì).
k
!

cor
-ant

$$k\rightarrow
\left[
\begin{tabular}{c}
\textsc{cor}\\
-ant
\end{tabular}
\right]$$
6

âñåôèãíÿ,êðîìåï÷åë
àåñëèïîäóìàòü...
$$\left\{
\begin{tabular}{l}
âñåôèãíÿ,êðîìåï÷åë\\
àåñëèïîäóìàòü...
\end{tabular}
\right.$$
5.5
îáèíêîðïîðàöèèôàéëîââ*.pdf
Äëÿòîãî÷òîáûâæèâèòüôàéëâòåêñòìîæíîèñïîëüçîâàòüïàêåò
attachfile
(ñì.
ðó-
êîâîäñòâî
).Âðóêîâîäñòâåîïèñàíîìíîãîðàçíûõâàðèàíòîâèñïîëüçîâàíèÿ,íî,âèäèìî,
ñàìûéæèçíåííûéâûãëÿäèòòàê:
1.
ïîëîæèòåïðèñîåäèíÿåìûéôàéëâîäíóïàïêóñâàøèìtex-ôàéëîì;
2.
âñòàâüòåêîìàíäó
\textattachfile{
èìÿôàéëà
}{
òåêñòññûëêè
}
.
Òåêñòññûëêèìîæåòáûòüîáû÷íûìòåêñòîìñëþáûìôîðìàòèðîâàíèåìèëèäàæåêîìàíäîé
\includegraphics{
íàçâàíèåêàðòèíêè
}
.
Äàííàÿêîìàíäàâêëþ÷àåòâäîêóìåíòêîììåíòàðèé,êëèêíóâíàêîòîðûéïîëüçîâàòåëü
ìîæåòîòêðûòüâëîæåííûéôàéë.Âñåâëîæåííûåôàéëûáóäóòîòêðûâàòüñÿâñòîðîííåé
ïðîãðàììå,óñòàíîâëåííîéíàïîëüçîâàòåëüñêîìêîìïüþòåðå,òàê÷òîâíóòðè*.pdfâàø,ê
ïðèìåðó,âèäåîôàéëïðîèãðûâàòüñÿíåáóäåò
3
.Âñâÿçèñýòèìíóæíîáûòüîñòîðîæíûìñ
ôîðìàòîìâëîæåííûõôàéëîâ,òàêêàêýêçîòè÷åñêèåôîðìàòûìîãóòíåîòêðûòüñÿâäðóãîé
îïåðàöèîííîéñèñòåìå.Àâñâÿçèñòåì,÷òîíåêîòîðûåïðîãðàììûäëÿïðîñìîòðà*.pdf
íåïîääåðæèâàþòêîììåíòàðèè,èìååòñìûñëäóáëèðîâàòüôàéëññûëêîéèëè÷åì-íèáóäü
àíàëîãè÷íûì.
5.6
îäîáàâëåíèèèïåðåíàçíà÷åíèèêîìàíä
Íàáèðàòüäëèííûåêîìàíäûìîæåòïîêàçàòüñÿèíîãäàóòîìèòåëüíî,ïîýòîìóèíîãäàäëÿ
÷àñòîïîâòîðÿþùèõýëåìåíòîâäîêóìåíòàìîæíîïðèäóìàòüñîêðàùåííûåêîìàíäû.
Íàïðèìåð,ïðåäñòàâèìñåáåñèòóàöèþ,êîãäàâäîêóìåíòå÷àñòîâñòðå÷àåòñÿPython,à
òàêêàêýòîöåíòðàëüíûéãåðîéäîêóìåíòà,òîõî÷åòñÿ÷òîáûïåðåäýòèìñëîâîìâñåãäàáûë
ëîãîòèï,àñàìîñëîâîÿâëÿëîñüáûãèïåðññûëêîé,êîòîðîåáûîòñûëàëàíàPython-ñàéò.
Ìîæíîêàæäûéðàçâñòàâëÿòüêîìàíäó:
\includegraphics[height=2ex]{python.png}\textbf{\href{https://www.python.org/}
{Python}}
àìîæíîïðèïîìîùèêîìàíäû
\newcommand{
èìÿíîâîéêîìàíäû
}{
ñîäåðæàíèåêîìàíäû
}
íàçíà÷èòüíîâóþêîìàíäó:
\newcommand{\python}{\includegraphics[height=2ex]{python.png}
\textbf{\href{https://www.python.org/}{Python}}}
Òåïåðüêîìàíäà
\python
áóäåòäàâàòüñëåäóþùèéðåçóëüòàò:
Python
.
Ìûñîçäàëèíîâóþãîëóþêîìàíäó,îäíàêîìîæíîñîçäàâàòüèñîáñòâåííûåêîìàíäû
ñàðãóìåíòàìè:
newcommand[
êîëè÷åñòâîàðãóìåíòîâ
]{
ñîäåðæàíèåêîìàíäû
}
,àíàìåñòå
àðãóìåíòîââñîäåðæàíèèêîìàíäûñëåäóåòñòàâèòüðåøåòêó
#
èíîìåðàðãóìåíòà:
3
Âñòàâêààíèìàöèèâ*.pdfâîçìîæíà,îäíàêîîíàäîñòóïíàíåâîâñåõïðîãðàììàõïðîñìîòðà*.pdf.Ïîòðÿñàþùèåðàáîòû
ìîæíîïîñìîòðåòü
âðóêîâîäñòâå
êïàêåòó
animate
.
7
5.7
îïðåçåíòàöèÿõâL
A
T
E
X:ïàêåòbeamer
Äëÿòîãî,÷òîáûäåëàòüïðåçåíòàöèèâL
A
T
E
Xîáû÷íîèñïîëüçóåòñÿïàêåò
beamer
(ñì.
áîëüøå÷åìðóêîâîäñòâî
èëè
âèêè-ðàçäåë
).Âðåçóëüòàòåïîëó÷àåòñÿôàéë*.pdf,òàê
÷òîàíèìèðîâàííûåýôôåêòûâòàêîéïðåçåíòàöèèíåïðåäïîëàãàþòñÿ(ðàçâå÷òîêòî-òî
çàõî÷åòîñâîèòüïàêåò
animate
).
Âíåøíååîôîðìëåíèåïðåçåíòàöèèâ
beamer
ðàñïàäàåòñÿíàäâàïàðàìåòðà:ñòèëü
îôîðìëåíèÿïðåçåíòàöèè(ââîäèòñÿâïðåàìáóëåêîìàíäîé
\usetheme{
èìÿòåìû
}

