A Linguistics Workbook


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Richard
Edition
M1
T
Press
Cambridge,
1986, 1991, 1996,
Norton
Company, Inc. and
William
Heinemann
Ltd.
Copyright
W. W.
Norton
Inc.
Copyright
1962 by
II,
1.2 Open-
1.3 Compound and
-ness
Affixation
(English)
1.5
Word
Building
2:
-like
Tohono O'odham
Tohono O'odham
Affixation
(Russian)
1.9
Morphophonology
2:
Turkish
1.10
Morphophonology
3:
(English)
/b/,
Id/,
/g/
2.4
Special
Topic
1:
It/)
2.5
Special
Topic
(Vowels
before
Phonological Rules 1
and [r] 3.3 Phonological Rules
Tohono O'odham
Phonological Rules
Phonological Rules
Phonological Rules
3.7 Special
Assigning Syllables
Special
Topic
3:
4.1
English Syntax
English Syntax
English Syntax
English Syntax
Simple Sentences
Phrase Structure Rules
NPs,
VPs,
and
PPS
with a
Simple Sentences
Simple Sentences
Simple Sentences
Simple Sentences
Simple Sentences
Modern Irish
5.5 Evaluative
Emotive Meaning
Gramaticalization
British English
Language Change
Identifying
the
Message
8.2
Communication
Breakdown
8.3
Literal
8.6 Performative
Verbs versus
Pronoun/
Antecedent Agreement:
Major Moods
Major Moods
Copala Trique
Major Moods
9.1 Speech
The Role
Features in
Phrase Structure
Major Moods
preparing the
workbook has
remained essentially
in preparing the earlier
with a
broader range
provided in
Communication. Linguistics
the most
part on
there, the
main reason for
this encourages a healthy
and an
approach toward
the subject
least some
draw upon
linguistic hypotheses.
infornation;
thus, the
unintimidating introduction
the basic concepts
This edition
the workbook also
the earlier
ones in
several of
exercises in
chapter on pragmatics
placed in a syntax
section. Even
these exercises
require the student
syntactic properties
have placed them
in the
chapter on
pragmatics in order
illustrate the numerous
moods can
world's languages.
included examples
mood marking.
this workbook
range makes the
appropriate for
intermediate
linguistics courses
who become extremely
interested in linguistics
these exercises
are both
stimulating for
should also
dealing with
large number
across writing
example, the
a lax
Many people have
in the preparation
workbook. First,
would like
for our
3.9, 3.10); Lee
Budway
Ken Hale,
who helped
(4.13),
Irish
(4.16),
and Navajo
Barbara Hollenbach (Copala
Adrienne Lehrer, who
idea behind
the Indo-
(7.1, 7.2).
to thank
following people
and data
Julia Annas (British
6.2); Adele
1.8, 4.23);
Cathey
Christiane Dechert (German,
Hiroko Ikawa
first used
the original
Eloise Jelinek
Kim
(Korean,
3.2);
the
late
Steve
Lapointe
and
his
students
(Japanese,
4.24);
Stan
Lekach
(Russian,
1.8,
4.23);
Bruce
Chinese, 8.1
Amy
Natsuko Tsujimura
O'odham,
Ken Hale
and Donna Jo
deserve special
thanks for
Meaning and Form
taken from Anthony
Clockwork Orange.
vocabulary items
borrowed (loosely)
from Russian. First read the
passage, trying
match the
words (underlined)
Both structural
will be
what the
words mean.
was me,
is Alex,
three droogs,
Milkbar
making
the evening,.
. .
Milkbar
was a
milkplus
mesto,
and
you
may,
brothers,
have
forgotten what
changing so skorry
prodding
some
of
the
new
veshches
which
they
used
to
put
into
the
old
moloko,
so
you
drug*
(N)
three words are probably
from Russian.
quickly (Adv)
you can)
in question
is filled
noun: (Morphological) The plural
(Syntactic) Droog occurs in
the phrase
three droogs.
combine with
adjectives (three,
form noun
Alex's
most compatible
and
Closed-Class
Read the
following passage.
underlined word, answer questions
the word
. .
is specific:
part and
mirrorsxf
to turn
as open
style is
But such, really,
the dream
in the
Is the
the word
word, identify
have a
suffix?
it has
does the word
you provide
support your
question D?
open-class word; (B)
derivational;
(D)
a
noun;
(E)
create nouns. Note
morpheme does
attach to
walking the dog).
a verb-forming
the plural
part and parcel
The plural
walkings
the dog.
Phrase Ambiguities
form
compound
50-52.)
major indicator
the relative prominence (emphasis,
on the
word. Consider
emphasized (represented here
as GREEN
a building, usually
plants are
grown. However,
is stressed (green
then the
compound but
noun phrase
green modifying
the noun
a house
There are other
whouse).
compounds can
acquire a second
through the
roll can
White House)
Humor
mthought-of
each pair
drawings, you
HOUSWGREEN
house).
Study
the
drawings
and
answer
questions
A,
(optionally)
are ambiguous compound
words could
a noun phrase
compound noun? (List
Either draw
in this
a compound
following words:
furiousness
infectiousness
courteousness
powerlessness
fairness
cleverness
warmness
usefulness
pridefulness
heaviness
slackness
sickness
sleepiness
the
word
formation
rule
for
the
affix
the
following
format
(see
change
change
part
of
speech
does
in list
derived word?
words in list
C. Semantic change
meaning change
suffix
-ness?
in the
ideal case,
meaning does
in lists
answer questions
the material in
2.
wife
10.
death
11.
thumb
12.
book
1
3.
sportsman
14.
dungeon
warlike
wifelike
kinglike
princelike
humanlike
snakelike
childlike
ladylike
treelike
deathlike
thumblike
booklike
The morpheme
combines with a word
belong
to
what
category?
C. What meaning change appears
in the ideal
meaning does
Have any
drifted in
so, which
drifted meaning
from the compositional meaning
of like)?
Consider the
idealike
combine with
category in
same category
combine with
like? If
only
with words
combine with words
from other
Give examples
Consider the
from Tohono O'odham,
the Uto-Aztecan
stands for
glottal stop.
glottal stop
English expression
The glottal
0).
The
symbol
pronounced
like
the
Spanish
English sequence
ny
in
canyon.
The
symbol
that
a
vowel
is
short
(hence,
indicates a
with the tongue
curled back.
the Tohono O'odham
exercise
O'odham
form
1.
je'e
2.
'0:gi
4.
no:nowi
6.
kotoii
8.
mamgina
9.
papla
10.
hoa
11.
tad
12.
ki:
13.
na:nk
14.
to:ton
15.
we:nag
16.
si:l
17.
tad
18.
mo:mi
19.
na:nk
21.
wuhi
22.
mamgina
23.
da:k
24.
da:k
English gloss
iije'e
m'o:gi
hakakkio
'emno:now?
t'o'ohana
ko
toiiij
twopnam
'emmamgina
hapapla
fihoa
tadij
mki:
'emna:nk
hato:
ton
we:nagij
fisi:l
mtad
tmo:mI
na:nkij
'emkakkio
fiwuhi
tmamgina
fida:
English gloss
"his/her
shirt"
"our
hats"
"your
(pl.)
cars"
"their
shovels"
"my
"his/her
"your house"
"his/her
sibling"
"my
saddle"
"your
foot"
"our
heads"
"my eye"
cars"
nose"
"his/her
nose"
English, list
the corresponding
English gloss
"my"
"his/her"
cCo~r"
is special
third
morpheme (meaning
"his/herM)
in
Tohono
O'odham?
Tohono O'odham
verb forms
from Tohono O'odham
special symbols
Tohono O'odham
forms
explained in
exercise 1.6.)
Tohono O'odham
form
Singular
1.
fieok
Plural
1.
fiefieok
English gloss
"we/you/they
speak"
"we/you/they
walk"
"we/you/they
wipe"
"we/you/
they
are
sliding"
"we/you/they
stick out"
the plural
singular verbs.
into a plural
the name
in the
(Russian)
are
two
lists
of
Russian
words.
