12-13 exam ЛЭС


Theoretical questions
Describe Lexicology as a science, its aims and tasks
Describe General lexicology
Describe Special lexicology.
Describe Historical lexicology.
Describe the notion of Synonymy: ideographic and stylistic synonyms. Illustrate your answer with examples
Describe Antonymy and antonyms.
Describe Homonymy: perfect homonyms, homophones and homographs.
Describe Word-formation and word-forming pattern.
Describe the process of Derivation
Describe the process of Composition
Describe the process of Conversion.
Describe the process of Back-formation, abbreviation, clipping, blending and onomatopoeia
Describe the notion of Phraseological units and their classification
Describe Phraseological combinations
Describe Phraseological fusions
Lexicography - the theory and practice of compiling dictionaries.
Describe Pronouncing (phonetical) dictionaries and etymological dictionaries.
Describe Unilingual (explanatory) and bilingual translation dictionaries
Describe Multilingual or polyglot dictionaries.
Describe General and special dictionaries.
Describe the subject of theoretical grammar, its aims and tasks.
Describe Morphology as a part of grammar.
Describe Syntax as a part of grammar.
Accomplish a general survey of parts of speech. Illustrate your answer with examples
Describe Notional words: verbs, nouns, adjectives, numerals, pronouns and adverbs.
Describe Structural words: articles, particles, prepositions and conjunctions.
Describe Independent elements: modal words, interjections, words of affirmation and negation.
Give the classification of word-groups. Illustrate your answer with examples
Describe the phrase-type “noun + noun”.
Describe the phrase-type “adjective + noun”.
Define describe the phrase-type “verb + noun”.
Define three cardinal sentence-types in accord with the purpose of communication.
Define the sentence-types in accord with the structure.
Define the main and secondary parts of a sentence.
Define the compound sentence.
Define the complex sentence.
Define the semi-complex sentence and the semi-composite sentence.
What are the main ways of enriching the English vocabulary?
What are the principal productive ways of word-building in English?
What do we mean by derivations?
What does the process of affixation consist in?
What do productive affixes mean?
What are non-productive affixes?
What are borrowed affixes?
What are native affixes?
What are noun- and adjective – forming suffixes?
What adverb- and verb- forming suffixes do you know?
What does conversion consist in?
What features of Modern English have produced the high productivity of conversion?
Which categories of parts of speech are especially affected by conversion?
Describe the processes of conversion
Explain the sources of conversion
What is the usage of conversion in present day English?
What is understood by composition?
What do we call words made by composition?
What are the aspects of composition that present special interest?
What are the criteria for distinguishing between a compound and a word-combination?
What is shortening?
What are the two processes of making shortenings?
What is onomatopoeia?
What does reduplication mean?
What do we understand by back-formation?
What minor processes of word-building do you know?
What words do we call homonyms?
What are homonyms which are the same in sound and spelling but refer to different categories of part of speech?
What is a traditional classification of homonyms?
What are the distinctive features of the classification of the homonyms suggested by Professor A. I. Smirnitsky?
What is homonym proper?
What do homographic mean?
What do we understand by homophones?
What are the main sources of homonyms?
What changes do words undergo in the course of their historical development?
What is the essential difference between homonymy and polysemy?
What grammatical categories are typical non-finite forms of the verb in English?
What syntactical units with verbals do you know?
What are the principal grammatical functions of the verbals in the sentence?
What morphological categories has the English pronoun?
What morphological categories has the English adjective?
What morphological categories has the English verb?
What morphological categories has the English noun?
What do adjectives denote?
What adjectives are called “intensifiers”?
What is an elementary sentence?
What are the main components of the elementary sentence?
What grammatical means of connection of the components within the sentence do you know?
What words or syntactic structures can be used as attributes?
What is a composite sentence?
What sentences are called compound?
What may prepositions indicate?
Explain the notion of neologisms
Types and ways of formation of neologisms
Describe the basic syntactical notions
Describe general characteristics of Syntax
Grammatical category and grammatical meaning. The theory of classes of words.
The category of noun in English: general features, the categories of gender and number.
The category of noun in English: general features, the categories of case and article determination.
The category of verb in English: general characteristics and classification. The categories of person and number.
The category of verb in English: the categories of tense and aspect.
The category of verb in English: the category of voice.
The category of verb in English: the category of mood.

Типовые вопросы
Explain the etymology and productivity of the affixes given below. Say what parts of speech can be formed with their help. -ness, -ous, - ly, -y, -dom, -ish, -tion, -ed, -en, -ess, -or, -er, -hood, -les, -ate, -ing, -al, -ful, un-, re-, im (in)-, dis-, over-, ab-.
Explain the productivity and etymology of affixes given below: Re-, im-, dis-, over-, ab-, -ness, -ous, -ly, -y, -dom, -ish, -tion, - ed, -en, -ess, -er, -hood, -less, -ate, -al, -ful.
Say what parts of speech can be formed with the help of following affixes and illustrate your answer with examples. Re-, im-, dis-, over-, ab-, -ness, -ous, -ly, -y, -dom, -ish, -tion, - ed, -en, -ess, -er, -hood, -less, -ate, -al, -ful, -ness, -ous, - ly, -y, -dom, -ish, -tion, -ed, -en, -ess, -or, -er, -hood, -les, -ate, -ing, -al, -ful, un-, re-, im (in)-, dis-, over-, ab-.