öâåòîâàÿñõåìàîôîðìëåíèå(ââîäèòñÿâïðåàìáóëåêîìàíäîé
\usecolortheme{
èìÿòå-
ìû
}
).Ñòàíäàðòíûåñòèëèîôîðìëåíèÿïåðå÷èñëåíû,íàïðèìåð,
çäåñü
4
.Âñåãäàìîæíî
îòðåäàêòèðîâàòüñòèëåâîéôàéëäëÿñâîèõíóæä.
Äëÿíàïèñàíèÿïðåçåíòàöèèíóæíîñìåíèòüêëàññäîêóìåíòà:
\documentclass{beamer}
.
Âçàâèñèìîñòèîòïàðàìåòðà
[t]
(âåðõ),
[c]
(öåíòð)èëè
[m]
(íèç)çàâèñèòâåðòèêàëü-
íîåâûðàâíèâàíèåíàñëàéäàõ(íàïðèìåð,
\documentclass[c]{beamer}
).Áîëüøèíñòâî
ôóíêöèéL
A
T
E
Xîñòàåòñÿïðåæíèì,îäíàêîìåíÿåòñÿñòðóêòóðàïîäà÷èòåêñòà:
6
îáùàÿñòðóêòóðàïðåçåíòàöèèçàäàåòñÿêîìàíäàìè
\section{}
,
\subsection{}
èò.ï.
5
6
ïîòîìðàçäåëûèïîäðàçäåëûäåëÿòñÿíàôðåéìû,êîòîðûåçàäàþòñÿîêðóæåíèåì
\begin{frame}
è
\end{frame}
èèìåþòñîáñòâåííûåçàãîëîâêè(
\frametitle{
çàãîëîâîê
ôðåéìà
}
,
\framesubtitle{
ïîäçàãîëîâîêôðåéìà
}
)
6
;
6
ïðèïîìîùèêîìàíä
\begin{block}{
íàçâàíèåáëîêà
}
è
\end{block}
ìîæíîçàäàòü
ñâîþñòðóêòóðóâíóòðèîäíîãîôðåéìà.
6
êàæäûéôðåéìîòîáðàæàåòñÿïðèïîìîùèñëàéäàèëèãðóïïûñëàéäîâ,êîòîðûåñîîò-
âåòñòâóþòîäíîéñòðàíèöåâ*.pdfôàéëå.
Êàêèåâàæíûåôóíêöèèïðåäîñòàâëÿåòïàêåò:

äëÿâûäåëåíèÿêðîìåîáû÷íûõñðåäñòâôîðìàòèðîâàíèÿ(ñì.ðàçäåë
3.3
)èñïîëüçóåòñÿêî-
ìàíäà
\alert{
îáúåêòâûäåëåíèÿ
}
èëèîêðóæåíèå
\begin{alertenv}
è
\end{alertenv}
,
êîòîðûåìåíÿþòöâåòîáúåêòàâûäåëåíèÿíàêðàñíûé(âáîëüøèíñòâåñòèëåé);
\begin{frame}
\begin{forest}
[DP
[\alert{D}[\alert{\textit{a}}]]
[\alert{NP}[\textit{letter}]]]
\end{forest}
\end{frame}

äëÿçàäåðæêèïîÿâëåíèÿêàêèõ-ëèáîîáúåêòîâíàñëàéäåìîæíîèñïîëüçîâàòüêîìàíäó
\pause
,êîòîðàÿñîçäàåòäîïîëíèòåëüíûåñëàéäû.Îäíàêîâíóòðèíåêîòîðûõëèíãâè-
ñòè÷åñêèõîêðóæåíèéêîìàíäàíåðàáîòàåò.
4
Ñòðî÷êèýòîòåìûîôîðìëåíèÿ,àñòîëáöûöâåòîâûåñõåìû.
5
Íåîáÿçàòåëüíîñîçäàâàòüâñþýòóñòðóêòóðó,îäíàêîâíåêîòîðûõñòèëÿõîôîðìëåíèÿçàøèòîîòîáðàæåíèÿïëàíà
ïðåçåíòàöèèíàêàæäîìñëàéäå,êîòîðîåòàêæåêàêîãëàâëåíèÿñîáèðàåòñÿèçíàçâàíèéðàçäåëîâèïîäðàçäåëîâ.
6
Åñëèêàêîé-òîòåêñòíåïîïàëíèâêàêîéôðåéì,òîïàêåò
beamer
ïîìåùàåòíàïèñàííîåâîòäåëüíûéñëàéä.
8
1.
3.
2.
4.
\begin{frame}
Øóìíûåìîæíîðàçäåëèòüíà
\begin{itemize}
\itemñòîïû(t,k)
\itemôðèêàòèâíûå(f,s)\pause
\itemàôôðèêàòû\pause(ts,dz)\pause
\itemòýïû
\end{itemize}
\end{frame}