The
words
in
list
I1
in list
After studying
answer questions
flf)
after consonants
neuter noun;
English gloss
word English
1.
atom
9.
'Vrum"
"pun"
"machine-gun"
"furniture"
c'newspaper'9
Words
from
Townsend
1975, 174.
atomiEik
barabanicik
kalamburiEik
pulemy
ot
Eik
mebel3Eik
1omgEik
derevgEik
"atomic-warmonger'"
"drummer"
"machine-gunner"
"furniture
maker"
'hewspaper
words in list I
the words
I1
has
forms.
What
are
they?
examples
1-10,
suggest
a
possible
reason
why
one
form
of
the
suffix
the ending
the other
suflix
with a
derived word
the meaning
the basic word
on the
Given the
from the
discussed above?
Study the
answer questions
form
l.
el
3.
elim
4.
ev
6.
ellerimiz
10.
ellerim
1
1.
ellerinize
12.
evlerim
13.
elin
14.
22. evler
24.
ellerin
English gloss
"my
"the house"
"to
the
house'"
"our
hands"
"in
my
hands'"
"in
the
houses"
"from
the
house"
"my
"to your
my houses"
(pl-)
houses'"
""my
house"
"from
my
hands"
"houses"
"to
"'your (sg.)
(sg.) house"
the
English
translations,
listed
as
singular
it
refers
to
one
and as
it
refers
to
more
than
one
person.
the Turkish
Turkish morpheme
English gloss
"(the) house"
(sg.)"
(pl.)"
the Turkish
what is the order
morphemes (indicating
create a
a nontrivial
phonological change may occur
I1
illustrate
just
such
a
case.
Consider
the
two
lists
of
words
and
the
relation
I1
the pairs
I1
in the
changes occur in
words in
in the
However, you
should have
no trouble
the main
words (those
a generalization
the position
the words in
following is
similar in
former
pair sounds
in butt, the
latter pair
like the
Burt.
of why
different symbols
tu dip
aend
dip3
blu.
laemp
f11z
w10
gin
glou
4.
t~iz
aevanu.
ould
piaenou
plerz
aen
c~,
6.
sade~t
aend
slou
aend
geI.
bcnz
apan
6a
jclou
kiz,
8.
h3
hcd
~nkla~nz
61s
weI.
9.
J~I
Bats*
aend
gleIv
wa~d
aIz
aend
haenz
wanda
aez
i3e1
11st-
twarla~t
t3n.z
tu
daska.
blu
la~ts
on
the
dialect)
Write the
monosyllabic words
the transcription
system given
the orthography.
pooch
32.
rough
3.
then
18.
pouch
3
3.
thought
4.
10. life
25,
vine
40.
gone
11.
jut
26.
roof
41,
13. juke
44.
crush
15.
hooves
30.
width
45.
ought
broad transcription
Spanish words.
[b]/[p],
[d]/jd],
and
[g]/[y]
are pairs
in complementary
occur in mutually
[p]
bilabial fricative.
is a voiced interdental fricative. [p] is a voiced dorsovelar fricative. Spanish form English gloss
[ayrio]
3. [xweyo]
4. [albondiyas]
6. [gonsales]
8.
[4aI
10. [kaldo] 11. [algo]
[sapino]
"sore, boil"
"broth"
[kape]
15.
[edad]
16.
[komunidad]
17.
[dedo]
18.
[droyas]
19.
[seda]
20.
[ganado]
21.
[usted]
22.
[bastante]
23.
[brinkar]
24.
[supo]
25.
[up01
26.
[klup]
English gloss
fits"
t y
"finger/ toe"
"you
(sg.
polite)"
"plenty"
"to
jump"
"there
was"
"club"
do
the
voiced
stops
[b],
[d],
and
[g]
occur?
When
do
the
voiced
fricatives
[P],
[a],
and
[y]
Given the
decide which
[a],
[y])
are
basic
and
which
are
derived.
Special Topic
/t/)
phoneme
/t/
conditioning environments
the table,
answer questions A
[t
when
syllable-initial
tin
Unreleased, preglottalized
[It]
word-final,
after
a
kit
[khr7t]
Glottal stop
[?l
before a syllabic
[khl?n]
Flap
[phirid]
vowel is
syllable-initial before
the above
conditions are
[tpk]
stint
[strnt]
the variant
/t/
some dialects
"conditioning environments"
the table are
require modification. Check
in your
Word Variant
It/
Conditioning environment
embitter
5.
cotton
6.
cent
9.
butler
10.
Burton
1
1.
substance
12.
atoms
13.
result
It/
to
[th],
[It],
[?l,
[r],
[l],
[t], respectively.
for instructions on
write phonological
Topic
(Vowels
before
Write the
following words
containing the
the transcription
system given
9. sewer
tier
Systems: Japanese
The Japanese language can
several different
(kanji)
from the
Chinese writing
(mmaji)
uses
these symbols:
be
added
to
any
of
the
following
symbols:
The diacritic
indicates a
associated with
Transcribe the
The diacritic
is combined with
the above
/pal,
/pi/,
/pu/,
Ipel,
or
Ipol.
Write the
upper right
you have
you choose
symbols you
does the diacritic
Phonological Rules
English verbs
form a
(i.e., their past
form can
forms are
shown in list
morpheme, the
morpheme has three
11.
facilitate your study, write the
last sound
each word
are found
in appendixes
and a
[d],
or
[id]
[dl
grabbed
slammed
planned
fitted
fixed
packed
peeped
blended
what environment
occur? List
provide the
these segments
have in
what environment
occur? List the relevant
provide the
these segments
have in
In what environment
occur? List the relevant
these segments
have in common.
does the
have in
the distribution
[S]?
does the
have in common
F. What does the
Rules
[l]
and
[r]
Korean the sounds
and [r] are in
Examine the
the questions
English gloss
ParuY
muruy
3.
ssal
ssaruy
4.
saram
saramuy
sultok
the water"
"of
the
rice"
"person"
"of
the
person"
"liquor"
"liquor
jug"
"water"
"water
jug"
"rice"
"rice
jug"
"knife"
"Seoul"
"head, hair"
are from Fromkin
Rodman
1988, 116.
There are
one transcribed
the other
the
data
in
. .
for the moment
is basic.
. .
Which rule,
is, which
rule deriving [l]
or the rule deriving
from [l]? F. Now consider the
monomorphemic Korean
words in
Phonological Rules
In Tohono O'odham,
American language
the Uto-Aztecan
the sounds
are variants
the sounds
That
is,
basic
and
derived.
The
a
t, k,
d, d,
j,
1,
m,
n, r,
S,
S,
(v), y,
o,
U,
a:,
i:,
i:,
o:,
U:/.
Tohono O'odham
Tohono O'odham
language does
have a
Examine the
Tohono O'odham forms
Instructions for
writing phonological
are found
in appendixes 1
O'odham form
Yaridt
2.
so:m
5.
tadaj
6.
?arik
8.
hi:kas
9.
wudaii
10.
wudo
11.
masad
12.
kuso
14.
si:s
15.
bidk
16.
widut
17.
ma:kis
18.
bisE
19.
huduii
20.
kiriw
21.
mirifi
22.
sa:d
"had a
"his/her/its
"tie it!,
moon," "month"
mucous," "cried"
"will be
What environment conditions
the occurrence
associated with
condition the
the rule
3 in
for the
O'odham.
The
change
of
in terms
shown below;
but the
conditioning environment
in terms
distinctive features.
In any actual
the change
to and
only),
or
(3)
by
only).
Phonological Rules
from Zoque,
a language spoken in
properties can
environment in
which they
occur. Study
the forms and
Instructions for
writing phonological
are found
in appendixes 1
/p,
t,
t"
ty,
E,
l,
n,
X,
Y,
i,
e,
3,
a,
0,
Zoque form
agdyo?ys
3.
ndzin
6.
iiJvehtSu
10.
ngenge
?tu
11.
panda?m
15.
natyuxu
16.
tsehtsu
17.
iijinu
18.
