Stylistics as a linguistic discipline + 52

Stylistics as a linguistic discipline. The subject-matter of Stylistics and its basic notions.Stylistics is a branch of linguistics which deals with expressive resources and functional styles of a language.
Stylistics is not equal to linguistics science, such as phonetics, linguistics disciplines – lexicology, morphology, syntax because they are level disciplines as they treat only one linguistic level and stylistics investigates the questions on all the levels and different aspects of the texts in general.
One and the same thought may be worded in more than one way. This diversity is predetermined by coexistence of separate language subsystems, elements of which stand in relations of interstyle synonymy. Such language subsystems are called "functional styles". Functional style units are capable of transmitting some additional information about the speaker and the objective reality in which communication takes place, namely the cultural and educational level of the speaker, his inner state of mind, intentions, emotions and feelings, etc.
Norm may be defined as a set of language rules which arc considered to be most standard and correct in a certain epoch and in a certain society.
Form is a term which refers to the recognizable shape of a text or a specch act. This shape may be either physical or ab stract. It is physical in writing and abstract in spoken communication.
Text literally means "a piece of writing". The term "text" is most used in linguistics and literary studies, where it was originally used as a synonym for "book", but it could just as easily be a poem, a letter, or a diary. This term is now in general use in other1 branches of the humanities such as cultural studies and film studies, where its meaning becomes "the thing being studied". In these other fields it could also be a video film, an advertisement, a painting, or a music score. Even a bus ticket may be called "a text". The term "text" is used so as to concentrate attention on the object being studied, rather than its author.
A linguistic context is the encirclement of a language unit by other language units in speech. Such encirclement makes the meaning of the unit clear and unambiguous. There are such contexts as extralingual (situational), physical, abstract, temporal or chronological, psychological.
Expressive means of a language are those phonetic, lexical, morphological and syntactic units and forms which make speech emphatic. Expressive means introduce connotational (stylistic, non-denotative) meanings into utterances.
Stylistic devices (tropes, figures of speech) unlike expressive means are not language phenomena. They are formed in speech and most of them do not exist out of context. According to principles of their formation, stylistic devices are grouped into phonetic, lexico-semantic and syntactic types. Basically, all stylistic devices are the result of revaluation of neutral words, word-combinations and syntactic structures. Revaluation makes language units obtain connotations and stylistic value. A stylistic device is the subject matter of stylistic semasiology.
Universal in Philology category "reader" thoroughly researched in the world science. In certain depth the works of R. Barthes, M. Riffaterre, A. Tacca, T. Todorov, K. Castilla del Pino, M. Bakhtin, G. Stepanov, D. Likhachev, Yu. Lotman, Eco and many others identified a wide range of powers of the reader. These range from determining the value of a literary work in General and awareness of the role of the reader as the benchmark in the process of literary creativity to classify conversations of the author with him.
This amplitude of fluctuations in opinions about the role of the reader is particularly prominent in opposing the concepts of "model" reader. In one case he is the sole recipient and beneficiary of the author's intention when reading fictional works, in other - the same destination, but tend to an infinite multiplicity of reads because of its reader's personality.
Dialogue of the reader with the author is not a search for the answers, and the search for creative solutions, sympathy, empathy. It is important to understand the text in depth, and for that (A. Skaftymova) honestly need to read, trusting the author.
In A. Levidow "Author - reader" is an interesting observation (for writing): "the Writer must make the reader forget about the author, his art to create the illusion that the author, there is only the depicted reality."
In the dialogue of the author with the reader there is a conflict point is that the author doesn't like the invasion of poetic composition, does not accept "surgical dissection" of the creative process. Obviously, therefore, chooses its own model reader. So, by F. Dostoevsky invites the reader to psychological search for justification of sin, and V. Nabokov helps the reader to find his point to monitor the game inventor's illusions in the "camera obscura", etc. the Reader accepts these rules of the game, however, seeks as far as possible to subtract everything that is embedded in the text. Such a reading is due to the penetration into the essence of the text, its composition.
Orientation to the addressee - the connotative function is purely grammatical expression in the Vocative form and the imperative mood, which is syntactically, morphologically, and often phonologically deviate from other nominal and verbal categories. Imperative sentences are fundamentally different from narrative: these last can be true or false, and the first does not.
Универсальная в филологии категория «читатель» обстоятельно исследована в мировой науке. В различных по глубине работах Р. Барта, М. Риффатера, О. Такка, Ц. Тодорова, К. Кастилья дель Пино, М. Бахтина, Г. Степанова, Д. Лихачева, Ю. Лотмана, У. Эко и многих других выявлен широкий спектр полномочий читателя. Они простираются от определения ценности литературного произведения в целом и осознания роли читателя как ориентира в процессе литературного творчества до классификации диалогов автора с ним.
Эта амплитуда колебаний во мнениях о роли читателя особенно заметна в противостоящих друг другу концепциях о «модели» читателя. В одном случае он - единственный адресат и получатель авторского замысла при прочтении художественного произведения, в другом - тот же адресат, но склонный к бесконечной множественности прочтений в силу своей читательской индивидуальности.
Диалог читателя с автором - это не поиск готовых ответов, а поиск творческих решений, сочувствие, сопереживание. Важно понять текст во всей его глубине, а для этого (по А. Скафтымову) надо честно читать, доверяя автору.
В работе А. Левидова «Автор - образ - читатель» есть интересное наблюдение (для пишущего): «Писатель должен заставить читателя забыть об авторе, своим искусством создать иллюзию, что автора нет, есть только изображаемая действительность».
В диалоге автора с читателем есть конфликтный момент: автор не любит вторжения в поэтическую композицию, не приемлет «хирургического вскрытия» творческого процесса. Очевидно, поэтому и выбирает свою модель читателя. Так, Ф. Достоевский приглашает читателя к психологическому поиску оправданий греха, а В. Набоков помогает читателю найти свою точку для наблюдения за игрой авторских иллюзий в «камере обскура» и т.д. Читатель принимает эти правила игры, однако, стремится как можно глубже вычитать все, что заложено в тексте. Такое чтение связано с проникновением в самую суть текста, его композицию.
Ориентация на адресата - конативная функция - находит свое чисто грамматическое выражение в звательной форме и повелительном наклонении, которые синтаксически, морфологически, а часто и фонологически отклоняются от прочих именных и глагольных категорий. Повелительные предложения коренным образом отличаются от повествовательных: эти последние могут быть истинными или ложными, а первые - нет.

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