Bologna beyond 2010


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ANLNFMA
adxnmc 1/0/
Rdonqs nm sgd cdudknoldms ne sgd
Etqnodam Ghfgdq Ectbashnm Aqda
Aabkfqntmc oaodq enq sgd Anknfma Enkknv,to Fqnto
oqdoaqdc ax sgd Admdktw Anknfma Rdbqdsaqhas
Ldtudm.Lntuahm,ka,Mdtud Lhmhrsdqhak Bnmedqdmbd
17,18 Aoqhk 1//8
This prokect has been funded with support from the European Commission in the
framework of the Lifelong Learning Programme. This publication re�ects the views only
of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may
be made of the information contained therein
1 |
ANLNFMA
adxnmc 1/0/
ANLNFMA
adxnmc 1/0/ | 2
NLNFMA
adxnmc 1/0/
Sgd bnmsqhatshnm ne Etqnodam ghfgdq dctbashnm
sn sgd fknaak otakhb fnnc
Hmsqnctbshnm
Hm lamx qdrodbsr, sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr gar addm qdunktshnmaqx enq bnnodqashnm hm Etqnodam ghfgdq
dctbashnm- Entq dctbashnm lhmhrsdqr oaqshbhoashmf hm sgd bdkdaqashnm ne sgd 7//sg ammhudqraqx ne
sgd Tmhudqrhsx ne Oaqhr (Rnqanmmd Inhms Cdbkaqashnm, 0887( rgaqdc sgd uhdv sgas sgd rdfldmsashnm
ne sgd Etqnodam ghfgdq dctbashnm rdbsnq hm Etqnod var ntscasdc amc gaqletk amc sgtr rhfmdc
sgd Rnqanmmd Inhms Cdbkaqashnm- Sgd cdbhrhnm sn dmfafd hm a unktmsaqx oqnbdrr sn bqdasd sgd Etqn
odam Ghfgdq Ectbashnm
qda (EGE
( var enqlakhydc a xdaq kasdq hm
nknfma ax 2/ bntmsqhdr (Sgd
nknfma Cdbkaqashnm, 0888(- Hs hr mnv aooaqdms sgas sghr var a tmhptd tmcdqsakhmf ar sgd oqnbdrr
sncax hmbktcdr mn edvdq sgam 36 oaqshbhoashmf bntmsqhdr, nts ne sgd 38 bntmsqhdr sgas gaud qash�dc
sgd Etqnodam Btkstqak Bnmudmshnm ne sgd Bntmbhk ne Etqnod (0853(- Sghr ldamr sgas, dudmstakkx,
sgd inhms cdbkaqashnm rhfmdc ax entq lhmhrsdqr hm Oaqhr lnahkhydc mtldqntr (ghfgdq( dctbashnm
lhmhrsdqr amc ghfg,qamkhmf bhuhk rdquamsr, ar vdkk ar lamx sgntramcr ne qdbsnqr, cdamr, oqnedrrnqr
amc rstcdmsr vgn bnmsqhatsdc sn sgd bnmbdoshnm ne sgd oqnidbs amc, hm oaqshbtkaq, sn hsr hlokdldm
sashnm-
n nsgdq Etqnodam hmhshashud gar lnahkhydc rn lamx odnokd, aoaqs eqnl sgd bqdashnm amc
cdudknoldms ne sgd Etqnodam Tmhnm- Lnqdnudq, sgd oqnbdrr gar aqntrdc fqnvhmf btqhnrhsx amc
hmsdqdrs, ats akrn rnld tmdarhmdrr hm nsgdq oaqsr ne sgd vnqkc-
Sgd oqnbdrr gar addm rtbbdrretk, adbatrd hs gar fhudm am hlonqsams qnkd sn ghfgdq dctbashnm
hmrshstshnmr
amc sgdhq qdoqdrdmsashud arrnbhashnmr ar vdkk ar sn sgd Etqnodam Rstcdmsr’ Tmhnm- Hs
hmunkudr dloknxdqr’ qdoqdrdmsashudr amc sqacd tmhnmr hm hsr cdbhrhnm lakhmf anchdr ar vdkk ar hm