EehEaxu
20.
Cakna?Eu
English
gloss
"he
got
sleepy"
"he
sees"
"my
pine"
"little"
"c10
thing"
"you
cut"
"he sweeps"
"he walked"
"you
went"
"he's
shouting"
"he
cut
brush"
"he
planted
it"
"they
cut
it"
"goatee"
"he
frightened
him"
You should
form,
the environment
condition the
feature(s)
that
characterize(s)
the class
condition the
may have noticed
has a variant
the environment
in question
the consonants
this rule. List
the consonants
are the input
this rule
on the
left side
consonants on the
Write the rule
for Zoque
in question
the rule
Using distinctive
feature notation,
the rule
feature(s)
from the application
the rule
the conditioning
Phonological Rules
verb forms. List
forms
of
verbs
to
which
various
affixes
can
be
attached.
List
of
base
forms
to
which
the
suffix
-te has
added. This
morpheme indicates
in Ima ame
ga futte
imasu
Examine the
in the
two lists
answer the questions
English gloss
-te form
tabe-
4.
kak-
10.
nom-
"eat"
"call"
"die"
"write"
"read"
"see"
"play"
"fly"
"walk"
"drink"
is, they
suffmation
accounted for.
1 for instructions on
illustrate the form the
rules should
this
exercise.
Write the rule
accounts for
the forms
Write the
accounts for the alternations in
account for
I1
two rules
has already
a second
applied in
produce the
I1
which these rules
make any
11,
where necessary.
is, list
them in
the order
which they
the correct
the numbers
form for the
nug-?
Given the
is like
some respects,
in others.)
potentially applicable
(with some
or
why
not?
Phonological Rules
Examine the
from Japanese
Japanese form
6.
15.
"was
"was flown"
What are the Japanese
words in
form
English
gloss
"eat"
''read"
"fly"
The past
What are
phonological rule
changes one
feature(s)
the rule
What conditions
form
of
the
suffix
occurs?
in two
What conditions
feature(s)
stating the
Is there any
the verb
in exercise
and the past
Topic
Syllables
with syllables
t3~int
s13a
t3~mcnt
~ifpbij
fzntzstik
Topic
Syllables
140.)
displayed
with
phonemic
transcriptions
and
with
syllables
and
present (verb)
This page intentionally left blank
Topic
/e/
and
/o/
French form
English gloss
"beauty"
belle
"beautiful"
"small
amount"
peur
"fear"
mot
"word"
mort
"death"
In
what
environment
do
/e/,
/o/,
and
/o/
occur?
(Hint:
Look
at
syllable
structure.)
what
environment
do
/c/,
/5/,
and
(Hint:
Again,
look
at
syllable
structure.)
chart, what
/e/,
101,
and
/o/
from
and
/3/?
Back
-
+ +
word
is
pronounced
playing
here?
(Hint:
Note
that
the
fmal
not pronounced.
answer question
then consult the
in list
French orthography
nous
mangez
List
French orthography
premier
garqon
comment
allez-vous
comment
venez-vous
nous
avons
nous
buvons
mangez-en
mangez-la
(la
pornrne)
English gloss
[~atil
"little"
[VUI
"first"
[k3mii]
"(adv.)
how"
[nu]
"we"
[m53el
"(you
pl.)
eat"
Pronunciation
[patitavj9]
[vub y
]
[pramjegars5]
[k3miitalevu]
[k3miivanevu]
[nuzav3]
[nubyv9]
[m53ezii]
[mii3ela]
English gloss
"you have"
"first boy"
PT.)
eat it
(the apple)"
the
orthographic
representations
in
list
I
with
the
change(s)
hypothesis in question
representations for
the words in
the phonemic
Linguistics,
pp.
121-124.)
1.
to support your
in question
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English Syntax
Simple Phrase Structure Rules
Consider the
201-206.
Phrase
structure
rules
I1
1.
N PP
NP
NP
PP
NP
N PP
NP
NP
Draw the
is defined
the phrase structure
for the
drawn in
phrase structure
applying the
phrase structure
in the
for the
tree you have
drawn in question
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Syntax
NPs,
VPs,
and
PPS
Provide the
you may
1-206.
Draw a
structure for
the tree
on the door
Draw a
structure for
the following
verb phrases:
hit the
hammered the
nail into
Draw a
structure for
prepositional phrases:
the tree
in the yard
a tree
structure for each
following sentences:
near the
house threw the ball
the book
the table near
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English Syntax
Ill-Formed Trees
phrase structure
or transformations
them. Study
answer the question.
PP Aux
NP
Aux
Particle
Mod
state what the
(i.e., why
phrase structure
correct it
when possible
altering the linear order
the phrase structure
English is
may
find
it
helpful
to
review
201-206.
English Syntax
Sentence Matching
four structures. Match
with a
then answer questions
The doctor
the patient up
a girl with a
IBM,
plays
chess.
Structure
N P
four structures
in the above
are the
sentences is
a transformation
in generating
your answer
the input
for the transformation
the tree
structure for the
you have
written in
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draw the
on the doctor's lap's mother
her brother.
Considering the
following questions first
the baby?
phrase structure
the subject
answer this
question, look for
items like
affixes.
Provide the
structure for the
example sentence.
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versus Verb-PP
either a verb
phrase (structure
a verb
prepositional phrase (structure
ran
into
the
79)
islwas
constituent substitutes for
in this
example, consider
out the
substitute for
in the
that Sally
out the
the VP structure for
179-1
be of
same category (as
instance in
threw the
through the window]
the garbage,
then it
sentence is
out the
into the
out the
not a PP.
structure for the
11.
Movement transformation
3 4
1
(or: V
conjunction tests have
this predicts
in question
construction (structure
and that
the Particle Movement
apply. In
indeed produces
a grammatical
threw the
indicating again
Apply the three
constituent structure
11)
correct for
each one.
In the
correct for
for your
mention the
Particle Movement:
Particle Movement:
Particle Movement:
Particle Movement:
Particle Movement:
Particle Movement:
are more
for extra
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English Syntax
S-Adverbs versus VP-Adverbs
islwas
it can, then
example, surely,
which is
substitute for
that Paula
whereas quickly,
cannot (*It
is quickly
that Paula
following examples
answer questions
music intently.
fiv2ally.
2a.
Mary
speaks
French
Juently.
Paul taunted
Paul taunted
S-adverbs? Provide
support your
decisions (i.e.,
provide the relevant example
has not
in the
adverbs are
VP-adverbs? Provide
support your
least one
with respect
its status
a VP-adverb). Which
adverb(s)
you consider
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Syntactic Structure
Consider the
following sentence
the questions
entering the
the door.
Draw a
structure for
example sentence
constructions as
yeslno
the subject
Provide your
answer sections labeled
case,
give
the
following
information
in
the
spaces
labeled
a-d:
State what
show (e.g.,
the subject
Provide example
sentence(s)
(e.g.,
example(s)
of
yes/no
c. State
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Simple Sentences
Study the
the questions
The German
all in
perfective tense, which
past in
hat gemacht
the auxiliary verb
the main
John has
In German the
made up
the past
the main
but German
auxiliary verb
its third
person singular
in this
is used
or a
auxiliary verb
example, the verb
"to travel,"
motion, appears
its third
person singular
Er hat
gestern eine Bemerkung
"He made
a remark
eine Bemerkung
a remark."
3. Sie
Er hat
nicht langsam gesprochen.
Langsam ist
in die
Den Mann
er nicht
a man."
Bemerkung nicht gemacht.
make the remark."
ist nicht
man didn't
Er hat
Der Mann
man didn't
ist mit
gestern in
the city yesterday
Mit der
gestern in
der Mann
der Mann mit der
gestern gefahren.
keine Bemerkung
didn't make a
Keine Bemerkung
nicht gemacht.