Analyze the following phraseological units according to their meaning, structure, syntactical function and the way they are formed: When pigs fly /never/. To leap into marriage.To be a whipping boy. To be behind scenes.Girl Friday /a man’s assistant/. Fire in the belly.Man Friday /a true friend/. A dear John.A close mouth catches no flies. To speak BBB.
Analyze the following lexical units:aggro /aggression/ Algol / algorythmic language/apex /eipeks/ - advanced purchased excursion/ payment for an excursion ninety days before the time of excursion/A-day /announcement Day - day of announcing war/AID / artifitial insemination by a donor/
Analyze the following lexical units:AIDS / acquired immunity deficiency syndrome/Ala / Alabama/ a.s.a.p. /as soon as possible/bar-B-Q ,barb /barbecue/ to baby-sit / baby-sitter/A-level /advanced level/ BC /birth certificate/burger /hamberger/
Analyze the following lexical units:to eye a find to slima grown-up to airmail steel helmetLondon season resit sleepa flirt a read handoutto weekend a build-up supersonics
Analyze the following compound words:note-book speedometer son-in-lawto job-hop brain-gain video-corder fair-haired forget-me-not Anglo-Russianteach-in back-grounder biblio-klepttheatre-goer well-dressed bio-engineer
Analyze the following compound words:to book-hunt mini-term to baby-sitblood-thirsty good-for-nothing throw-awaydo-gooder skin-head kleptomaniasportsman para-trooper airbus bus-napper cease-fire three-corneredtip-top brain-drain bread-and-butter
Compare the structure of the following words:demagougery tablewards heliporttobbacoless money-wise non-formalbooketeria go-go motelcounter-clockwise to frontpage productivitygiver-away newly-created nobody
Analyze the following derived words, point out suffixes and prefixes and classify them from different points of view:to embed nourishment unsystematicto encourage inwardly to accompanytranslatorese dispensable clannishnessto de-restrict workaholic jet-wisereconstruction to overreach thouroughlyAnalyze the following derived words, point out suffixes and prefixes and classify them from different points of view:afterthought foundation childishnesstransgressor to re-write completenikgangsterdom pleasure concentrationrefusenik counter-culture brinkmanshipallusion self-criticism to computeriseslimster reservation translation
Analyze the following lexical units according to their structure. Point out the function of morphemes. Speak about bound morphemes and free morphemes. Point out allomorphs in analyzed words:accompany unsystematic forget-me-notcomputerise expressionless reservationde-restrict superprivileged moisturelengthen clannish pleasure
Analyze the following lexical units according to their structure. Point out the function of morphemes. Speak about bound morphemes and free morphemes. Point out allomorphs in analyzed words:beautify workaholic reconstructionbeflower inwardly counterculturespecialise moneywise three-corneredround table Green Berets to sandwich in
The italicized words in the following joke are formed by derivation. Write them out in two columns: A) Those formed with the help of productive affixes. B) Those formed with the help of non-productive affixes. Explain the etymology of each borrowed affix. Willie was invited to a party, where refreshments were bountifully served. “Won’t you have something more, Willie?” the hostess said. “No, thank you,” replied Willie, with an expression of great satisfaction. “I’m full.” “Well, then,” smiled the hostess, “put some delicious fruit and cakes in your pocket to eat on the way home.” “No, thank you,” came the rather startling response of Willie, “they’re full too.”
The italicized words in the following extract are formed by derivation. Write them out in two columns: A) Those formed with the help of productive affixes. B) Those formed with the help of non-productive affixes. Explain the etymology of each borrowed affix. The scene was a tiny wayside railway platform and the sun was going down behind the distant hills. It was a glorious sight. An intending passenger was chatting with one of the porters. “Fine sight, the sun tipping the hills with gold,” said the poetic passenger. “Yes,” reported the porter;” and to think that there was a time when I was as lucky as then ‘ills.”
The italicized words in the following joke are formed by derivation. Write them out in two columns: A) Those formed with the help of productive affixes. B) Those formed with the help of non-productive affixes. Explain the etymology of each borrowed affix. A lady who was a very uncertain driver stopped her car at traffic signals which were against her. As green flashed on, her engine stalled, and when she restarted it the colour was again red. This flurried her so much that when green returned she again stalled her engine and the cars behind began to hoot. While she was waiting for the green the third time the constable on duty stepped across and with a smile said: “Those are only colours, showing today, ma’am.”
The italicized words in the following joke are formed by derivation. Write them out in two columns: A) Those formed with the help of productive affixes. B) Those formed with the help of non-productive affixes. Explain the etymology of each borrowed affix. i)“You have an admirable cook, yet you are always growling about her to your friends.” “Do you suppose I want her lured away?” ii)Patient: Do you extract teeth painlessly? Dentist: Not always – the other day I nearly dislocated my wrist.
Read the following joke, explain the type of word-building in the italicized words and say everything you can about the way they were made. A successful old lawyer tells the following story about the beginning of his professional life: “I had just installed myself in my office, had put in a phone, when, through the glass of my door I saw a shadow. It was doubtless my first client to see me. Picture me, then, grabbing the nice, shiny receiver of my new phone and plunging into an imaginary conversation. It ran something like this: ‘Yes, Mr. S! I was saying as the stranger entered the office. ‘I’ll attend to that corporation matter for you. Mr. J. had me on the phone this morning and wanted me to settle a damage suit, but I had to put him off, as I was too busy with other cases. But I’ll manage to sandwich your case in between the others somehow. Yes. Yes. All right. Good bye.’ Being sure, then, that I had duly impressed my prospective client, I hung up the receiver and turned to him. ‘Excuse, sir,’ the man said, ‘but I’m from the telephone company. I’ve come to connect your instrument.’
