PHONETICS AS A BRANCH OF LINGUISTICS


PHONETICS AS A BRANCH OF LINGUISTICS
Language as “the most important means of human intercourse” exists in the material form of speech sounds. It cannot exist without being spoken. Oral speech is primary process of communication by means of language. Written speech is secondary; it presents what exists in oral speech. HYPERLINK "http://new.referat.ru/bank-znanii/adm/" \l "_ftn1" [1]  Linguistic signals first said to be composed of some units, which are divided into significant and non - significant ones. The relationship between all the units or elements of a language includes different notions starting from sounds, morphemes, words, word combinations and ending up with phrases. The scientific study of a language involves an explanation of a mass of notions in terms of a rigorously organized and highly patterned system - the link between the units. The whole system of relation of linguistic units forms a system of a language. The character of a system, or the way this system works explain the structure of a language. All languages differ in systems and structures.
Phonetics is concerned with the human noises by which the thought is actualized or given audible shade: the nature of these noises, their combinations, and their functions in relation to the meaning. Phonetics studies the sound system of the language, that is segmental phonemes, word stress, syllabic structure and intonation.
It is primarily concerned with expression level. However, phonetics is obliged to take the content into consideration too, because at any stage of the analysis, a considerable part of the phonetician's concern is with the effect which the expression unit he is examining and its different characteristics have on meaning.
Only meaningful sound sequences are regarded as speech, and the science of phonetics, in principle at least, is concerned only with such sounds produced by a human vocal apparatus as are or may be earners of organized information of language.
Consequently, phonetics is important in the study of language. An understanding it is a prerequisite to any adequate understanding of the structure of working of language. No kind of linguistic study can be made with but consonant consideration of the material on the expression level.
It follows from this, that phonetics a basis brunch or fundamental brunch of linguistics, that is why phonetics claims to be of equal importance with grammar and lexicology. Phonetics has two main divisions: phonology, the Study of sound patterns of languages, of how a spoken language functions as a "code", and the study of substance, that carries the code. It shows that there is a close relationship between the language and thought. In modern linguistics this relationship is explained the terms of distinctions: substance and form. By the term "substance" we mean the material - carries of all the elements of a language and the term "form" we mean linguistic concepts. Human speech is called the "phonic substance" in which linguistic forms are manifested. The speech may be either oral or written. The term "phonetics" comes - from the Greek word "pho:n" - meaning sound, voice and "-tica" - a science. So, phonetics is a special science which studies the phonetic substance and expressions area of the language. The linguistic form and content are described by other brunches of linguistics, namely grammar (morphology and syntax) lexicology (vocabulary, the formation and the meaning of the words) and stylistics (expressive - emotional meaning). Human speech is the result of a highly complicated series of events. The formation of the concept takes place at a linguistic level, that is in the brain of the speaker;
This stage may be called psychological. The message formed within the brain 1s transmitted along the nervous system to the speech organs. Therefore we may say that the human brain controls the behaviour of the articulating organs which effects in producing a particular pattern of speech sounds. This second stage may be called physiology cat. The movements of the speech apparatus disturb the air stream thus producing sound waves. Consequently the third stage may be called physical or acoustic. Further, any communication requires a listener, as well as a speaker. So, the last stages are the reception of the sound waves by the listener's ,hearing physiological apparatus, the transmission of the spoken message through the nervous system to the brain and the 1 i n g u i s t i c interpretation of the information conveyed. HYPERLINK "http://new.referat.ru/bank-znanii/adm/" \l "_ftn2" [2]In accordance with their linguistic function the organs of speech may be grouped as follows:  - The repertory or power mechanism furnishes the flow or the air which is the first requisite for the production of speech sounds. This mechanism is formed by the lungs, the wind pipe and the bronchi. The energy which is regulated by the power mechanism. Regulating the force of the air - wave the lungs produce variations in the intensity of speech sounds. Syllabic pulses and dynamic stress are directly related to the behavior of the muscles which activate this mechanism.
From the lungs through the wind - pipe the air - stream passes to the upper stages of the vocal tract. First of all it passes to the larynx containing the vocal cords.
The function of the vocal cords consists in their role as a vibrator set in motion by the air - stream sent by the lungs. At least two actions of the vocal cords as a vibrator should be mentioned.
The opening between the vocal cords is known as the glottis.   
The most important speech function of the vocal cords is their role in the production of voice. The effect of voice is achieved when the vocal cords are brought together and vibrate when subjected to the pressure of the air - passing from the lungs. This vibration is caused by compressed air forcing an opening of the glottis and the following reduced air - pressure permitting the vocal cords to come together.
The height of the speaking voice depends on the frequency of the vibrations.
The more frequently the vocal cords vibrate the higher the pitch is. From the larynx the stream passes to the pharynx, the mouth and the nasal cavities. The shapes of these Cavities modify the note produced in the larynx thus giving rise to particular speech sounds. ..
The following four main types of phonetics may be distinguished:
 