Êðîìåòîãîâïàêåòå
beamer
ëþáîåôîðìàòèðîâàíèåìîæåòïîëó÷èòüíåîáÿçàòåëüíûé
ïàðàìåòðâòðåóãîëüíûõñêîáêàõ,âêîòîðîìóêàçûâàåòñÿâêàêèõñëàéäàõôðåéìàäàííîå
ôîðìàòèðîâàíèåäîëæíîîòîáðàæàòüñÿ.
1.
3.
2.
4.
\begin{frame}
\alert2-┢-26;{Øóìíûå}ìîæíîðàçäåëèòüíà
\begin{itemize}
\itemñòîïû\textbf1-3☒-26;㉠{(t,k)}
\item2,3☢,26;㉠ôðèêàòèâíûå(f,s)
\itemàôôðèêàòû(ts,dz)
\item1,3,4☒,26;̦,;♂�\color3,4☲,26;䉐
[RGB]{0,100,200}{òýïû}
\end{itemize}
\end{frame}
Êñîæàëåíèþ,íåâñåïàêåòûõîðîøîðàáîòàþòâïàêåòå
beamer
(íàïðèìåð,îòëè÷íî
ðàáîòàþòïàêåòû
vowel
è
forest
,íîíåðàáîòàþòïàêåòû
tipa
,
tikz-dependency
èäð.),
òàê÷òî,âåðîÿòíî,ëó÷øèìðåøåíèåìâòàêîìñëó÷àåáóäåòñêîìïèëèðîâàòüâñåâîòäåëüíîì
äîêóìåíòå,àâïðåçåíòàöèþâñòàâëÿòüóæåãîòîâûé*.pdf.
5.8
îïîñòåðàõâL
A
T
E
X
ÑîçäàíèåïîñòåðàâL
A
T
E
X
âîëíóåòëþäåé
,è,âèäèìî,âñåæåïîêàïðîñòîãîñïîñîáà
ñîçäàíèÿïîñòåðàñíóëÿíåò.Ñàìûéïðîñòîéïóòü:âîñïîëüçîâàòüñÿãîòîâûìèøàáëîíàìè
çäåñü
èëè
çäåñü
.Äëÿñîçäàíèÿïîñòåðàñíóëÿìîæíîâîñïîëüçîâàòüñÿïàêåòàìè
a0poster
,
beamerposter
èëè
tikzposter
(ëèøüïîñëåäíèéïàêåòèìååòñíîñíóþäîêóìåíòàöèþ).
Ïðèñîçäàíèèïîñòåðàäîñòàòî÷íîâàæíîðàñïîëîæåíèåáëîêîâ,÷òîïðîòèâîðå÷èòîñíîâíîé
ôèëîñîôèèL
A
T
E
Xà,ïîêîòîðîéïîëüçîâàòåëþñëåäóåòäóìàòüîñîäåðæàíèè,àíåîôîðìå.
Òàê÷òîïðåêðàñíî,åñëèñòðóêòóðàêàêîãî-òîèçøàáëîíîâÂàñóñòðàèâàåò(êîëè÷åñòâî
áëîêîâ,èõöâåòèò.ï.ïîìåíÿòüäîñòàòî÷íîëåãêî),åñëèæåíåò,òîïîäãîíêèøàáëîíà
ïîäñåáÿìîæåòçàíÿòüäîñòàòî÷íîìíîãîâðåìåíè.
6
L
A
T
E
Xäëÿëèíãâèñòîâ
6.1
Ïðèìåðûèãëîññèðîâàíèå
Äëÿòîãî,÷òîáûïèñàòüïðèìåðûèãëîññèðîâàòüáûëîíàïèñàíîìíîãîïàêåòîâèñòèëåé:
6
covington
6
gb4e
6
textglos
6
dvgloss
6
linguex
6
leipzig
6
expex
6
philex
Çäåñüìûïðèâåäåìïðèìåððàáîòûïàêåòà
philex
.Êîìàíäîé
\lb
ââîäèòñÿïðèìåð
ñäâóìÿàðãóìåíòàìè:ïåðâûéèìÿ,ïðèäóìàííîåïîëüçîâàòåëåì(ýòîïîëåìîæíî
îñòàâèòüïóñòûì,åñëèïîòîìíåíàäîáóäåòíàäàííûéïðèìåðññûëàòüñÿ),âòîðîé
ñàìïðèìåð.Êèìåíèïðèìåðàìîæíîîáðàùàòüñÿêîìàíäàìè
\rf{
èìÿïðèìåðà
}
è
9
\rn{
èìÿïðèìåðà
}
,êñòðàíèöåïðèìåðàìîæíîîáðàùàòüñÿêîìàíäîé
\ref{
èìÿïðèìå-
ðà
}
.
Âñåìèçâåñòåíïðèìåð,êîòîðûéïðè-
ïèñûâàþòË.Â.Ùåðáå:
(1)
Ãëîêàÿêóçäðàøòåêîáóäëàíó-
ëàáîêðàèêóäðÿ÷èòáîêð¼íêà.
Îäíàêî,âîçìîæíî,èçíà÷àëüíîôðàçà
(
1
)íàñòð.7çâó÷àëàïî-äðóãîìó.
Âñåìèçâåñòåíïðèìåð,êîòîðûéïðèïèñûâàþò
Ë.~Â.~Ùåðáå:
\lb{exa}{\textit{Ãëîêàÿêóçäðàøòåêî
áóäëàíóëàáîêðàèêóäðÿ÷èòáîêð¼íêà.}}
Îäíàêî,âîçìîæíî,èçíà÷àëüíîôðàçà\rf{exa}
íàñòð.~\ref{exa}çâó÷àëàïî-äðóãîìó.
Îêðóæåíèå
\lb
èåìóïîäîáíûåäîïóñêàþòçíàê
\\
äëÿïåðåíîñàñòðîêè:
(2)
ÀðîçàóïàëàíàëàïóÀçîðà
àðîçÀóïàëàíàëàïóàçîðÀ
\lb{}{ÀðîçàóïàëàíàëàïóÀçîðà\\
àðîçÀóïàëàíàëàïóàçîðÀ}
Îêðóæåíèå
\lb
òàêæåïîääåðæèâàåòêîìàíäó
\oddity
:
(3)
*ßçàâòðàïðèøåë.
(4)
**ßâ÷åðàïðèäó.
(5)
?Îíàâ÷åðàïðèøëà.
\lb{}{\oddity{*}ßçàâòðàïðèøåë.}
\lb{}{\oddity{**}ßâ÷åðàïðèäó.}
\lb{}{\oddity{?}Îíàâ÷åðàïðèøëà.}
×òîáûñîçäàòüïîäïðèìåðíóæíîâíóòðèîêðóæåíèÿ
\lb
èñïîëüçîâàòüêîìàíäó
\lba
,
êîòîðàÿíà÷èíàåòíîâûéóðîâåíüïîäïðèìåðîâ,èêîìàíäó
\lbb
,êîòîðàÿïðîäîëæàåò