"He
didn't make the
22. Sie
Frau hat
Bemerkung gemacht.
sie gesehen.
a man."
German the nominative
generally used
sentence, whereas
the accusative case
is used
occur in this
are not found
in the
Enter what
the correct German
English gloss
remark"
6.
)
remark"
8.
"she/her"
word in
German corresponds most
the English word
overall meaning
the same,
although extra
the word
in sentence-initial position.
is reflected
the other
in this
in spite
illustrate your points.
The German
English in
a particular feature
not appear
are translated into
another form
and what are the conditions under
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Simple Sentences
following sentences
from Tamil,
Dravidian language
the questions
Na:n
mi:nai
va:nkukire:n.
b.
Mi:nai
va:nkukire:n.
c.
Mi:nai
na:n
va:nkukire:n.
"I buy
Ma:lukira:n.
b.
Avan
ma:lukira:n.
3a. Unnai
pa:rkire:n.
b.
Na:n
unnai
pa:rkire:n.
"I
see
you."
4a.
Vi1ukira:y.
b.
Ni:
vi1ukira:y.
"You
fall."
5a.
Karro:n
a:ntiyai
pa:rkira:n.
b.
A:ntiyai
pa:rkira:n
karro:n.
the monk."
va:nkukira:n.
"He
buys."
7a.
Avanai
vaikire:n.
b.
Vaikire:n
avanai
na:n.
vaikire:n
na:n.
scold him."
8a.
Ni:
ennai
vaikira:~.
b.
Vaikira:y
ennai.
"You
scold
me."
9a.
Manitan
unnai
vaikira:n.
b.
Manitan
vaikira:n
scolds you."
avanai.
"He
scolds
him."
l.
Avan
manitanai
vaikira:n.
the man."
Karro:n
ennai
pa:rkira:n.
ennai
karro:n.
morphemes, entering them in the
spaces below.
in the
Enter what
would predict
correct Tamil
Subject form
English gloss
C.
d.
form (bound)
English gloss
(free) English gloss
are grammatical
relations (subject, object) indicated in
any) in
Tamil. Is
order to
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Simple Sentences
Study the
answer the questions
before some
is close
identical) in meaning
in sentence-initial
sequence "prefix-stem."
usual indicates
an
alveopalatal
nasal;
a
voiceless
alveopalatal
affiricate;
a glottal
a
after it
consult appendix
for more information about the sounds
in this
S-ba:bagi
'aii iieok.
'A:iii
'aii
iieok
S-ba:bagi.
speaking
slowly."
S-hottam
'ap
Eikpan.
'A:pi
'ap
S-hottam
Eikpan.
"You
arelwere
working
quickly."
Tako
'o
EiEwi
hegai.
&wi
'o
tako.
"Helshe
playing yesterday."
&kpan
'aii
'a:iii.
working."
'A:pi
'ap
iieok.
"You
arelwere
speaking."
S-ba:bagi
'o
Eikpan
hegai.
Hegai
'o
S-ba:bagi
Eikpan.
"Helshe
is/was
working
slowly."
'a:%.
speaking.
g Husi.
islwas
fighting
Joe."
islwas
fighting
John."
Husi 'o
is/was
fighting
Joe."
islwas
fighting John."
islwas
fighting
you."
Huan
'o
fi-Eeggia.
"John
is/was
fighting
me."
Ceggia
g Husi g
is/was
fighting
John."
is/was
fighting Joe."
Mi:stol
'o
ko:s.
"The
cat
is/was
sleeping."
'A:fii
'aii
med.
Med
'aii.
running."
Huan
'o
Eendad
g
Ma1i:ya.
"John
is/was
kissing
Mary."
is/was
kissing
John."
Ma1i:ya
'o
Eendad
g
Huan.
"John
islwas
kissing
Mary."
is/was
kissing
John."
eeoj
'o
'a5
fi-Eeggia.
R-Eeggia
'o
g
Eeoj
'a:iii.
"The
boy
is/was
fighting
me."
Tako
'o
g
Eeoj
fi-Eeggia.
&Eeggia
'o
g
Eeoj
'a:iii
tako.
"The
boy
is/was
fighting
me
yesterday."
Ma1i:ya
'o
m-Eendad
'a:pi.
'A:pi
'o
m-Eendad
g
Ma1i:ya.
"Mary
islwas
kissing you."
hegai huhu'id.
Huhu'id 'o
is/was
chasing
it/him/her."
M-huhu'id
'o
g
gogs.
"The
dog
is
chasing
you."
'A:fii
'afi
g
gogs
huhu'id.
chasing the
*Husi
'o
Eeggia.
*Ceggia
g
Husi
g
Huan
g Husi g
*Med
'a:iii
'afi.
b.
*'A%
med
'aii.
*&kpan
s-hottam
'ap.
b.
*S-hottam
Write the
in the
spaces provided.
Tohono O'odham form
English gloss
ccsleep''
"run"
that mark
auxiliary elements
appearing in
are translated
"Y
is/was
V-ing,"
some person
for the
List these
elements in
person imperfect
2nd person imperfect
person imperfect
Tohono O'odham nouns
in this
(Jose)
sentence
13
you
had
to
shelher,
Give one
interesting properties
Tohono O'odham
the Tohono
O'odham adverbs
Tohono O'odham form
are grammatical relations
(subject, object) indicated in
example, does word
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the Uto-Aztecan language
still spoken in the
southern Arizona.
Examine the
answer the questions
Yaqui pronoun
*Peo
amhaivu chuktak.
Inepo aaniak.
o'owtam vichak.
18. Peo
uka karita
karitam
vachita'e vichak.
ye'ek,
into bwiikak.
Tuuka'e aniak.
him (someone
"He sold the
"I left."
the child."
"Mary grabbed
"Mary grabbed
helped
me."
"They saw
tall man
provided, write
the Yaqui
the right.
(Yaqui has
forrn
Full pronouns:
Yaqui form
(not in
(not in
f.
English
gloss
"chopped"
"danced"
"deer-dancing"
"grabbed"
English gloss
3rd person
Full pronouns:
Yaqui form
English gloss
1st person
3rd person
Yaqui form
C. (not in
(not in
Yaqui form
Definite articles
Yaqui form
English gloss
2nd person
3rd person
2nd person
3rd person
English gloss
3rd person
3rd person
a Yaqui
the most
the meaning
not carry
this morpheme. One
the other
are grammatical
answer: subject pronouns, object pronouns,
-PO,
which
looks
like
it
might
be
a
case-marking
suffm,
the above
Yaqui as a
whole, discuss
the word
order properties
following sentences
are from Dyirbal,
spoken in
Study the
answer the questions
account for
morphological changes in the verb "hit."
laminopalatal/alveolar
alveopalatal nasal;
"Someone is
hitting the woman."
gayguna balgan
b. balgan gayguna
3a. bayi
yaIa
yanuli bayi
yaIa
man has
4a. balan
ya~aggu
balgan balan
yataggu
c.
baggul
yaIaggu
balgan balan
d. balan
baqgul
yaIaggu
balgan baggul
ya~aggu
balan
Qugurnbil
f.
baggul
yaIaggu
the woman."
yata
baggun
hitting the man."
gaQa
balgalgapu
b.
balgalgapu
gaQa
am hitting
7a. balan
badipu
b.
badipu
"The woman falls down."
your analysis
in the
appropriate Dyirbal
gaga
ginuna
balgan
b.
ginuna
gaga
balgan
c.
balgan
gaga
balgan ginuna
gada
e.
gaga
balgan ginuna
ginuna balgan
gaga
"I'm
hitting
you."
9.
bayi
yata
balgalgupu
ginda gayguna balgan
bayi
yala
hitting the
yata
yanu
"The
man
is
going."