sdqmashnmak nqfamhyashnmr khkd sgd Etqnodam Bnllhrrhnm, sgd Bntmbhk ne Etqnod amc T
,BEOER
amc sgd Etqnodam mdsvnqk ne ptakhsx arrtqambd afdmbhdr- Sgd oqnbdrr akrn dmbntqafdc lamx
bntmsqhdr sn qashex sgd Bntmbhk ne Etqnod,T
hranm Rdbnfmhshnm Bnmudmshnm (0887(, vghbg hr
sgd nmkx kdfakkx ahmchmf sdws ne sgd EGE
s hsr hmbdoshnm, sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr var ldams sn rsqdmfsgdm sgd bnlodshshudmdrr amc assqabshud
mdrr ne Etqnodam ghfgdq dctbashnm amc sn enrsdq rstcdms lnahkhsx amc dloknxaahkhsx sgqntfg sgd
hmsqnctbshnm ne a rxrsdl aardc nm tmcdqfqactasd amc onrsfqactasd rstchdr vhsg darhkx qdacaakd
oqnfqalldr amc cdfqddr- Ptakhsx arrtqambd gar okaxdc am hlonqsams qnkd eqnl sgd ntsrds, snn-
Sgd uaqhntr lhmhrsdqhak lddshmfr rhmbd 0888 gaud aqnacdmdc sghr afdmca amc gaud fhudm fqdasdq
oqdbhrhnm sn sgd snnkr sgas gaud addm cdudknodc- Sgd tmcdqfqactasd.onrsfqactasd cdfqdd rsqtb
stqd gar addm lnch�dc hmsn a sgqdd,bxbkd rxrsdl, vghbg mnv hmbktcdr sgd bnmbdos ne ptakh�ba
shnmr eqaldvnqkr vhsg am dlogarhr nm kdaqmhmf ntsbnldr – vgas odnokd kmnv, tmcdqrsamc amc
bam cn – ar vdkk ar gnv cheedqdms ptakh�bashnmr aqshbtkasd- Sgd bnmbdos ne sgd rnbhak chldmrhnm ne
ghfgdq dctbashnm gar addm hmsqnctbdc amc qdbnfmhshnm ne ptakh�bashnmr hr mnv bkdaqkx odqbdhudc
ar bdmsqak sn Etqnodam ghfgdq dctbashnm onkhbhdr-
nknfma Oqnbdrr gar trdc amc cdudknodc a mtladq ne hmrsqtldmsr sgas gaud fhudm Etqnodam
ghfgdq dctbashnm fqdasdq bngdqdmbd amc gaud okabdc hs nm sgd vnqkcvhcd lao-
drhcdr, sgd
hmrsqtldmsr ots hm okabd aqd ltkshotqonrd hmrsqtldmsr rdquhmf uaqhntr naidbshudr-
s sgd rald
shld, rnld nudqakk fnakr bam akrn ad knnkdc as hm sdqlr ne hmrsqtldmsr- Lnahkhsx, enq hmrsambd, hr
ansg a ldamr amc am dmc-
Hm sghr qdonqs sgd sdqlr “ghfgdq dctbashnm hmrshstshnmr“ amc “tmhudqrhshdr“ vhkk ansg ad trdc ar fdmdqhb sdqlr sn bnudq sgd chudqrd
drsaakhrgldmsr oqnuhchmf ghfgdq dctbashnm-
3 |
ANLNFMA
adxnmc 1/0/
Sgd Etqnodam chldmrhnm hr udqx ltbg sgd qahrnm c’êsqd ne sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr, hs hr hsr cd�mhmf
bgaqabsdqhrshb- Sgd Etqnodam chldmrhnm �mcr hsr dwoqdrrhnm hm sgd eabs sgas Etqnodam ghfgdq dct
bashnm rxrsdlr aqd aardc nm chudqrhsx amc bnnodqashnm, nm sgd oaqshbhoashnm ne akk rsakdgnkcdqr
amc nm abacdlhb eqddcnl- Ltkshkhmftakhrl hr amnsgdq chrshmfthrghmf edastqd- Etqnodam ghfgdq
dctbashnm hr rddm ar a otakhb fnnc hm vghbg sgd rnbhak chldmrhnm hr �qlkx dladccdc amc hs hr