íóìåðàöèþíàäàííîìóðîâíåïîäïðèìåðîâ.Èíîãäàìîæåòïîíàäîáèòüñÿêîìàíäà
\lbz
,
êîòîðàÿçàêàí÷èâàåòíóìåðàöèþíàäàííîìóðîâíåïîäïðèìåðîâ.
(6)
a.
ßâîøëà.
(i)
âìàãàçèí
(ii)
âêàôå
b.
Òûâîøëà.
c.
Îíàâîøëà.
\lb{}{
\lba{}{ßâîøëà.}
\lba{}{âìàãàçèí}
\lbz{}{âêàôå}
\lbb{}{Òûâîøëà.}
\lbb{}{Îíàâîøëà.}}
Âïðèìåðåñãëîññèðîâàíèåìñòðî÷êà,êîòîðàÿáóäåòãëîññèðîâàòüñÿââîäèòñÿêîìàíäîé
\gll
,àñòðî÷êàïåðåâîäàêîìàíäîé
\trans
.Âàæíîîòìåòèòü,÷òîïîëüçîâàòåëþíåíàäî
äóìàòüîïåðåíîñàõñòðîêè:L
A
T
E
Xâñåñäåëàåòñàì.
(7)
d
ý
ed
@
-r
êóðèöà-
abs
me-t'k'
w
@
-xe
dyn
-òàÿòü-
inch
`Êóðèöàóæåðàçìîðàæèâàåòñÿ'
\lb{}{\glld\zGed\eE-rme-t'k'\wU\eE-xe\\
êóðèöà-\textsc{abs}\textsc{dyn}-òàÿòü
-\textsc{inch}\\
\trans`Êóðèöàóæåðàçìîðàæèâàåòñÿ'}
Ïàêåò
philex
ïðåäîñòàâëÿåòåùåóéìóâñÿêèõâîçìîæíîñòåéïîâûðàâíèâàíèþïðèìåðîâ,
çàäàíèÿîñîáîéíóìåðàöèèèò.ï.,òàê÷òîëó÷øåïîñìîòðåòü
ðóêîâîäñòâî
.
10
6.2
Îôîðìëåíèÿïðîãðàììíîãîêîäà
Åñòüíåñêîëüêîñïîñîáîââñòàâèòüâäîêóìåíòïðîãðàììíûéêîä.Îäèíèçíèõýòîîêðó-
æåíèå
verbatim
(ñì.
ðóêîâîäñòâî
).
test
test
\begin{verbatim}
test
test
test
\end{verbatim}
Êðîìåòîãî,äàííîåîêðóæåíèåèìååòâàðèàíò
verbatim*
,âûäåëÿþùèéïðîáåëû:
test test
test test
\begin{verbatim*}
testtest
testtest
\end{verbatim*}
Îêðóæåíèå
verbatim
âîñïðîèçâîäèòñâîåñîäåðæèìîåâíîâîìàáçàöå,òàê÷òîäëÿ
êîðîòêèõïîñëåäîâàòåëüíîñòåéñèìâîëîâìîæíîèñïîëüçîâàòüêîìàíäó
\verb
.Êîìàíäû
\verb
ýêðàíèðóåòâñå,÷òîââîäèòñÿâíåêîòîðîåîêðóæåíèå,êîòîðîåìîæíîçàäàòüëþáûìè
ñèìâîëàìèîòëè÷íûìèîòáóêâ,çâåçäî÷êèèïðîáåëà.Êðîìåòîãî,êîìàíäà
\verb*
âûäåëÿåò
ïðîáåëû.
Âîòêîìàíäà
\begin{document}
.
Àâîòêîìàíäà
\end{document}
.
Ìîæåòèìåòüâèä
\end {document}
.
Âîòêîìàíäà\verb"\begin{document}".
Àâîòêîìàíäà\verb,\end{document},.
Ìîæåòèìåòüâèä\verb*|\end{document}|.
Òàêæååùåñóùåñòâóåòîêðóæåíèå
listing
èçïàêåòà
moreverb
(ñì.
ðóêîâîäñòâî
).Â
êà÷åñòâåàðãóìåíòîâýòîîêðóæåíèåáåðåòøàãíóìåðàöèè(âêâàäðàòíûõñêîáêàõ)èïåðâûé
íóìåðîâàííûéîáúåêò(âôèãóðíûõñêîáêàõ).ÂïðèìåðåèñïîëüçîâàíêîäÍ.Òûøêåâè÷.
1
importos,sys,codecs
2
names=codecs.open('names.txt','r','utf-8')
4
forfileinos.listdir(u'.'):
iffile.endswith(u'.WAV'):
6
os.rename(file,names.readline().rstrip('\r\n')+u'.WAV')
\begin{listing}[2]{1}
importos,sys,codecs
names=codecs.open('names.txt','r','utf-8')
forfileinos.listdir(u'.'):
iffile.endswith(u'.WAV'):
os.rename(file,names.readline().rstrip('\r\n')+u'.WAV')
\end{listing}
Êðîìåòîãî,ñóùåñòâóåòïàêåò
alltt
(ñì.
çäåñü
),êîòîðûéïîçâîëÿåòâûäåëÿòüôðàã-
ìåíòûêîäàöâåòîì,ïîëóæèðíûìèò.ä.
11
6.3
ÂL
A
T
E
Xìîæíîêîäèòü
ÕîòÿL
A
T
E
Xìîæåòñäåëàòüìíîãîå,îäíàêîèíîãäàõî÷åòñÿêàêèå-òîâåùèäåëàòüàâòîìà-
òè÷åñêè.ÂL
A
T
E
Xåñòüñðåäñòâà,êîòîðûåïîçâîëÿþòïîðîæäàòüôðàãìåíòûäîêóìåíòà
èç*.csv,*.txtèò.ï.,îäíàêî,åñëèêîìó-òîíåõâàòàåò
Sage
,
Perl
èëè
Python
,òî
ìîæíîèñïîëüçîâàòüïàêåòû
sagetex
(ñì.
ðóêîâîäñòâî
),
perltex
(ñì.
ðóêîâîäñòâî
)
èëè
pythontex
(ñì.
ðóêîâîäñòâî
).
6.4
ÇíàêèIPA
ÄëÿçíàêîâIPAíàïèñàíïàêåò
tipa
(ñì.
ðóêîâîäñòâî
),ââîäÿùèéîêðóæåíèå
\textipa{}
.
à