13.
bayi
bargan
baggul
yataggu
durgapu
"The
man
is
spearing
the
wallaby."
baggul
yataggu
balgan
"The
man
is
hitting
me."
yata
banipu
"The
man
is
coming."
dugumbil
is going."
gugumbil
banipu
"The woman
ginda
banipu
"You
are
coming."
19.
gaga
banipu
transitive sentence
Dyirbal form
"the man"
Dyirbal form
Dyirbal form
English gloss
English gloss
"the man"
almost all European
nominative/accusative
a transitive
in the same
the subject
the object
a transitive
sentence is
in the pronominal
person singular feminine
sentences; her
person singular feminine
in object
ran, but
world's languages-among
"ergative/absolutive"
What property
the Dyirbal
Dyirbal from
nominative/accusative
what property
ergative/absolutive
language as
nominative/accusative
language? Limit
the words
C. Although Dyirbal
ergativelabsolutive
"split ergative"
learn what
a split ergative
in the
spaces below.
form
Dyirbal form
Dyirbal form
Simple Sentences
the Japanese
the questions
sono
kodomo-ga mita.
Kare-no hahaoya-o otoko-ga aisita.
Otoko-ga kare-no hahaoya-o aisita.
loved his
Watasi-no hahaoya-ga sinda.
Watasi-no kodomo-ni
sono
sono
sono
Sono hon-o
sono
Sono enpitu-o
Provide the
Japanese form
English gloss
"big"
formed in Japanese?
into Japanese?
What constraints
in Japanese? (Be sure
examine all the
variations on
answering this
find some
mother's child gave
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following examples
from Japanese, the
simple sentences
a relative clause based
the corresponding
answer questions
marks the
the verb
the main
subject is
assume
that
indicates direct object.
Kinoo John-ga otoko-o nagutta.
John hit
a man."
kinoo John-ga nagutta otoko-o mita.
"I
the man
John hit
Kinoo John-ga otoko-o nagutta.
John hit
b. Kinoo John-ga nagutta otoko-ga paatii-ni kita.
John hit
yesterday came
Kinoo otoko-ga John-o nagutta.
"Yesterday, a
kinoo John-o nagutta otoko-o mita.
"I saw
hit John
4a.
Hanako-kara hon-o karita.
borrowed a
book from Hanako."
karita hon-o nakusita.
I borrowed
from Hanako."
5a. Watasi-wa
Hanako-kara hon-o karita.
"I
borrowed a
book from Hanako."
Watasi-ga Hanako-kara
the Japanese
English words
Japanese form
relative clause
which you
relative clause?
called the "head"
relative clause.
clause. Where does
relative clause occur
in a Japanese noun
each
of
the
b-sentences,
the man
hit yesterday came
kinoo John
-0
nagutta
otoko
"I
saw
the
man
who
hit
John
yesterday."
4b.
Otooto
-wa
watasi
-ga
Hanako
-kara
karita hon
-0
brother lost the book
from Hanako."
-kara
karita hon
omosiroi.
brother lost
into Japanese.
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Complex Sentences
Irish
Modern Irish the
(subordinating conjunction) appearing in
forms, distinguished
the actual form the
in the
but in
consonant mutations
induced in
mutations are
(or aspiration)
the verb-initial
consonant: c
fh, and
a nasal
contain Irish
are paired
clauses derived
Study the
carefully, paying
particular attention
the distribution
the questions
fear capaill.
the man
fear a
dhiolann
2a. Molann
(praises John the country)
tir a mholann
Cbnaionn
a gconaionn
Sean leo
a chonaionn
4a. Diolann
cara
an
fhir
friend of-the
a ndiolann a
chara
a dhiolann
cara
fear capaill.
the man
the man
a ndiolann
himself sell
a dhiolann
Sein
a mholann
(I-see the
the country)
who praises
the country."
tir a
a mholann i
(the land
the man
praises it"
c. *an tir a
a mholann
tir a mholann
the man
fear a
tir a mholann
sC
*an fear a
tir a mholann
this with-them)
boy lives
sC
leo
"the
boy
that
I
see
the
men
that
he
lives
with"
c.
*an
buachaill
a
fheicim
na
fir
a
gcbnaionn
leo
9a.
Sean go
(thinks John
these horses)
"John thinks
a cheapann
a dhiolann
that John
gceapann Sean
sC
John thinks
10a.
molann Padraig
(thinks John
Patrick
the country
"John thinks
Patrick
praises this
tir a cheapann
a mholann Padraig
John thinks
Patrick
tir a
Sean go
molann Padraig
thinks John
Patrick
John thinks
Patrick
praises"
go gcbnaionn Padraig
"John thinks
Patrick
lives
with
men.'"
na
fir
a
gceapann
Sean
thinks John
Patrick
with-them)
"the
men
that
John
thinks
Patrick
lives with"
Sean a
chonaionn Padraig
Feiceann Sean
Maire
i
mBoston gach
1a.
in Boston
Feiceann Sean
i
mBoston
gach
John in
day her)
i
mBoston gach
18.
in Boston
se
i
mBoston gach
16
i.
every day."
Sean
gach la.
every day"
bhean a bhfeiceann
i mBoston gach
18
i
"the woman
*an fear
man COMP
the man
na capaill
the man
"the horses
the man
the various
forms
in Irish
in the blanks
form
English gloss
Identify the
Irish form
"the man"
"with them"
"the country"
"this man"
"this country"
3c
and
5c
ungrammatical?
are
sentences
6c
and
7c
ungrammatical?
is
sentence
8c
Why is sentence
account for the
the complementizer
explain the
judgments indicated
Dravidian language
spoken in
several morphemes. Analyze
in each word,
answer questions
be
understood
simply
as
a
"different
kind
of
d"
in Telugu
in English.
verbal morphology
5.
ceppanu
10.
paadataanu
11.
ceppeeru
13.
ceppeevu
14.
ceppam
15.
ceppcedu
17.
cepparu
1
English gloss
(someone)
to
tell"
'We
will
see"
"We
told"
"I
will
not
tell"
"We
cause
(someone)
to
laugh"
"Me
is
seeing"
'They told"
beat"
"I
will
sing"
"YOU
(pl*)
"We will
"He
told"
"He
saw"
"You
(pl.)
will
not
tell"
"They
are
beating"
doing"
"We
will
ask"
"He
will
ask"
spaces below, list
the Telugu morphemes
Telugu morpheme
English gloss
g.
Telugu morpheme
English gloss
Telugu morpheme
English gloss
form in
the order
the morphemes occur in
comes first?
terms such
causative, tense,
subject, verb.
Translate the
following English sentences
You (pl.) are
cause (someone)
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words in
(a language
the Niger-Congo
spoken in Africa)
forms
identifying the morphemes occurring in each
English gloss
10. mlimpiga
1
17.
utanibusu
9.
20.
tumewauliza
"Helshe
wrote you (pl.)"
"Helshe
reads"
"You
(sg.)
asked
us"
"We
saw
you
(sg.)"
"Helshe
knows
himlher"
"You
(pl.)
will
read"
"They
hit
himlher"
have just written"
(pl.) hit
him/herW
(past)
"Helshe
knows you
(sg.)"
will see me"
have just
himlher"
written you
perfective ("have
just X'd")
spaces below,
list the
on the
English gloss
G'y~~
(sg.)"
English gloss
"him/
English gloss
List the
in which
morphemes occur
terrns
such as
The morphemes
subjects
singular objects
a certain
phonological complication:
two different
the shape
occurs in
a particular
the phonological
environment (the
sounds) in
the morpheme
contain another
marker, -a-,
the verb either
is very
in meaning
him/herW
22.
tulimwona
"We
saw
him/herV
23.
unamwuliza
"You
(sg.)
ask
him/herV
24.
mwamwandika
"You
(pl.)
write
him/herM
mwasoma "You
referring back
describe the
forms in
most general
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the morphemes
language spoken in
answer questions
introduces a
indicate such morphemes).
exercise uses
eh
in English,
the word
chip (see
vowel is
Nahuatl form
English gloss
nicho:ka
5.
kochiya
6.
kwi:kas
8.
nicho:kas
9.
cho:kayah
ancho: kah
cho:ka
15.
kochini
16.
ancho:kayah
1
7.
ticho:
kanih
18.
kwi:kah
19. tikwi:
cho:kanih
"I
cry"
(pl.) are
was sleeping"
were sleeping"
"They were
(sg.) sleep"
"They sing"
list the
Classical
English words
(for subject)
"you (sg.)'"