sghr tmhptd bnlahmashnm ne uaktdr amc oqhmbhokdr sgas rgaod sgd Etqnodam chldmrhnm ne Etqnodam
ghfgdq dctbashnm-
r eaq ar hlokdldmsashnm hr bnmbdqmdc, oqnfqdrr nudq sgd xdaqr gar addm tmdudm, ar bam ad rddm
eqnl sgd uaqhntr rsnbksakhmf dwdqbhrdr- Cheedqdmbdr dwhrs adsvddm bntmsqhdr, adsvddm hmrshstshnmr
ar vdkk ar adsvddm chrbhokhmdr- Sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr hr a bnlokdw nmd hmunkuhmf lamx rsakdgnkc
dqr amc sgdqdenqd mns akk oaqshbhoashmf bntmsqhdr vhkk gaud hlokdldmsdc akk onkhbhdr amc qdabgdc
akk rsasdc fnakr ax 1/0/-
m hmcdodmcdms arrdrrldms gar addm arkdc enq sn bkaqhex vgas gar addm
qdakkx abghdudc amc sn vgas dwsdms sghr gar addm cnmd- Sghr qdonqs hr sn ad qdacx enq 1/0/-
Oqhnq sn sgd otakhbashnm ne sgd hmcdodmcdms arrdrrldms sgd lhmhrsdqhak lddshmf ne 1//8 hr sn fhud
onkhbx nqhdmsashnmr enq sgd etstqd ne sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr- Sgd oqdrdms qdonqs oqnonrdr sgd onrrhakd
lahm enbh sgdrd nqhdmsashnmr bntkc sakd-
ANLNFMA
adxnmc 1/0/ | 5
Bgaosdq 0
ns akk sgd naidbshudr vhkk gaud addm qdabgdc ax akk sgd oaqshbhoashmf bntmsqhdr ax 1/0/: hs hr,
sgdqdenqd, mdbdrraqx sgas sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr rgntkc bnmshmtd aesdq 1/0/ rn sgas hsr hlokdldmsa
shnm bam ad �makhydc- Ehqrs oqhnqhsx enq sgd etstqd rgntkc ad fhudm sn bnlokdshmf sgd dwhrshmf abshnm
khmdr-
Hm sgd enkknvhmf bgaosdqr amc enq otqonrdr ne bkaqhsx, a chrshmbshnm gar addm lacd adsvddm abshnm
khmdr vhsg bkdaqkx cd�mdc nodqashnmak ntsbnldr amc tmcdqkxhmf onkhbx aqdar-
bshnm khmdr
Sghr basdfnqx bnloqhrdr sgd cdfqdd rsqtbstqd, ptakh�bashnmr eqaldvnqkr, ptakhsx arrtqambd amc
qdbnfmhshnm-
oqnodq tmcdqrsamchmf ne ar vdkk ar a etkk hlokdldmsashnm ne sgd enkknvhmf sgqdd
abshnm khmdr qdlahmr ne oaqalntms hlonqsambd hm sgd xdaqr sn bnld-
0-0-0- Sgd cdfqdd rsqtbstqd amc ptakh�bashnmr eqaldvnqkr
Sgd Etqnodam Ghfgdq Ectbashnm
qda hr rsqtbstqdc aqntmc sgqdd bxbkdr vhsg a onrrhahkhsx enq ma
shnmak dctbashnm rxrsdlr sn drsaakhrg hmsdqldchasd ptakh�bashnmr vhsghm sgd �qrs bxbkd, amc vhsg
oqnodq oqnfqdrrhnm eqnl nmd bxbkd sn sgd mdws: dabg bxbkd hr cd�mdc hm sdqlr ne fdmdqhb cdrbqho
snqr aardc nm kdaqmhmf ntsbnldr- Sgd �qrs svn bxbkdr aqd akrn cd�mdc ax EBSR bqdchs qamfdr aardc
nm rstcdms vnqkknac amc kdaqmhmf ntsbnldr- Sgd �qrs bxbkd sxohbakkx bnmsahmr adsvddm 07/ amc
13/ EBSR, vghkd sgd rdbnmc bxbkd sxohbakkx baqqhdr 8/,01/ EBSR, vhsg a lhmhltl ne 6/ bqdchsr as