Define the meaning of the following suffixes and try to find their equivalent in Kazakh or Russian: -er, -ful, -ish, -able, -y, -ly, -ed, -dom, -ship, -hood, -some, -en, - ous, -ing, -ness, -ist, -ance, -ize/ise, -ate.
Compare the semantic structure of the pairs: Air-to air, eye-to eye, face-to face, hand-to hand, jerk-to jerk, mine-to mine, note-to note, prey-to prey, run-to run.
Explain why the word if is used in the plural form in the popular proverb: If ifs and ans were pots and pans.
Comment the following examples of conversion. Translate the sentences: a) Charlie went on wolfing the chocolate. b) He had always aped the gentleman in his clothes and manners. c) And what of Charles? I pity any detective who would have to dog him through those twenty months.
Prove that the words a finger and to finger are two words and not the one word finger used either as a noun or as a verb.
Which of two words in the following pairs is made by conversion? Deduce the meanings and use them in constructing sentences of your own. Star-to star, picture-to picture, colour-to colour, blush-to blush, key-to key, fool- to fool, house-to house, fork- to fork, age- to age, touch- to touch.
Identify the neutral compounds in the word combinations given below and write them out in three columns: A) Simple neutral compounds. B) Neutral derived compounds. C) Neutral contracted compounds. An air-conditioned hall; a glass-walled room; to fight against H-bomb; a loud revolver – shot; a high pitched voice; a heavy topcoat; a car’s windshield; a snow-white handkerchief; big A.A. guns; a radio-equipped car; thousands of gold-seekers; a big hunting-knife; a lightish-coloured man; to howl long and wolf-like; to go into frantic U-turn; to fix M-Day.
Arrange the compounds given below into two groups: A) Idiomatic. B) Non-idiomatic. Say whether the semantic change within idiomatic compounds is partial or total. Light-hearted; butterfly; homebody; cabman; medium-sized; blackberry; blue-bell; good-for-nothing; wolf-dog; highway; dragon-fly; looking-glass; greengrocer; bluestocking; gooseberry; necklace; earthquake; lazy-bones.
Define the particular type of word-building process by which the following words were made. A mike; to babysit; to buzz; a torchlight; homelike; theatrical; old-fashioned; to book; unreasonable; SALT; Anglo-American; to murmur; a pub; to dilly-dally; okay; eatable; a make; a greenhorn; posish; a dress coat; to bang; merry-go-round; H-bag; B.B.C.; thinnish; to blood-transfuse; a go; to quack; M.P.; to thunder; earthquake; D-region; fatalism; a find.
What are the italicized elements in the words given below? What makes them different from affixes? From stems? Statesman, waterproof, cat-like, trustworthy
Classify the following italicized homonyms. Use Professor A. I. Smirnitsky’s classification system. 1. A) He should give the ball in your honour as the bride. B) The boy was playing with the ball. 2. A) He wished he could explain about his left ear. B) He left the sentence unfinished. 3. A) I wish you could stop lying. B) The yellow mouse was still dead, lying as it had fallen in the crystal clear liquid. 4. A) This time, he returned on the light. B) He wore $ 300 suit with light ties and he was a man you would instinctively trust anywhere. 5. A) When he’s at the door of her room, he sends a page ahead. B) Open your books at page 20.
Classify the following italicized homonyms. Use Professor A. I. Smirnitsky’s classification system. 1. A) He charged the man ten cents for the pencil. B) He charged the battery. C) He charged them to do their duty. 2. A) There is a table of weights and measures at the end of dictionary. B) I need a bigger table for my dinning-room. 3. A) He knew five languages. B) He had to use strong language to make them listen to him. 4. A) If you will only have patience everything you want will be done at last. B) I have no patience with him. 5. A) He ran his business very well. B) The man ran.
Prove that the language units board (a long and thin piece of timber) and board (daily meals) are two different words and not two different meanings of one and the same word. Write down some other similar examples.
Enumerate the modal verbs which are used to present events as possible, necessary, desirable, and realizable. Illustrate your answer with examples.
Name groups of nouns that are preferably used without articles. Give examples to prove your answer.
Give examples of subordinate, coordinate, predicative relations between the components of the elementary sentence.
Say what structural variations are possible in the following phraseological units. If in doubt, consult the dictionaries. To catch at a straw; a big bug; the last drop; to build a castle in the air; to weather the storm; to get the upper hand; to run for one's life; to do wonders; to run a risk; just the other way about.
What definitions can be given to a phraseological unit, idiom and proverb? What is the difference between them?
How do proverbs differ from phraseological units? What are the difficulties of translating them?
Complete the following chart:Part of speech Prepositions ParticlesMeaning Form Function
Complete the following chart:Part of speech Prepositions Conjunctions Meaning Form Function
Complete the following chart:Part of speech Adjective NumeralsMeaning Form Function
Complete the following chart:Part of speech Verb AdverbMeaning Form Function
Complete the following chart:Part of speech Noun PronounMeaning Form Function
Open the brackets. Say whether the predicate in each case denotes “state” or “action”: a) And then I (to demobilize) and I shall marry you. b) She (to send) from heaven, as I may have remarked before, to help me with my melancholia. c) Dick went to the street and (to greet) by Binkie.
Make sentences with the words, using them as subjects. Supply a predicate in the singular or in the plural as appropriate. Pyjamas, trousers, spectacles, lodgins, outskirts, premises, works, stairs, authorities, breakables, goods.