"we"
"you (pl.)"
f.
Nahuatl morpheme
English gloss
the present
in English
is, "was
stands for any
Give the order
the morphemes in
category labels
forms
into
English.
following English sentences
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following sentences
language, the
the left
English sentences
on the right.
Compare the properties
with those
Swahili (exercises 4.17
or to
chapter 3 in
Merkin form
J11si
3.
w~lte~kit
4.
hidh~dam
5.
j
usiam
7.
alsiit
9.
delnouam
10.
w~lnouit
1
1.
~didte~kit
12.
de1dl~v3
13.
hidl~vam
14.
hrlnoua
15.
a~dhvit
1
17.
julhrdam
18.
hidnouam
19.
widte~kit
20.
delnouam
21.
judh~da
22.
~dalsia
"I
will
hit
him/themV
"She will see"
"He would
him/themV
"You
see
him/themM
will see
him/themV
"They
will
know
him/themW
"They would love her"
"He would
him/themW
"I would
him/themM
"He would know
him/themU
"We
would
take
it"
"They
will
know
him/themV
"You
would
hit
her"
"It
will
see
her"
below, list
English gloss
marking
English gloss
person singular
2nd person singular
3rd person singular masculine
person singular
3rd person singular
1st person
g.
3rd person plural
English gloss
3rd person singular masculine
person singular
3rd person singular
Modality marking
English gloss
a Merkin
sentence? Use
terms such
subject-marking morphemes occur in
both a
a short form. What
the conditioning environment
modality morphemes occur in
both a
a short form. What
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Topic
Consider the
following tree
questions A-F:
s
father
who
hired
him
admires
him
following definition
c(onstituent)-command
(see
also
l
Node A c-commands
branching node
A also dominates
(condition: A
not dominate
A. Does
NP1
c-command
NP2?
Why
or
why
not?
NP2
c-command
NP1?
Why
or
why
not?
NP1
c-command
NP3?
Why
or
why
not?
D.
Does
NP5
c-command
NP2?
the same individual in the
girl's father
who hired
c-command the
order to
with it?
example sentence
a pronoun
a noun
phrase, such
taken from
grammar book:
Limitations on
You should
all actives
with direct
passives. Actives
the direct
the unacceptable
the unacceptability
accounted for
passive when
the direct
object is
sentences like those
would presumably involve
since they
loves himself.
Himself loves
in the mirror.
the mirror. (odd)
paid the
adequately. (odd)
Mary forced
John to
with John
John to
wash himself.
himself=
the odd
sentence "Himself
in fact
have
in
common?
account for
6a.
The man
himself
will win.
The man
he will
The man
the woman who admires
The man
woman who
8a.
likes herself pleased
the girl. (odd)
9a.
told the truth. (odd)
boy knows
told the truth.
10a.
girl who
the man. (odd)
girl who
An account
the unacceptability
was hated
the assumption
passive when
direct object
reflexive misses
4.21
the Russian
sentences in lists
I1
answer the questions
the purposes
the exercise,
ignore the
on the
verb in
in this
I1
ubit'
"He wanted
from the
gotovilsya k ekzamenu.
v zerkalo.
saw himself
the mirror."
On kupalsya.
On porezalsya.
On prichesalsya.
"He combed
On xotel ubitsya.
Write the
words corresponding
English gloss
verbs (except
each verb
listed below,
Shorter form
When does
the verb
state the conditioning
for the
When does the
shorter form
the verb
Under what
Study the
the questions
the particles
-wa,
-0,
subject, object,
Taroo is
man's name
Mieko
woman's name.)
Mieko-o sinraisiteiru.
zibun-o sinraisiteiru.
sinraisiteiru. b.
Zibun-o Taroo-wa
"Taro trusts
"Taro trusts
Taroo-wa hihansita.
Zibun-o Taroo-wa hihansita.
b. Zibun-o Taroo-wa
presented Mieko
aisiteiru. 4a. Mieko-wa zibun-o aisiteiru.
Mieko-wa aisiteiru.
Mieko-wa aisiteiru.
loves herself."
5a. Mieko-wa
Provide the
in the
Japanese form
English gloss
data
in
differences
do
will be
the Japanese
the questions
these examples
the particle
the subject
embedded clause.
Taroo-wa Hanako-ga
zibun-o aisiteiru
"Taro thinks
that Hanako
loves herself."
"Taro thinks
that Hanako
"Taro thinks
Taroo-wa Hanako-ga zibun-o mita to
that Hanako
that Hanako
3a. Taroo-wa Hanako-ga
that Hanako
criticized herself."
that Hanako
Hanako-o hihansita
Japanese form
all have
difFerence
zibun
with
English
himselflherself:
relative positions
"antecedent"(Taroo
in
example
exercise
4.24)
and
the
"anaphor"
(zibun
and
himselflherself)
restrictions one
might have
"antecedent" with
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and
Noncompositional
expressions depicts
meaning--that is,
wrong tree.
(idiomatic) meaning
got a frog
intuitions (not the
ambiguous. Give
for each
following sentences
paraphrase for each
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Homophony and Polysemy
related meanings:
river" versus
contrast, a
supplies blood
word(s).
polysemy, discuss
in what
(aircraft;
flat
or
level
surface)
cause someone
and Emotive
word may
associated with
its literal
meaning; it may have
emotional connotations as
Russell once
this distinction:
You are obstinate.
a pig-headed fool.
same person might
but their
are quite
are further
In each
meaning shared
the words
in terms
emotional impact.
Choose three
following examples
tavern, bar,
throw in
baloney, a crock
body, corpse,
Provide three
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Semantic Properties
features or
the grammar
One example
grammaticalized in
it appears
as a
affix
on
the
noun
(e.g.,
the
English
plural
{S,
z,
iz)).
Asian languages
morphological means
mark plurality. Another
example involves
lost most
its gender
marking, but
The semantic
roots. A
talk about
round or
bulky object"
bulky object"
handling granular plural
handling noncompact matter
N" (used with
zhgng
(used with
N" (used with
long, slender
k&
N" (used with
kuai N
N" (used with
tou N
N" (used with
heads, such
as cattle)
0
is
overlap
cattles)
Supply two
the type
C. What Navajo root
would you
in constructing
in each language.
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Variation
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Pronouns: English
the questions associated
the sentences below.
the pronoun
you would prefer
themselves/he
himselflshe
the students
on time, won't
theylshelhe?
professor prepares
ownlhis
ownlher
you imagine
where using
pronoun(s)
Describe them.
choices problematic?
one(s)
and
why?
following passage
many words
British English spoken
you read
their meaning
American English; then
carrying the
from the
report on
which was
major impact
two friends
the day
the bustling city. (Revised from
BlanckCIAbraham
193511953, 49-50)
Translate as
the meaning
each word
Change
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are the ancestors
Both the
the meaning have
Your task
Law
a.
b+p
d+t
g+k
b.
p--+f
t+0
c. bh
(v)
dh
gh
example, applied
*sub,
will yield
has narrowed
'tjuice
The consonant
apply consistently
(although Modern
often have
undergo much
more complicated changes.
a meaning related
the
IE
word
*ghrem
Applying Grimm's Law
vowels yields
grim, grom,
grum.
The
English word
grim is
carries the
in the
and make your
best guess
plausible descendant word.
meaning changes, you
will see
Meaning change:
"to cut,
Meaning: "to split, carve, cut"
Meaning change:
word:
Meaning change:
Meaning: "to boil, ferment"
Meaning change:
Meaning: "to rain"
Meaning change:
(Note: There
Modem
English.)