\textipa{\;B}
F
...
{F}
B
...
{B}
M
...
{M}
V
...
{V}
T
...
{T}
D
...
{D}
R
...
{R}
ì
...
{\textbeltl}
Ð
...
{\textlyoghlig}
S
...
{S}
Z
...
{Z}
é
...
{\textbardotlessj}
ñ
...
{\textltailn}
J
...
{J}
L
...
{L}
N
...
{N}
G
...
{G}
î
...
{\textturnmrleg}
Ï
...
{\;L}
å
...
{\;G}
ð
...
{\;N}
ö
...
{\;R}
X
...
{X}
K
...
{K}
è
...
{\textcrh}
Ü
...
{\textbarglotstop}
Ý
...
{\textbarrevglotstop}
H
...
{H}
C
...
{C}
ý
...
{textctz}
4
...
{4}
û
...
{*w}
ô
...
{*r}
Ë
...
{\;H}
ú
...
{\:t}
ã
...
{\:d}
ï
...
{\:n}
ó
...
{\:r}
ù
...
{\:s}
ü
...
{\:z}
í
...
{\:l}
ç
...
{\c\{c\}}
õ
...
{\:R}
Q
...
{Q}
P
...
{P}
I
...
{I}
E
...
{E}
æ
...
{\ae}
Y
...
{Y}
o
...
{o}
1
...
{1}
9
...
{9}
@
...
{@}
3
...
{3}
5
...
{5}
0
...
{0}
W
...
{W}
7
...
{7}
8
...
{8}
A
...
{A}
U
...
{U}
O
...
{O}
6
...
{6}
Å
...
{\textcloseepsilon}
h
...
{\superh}
j
...
{\superj}
w
...
{\superw}
G
...
{\superG}
Q
...
{\superQ}
6.5
Âîêàëè÷åñêèåñèñòåìû
Äëÿòîãî,÷òîáûðèñîâàòüòðàïåöèèãëàñíûõíàïèñàíïàêåò
vowel
(ñì.
ðóêîâîäñòâî
).
\begin{vowel}
\putcvowel[l]{i}{1}
\putcvowel[r]{y}{1}
\putcvowel[l]{e}{2}
...
\putcvowel{\ae}{16}
\end{vowel}
1615
1413
12
11
10
98
7
6
54
3
2
1