Express your opinion about somebody. (Make use of the following verbs: believe, know, think, suppose.) i.e. He is very intelligent=I believe him very intelligent. A) He is a bore. B) She is a lovely girl. C) He is generous. D) He is a cunning man. E) He is a careless fellow. F) He has experience.
Choose adjectives-intensifiers from the list below to show your evaluation or assessment. a) complete failure, success , disaster, b) extreme cold, anger, politeness, c) great fun, pleasure, disaster.
Use the indefinite article with the underlined nouns where possible. Say where it is possible and explain why. a) He was very bad dancer. b) She had intelligent face. c) If you are good and do whatever you are told you shall sleep in proper bedroom, and lots to eat and money to buy chocolate and to take rides in taxis.
Use the indefinite article with the underlined nouns where possible. Say where it is possible and explain why. a) The fish broke into number of pieces. It was made of stone. b) “Oh, those lovely cluster roses; I am so fond of them! But they had much better go into water. I hate to wear flowers.” c) He picked up stone, put it into the shoe and threw the whole construction at the rat. d) Carrie asked her sister for ink and paper and when the latter had gone to bed got out Drouet’s card.
Write down conjunctions and classify them in accordance with their meaning: a) I don’t see how anyone can be expected to tackle a case like this unless he knows all the details. b) Even if I could do it, it would be profanation for me to play at being in love. c) I never talk of my affairs until they’re carried through. d) As long as a woman can look ten years younger than her own daughter, she is perfectly satisfied. e) I don’t know whether he was asking the question because he wanted to know what I planned to do or because he wanted to see me again. f) And we went there straight away in a taxi for, after all, you never know. g) Rose perceived that she was not being sorry for Tina, but for herself.
Make sentences to indicate the manner, means or instrument of an action. (Use the phrases given below). At a gulp, in a low voice, with his head down, without saying a word, under his breath, as he used to do, by practicing regularly, with impatience, at a go, by car, by air, with pity, almost pleadingly, rather impatiently, in an apologetic tone, as if struck by a new thought, with a pencil.
Complete the following to express the purpose of the action. I read the letter a second time… We must hurry… She stopped… I called on him yesterday… The car is waiting at the door…
Complete the following sentences to indicate the result of the action and state. She was so tired… He was clever enough… He is competent enough… She was too stunned… She was so angry… You have only to say a word… His jokes were too flat…
Think of the possible interrelation between the type of the adverbial clause (of time, condition, concession, comparison and purpose) and the use of the verb form used in them. Give examples to illustrate your point.
Think of the possible interrelation between the nominal clause and the type of the mood form used in it. Give examples to prove your point of you.
Classify the subordinate clauses into nominal or adverbial and determine their types. Say what they indicate. He was having breakfast with Leslie when the phone rang. She went to pick it up. Who knows where I’m going to be tomorrow? Wadleigh’s voice was a little thick. Her hands were trembling as she handled the letters.
Classify the subordinate clauses into nominal or adverbial and determine their types. Say what they indicate. As we had half an hour left we went and had a cup of coffee. I’m sure they are genuine Duma’s scripts. But I won’t be sure until I’ve talk to an expert. This was a busy time in the kitchen – lunch was the heaviest meal of the day because there was the full hospital staff to be fed in the cafeteria.
Classify the following italicized homonyms. Use Professor A. I. Smirnitsky’s classification system. 1. A) Crockett’s voice rose for the first time. B) I’ll send you roses, one rose for each year of your life. 2. A) He was bound to keep the place for six months. B) You should bound your desires by reason. 3. A) The pain was almost more than he could bear. B) Catch the bear before you sell his skin. 4. A) To can means to put up in airtight tins or jars for preservation. B) A man can die but once. 5. A) He bought a chair at the furniture store. B) He will chair the meeting. C) He was appointed to the chair of philosophy at the university.

Прагмо-профессиональные врпросыBefore translating into English decide upon the order of the events. a)Когда Элисон открыла калитку, она увидела, что дверь в дом открыта, а в комнатах горит свет.b)После того как у больного сняли с руки повязку, он почувствовал, что рука все еще болит.c)Нора сказала, что их машина сломалась, когда они переезжали мост.d)Когда он вернулся в гостиницу, то увидел на столе записку о том, что кто-то звонил в его отсутствие.
Before translating into English decide upon the order of the events. a)Когда наступило утро, ветер уже прекратился, стало тепло и пошел снег.b)После того как я рассказал ему все, что случилось со мной в его отсутствие, я понял, что он мне поможет.c)На следующее утро я поспешил в Таруми, чтобы встретить его, как мы условились, но он так и не появился.d)Он помолчал немного, а затем сказал, что играл в покер и проиграл все, что имел.
Translate into English. (The conjunctions in brackets may be helpful here.) a) И моя сестра, и мой брат наотрез отказались ехать. (as well as)б) Если я буду вам нужен, позвоните. (if)в) Вы можете обратиться либо в комнату 301, либо в комнату 217. (either…or)г) Никто не может заставить вас сделать это заявление, если только вы сами этого не захотите. (unless)д) Я бы хотел увидеть его, на случай если он захочет что-нибудь мне сказать. (in case)
Translate into English. (The conjunctions in brackets may be helpful here.) а) Вы хотите его видеть, потому что вас заинтересовала его работа или по другим причинам? (because)б) Он осторожно приблизился к опрокинутой машине, в то время как остальные остались стоять поодаль.(whereas)в) Поскольку я абсолютно забыл об этой встрече, я был очень удивлен, когда его увидел.(since)г) Когда дверь закрылась, он оглядел комнату.(as)д) Я даже не напомнил ей об этом, когда мы сели завтракать.(when)
Determine the communicative aim with which the preposition is used. Translate into English. а) У нее большой опыт исследовательской работы.б) Скамейка в парке была мокрой от дождя.в) Он был уверен в успехе.г) Он прекрасно разбирается в этом вопросе.