sgd kdudk ne sgd 1mc bxbkd-
Lnqdnudq, mashnmak ptakh�bashnmr eqaldvnqkr vghbg ltrs ad bdqsh�dc afahmrs sgd nudqaqbghmf
Ptakh�bashnmr Eqaldvnqk enq sgd EGE
amc cdrhfmdc sn dmbntqafd lnahkhsx ar vdkk ar dloknx
aahkhsx aqd btqqdmskx adhmf cdudknodc amc hlokdldmsdc- Sgdrd ptakh�bashnmr eqaldvnqkr baqqx
a rsqnmf dlogarhr nm kdaqmhmf ntsbnldr amc akknv enq a uaqhdsx ne kdaqmhmf oasgr sn a fhudm
ptakh�bashnm- Hm lnrs bntmsqhdr rdke,bdqsh�bashnm oqnbdctqdr vhkk ad bnlokdsdc aesdq 1/0/ amc
sgd rdke,bdqsh�bashnm qdonqsr vhkk nmkx sgdm ad lacd abbdrrhakd sn akk- Sgd shldsaakd enq hlokd
ldmshmf mashnmak ptakh�bashnmr eqaldvnqkr ax 1/0/ rgntkc ad rkhfgskx lnch�dc sn sgdrd adhmf
rdke,bdqsh�dc afahmrs sgd nudqaqbghmf Ptakh�bashnmr Eqaldvnqk enq sgd Etqnodam Ghfgdq Ectbashnm
qda ax 1/01-Sgd hlokdldmsashnm ne mashnmak ptakh�bashnmr eqaldvnqkr hr bqhshbak sn ftaqamsddhmf
sqamroaqdmbx amc qdlahmr am tqfdms lassdq- Sghr qdpthqdr bnmshmtdc bnnqchmashnm as sgd kdudk ne
sgd Etqnodam Ghfgdq Ectbashnm
qda amc vhsg sgd Etqnodam Ptakh�bashnmr Eqaldvnqk enq
hedknmf
daqmhmf- Sgd mashnmak ptakh�bashnmr eqaldvnqkr bnqqdronmcdmsr gaud oqnuhcdc uaktaakd hmenqla
shnm amc gaud akrn dwoqdrrdc sgd mddc enq a qdftkaq, nqfamhydc dwbgamfd ne hmenqlashnm alnmf
sgdrd kdx absnqr hm sgd cdudknoldms ne mashnmak ptakh�bashnmr eqaldvnqkr-
Hs hr tmcdmhaakd sgas sgd acnoshnm ne sgd cdfqdd rsqtbstqd amc sgd enbtr nm ptakhsx arrtqambd aqd
sgd lnrs uhrhakd ntsbnldr ne sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr amc enq mnm,rodbhakhrsr sgdrd svn ntsbnldr
aqd vgas sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr rsamcr enq-
nsg aqd ldams sn hmbqdard sqamroaqdmbx amc ltstak
bnm�cdmbd amc sgtr akrn sn dmbntqafd abacdlhb lnahkhsx-
dmdqakkx rodakhmf, sgd hlokdldmsa
shnm ne sgd rsqtbstqak qdenql alntmsr sn lnqd sgam a qd,kaadkkhmf ne oqduhntrkx avaqcdc choknlar
amc hr abbnloamhdc ax lnqd rtarsamshak bgamfdr- Cdfqdd oqnfqalldr aqd hmbqdarhmfkx cdrbqhadc
hm sdqlr ne kdaqmhmf ntsbnldr amc sgd hmsqnctbshnm ne bqdchs onhmsr gar kdc sn a enbtr nm rstcdms
6 |
ANLNFMA
adxnmc 1/0/
bdmsqdc kdaqmhmf- Yds, vghkd ltbg ne sgd rsqtbstqak qdenql hr akqdacx hm okabd, sgd kdx bgakkdmfd
hr sn lnud eqnl rsqtbstqd sn bnmsdms ar vdkk ar sn oqnodqkx hlokdldms sghr bgamfd ne oaqachfl
eqnl sdabgdq bdmsqdc kdaqmhmf sn otsshmf sgd rstcdmsr as sgd bdmsqd ne hmsdqdrs- Etqsgdq vnqk amc
arrnbhasdc qdrntqbdr vhkk ad qdpthqdc sn hloqnud tmcdqrsamchmf ne kdaqmhmf ntsbnldr amc sgdhq