5
UIY
Æ

3

@
8

9

0

1

u

W

o

7

O

2

6

A

×

a



E



e

y

i

12
\begin{vowel}
\end{vowel}
\begin{vowel}[plain]
\end{vowel}
\begin{vowel}[simple]
\end{vowel}
\begin{vowel}[standard]
\end{vowel}
6.6
Îáîçíà÷åíèÿïðèíÿòûåâìåòðèêå
Äëÿìåòðè÷åñêèõçíàêîâíàïèñàíïàêåò
metre
(ñì.
ðóêîâîäñòâî
).Êîìàíäàâïðåàìáóëå
\usepackage[en]{metre}
ïîçâîëÿåòââîäèòüâäîêóìåíòåîêðóæåíèå
\metra{}
.

\metra{\m}

\metra{\b}


\metra{\M}


\metra{\B}




\metra{\gM\gB}

?
\metra{\a}
\metra{\c}




?
\metra{\B\m\a}
6.7
ÒàáëèöûâÒåîðèèÎïòèìàëüíîñòè
Äëÿòîãî,÷òîáûðèñîâàòüÎÒ-òàáëèöûíàïèñàíïàêåò
ot-tableau
(ñì.
ðóêîâîäñòâî
).
Êñ÷àñòüþ,KevinM.Ryan
ñîçäàëðåñóðñ
,êîòîðûéïîçâîëÿåòðèñîâàòüÎÒ-òàáëèöû
âweb-èíòåðôåéñå(èäàæåàâòîìàòè÷åñêèîïðåäåëÿåòïîáåäèòåëÿ).
6.8
Êîíå÷íûåàâòîìàòû
Êàêèëþáóþäðóãóþñõåìó,êîíå÷íûåàâòîìàòûìîæíîðèñîâàòüïðèïîìîùèïàêåòà
tikz
,
îäíàêîEvanWallace
ñîçäàëðåñóðñ
,êîòîðûéïîçâîëÿåòðèñîâàòüêîíå÷íûåàâòîìàòû,
àíåêîäèðîâàòüèõ.Íàâûõîäåìîæíîïîëó÷èòüðèñóíêè*.pngè*.svg,àòàêæåêîäL
A
T
E
X.
A
B
C
1
0
0
1
13
6.9
Äåðåâüÿ
Äëÿðèñîâàíèÿäåðåâüåâáûëîíàïèñàíîìíîãîïàêåòîâ:
6
ecltree
6
lingtrees
6
xyling
6
xytree
6
jtree
6
qtree
6
synttree
6
forest
Âèäèìî,íàèáîëååìíîãîôóíêöèîíàëüíûìèñîâðåìåííûìÿâëÿåòñÿïàêåò
forest
(ïóñòü
íèêîãîíåïóãàåò149-ñòðàíè÷íîåðóêîâîäñòâî,îñíîâíàÿ÷àñòüçàêàí÷èâàåòñÿíà22-îé
ñòðàíèöå).
VP
DP
John
V'
V
sent
DP
Mary
DP
D
a
NP
letter
\begin{forest}
[VP
[DP[John]]
[V'
[V[sent]]
[DP[Mary]]
[DP
[D[a]]
[NP[letter]]]]]
\end{forest}
Äëÿïàêåòà
forest
èìååòçíà÷åíèåçíàêèêâàäðàòíûõñêîáîê,çàïÿòàÿèçíàêðàâíî,òàê
÷òî,åñëèòðåáóåòñÿ,÷òîáûâäåðåâåýòèçíàêèáûëè,èõñëåäóåòáðàòüâôèãóðíûåñêîáêè:
[
VP
]
DP
,
V'
=
V
=
DP
DP
D
NP
\begin{forest}
[{[VP]}
[{DP,}]
[V'
[{=V=}]
[DP]
[DP[D][NP]]]]
\end{forest}
Äëÿòîãî,÷òîáûñëîâàâûñòðàèâàëèñüâñòðî÷êóíàîäíîìóðîâíå,íóæíîèñïîëüçîâàòü
ïàðàìåòð
tier
(âñåïàðàìåòðûâýòîìïàêåòåââîäÿòñÿ÷åðåççàïÿòóþïîñëåíàçâàíèÿóçëà,
êêîòîðîìóäàííûéïàðàìåòðîòíîñèòñÿ).Íàçâàíèåêàæäîãîñëîÿ(
tier
)ïîëüçîâàòåëü
ïðèäóìûâàåòñàì,ýòîñäåëàíîäëÿòîãî,÷òîáûìîæíîáûëîâîäíîìäåðåâåèìåòüíåñêîëüêî
ñëîåâ(
tier
).
VP
DP
John
V'
V
sent
DP
Mary
DP
D
a
NP
letter
\begin{forest}
[VP
[DP[John,tier=word]]
[V'
[V[sent,tier=word]]
[DP[Mary,tier=word]]
[DP
[D[a,tier=word]]
[NP[letter,tier=word]]]]]
\end{forest}
\begin{forest}
wherenchildren=0{tier=word}{}
[VP
[DP[John]]
[V'
[V[sent]]
[DP[Mary]]
[DP
[D[a]]
[NP[letter]]]]]
\end{forest}
Ïðèïîìîùèïàðàìåòðà
calign
ìîæíîðåãóëèðîâàòüòî,ïîêàêîìóóçëóáóäåòðîâíÿòüñÿ
âåðøèíà:
14
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
k
l
m
\begin{forest}
[a
[b,calign=last[c][d][e]]
[f[g][h][i]]
[j,calign=first[k][l][m]]]
\end{forest}
×òîáûèçìåíèòüâíåøíèéâèäðåáðà,íóæíîäîáàâèòüïàðàìåòð
edge
ïîñëåèìåíèóçëà,
êêîòîðîìóäàííîåðåáðîèäåò.Âîòíåêîòîðûåâîçìîæíûåçíà÷åíèÿýòîãîïàðàìåòðà:
êîðåíü
îáû÷íîå
òîëñòîå
áåçëèíèè
ïóíêòèð
òî÷êàìè
òðåóãîëüíèê
ñòðåëî÷êàîò
ñòðåëî÷êàê
öâåò
êîìáèíàöèÿ
\begin{forest}
[êîðåíü
[îáû÷íûé]
[òîëñòàÿ,edge={linewidth=1.5pt}]
[áåçëèíèè,noedge]
[ïóíêòèð,edge=dashed]
[òî÷êàìè,edge=dotted]
[òðåóãîëüíèê,triangle]
[ñòðåëî÷êàîò,edge=-]
[ñòðåëî÷êàê,edge=-�]
[öâåò,edge=CornflowerBlue]
[êîìáèíàöèÿ,edge={dashed,YellowGreen}]]
\end{forest}
Äëÿïîäïèñåéðåáåðíóæíîèñïîëüçîâàòüïàðàìåòð
edgelabel
:
VP
V
DP
head
complement
\begin{forest}
[VP
[V,edgelabel={node[midway,left,font=\scriptsize]{head}}]
[DP,edgelabel={node[midway,right,font=\scriptsize]{complement}}]]
\end{forest}
Óçåëìîæåòáûòüîáâåäåííåêîòîðûìèôîðìàìè,çàêðàøåíèò.ï.
1000
999
998
997
996
\begin{forest}
[1000,fill=CornflowerBlue
[999,draw]
[998,circle,draw]