Meaning:
"field"
English
word:
Meaning
change:
word:
Meaning: "to
Indo-European to
English
the ancestors
words in
Both the
the meaning have changed.
Grimm's Law
b+p
d+t
g+k
b.
p+f
t-4
c. bh
(v)
dh
example, applied
*sub,
you can
English word
has narrowed
apply consistently
often have
in place
of bh).
undergo much
complicated changes.
U)
until
you
find
an
a meaning related
the meaning
the
IE
word
*ghrern
Law yields
vowels yields
grem, grim,
grum.
The
grim is
carries the
sense
found
in
the
IE
word.
best guess
plausible descendant
word. With
meaning changes, you
will see
"to
dig,
bury"
Meaning change:
Meaning: "to
buzz, growl"
Meaning: "to do"
Meaning change:
word:
Meaning: "prairie, heath"
English word:
Meaning change:
(Note: There
no trace
Meaning: "forest, uncultivated
Meaning change:
no trace
in Modern
Meaning change:
Meaning: "to
(e.g.,
to
cut
wood)"
English
word:
Meaning
change:
English word:
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the Message
Look through cartoons
answer the questions
some cases
(often this
involve recognizing
and/or
a tale
two cities
Discuss possible
problems each
Study the
cartoon and
has communication broken
Given the
down? Why
If you
broken down, then
way of
capturing the
breaking down
in this kind
case? Why
Use
Question
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
speaker could
following sentences with
communicating either literally
five of
least one
speaker could have in mind in
are on the way
some people
some shoes
We're in
the same
He didn't
OK
She gives
brains out.
the picture.
the ball.
She is
standing on
in communication
performing one linguistic
example, one
the act
way of
below, you
will be
exploring this
indirect linguistic acts.
in each case
speaker could
comes to
in the declarative
(Concerning moods,
Either it
bill comes
false. But
a situation
(a waiter) could
taken as
hearing this
for the hearer not
take note
the radio
involve "questioning"
the imperative
mood, but the
also asking
information and
List some examples
this kind
third form
involves "stating"
way of
the imperative
mood, but the
making
List some examples
kind
of
indirectness.
"Unclear Reference"
Pronouns: English
will be
the nature
a particular
what has
in a
a pronoun. The handbook
characterizes the problem
in questions
challenge this
the authors
One example
editorial contained
attack on the
medical profession.
provide the
following discussion:
the pronoun
the phrase
medical profession
the writer
singular. (Heffernan
Now consider
answer questions
countries in
was time
neighbors in this
White House
lift all sanctions.
this gesture
noun phrase
would you
In order
similar in
in each example
"antecedent" (the President
House, respectively)
singular. How
these examples dissimilar with respect
Who are
noun phrase
of they
How does this
A-5?
her being
refer to?
The authors
in example 1
plural, it cannot
have the singular
its antecedent,
the referent
you notice
there a problem
the pronoun
your answer
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Verbs versus
performative utterance
the act
example, in
the performative verb
names the
the right
the speaker
making a
on the other hand,
example, in
that the
argument was solid,
the perlocutionary
causing someone
Which underlined
are perlocutionary
the nature
Pro verbs
Consider the
a fair.
in the
Forbidden fruit
any, are
proverbs nonliteral? Defend your answer.
the proverbs.
Agreement: English
English Composition
(revised 1971).
9"
The number
a pronoun
"okay," ask
on
the
use
of
the
author
include
such
a
comment
in the
gender. Writers
the language a
will use
the convention
pronoun, but
are from Finnish,
a European language
not a
the Indo-European language
the Finnish
answer questions
words exhibit
harmony. Thus,
suffixes
which they
are attached.
suffixes
two different
forms, but
two different versions
same morpheme.
front unrounded
front rounded
front rounded
a long
the same
way of
marking
person singular subject in
words in parentheses
are optional.
English gloss
1. He juovat maitoa hitaasti.
drinking
"DO I want
"Are they
the cups tonight."
"Are they
"He/She
wants
coffee."
"I
want
(some)
juice."
"You
are
drinking
milk
this
evening."
"Does
Mrs.
Joki
like
coffee?"
"Does
he/she
"Do I
fish!"
(formal
sg.
or
familiar
pl.)
he/she
drinking
beer
now?"
(some) tea."
is
drinking
beer
now."
milk tonight?"
(mina) mehua?
SYOO?
31.
(objective case)
tana
iltana?
"Do
(some)
juice?"
"Drink
tea!
is this?"
"This is
"Where is
"Where is
"Who needs
the cups this
"What does
"Who(m)
need tonight?"
yes/no
questions
with
the
formation
of
English
yeslno
questions.
Finnish
yeslno
questions have
intonation patterns as Finnish
Both have
slight fall
and
contrast
the
formation
of
Finnish
questions
that
use
interrogative
pronouns
(i.e.,
pronouns
such
as
who(m)
what) with
the formation
questions with
interrogative pronouns
have the same
intonation patterns as
contrast the formation
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Major Moods
the declarative,
Copala Trique,
language spoken
in Mexico. Analyze
Copala Trique has
phonemic tones, indicated
the numerals
marked
with
1
(e.g.,
are uttered
pitch; those
with highest
numbers represent
tone contours
a tone contour
in pitch.
the woman."
"Who(m)
"Who went
the guava?"
did the man
"What did
the woman eat?"
are Copala Trique
yes/no
questions
formed?
are Copala Trique
questions with
(in English
are Copala Trique
Copala Trique.
absence versus presence
the word
sentences
26
and
27,
respectively.
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following sentences
illustrate the form
the major moods take
answer questions
each word
pitch change.
indicated with
over the
The diacritic
over a
indicates a
indicates a
the diacritic
indicates a falling-rising tone; the
indicates a falling
Chinese sentence
English gloss
1.
shi
jiaoyuan.
"He
is
a
teacher."
shti!
"Buy
the
books!"
shkn-mo?
"What
do
you
want?"
bu
dao
MCi-guo
lai.
"He
is
not
coming
to
America."
1ai
ma?
"Is
Mr.
Wang
coming?"
"Mr. Wang
ybu shii
mai
bi?
ybu
sha.
have books."
10.
tg-men!
"Look
at
them!"
11.
shi shen-mo?
is this?"
Zhbng-guo-
hua.
shu6
bu
shub
Zhbng-guo-hua?
shub
Zhbng-guo-hua!
mai
bu
mai
bi?
i&ill%%E$?
mai bi
shi
shfi.
18.
lai!
Wb yao
mSii
shii.
i&ERE$?
kin
w5
ma?
bu
wen
w6-men.
Ni-men kan
shi
bu shi
jiioyuan?
bu kan
w6-men.
sell pens?"
"This is
a book."
"Who(m)
(pl.) look
you a teacher?"
are not looking
in the
interrogative mood?
is, which
answerhood condition?
two
ways
in
which
yeslno
formed in
How are
in Chinese?
those formed
interrogative pronouns
who(m),
are in
the imperative mood?
with the
List them
fom
the imperative
in the declarative
is, which
associated with a
List them
order appear
others (marked
native speakers
pragmatically unacceptable.
in each
pair are
acceptable; in
I1
and
I11
in each
Study the sentence
the question
the end
There are
yi-
and
bi-.
In
list
I1
oddity; in
I11
pragmatically unacceptable.
I1
and
111,
Navajo syntax from
studying list I
from the
mule kicked
DzaantCz
l$
biztal.
TYizi
dibe
yizgoh.
goat
sheep
butted
Dibe
tl'izi
bizgoh.
Ashkii
at'kCd
yiztsY~s.
girl kissed
At'%d
ashkii
bizts'~s.
LCCchgg'i
masi
yishxash.
dog
cat
bit
Masi
lCtchggYi
English gloss
kicked
"The mule was kicked
goat butted the
boy kissed
"The girl
kissed
by
the
boy."