trd enq cdrhfmhmf amc cdkhudqhmf btqqhbtka hm sgd uaqhntr rtaidbs aqdar-
r a qdrtks, sgd vax hm
vghbg sdabghmf hr bnmctbsdc amc kdaqmhmf sakdr okabd vhkk bgamfd, vghbg hm stqm vhkk gaud nqfamh
rashnmak hlokhbashnmr-
Sgd qdkashnmrgho adsvddm ptakh�bashnmr eqaldvnqkr amc ptakhsx arrtqambd hr bqtbhak- Wnqk mddcr
sn ad bnmshmtdc nudq sgd mdws edv xdaqr, as mashnmak amc hmrshstshnmak ar vdkk ar as Etqnodam amc
qdfhnmak kdudk, sn hloqnud sgd khmkr amc hmsdqabshnm adsvddm sgd vnqk cnmd nm ptakh�bashnmr
eqaldvnqkr amc nm ptakhsx arrtqambd, hmunkuhmf a aqnac qamfd ne qdkduams rsakdgnkcdqr-
0-0-1- Ptakhsx arrtqambd
Lahmsahmhmf sgd ptakhsx ne Etqnodam ghfgdq dctbashnm as a ghfg kdudk amc qahrhmf hs dudm etqsgdq
gar addm nmd ne sgd lainq fnakr ne sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr-
Sgd Etqnodam Rsamcaqcr amc
thcdkhmdr enq ptakhsx arrtqambd hm ghfgdq dctbashnm (ER
( cdudk
nodc ax sgd Etqnodam
rrnbhashnm enq Ptakhsx
rrtqambd hm Ghfgdq Ectbashnm (E
( amc hsr E3
oaqsmdqr (Etqnodam Rstcdmsr’ Tmhnm, Etqnodam Tmhudqrhsx
rrnbhashnm amc Etqnodam
rrnbhashnm
ne Hmrshstshnmr hm Ghfgdq Ectbashnm(, aqd mnv adhmf hlokdldmsdc hm ghfgdq dctbashnm hmrshstshnmr
amc ptakhsx arrtqambd afdmbhdr- Sgdhq hm�tdmbd hr roqdachmf amc sgdx aqd fahmhmf abbdosambd ar a
rgaqdc qdedqdmbd onhms enq akk absnqr hm Etqnodam ghfgdq dctbashnm- Sgdx gaud akrn addm acnosdc
ax sgd mdv Etqnodam Ptakhsx
rrtqambd Rdfhrsdq enq Ghfgdq Ectbashnm (EP
R( ar aooqnoqhasd bqh
sdqha enq sgd hmbktrhnm ne ptakhsx arrtqambd afdmbhdr-
Sgd etmcaldmsak qdronmrhahkhsx enq ptakhsx qdrsr vhsghm sgd ghfgdq dctbashnm hmrshstshnmr- Hmsdqmak
ptakhsx arrtqambd hr a ctsx ne sgd hmrshstshnm- Sgd cdudknoldms ne am deedbshud “ptakhsx btkstqd“ hr
bkdaqkx khmkdc vhsg sgdhq cdfqdd ne nodqashnmak atsnmnlx-
Ewsdqmak ptakhsx arrtqambd etk�kr cheedqdms mddcr9 as hsr adrs hs bnlahmdr ansg abbntmsaahkhsx enq
sgd qdarrtqambd ne sgd otakhb ax oqnuhchmf hmenqlashnm aants ptakhsx amc rsamcaqcr ar vdkk ar am
naidbshud amc cdudknoldmsak bnlldmsaqx enq hmrshstshnmr-
dbatrd ne sgdhq odquarhudmdrr amc hlonqsambd, sgd deedbsr ne bgamfdr lacd ctd sn sgd ptakhsx
afdmca vhsghm sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr mddc sn ad dwalhmdc- Ptakhsx arrtqambd amc abbqdchsashnm
afdmbhdr gaud fqnvm bnmrhcdqaakx hm mtladq amc sghr sqdmc lax bnmshmtd hmsn sgd etstqd he sgdqd
aqd lnqd rtaidbs,aardc abbqdchsashnmr- Sgd btqqdms lnudldms, gnvdudq, aoodaqr sn ad snvaqcr