Determine the communicative aim with which the preposition is used. Translate into English. а) Я очень люблю легкую музыку, особенно джаз.б) Участники экспедиции очень устали и ослабли от голода, когда их подобрал вертолет.в) У этого юноши несомненно есть способности к языку. Его перевод совсем неплох для первокурсника.the full hospital staff to be fed in the cafeteria.
Translate these phraseological units into the Kazakh/Russian languages To catch at a straw A big bug the last drop to build a castle in the air
Translate these phraseological units into the Kazakh/Russian languages small talk to cast pearls before swine to beat about the bush A bird in hand is worth two in a bush
Think of the Russian/Kazakh equivalents of the following proverbs (as many as possible): All’s well that ends well All things are difficult before they are easy The apple never falls far from the tree A man is known by the company he keeps
Think of the Russian/Kazakh equivalents of the following proverbs (as many as possible): Attack is the best form of defence. All that glitters is not gold. Don’t look a gift horse in the mouth. He who makes no mistakes makes nothing
Translate these phraseological units into the Kazakh/Russian languages a wolf in a sheep's clothing to fly into a temper to stick to one's word bosom friend
Think of the Russian/Kazakh equivalents of the following proverbs (as many as possible): Still waters run deep It is too late to lock the stable door when the horse is stolen Don’t cut off the bough you are standing on Fortune favours the brave
Translate the derivatives from English into Kazakh or Russian аnd explain the difference in meaning: Womanly-womanish; flowery-flowered-flowering; starry-starred; reddened-reddish; shortened-shortish
Explain the difference between the meaning of the following words produced from the same root by means of different affixes. Translate the words into Russian/ Kazakh. Watery – waterish, embarrassed – embarrassing, manly – mannish, colourful – coloured, distressed – distressing
Explain the difference between the meaning of the following words produced from the same root by means of different affixes. Translate the words into Russian/ Kazakh. respected – respectful – respectable, exhaustive – exhausting – exhausted, bored – boring, touchy – touched – touching
In the following examples the italicized words are formed from the same root by means of different affixes. Translate these derivatives into Russian and explain the difference in meaning. 1.a) Sallie is the most amusing person in the world – and Julia Pendleton the least so. B) Ann was wary, but amused. 2. a) He had a charming smile, almost womanish in sweetness. B) I have kept up with you through Miss Pittypat but she gave me no information that you had developed womanly sweetness
In the following examples the italicized words are formed from the same root by means of different affixes. Translate these derivatives into Russian and explain the difference in meaning. 1. I have been having a delightful and entertaining conversation with my old chum, Lord Wisbeach. B) Thanks for your invitation. I’d be delighted to come. 2. a) Sally thinks everything is funny – even flunking – and Julia is bored at everything. She never makes the slightest effort to be pleasant. B) - Why are you going to America? - To make my fortune, I hope. – How pleased your farther will be if you do
In the following examples the italicized words are formed from the same root by means of different affixes. Translate these derivatives into Russian and explain the difference in meaning. 1. a) Long before he reached the brownstone house…the first fine careless rapture of his mad outbreak had passed from Jerry Mitchel, leaving nervous apprehension in its place. B) If your nephew has really succeeded in his experiments you should be awfully careful. 2. a) At last I decided that even this rather mannish efficient woman could do with a little help. B) He was only a boy not a man yet, but he spoke in a manly way
In the following examples the italicized words are formed from the same root by means of different affixes. Translate these derivatives into Russian and explain the difference in meaning. 1. a) The boy’s respectful manner changed noticeably. B) It may be a respectable occupation, but it sounds rather criminal for me. 2. a) “Who is leading in the pennant race?” said this strange butler in a feverish whisper. B) It was an idea peculiarly suited to her temperament, an idea that she might have suggested heself if she had thought of it…this idea of his fevered imagination
In the following examples the italicized words are formed from the same root by means of different affixes. Translate these derivatives into Russian/Kazakh and explain the difference in meaning. 1. a) Sallie is the most amusing person in the world – and Julia Pendleton the least so. B) Ann was wary, but amused. 2. a) He had a charming smile, almost womanish in sweetness. B) I have kept up with you through Miss Pittypat but she gave me no information that you had developed womanly sweetness
In the following examples the italicized words are formed from the same root by means of different affixes. Translate these derivatives into Russian/Kazakh and explain the difference in meaning. 1.a) I have been having a delightful and entertaining conversation with my old chum, Lord Wisbeach. B) Thanks for your invitation. I’d be delighted to come. 2. a) Sally thinks everything is funny – even flunking – and Julia is bored at everything. She never makes the slightest effort to be pleasant. B) - Why are you going to America? - To make my fortune, I hope. – How pleased your farther will be if you do
In the following examples the italicized words are formed from the same root by means of different affixes. Translate these derivatives into Russian/Kazakh and explain the difference in meaning. 1. a) Long before he reached the brownstone house…the first fine careless rapture of his mad outbreak had passed from Jerry Mitchel, leaving nervous apprehension in its place. B) If your nephew has really succeeded in his experiments you should be awfully careful. 2. a) At last I decided that even this rather mannish efficient woman could do with a little help. B) He was only a boy not a man yet, but he spoke in a manly way.