[997,ellipse,draw]
[996,diamond,draw,fill=YellowGreen]]
\end{forest}
Òàêæåáûâàåòâàæíîäîáàâèòüíåñêîëüêîñòðî÷åêâîäèíóçåë.Äëÿýòîãîäîñòàòî÷íîèñ-
ïîëüçîâàòüñòàíäàðòíóþêîìàíäó
\\
.×òîáûâûðîâíÿòüòåêñòâóçëàõíóæíîèñïîëüçîâàòü
ïàðàìåòð
align
.
IP
DP
Àííà
Àííà-
nom.sg
I'
I
áóäåò
áûòü-
3sg.npst
VP
÷èòàòü
÷èòàòü-
inf
\begin{forest}
[IP
[DP[Àííà\\Àííà-\caps{nom.sg},
align=left,triangle]]
[I'
[I[áóäåò\\áûòü-\caps{3sg.npst},
align=center]]
[VP
[÷èòàòü\\÷èòàòü-\caps{inf},
align=right,triangle]]]]]
\end{forest}
×òîáûíàðèñîâàòüñòðåëêó(ïåðåäâèæåíèå)îòîäíîãîóçëàêäðóãîìó,íóæíîïðèñâîèòü
êàæäîìóèççàòðîíóòûõñòðåëêîéóçëîâèìÿ(âèìåíàõäîïóñêàþòñÿïðîáåëû),àïîòîì
íàïèñàòüñïåöèàëüíóþêîìàíäó.Âêâàäðàòíûõñêîáêàõ,÷åðåççàïÿòóþïåðå÷èñëÿþòñÿ
ïàðàìåòðûñòðåëêè,êîòîðûåñîâïàäàþòñïàðàìåòðàìèäëÿðåáåð.
15
CP
DP
whom
C'
C
has
IP
DP
John
I'
I
t
VP
V
seen
DP
t
\begin{forest}
[CP
[DP[whom,triangle,name=specCP]]
[C'[C[has,name=C]]
[IP[DP[John]]
[I'[I[\textit{t}]]
[VP[V[seen,name=verb]]
[DP[\textit{t},triangle,name=object]]]]]]]
\draw[-�,YellowGreen,linewidth=1.5pt]
(object)to[out=southwest,in=south](specCP);
\draw[-�,dashed](verb)to[out=southwest,in=south](C);
\end{forest}
Äëÿðàçâîðîòîâäåðåâàñëåäóåòèñïîëüçîâàòüïàðàìåòð
grow'
èóêàçûâàòüñòîðîíóñâåòà,
âêîòîðóþäîëæíûðàñòèçàâèñèìûåóçëû.
1
2
5
11
12
13
6
14
15
16
7
17
18
19
3
20
21
22
4
8
23
24
25
9
26
27
28
10
29
30
31
\begin{forest}
[1,grow'=south
[2,grow'=east
[5,grow'=north[11][12][13]]
[6,grow'=east[14][15][16]]
[7,grow'=south[17][18][19]]]
[3,grow'=south[20][21][22]]
[4,grow'=west
[8,grow'=south[23][24][25]]
[9,grow'=west[26][27][28]]
[10,grow'=north[29][30][31]]]]
\end{forest}
×òîáûíåíàäîáûëîíàáèðàòüïàðàìåòðûäëÿêàæäîãîóçëàñóùåñòâóåòïàðàìåòð
fortree={}
,âêîòîðîììîæíîââåñòèâñåòðåáóåìûåïàðàìåòðûâûðàâíèâàíèÿ,öâåòà,
ôîðìûëèíèèèò.ï..Àðãóìåíòû,óêàçàííûåâñêîáêàõêîìàíäû
fortree
ïðèïèñûâàþòñÿ
äåðåâó,íà÷èíàÿñóçëà,ïàðàìåòðîìêîòîðîãîÿâëÿåòñÿêîìàíäà.
VP
DP
John
V'
V
sent
DP
Mary
DP
D
a
NP
letter
\begin{forest}
[VP,fortree={calign=last}
[DP[John]]
[V',fortree={ellipse,draw}
[V[sent]]
[DP[Mary]]
[DP,fortree={fill=YellowGreen}
[D[a]][NP,fortree={edge=dotted}[letter]]]]]
\end{forest}
Ñóùåñòâåííûììèíóñîìïàêåòà
forest
,÷òîîíçàìåäëÿåòêîìïèëÿöèþ*.pdf,òàê÷òî
èìååòñìûñë,ëèáîñäåëàòüýòîîòäåëüíî,àâôàéëâñòàâëÿòüóæåòîëüêîîáðåçàííûé*.pdf
16
ïðèïîìîùèêîìàíäû
\includegraphics
.Äðóãîéâàðèàíòñêîïèðîâàòüôðàãìåíòñäåðå-
âüÿìèâîòäåëüíûéôàéë*.tex,íàïèñàòüêîìàíäó
\input{èìÿôàéëà}
èçàêîììåíòèðîâàòü
åå,àâêîíöåðàñêîììåíòèðîâàòü.
6.10
Îòîáðàæåíèåçàâèñèìîñòåéâïðåäëîæåíèè
Äëÿðèñîâàíèÿçàâèñèìîñòåéíàïèñàíïàêåò
tikz-dependency
(ñì.
ðóêîâîäñòâî
).Âýòîì
ïàêåòåî÷åíüìíîãîðàçíûõâîçìîæíîñòåéèî÷åíüïîäðîáíîåðóêîâîäñòâî.
ñîþç
ãëàã.
ïðåä.
ñóù.
ïðèë.
ñóù.
ñóù.
È
ñòîèò
íàä
êîñîãîðîì
íåïîäâèæíûé
ëèê
ëóíû.
íàä÷åì?
êàêîé?
÷åãî?
êòî?
ãäå?
\begin{dependency}[textonlylabel,labelstyle={above}]
\begin{deptext}[rowsep=.1ex]
ñîþç\&ãëàã.\&ïðåä.\&ñóù.\&ïðèë.\&ñóù.\&ñóù.\\
\emph{È}\&\emph{ñòîèò}\&\emph{íàä}\&\emph{êîñîãîðîì}\&
\emph{íåïîäâèæíûé}\&\emph{ëèê}\&\emph{ëóíû.}\\
\end{deptext}
\depedge[edgeunitdistance=1.1ex]{3}{4}{\textbf{íàä÷åì?}}
\depedge[edgeunitdistance=1.1ex]{5}{6}{\textbf{êàêîé?}}
\depedge[edgeunitdistance=1.1ex]{6}{7}{\textbf{÷åãî?}}
\depedge[edgeunitdistance=0.8ex]{2}{6}{\textbf{êòî?}}
\depedge[edgeunitdistance=1.1ex]{2}{3}{\textbf{ãäå?}}
\end{dependency}
6.11
Êàòåãîðèàëüíàÿãðàììàòèêà
Äëÿòîãî,÷òîáûðèñîâàòüäåðèâàöèþòèïîââðàìêàõÊàòåãîðèàëüíîéãðàììàòèêèíàïèñàí
ïàêåò
semantic
(ñì.
ðóêîâîäñòâî
).
he
S=
(
N
n
S
)
Lex
likes
(
N
n
S
)
=N
Lex
S=N