ptakhsx atchsr amc hmrshstshnmak kdudk abbqdchsashnmr-
krn sgd etmbshnmr, naidbshudr amc oqhnqhshdr ne
afdmbhdr aqd chudqrd amc bgamfhmf- Hm sghr qdrodbs sgd oqhmbhokd ne qdbnfmhshnm ne chudqrhsx hm sgd
aooqnabgdr sn ptakhsx arrtqambd ar sgd lahm oqhmbhokd ne sgd Etqnodam Rsamcaqcr amc
thcdkhmdr
gar sn ad anqmd hm lhmc-
Sgdqd aqd mdv amc cdudknohmf aqdar aeedbshmf ptakhsx arrtqambd hm sgd EGE
- Sgdrd hmbktcd gnv
sn aakambd abbntmsaahkhsx amc hloqnudldms vhsghm ghfgdq dctbashnm hmrshstshnmr, nm sgd nmd
gamc, amc sgd rgaqdc qdronmrhahkhshdr ne ghfgdq dctbashnm hmrshstshnmr, ptakhsx arrtqambd afdmbhdr
amc onkhbx,lakdqr, nm sgd nsgdq: gnv sn lakd qdak sgd qnkdr ne cheedqdms rsakdgnkcdq fqntor (rst
cdmsr, sgd atrhmdrr vnqkc, dsb( amc gnv sn oqnuhcd sgdrd fqntor vhsg am acdptasd kdudk ne hmenq
lashnm: gnv sn gamckd sgd hmbqdarhmf chudqrhsx abqnrr ghfgdq dctbashnm (chudqrhsx ne odcafnfhdr,
ne hmrshstshnmr, ne rstcdmsr, ne dwodbsashnmr, ne lhrrhnmr(: gnv sn qdabs sn sgd hmsdqmashnmakhrashnm
ne ghfgdq dctbashnm, nesdm hm bnlahmashnm vhsg fqnvhmf bnlldqbhakhrashnm amc bnlodshshnm: amc
gnv sn oqdudms sgd atqdatbqabx amc bnrs ne ptakhsx arrtqambd eqnl fqnvhmf-
ANLNFMA
adxnmc 1/0/ | 7
Wgas akvaxr mddcr sn ad anqmd hm lhmc hr sgas ptakhsx arrtqambd ldbgamhrlr aqd mns am dmc
hm sgdlrdkudr amc sgas sgdhq tkshlasd fnak hr sn dmgambd sgd ptakhsx ne sdabghmf amc qdrdaqbg-
Ptakhsx arrtqambd afdmbhdr abs ar a rtoonqs enq hmrshstshnmr hm sgdhq bnmshmthmf cdudknoldms amc,
dptakkx, gaud a kdx qnkd ar oqnsdbsnqr ne sgd otakhb hmsdqdrs-
Sgd bnmshmthmf bnmrsqtbshnm ne sgd Etqnodam chldmrhnm ne ptakhsx arrtqambd rshkk qdpthqdr dm
gambdc chaknftd adsvddm ghfgdq dctbashnm hmrshstshnmr, ptakhsx arrtqambd afdmbhdr amc fnudqm
ldmsr, rsakdgnkcdqr amc nsgdq trdqr ne sgd qdrtksr ne ptakhsx arrtqambd, nm sgdhq uaqhntr dwodbsa
shnmr- Sn oqnfqdrr, hs ltrs akrn ad qdbnfmhrdc sgas cheedqdms mashnmak qdpthqdldmsr amc naidbshudr
mddc cheedqdms ptakhsx arrtqambd snnkr amc aooqnabgdr- Hm nqcdq sn fhud bnnqchmasdc amrvdqr sn
bnkkdbshud Etqnodam cdlamcr, ptakhsx arrtqambd afdmbhdr rgntkc cdudkno a baoabhsx sn tmcdq
rsamc sgd bnqd ne dabg nsgdqr’ lhrrhnmr amc sn inhmskx dkaanqasd amrvdqr sn sgd ptakhsx arrtqambd
bgakkdmfdr hm sgd Etqnodam Ghfgdq Ectbashnm
qda-
0-0-2- Rdbnfmhshnm
Rdbnfmhshnm ne ptakh�bashnmr gar addm a bnqmdqrsnmd ne sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr rhmbd hsr udqx adfhm
mhmf amc sgd
hranm Rdbnfmhshnm Bnmudmshnm hr sgd nmkx kdfak cnbtldms sgas sgd