Some combinations of words have a special meaning that is different from the meaning of each word separately. Translate the sentences.1. Make sure you cover all the furniture before you whitewash the ceiling.2. The government is trying to whitewash the incompetence of the Treasury officials.3. The officials report on the killings has been denounced as a whitewash.4. The Australians whitewashed them 6-0.5. The game was a 6-0 whitewash.
Using bilingual dictionaries translate the given sentences with idioms.1. After the match I was black and blue.2. Come here, John. I’ve got a bone to pick with you.3. I got that piece of news from the horse’s mouth.4. They’ve been living from hand to mouth since he lost his job.5. She wasn’t being serious, she said it tongue in cheek. 6. He knows London like the back of his hand.
Using bilingual dictionaries translate the given sentences with idioms 1. Sarah and Sam get on like a house on fire.2. He never disagrees with the boss. He knows which side his bread is buttered.3. If you want to pass your exam you’d better pull your sock up.4. She should be careful if she starts playing squash: she’s no spring chicken.5. You really put your foot in it when you told her about the party.6. No, thanks, discos are not my cup of tea.
Make a presentation on one of the following dictionaries:1. Бенсон М., Бенсон Э. Русско-английский словарь глагольных словосочетаний. М. Московская международная школа переводчиков19952. Козырева М.Н., Федорова Англо-русский словарь учебный М. Русский язык1999 3. Малаховский Л.В. Словарь английских омонимов и омоформ. Москва «Рус. Язык» 19954. Убин И.И. Словарь усилительных словосочетаний русского и английского языков. Москва 19955. Pressman A. The living language common usage dictionary. Russian English, English-Russian. N.Y. Crown 19596. Оксфордский русско-английский словарь (70000 слов) Москва. Престиж. 1995
Which colours go with which words to make compounds or idioms? There may be more than one possibility. Consult a monolingual dictionary.Red, white, blue, black, grey, purple, green, yellow, orange.………squash …………-blooded ………..area……… fingers …………passages ……….matterscream ……… murder a bolt from the…….. in the……………….water rafting …………-handed……….with envy …………ice……….tape …………-collar worker……….economy double……….lines………..lie ………..-letter day
Are these statements True or False? Use the dictionary to find out the meaning of the compounds.a) You can ride on white horses.b) A red carpet is for an important person.c) You must wear a white collar if you work in an office.d) It’s easy to tell a white lie.e) If you have green fingers you are ill.
Are these statements True or False? Use the dictionary to find out the meaning of the compounds.a) You can buy things cheap on the black market.b) A black spot is where you find black ice.c) You get grey matter when you are very old.d) You can eat redcurrants.e) Brown paper is useful if you are sending a parcel
Use productive suffixes and prefixes to form derivatives from the following words: to employ, to produce, economy, to manage, to rely, to govern, value, person, to compete, to signify, to conform, to suppose, to regulate, to advertise, create.
Translate the following compounds into Russian: kitchen garden, weekend conference, unemployment benefits, sweetshop-keeper, floor-price, ceiling-price, risk cost, price fluctuation, life-insurance company, Bible-translation experience, left wing section, Trade Union Congress, civil service world, Steam Locomotive Research Institute, senior common room conversation, output aggregate supply price.
Make a presentation on one of the following dictionaries:1. Кортни Р. Английские фразовые глаголы. Англо-русский словарьМ. Русский Язык. Лонгман. 19972. Кунин А.В. Англо-русский фразеологический словарь. М. Русский Язык 19983. Малаховский Л.В. Словарь английских омонимов и омоформ. Москва «Рус. Язык» 19954. Убин И.И. Словарь усилительных словосочетаний русского и английского языков. Москва 19955. Pressman A. The living language common usage dictionary. Russian English, English-Russian. N.Y. Crown 19596. Оксфордский русско-английский словарь (70000 слов) Москва. Престиж. 1995
Find continuum in the text The Alchemist by Paulo CoelhoThe boy’s name was Santiago. Dusk was falling as the boy arrived with his herd at an abandoned church. The roof had fallen in long ago, and an enormous sycamore had grown on the spot where the sacristy had once stood. He decided to spend the night there. He saw to it that all the sheep entered through the ruined gate, and then laid some planks across it to prevent the flock from wandering away during the night. There were no wolves in the region, but once an animal had strayed during the night, and the boy had had to spend the entire next day searching for it. He swept the floor with his jacket and lay down, using the book he had just finished reading as a pillow. He told himself that he would have to start reading thicker books: they lasted longer, and made more comfortable pillows. It was still dark when he awoke, and, looking up, he could see the stars through the half-destroyed roof. I wanted to sleep a little longer, he thought. He had had the same dream that night as a week ago, and once again he had awakened before it ended. He arose and, taking up his crook, began to awaken the sheep that still slept. He had noticed that, as soon as he awoke, most of his animals also began to stir. It was as if some mysterious energy bound his life to that of the sheep, with whom he had spent the past two years, leading them through the countryside in search of food and water. “They are so used to me that they know my schedule,” he muttered. Thinking about that for a moment, he realized that it could be the other way around: that it was he who had become accustomed to their schedule. But there were certain of them who took a bit longer to awaken. The boy prodded them, one by one, with his crook, calling each by name. He had always believed that the sheep were able to understand what he said. So there were times when he read them parts of his books that had made an impression on him, or when he would tell them of the loneliness or the happiness of a shepherd in the fields. Sometimes he would comment to them on the things he had seen in the villages they passed. But for the past few days he had spoken to them about only one thing: the girl, the daughter of a merchant who lived in the village they would reach in about four days. He had been to the village only once, the year before. The merchant was the proprietor of a dry goods shop, and he always demanded that the sheep be sheared in his presence, so that he would not be cheated. A friend had told the boy about the shop, and he had taken his sheep there.
