TONE GROUPS TABLE


TG Scheme General Attitude Statements General Question Special Question Tags Commands Greetings
And leave-takings Other
1 Low scale
Low Fall Cool
Calm
Phlegmatic
Reserved
Dull
Dispassionate
Detached
Flat
Unemotional
Cold
Possibly grim or surly
Hostile Detached
Reserved
Flat
Unsympathetic
Often hostile
Detached
Phlegmatic
Reserved
(used to put a question as a suggestion or a subject for discussion rather than a request for immediate information)
As in statements (special questions are less commonly used with this TG than with other ones) Expectation of nothing but confirmatory answer
(when they follow statements with the falling nuclear tone)
Total lack of interest
Grim hostility
(if used independently)
2 Stepping scale
Low Fall Calm
Dispassionate
Categorical
Firm
Serious
Weighty Judicial
Responsible Calm
Weighty
Judicial
Firm
Serious
Categorical
Responsible Insistent Impatient Ponderous
(the question is put forward as a suggestion or as a subject for discussion to get from the listener a straight answer) As in statements +
A bit impatient or irritated Questions beginning with “Will you” and negative forms of questions are turned into an exclamations
3 Low scale
High Fall Interested
Lively
Concerned
Involved in the situation
Mildly surprised
Accepting the listener’s premises
Lively
Interested
Expectation of nothing but a confirmatory answer
Warmer than in TG1
Critically surprised 4 Stepping scale
High Fall Friendly
Lively
Interested Interested
Friendly
Lively
Brisk
Businesslike Mildly surprised
The question is put for further discussion Interested
Friendly
Lively
Brisk
Businesslike 5 Rise-Fall
Greatly impressed
Impressed
Self-satisfied
Smug
Antagonistic
Challenging
Meaning of “but” Antagonistic
Challenging
Bantering
Sarcastic
Often used to emphasize a word or a sentence, or to contrast it to some other words & sentences
6 Low Scale
Low Rise Reserving judgement
Reproving
Disapproving Reserving judgment
Reproving
Deprecatory
Resentful( in contradictions) Disapproving
Sceptical
Wondering
Mildly puzzled
(the nucleus is in the interrogative word)
Calm
Disapproving, Sceptical
(in all other types) Leaving the listener to answer “yes” or “no”
Inviting (will you?) Acknowledging smth. already stated (direct question- tags) Disapproving and skeptical (when used independently)
As in statements( when beginning with “don’t”,
Calmly warning
Exhortative ( in short commands) Used in enumeration;
Used in interjections, expressing reserved judgement or calm, casual acknowledgement
7 Stepping scale
Low Rise Soothing
Friendly
Surprised Soothing
Reassuring
Self-confident,
Surprised and disbelieving ( in echoes) Common way of asking questions Establishing bond with the listener
Showing interest
Friendly
Puzzled
(the nucleus– interrogative word)
Disapproving ( in echoes) Soothing Encouraging Calmly patronizing Bright
Friendly
Used in unfinished groups – leading to smth more;
Used in interjections (airy and casual, encouraging )
8 Stepping scale
High Rise The effect of questions
Eliciting repetition( no suggestion of disapproval and puzzlement)
Leading on to a following group( tentatively) Casual
Light
Echoing the question Calling for the repetition of the information already given( more tentatively)
Echoing the question to get it clearer (the nucleus is in the interrogative word) Elucidating the exact meaning( without criticism) Used in short comments to keep the conversation going
9 Fall-Rise Drawing attention to one element(in incomplete groups)
Expressing grudging admission or reluctant dissent(in concessions)
Concerned
Reproachful
Hurt ( in contradictions and corrections)
Surprised
Interested
Astonished( in echoes) As in general questions +
Making corrections Surprised
Interested Warning
Urgent Insistent Used in interjections of scorn;
Used in tentative suggestions
10 High Fall+
Low Rise Emphasizing the main idea by fall and the additional information by rise:
Apologetic
Sincere
Grateful
Sorrowful
Sympathetic
Persuasive
Petulant
Plaintive
Resentful;
Showing correctness of the speaker`s
opinion
Plaintive
Pleading
Impatient
Exasperated
Plaintive
Weary
Despairing
Warmly sympathetic
Showing affection Pleading
Plaintive
Reproaching Pleasant
Friendly Used in interjections:
Warm
Appreciative
Sympathetic
Encouraging;
Used in sentences containing ‘please’ or ‘thank you’ to render courtesy

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