"The
dog
bit
the
cat."
"The
cat
was
bitten
by
the
dog."
Hastiin
asdzini
yiyiilts'g.
Asdzani hastiin
biilts'g
the woman."
man roped the
6a. Hastiin
Ashkii hastiin bizloh.
the man."
"The coyote
Ma'ii
dibC
yiyiisxi.
coyote sheep
Dibe
ma7ii
biisxi.
scratched the
8a.
Masi
Eechgg'i
cat dog
ECCchgg'i
masi bizghas.
the cat."
"The horse
the rock."
"The rock
E$
tse
yiztal.
b.
#Tse
l&
biztal.
10a.
Masi abe'
#Abe'
milk is being
the cat."
l l
ECCchgg'i
lkkchgg'i
Masi naaltsoos
masi bizghas.
scratches the
dibC
bikhozh.
eats the
yizhjih.
Naaltsoos ashkii
the book."
15a. Ashkii
tsC'Cd6'ii
yik'idiiltaal.
b.
ashkii
bik'idiiltial.
on the
16a. Ashkii
b€ih
yiskah.
b.
#Biih
ashkii biskah.
At'CCd
dibC
yizloh.
b.
at'ekd
sheep was
caught the rabbit."
18a. Ashkii
yisil.
b.
#Gah
ashkii
bisil.
List
"The needle
stuck the
"The woman
#Tsah
asdzani
yaa'iijil.
b.
Asdzani
tsah
baa'iijil.
20a.
ashkii
yizhgish.
b.
Ashkii
bCCsh
"The knife
cut the
2 1
hastiin
yishish.
b.
Hastiin
wolachii7
"The red
the man."
QQZ.
b.
biits'6Qz.
was sucked
Using the
11,
and
111,
principle(s)
that
explain
why
some
of
the
sentences
are
unacceptable
to
Navajo
speakers.
Be
sure
to
consider
the
referents
of
the
NPs
the grammatical relations
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of
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illustrate various
follows. (Some
the examples
are taken from
Make it
apple has
in its
week of
error. Point out
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Several exercises
workbook require
informal statement
rule(s).
These rules express
regularities in
the patterning
in question.
this appendix
rules, using
regularity in the
in American
before voiced
consonants than
utter the
much longer the
it does
The conditioning factor for
the lengthening
case is
similar length
appears in the
words tap
tab. Even
pairs such
a relative length
lengthening rule
vowels is
condition on
native speaker
has learned. The
regularity describing
vowel is
This statement can
consonants] And this statement in turn is an instance of a more abstract
read as
is realized
appears in
C (i.e., A
(i.e., A
to
be
read
"is
realized
as"
or
"becomes."
the environment
relative position
the rule, in this
the rule, in this
The pattern
the phonological
in this
found in the
world's languages.
the American
English vowel-lengthening
rule, A
specification "lengthening,"
consonant. This
the form
a phonological rule in
D must
a flap,
[t] when
American English.
accounts for
and
It
is,
then,
an
example
of
rule
template
which
A
is
the
flapped
There are
also rules in
the conditioning
and part
absent. An
the Plural Rule
Distinctive Features in Phonological
the most
expressed with
a formula
the form
where
the
consonants] The form
1 already anticipates
such rules
best expressed
in terms
the distinctive
up the
the phonological regularities
the same rule
account for the
in rule
the right
the context),
almost the
same in
complexity. Only rule
is excluded
the rule,
the other
in the
list in rule
in the
the right result.
addition, the formulation
the large number
if we
forced (for
make all
allophonic statements for
each phoneme individually. Clearly,
not want
the phoneme
has a variant
the case
each phoneme
a language
must have
0
that
specify
proper statement
a phonological rule
n
in a rule,
the feature [+nasal]
)is needed
other point
rule 1
in its
form. The
rule 1
all share the property
being voiced;
is, they
have the
These consonants thus constitute
a small number
distinctive features.
for additional
problems in this
(exercises 3.3-3.6)
require a
phonological rule
in terms
dejne
Your task
these cases
In other
words, phonemes
are assigned the feature [+long] whenever they
phonemes having
the features
and [+voiced]. The answers to exercises 3.3-3.6 require statements
in one
unique distinctive
a more
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Labio- Inter- Dental,
Alveo-
dental dental
Afiicates
Nasals
Liquids
voiceless
voiced
voiceless
voiced
voiceless
voiced
lateral
nonlateral
Glides
Additional
symbols
CY
(for example,
ty
palatalized t)
(for example,
t'
glottalized (or
glottal stop
Central
Back
Front
Central
Back
High
Tense
i
High Tense
Mid
Tense
e
(e~)
Lax
Tense
Low
au)
Additional
symbols
V:
vowel
syllabic r.
certain resonants (r,
ou,
diphthongs cannot
as a
represent them in
terns
their initial
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Distinctive Features
consonants and
+sonorant)
Consonantal
-
-
troflex
(-syllabic,
+consonantal,
-sonorant)
Nasal
Lateral
Continuant
Distributed
Coronal
(afiicate)
[-consonantal]
in
English
in
other
languages.
(+syllabic,
-consonantal,
+sonorant)
+ + + +
-
-
-
-
- - -
+ + +
lax back
The central
vowels given
the transcription
the feature
Some Phrase
phrase structure
(Aux)
VP
(Art) N
Poss-Affix
Conjunction
NP
N
(Mod)
(NP) (PP)
Particle
NP
Aux
Art
Poss
Q
Mod
P
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The Message
Linguistic Communication
in mind
The speaker
some expression
the language
encodes the
expression, the
incoming sounds, syntax,
meanings in the
decoded message. (Linguistics,
Model, then,
question "How does
work?'can
the hearer
the speaker's
the meaning
the meaning
the hearer
a speaker's
speaker's communicative
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Major Moods
Requesting, commanding, ordering, pleading
with each type
"answerhood condition."
a "truth condition."
act/satisfaction
condition pair
turn correlated
resulting triple
a particular
associated, directly,
interrogative mood.
with the
the imperative
Interrogative mood
Will he leave?
The person
the hearer
the speaker
the answer.
Declarative mood
Taken as a statement
the relevant
Imperative mood
the room!
Taken as
The hearer
the sentence
describes (in
the speaker
language the
actlsatisfaction
condition/form
languages choose
syntactic, morphological,
and/or
the major
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Copala Trique
German
Irish
Japanese
Korean
Nahuatl
Russian
Spanish
Swahili
Tamil
Telugu
Tohono
O'odham
Turkish
Yaqui
Zoque
Language
family
Finno-Ugric
Principal area
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K. Farmer,
M. Harnish.
language and communication.
5th ed. Cambridge,
Austin: University
Beythan,
der Tamilsprache.
Blanckk,
W. W.
General principles
language and experiences
Heath and
edition 1953, ed. R. Abraham.] Brauner, S., and J. Bantu. 1964. Lehrbuch des
Verlag Enzyklopadie.
A clockwork orange.
first
York: Bantam
J., and
grammar: A
modern English.
York: Macmillan.
and argument structure
Yaqui. Doctoral dissertation,
D., and
the psychology
Clif&,
N.J.: Prentice-Hall.
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Scientijic American
York: Holt, Rinehart
Winston.
Frornrn,
H.
1982.
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Car1
Winter Universitatsverlag.
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Collected poems.
Basic course
University Press,
and The Hague:
Myachina, E.
language: A descriptive
London: Routledge and
Kegan
Paul.
Orgel,
College entrance reviews
English composition.
A dictionary
quotations and proverbs.
M. Dent and
York: E.
and Co.
Rensch, C.
and controlled
In A.
Hooper,
and segments.
Annamalainagar, India:
Russian word-formation.
Slavica Publishers.
outline of
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Occasional Papers
American Council
The rhyming dictionary of
the English
P. Dutton and
roots. In
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Boston: American Heritage Publishing Company
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11:
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grammar.
University
of
Arizona
Press.

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