Devide the text into several logical parts (superphrasal units). Explain your answer The AlchemistPaulo CoelhoThe boy’s name was Santiago. Dusk was falling as the boy arrived with his herd at an abandoned church. The roof had fallen in long ago, and an enormous sycamore had grown on the spot where the sacristy had once stood. He decided to spend the night there. He saw to it that all the sheep entered through the ruined gate, and then laid some planks across it to prevent the flock from wandering away during the night. There were no wolves in the region, but once an animal had strayed during the night, and the boy had had to spend the entire next day searching for it. He swept the floor with his jacket and lay down, using the book he had just finished reading as a pillow. He told himself that he would have to start reading thicker books: they lasted longer, and made more comfortable pillows. It was still dark when he awoke, and, looking up, he could see the stars through the half-destroyed roof. I wanted to sleep a little longer, he thought. He had had the same dream that night as a week ago, and once again he had awakened before it ended. He arose and, taking up his crook, began to awaken the sheep that still slept. He had noticed that, as soon as he awoke, most of his animals also began to stir. It was as if some mysterious energy bound his life to that of the sheep, with whom he had spent the past two years, leading them through the countryside in search of food and water. “They are so used to me that they know my schedule,” he muttered. Thinking about that for a moment, he realized that it could be the other way around: that it was he who had become accustomed to their schedule. But there were certain of them who took a bit longer to awaken. The boy prodded them, one by one, with his crook, calling each by name. He had always believed that the sheep were able to understand what he said. So there were times when he read them parts of his books that had made an impression on him, or when he would tell them of the loneliness or the happiness of a shepherd in the fields. Sometimes he would comment to them on the things he had seen in the villages they passed. But for the past few days he had spoken to them about only one thing: the girl, the daughter of a merchant who lived in the village they would reach in about four days. He had been to the village only once, the year before. The merchant was the proprietor of a dry goods shop, and he always demanded that the sheep be sheared in his presence, so that he would not be cheated. A friend had told the boy about the shop, and he had taken his sheep there.
Find out lexical cohesion in the text The AlchemistPaulo CoelhoThe boy’s name was Santiago. Dusk was falling as the boy arrived with his herd at an abandoned church. The roof had fallen in long ago, and an enormous sycamore had grown on the spot where the sacristy had once stood. He decided to spend the night there. He saw to it that all the sheep entered through the ruined gate, and then laid some planks across it to prevent the flock from wandering away during the night. There were no wolves in the region, but once an animal had strayed during the night, and the boy had had to spend the entire next day searching for it. He swept the floor with his jacket and lay down, using the book he had just finished reading as a pillow. He told himself that he would have to start reading thicker books: they lasted longer, and made more comfortable pillows. It was still dark when he awoke, and, looking up, he could see the stars through the half-destroyed roof. I wanted to sleep a little longer, he thought. He had had the same dream that night as a week ago, and once again he had awakened before it ended. He arose and, taking up his crook, began to awaken the sheep that still slept. He had noticed that, as soon as he awoke, most of his animals also began to stir. It was as if some mysterious energy bound his life to that of the sheep, with whom he had spent the past two years, leading them through the countryside in search of food and water. “They are so used to me that they know my schedule,” he muttered. Thinking about that for a moment, he realized that it could be the other way around: that it was he who had become accustomed to their schedule. But there were certain of them who took a bit longer to awaken. The boy prodded them, one by one, with his crook, calling each by name. He had always believed that the sheep were able to understand what he said. So there were times when he read them parts of his books that had made an impression on him, or when he would tell them of the loneliness or the happiness of a shepherd in the fields. Sometimes he would comment to them on the things he had seen in the villages they passed. But for the past few days he had spoken to them about only one thing: the girl, the daughter of a merchant who lived in the village they would reach in about four days. He had been to the village only once, the year before. The merchant was the proprietor of a dry goods shop, and he always demanded that the sheep be sheared in his presence, so that he would not be cheated. A friend had told the boy about the shop, and he had taken his sheep there.
Find cases of prospection and retrospection in the text The AlchemistPaulo CoelhoThe boy’s name was Santiago. Dusk was falling as the boy arrived with his herd at an abandoned church. The roof had fallen in long ago, and an enormous sycamore had grown on the spot where the sacristy had once stood. He decided to spend the night there. He saw to it that all the sheep entered through the ruined gate, and then laid some planks across it to prevent the flock from wandering away during the night. There were no wolves in the region, but once an animal had strayed during the night, and the boy had had to spend the entire next day searching for it. He swept the floor with his jacket and lay down, using the book he had just finished reading as a pillow. He told himself that he would have to start reading thicker books: they lasted longer, and made more comfortable pillows. It was still dark when he awoke, and, looking up, he could see the stars through the half-destroyed roof. I wanted to sleep a little longer, he thought. He had had the same dream that night as a week ago, and once again he had awakened before it ended. He arose and, taking up his crook, began to awaken the sheep that still slept. He had noticed that, as soon as he awoke, most of his animals also began to stir. It was as if some mysterious energy bound his life to that of the sheep, with whom he had spent the past two years, leading them through the countryside in search of food and water. “They are so used to me that they know my schedule,” he muttered. Thinking about that for a moment, he realized that it could be the other way around: that it was he who had become accustomed to their schedule. But there were certain of them who took a bit longer to awaken. The boy prodded them, one by one, with his crook, calling each by name. He had always believed that the sheep were able to understand what he said. So there were times when he read them parts of his books that had made an impression on him, or when he would tell them of the loneliness or the happiness of a shepherd in the fields. Sometimes he would comment to them on the things he had seen in the villages they passed. But for the past few days he had spoken to them about only one thing: the girl, the daughter of a merchant who lived in the village they would reach in about four days. He had been to the village only once, the year before. The merchant was the proprietor of a dry goods shop, and he always demanded that the sheep be sheared in his presence, so that he would not be cheated. A friend had told the boy about the shop, and he had taken his sheep there.