1. Special  phonetics is concerned with the study of phonetics system of a concrete language. When the phonetic system is studied in its static form, at a particular period (synchronically, we speak about descriptive phonetics). When the system is studied  in its historical development (diachronically) we speak about historical, or evolutionary phonetics.
 Historical phonetics uses the philological method of investigation. It studies written documents and compares the spelling and pronunciation of one and the same word in different periods of the history of the language. HYPERLINK "http://new.referat.ru/bank-znanii/adm/" \l "_ftn3" [3] 
2. General Phonetics which studies the human sound producing possibilities, the functioning of his speech mechanism and the ways they are used in all languages to pronounce speech sounds, syllables, stress and intonation. It is apart of General Linguistics.
 
3. Descriptive Phonetics studies the phonetic system of a certain language. For example: English Phonetics, Uzbek Phonetics etc.
 
4. Historical or Diachronical Phonetics which studies the changes a sound undergoes in the development of a language and languages.
5. Comparative - Typological Phonetics. It studies the phonetic features of two or more languages of different system such as English, Russian, Uzbek etc. It is part of Comparative - Typological Linguistics.
Phonetics as the science has a long history. It came into being in India and Greece before our era. The term came from the Greek “phone” – sound. The scientists of that time investigated speech sounds. For a long time Phonetics remained a science, which treated of the production of sounds, their representation dealing only with articulatory aspects. Phonetics followed the views and concepts that ruled in linguistics at that time: the investigation of the history of languages (history of sound changes).Considerable progress of science caused a revolution in the treatment of many problems and radically changed the direction of investigation in linguistics. In the present day linguistics make their task to investigate the language as the system and the system at the given period of its historic development.Respectively phonetics also confronts new tasks, in other words, the investigation of the sound system of the language. Today the sphere of phonetics is wider and deeper. New concepts have come into existence, new methods have been developed, new branches have arisen. Phoneticslike Lexicology, Grammar is a branch of linguistics, which deals with the investigation and description of all sound means of the language from the point of view of their own in the speech, their articulation and acoustic qualities. Respectively there are 3 aspects in the study of the sound means:
Articulatory or physiological aspect. It makes the task of physiological phonetics to investigate the work of the organs of speech in pronouncing sounds; from the articulatory point of view any speech sound is a complex of definite movements and position of organs. And experimental methods are widely used (the artificial palate, X-ray photography; recording, reproducing machines).
Acoustic aspect investigates speech sounds as physical phenomena since speech sounds like any other are the form of sound waves and they have their pitch, intensity, timbre, length. Acoustic phonetics is often termed experimental since it makes wide use of special operators and instruments, such as: kymograph, an oscilograph, slow motion films etc. Experimental phonetics is connected with physics and mathematics. 
^ Linguistic or social aspect. That section of phonetics, which makes a study of all Phonetic phenomena from the point of view of social function – is phonology.
It must be noted that many scientists abroad propagate it as a new. According to them phonetics and phonology are 2 independent branches of science.Phonetics is a biological science, which is concerned with physical and physiological characteristics of speech sounds.Phonology is a linguistic science and is concerned only with the social functions of different phonetic phenomena ignoring their real historically formed social qualities. However it doesn’t seem logical to contrast and separate function from phonetic form. So we see that this division of Phonetics into 3 sections is highly relative and is determined by the methods of investigation.All the 3 sections are closely linked and are considered only as aspects of one and the same linguistic science, which deals with the investigation of all sound means of the language in connection with their social significance. This study of the sound system is very important. One can’t master the language without mastering its sound system, because the language can perform its function of communication between people mainly as a language of sounds, in other words by means of the system of signals carrying some information.In fact spoken language consists of succession of sound, which constitute the material form of words. The speech sounds have no lexical meaning in isolation, but they have tremendous force in the combination with other sounds thus forming words and the word meaning is connected with its sound forms, in other words all lexical and grammar phenomena are expressed phonetically. And here we again refer to the materialistic theory that language performs its function mainly as sound language.We communicate ideas by means of words, which get their proper grammatical and intonational framing in sentences. But in order to make oneself easily understood, while expressing thoughts orally and understand others one should pronounce words and sentences correctly, in other words one should have a good pronunciation. It means to master the phonetic structure of the language. The main phonetic components are:
Phonemic system, in other words the system of its segmental phonemes;
Stress or accentual structure;
Intonation.
To have a good pronunciation means to master the following things:
To articulate correctly all the speech sounds;
To pronounce sentences with correct stress, melody, rhythm, pauses.
Wrong pronunciation causes difficulties in the process of communication. It leads to misunderstanding and misinterpretation. Before the learner of spoken language has acquired a good pronunciation, he must overcome a number of difficulties. They are:
Must recognize various speech sounds occurring in the language when he hears them pronounced;
Remember the acoustic qualities of the sounds;
Learn to make the language sounds with his own organs of speech. 

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