C
him
(
S=N
)
n
S
Lex
S

A
\inference
{\inference
{\inference{he}{S/(N\backslashS)}[Lex]
&\inference{likes}{(N\backslashS)/N}[Lex]
}
{S/N}
[$�$C]
&\inference{him}{(S/N)\backslashS}[Lex]
}
{S}
[$$A]
6.12
ÌàòðèöûHPSGèLFG
Äëÿòîãî,÷òîáûñòðîèòüìàòðèöûïðèíÿòûåâHPSGèLFGíàïèñàíïàêåò
avm
,êîòîðûé,ê
ñîæàëåíèþ,íåïîñòàâëÿåòñÿâñòàíäàðòíîìïàêåòå.Äëÿêîððåêòíîéðàáîòûôàéë
avm.sty
17
äîëæåíõðàíèòñÿâèñõîäíîéïàïêå.Ýòîòïàêåòïîêàêèì-òîïðè÷èíàìâõîäèòâïàêåò
tree-dvips
,òàê÷òîíîâóþâåðñèþïàêåòàè
ðóêîâîäñòâà
ñëåäóåòñêà÷èâàòüñîñòðàíèöû
ïàêåòàtree-dvips.
6.13
Ðåïðåçåíòàöèèäèñêóðñèâíûõòåîðèé
ÄëÿðèñîâàíèÿñõåìâDRT(DiscourseRepresentationTheory)íàïèñàíïàêåò
drs
(ñì.
ðó-
êîâîäñòâî
),ââîäÿùèéîêðóæåíèå\drs{}.ÍèæåïðèâîäÿòñÿäâåñõåìûèçðàáîòûJanvan
Eijck(2005)
DiscourseRepresentationTheory
,îòðàæàþùèåìíîãîçíà÷íîñòüïðåäëîæåíèÿ
Allstudentsfoundmostsolutions
.
ALL
x
student(
x
)
MOST
y
solution(
y
)
found(
x
,
y
)
\drs{~}{ALL$x$\drs{~}{student($x$)}\drs{~}{MOST$y$\drs{}{solution($y$)}
\drs{}{found($x$,$y$)}}}
MOST
y
solution(
y
)
ALL
x
student(
x
)
found(
x
,
y
)
\drs{~}{MOST$y$\drs{~}{solution($y$)}\drs{~}{ALL$x$\drs{}{student($x$)}
\drs{}{found($x$,$y$)}}}
Êðîìåòîãî,ñòîèòîòìåòèòüïàêåò
sdrt
(ñì.
ðóêîâîäñòâî
),ðàçðàáîòàííûéäëÿ
SegmentedDiscourseRepresentationTheory.Äàííûéïàêåòïîçâîëÿåòðèñîâàòüáîëüøèíñòâî
ñõåì,êîòîðûåðèñóåòïàêåòdrs,íîåùåïðåäîñòàâëÿåòâîçìîæíîñòüðèñîâàòüíåêîòîðûå
ñïåöèôè÷åñêèåäåðåâüÿ,îäíàêîèõìîæíîíàðèñîâàòü,èñïîëüçóÿèäðóãèåïàêåòû(ñì.
ðàçäåë
6.9
).
18

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