Find text categories in an abstract from the fairy-tale “Sleeping beauty” by Grimm Brothers In times past there lived a king and queen, who said to each other every day of their lives, “Would that we had a child!” and yet they had none. But it happened once that when the queen was bathing, there came a frog out of the water, and he squatted on the ground, and said to her, “Thy wish shall be fulfilled; before a year has gone by, thou shalt bring a daughter into the world.”And as the frog foretold, so it happened; and the queen bore a daughter so beautiful that the king could not contain himself for joy, and he ordained a great feast. Not only did he bid to it his relations, friends, and acquaintances, but also the wise women, that they might be kind and favourable to the child. There were thirteen of them in his kingdom, but as he had only provided twelve golden plates for them to eat from, one of them had to be left out.However, the feast was celebrated with all splendour; and as it drew to an end, the wise women stood forward to present to the child their wonderful gifts: one bestowed virtue, one beauty, a third riches, and so on, whatever there is in the world to wish for. And when eleven of them had said their say, in came the uninvited thirteenth, burning to revenge herself, and without greeting or respect, she cried with a loud voice, “In the fifteenth year of her age the princess shall prick herself with a spindle and shall fall down dead.”
Find the text categories in an abstract from the fairy-tale “The wolf and the seven little goats” by Grimm Brothers There was once an old goat who had seven little ones, and was as fond of them as ever mother was of her children. One day she had to go into the wood to fetch food for them, so she called them all round her. “Dear children,” said she, “I am going out into the wood; and while I am gone, be on your guard against the wolf, for if he were once to get inside he would eat you up, skin, bones, and all. The wretch often disguises himself, but he may always be known by his hoarse voice and black paws.” - “Dear mother,” answered the kids, “you need not be afraid, we will take good care of ourselves.” And the mother bleated good-bye, and went on her way with an easy mind.It was not long before some one came knocking at the house-door, and crying out: “Open the door, my dear children, your mother is come back, and has brought each of you something.” But the little kids knew it was the wolf by the hoarse voice. “We will not open the door,” cried they; “you are not our mother, she has a delicate and sweet voice, and your voice is hoarse; you must be the wolf.” Then off went the wolf to a shop and bought a big lump of chalk, and ate it up to make his voice soft. And then he came back, knocked at the house-door, and cried: “Open the door, my dear children”.
Find the text categories in an abstract from the fairy-tale “Hansel and Grethel” by Grimm Brothers Near a great forest there lived a poor woodcutter and his wife, and his two children; the boy's name was Hansel and the girl's Grethel. They had very little to bite or to sup, and once, when there was great dearth in the land, the man could not even gain the daily bread. As he lay in bed one night thinking of this, and turning and tossing, he sighed heavily, and said to his wife, “What will become of us? we cannot even feed our children; there is nothing left for ourselves.”“I will tell you what, husband,” answered the wife; “we will take the children early in the morning into the forest, where it is thickest; we will make them a fire, and we will give each of them a piece of bread, then we will go to our work and leave them alone; they will never find the way home again, and we shall be quit of them.”“No, wife,” said the man, “I cannot do that; I cannot find in my heart to take my children into the forest and to leave them there alone; the wild animals would soon come and devour them.” “O you fool,” said she, “then we will all four starve; you had better get the coffins ready,” and she left him no peace until he consented. “But I really pity the poor children,” said the man.The two children had not been able to sleep for hunger, and had heard what their step-mother had said to their father. Grethel wept bitterly, and said to Hansel, “It is all over with us.”
Find the text categories in an abstract from the fairy-tale “Rapunzel” by Grimm Brothers There once lived a man and his wife, who had long wished for a child, but in vain. Now there was at the back of their house a little window which overlooked a beautiful garden full of the finest vegetables and flowers; but there was a high wall all round it, and no one ventured into it, for it belonged to a witch of great might, and of whom all the world was afraid.One day that the wife was standing at the window, and looking into the garden, she saw a bed filled with the finest rampion; and it looked so fresh and green that she began to wish for some; and at length she longed for it greatly. This went on for days, and as she knew she could not get the rampion, she pined away, and grew pale and miserable. Then the man was uneasy, and asked, “What is the matter, dear wife?”“Oh,” answered she, “I shall die unless I can have some of that rampion to eat that grows in the garden at the back of our house.” The man, who loved her very much, thought to himself, “Rather than lose my wife I will get some rampion, cost what it will.” So in the twilight he climbed over the wall into the witch's garden, plucked hastily a handful of rampion and brought it to his wife. She made a salad of it at once, and ate of it to her heart's content. But she liked it so much, and it tasted so good, that the next day she longed for it thrice as much as she had done before

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