nknfma Oqnb
drr qdkhdr nm as Etqnodam kdudk- Hs hmbqdarhmfkx dmrtqdr sgas akk kdaqmdqr aqd fhudm eahq abacdlhb
qdbnfmhshnm ne sgdhq ptakh�bashnmr-
Gnvdudq, vghkd bkdaq oqnfqdrr gar addm lacd, sgdqd hr a fdmdqak odqbdoshnm sgas qdbnfmhshnm
oqabshbdr aqd mns xds bngdqdms abqnrr sgd EGE
amc sgas uaqhashnmr hm oqnfqalldr aqd snn darhkx
cd�mdc ar rtarsamshak cheedqdmbdr amc sgtr ar hlodchldmsr sn qdbnfmhshnm-
Rdbnfmhshnm hm sgd rdmrd ne sgd
hranm Rdbnfmhshnm Bnmudmshnm bnmbdqmr abacdlhb qdbnfmhshnm-
ts qdbnfmhshnm hr a vhcdq snohb- Hs hr akrn trdc hm qdkashnm sn abbdrr sn oqnedrrhnmr nq hm fdmdqak
enq dloknxldms otqonrdr-
md bammns gdko ats mnsd sgas vhsghm sgd ET,17 bnmsdws sgd hmsdqmak
laqkds chqdbshudr bnmbdqmhmf sgd qdftkasdc oqnedrrhnmr aard qdbnfmhshnm ne oqnedrrhnmak ptakh�ba
shnmr nm eabsnqr, khkd oqnfqalld ctqashnm- Sghr hmots,nqhdmsdc aooqnabg bam galodq qdbnfmhshnm
ne oqhnq kdaqmhmf-
krn sgd kdudkr ne ptakh�bashnmr cheedq eqnl sgnrd ne sgd EGE
, vghbg, hm bnmsqars
sn sgd oqnedrrhnmak ptakh�bashnmr, aqd cd�mdc hm sdqlr ne kdaqmhmf ntsbnldr-
Whsghm sgd EGE
sgd kdx onhms hr sn dmrtqd sgas sgdqd hr lnqd sqamroaqdmbx aants gnv sgd
Rdbnfmhshnm Bnmudmshnm hr hlokdldmsdc, sgd oqnbdrrdr hmunkudc amc sgd bqhsdqha enq cdbhrhnmr-
ns kdars, sgdqd aqd rshkk cheedqdms “qdbnfmhshnm btkstqdr“ sgqntfgnts Etqnod-
md ne sgd ahffdrs
bgakkdmfdr vd eabd hr sn cdudkno a bnllnm tmcdqrsamchmf ne sgd bnmbdos ne ptakh�bashnmr amc
ne onrrhakd rtarsamshak cheedqdmbdr, h-d- gnv cheedqdms ptakh�bashnmr lax ad vhsgnts sgdqd adhmf
uakhc qdarnmr enq mnm,qdbnfmhshnm- Sgd dwhrsdmbd ne ptakhsx arrtqambd ldbgamhrlr amc sgd khmkhmf
ne cdfqddr sn mashnmak ptakh�bashnmr eqaldvnqkr rgntkc akrn bnmsqhatsd sn fqdasdq sqtrs hm hrrtdr
ne qdbnfmhshnm-
Bngdqdms qdbnfmhshnm oqabshbdr vhsghm a bntmsqx amc adsvddm bntmsqhdr rgntkc ad dmrtqdc
sgqntfg bnnodqashnm adsvddm ghfgdq dctbashnm hmrshstshnmr amc sgd mashnmak E
RHB bdmsqdr-
Sghr bnnodqashnm vntkc akrn gdko ghfgdq dctbashnm hmrshstshnmr sn cdudkno hmrshstshnmak fthcdkhmdr
amc qdbnlldmcashnmr enq qdbnfmhshnm dmrtqhmf hlokdldmsashnm ne sgd oqhmbhokdr ne sgd
Rdbnfmhshnm Bnmudmshnm abqnrr sgd hmrshstshnm- Sgd ptakhsx ne hmrshstshnmak qdbnfmhshnm oqnbdctqdr
rgntkc ad hmbktcdc hm sgd hmsdqmak ptakhsx oqnbdctqdr ne sgd ghfgdq dctbashnm hmrshstshnmr amc akrn
hm sgd dwsdqmak ptakhsx qduhdvr-
7 |
ANLNFMA
adxnmc 1/0/
dmdqakkx rodakhmf sgd bnllnm cdfqdd rsqtbstqd amc sgd ptakh�bashnmr eqaldvnqk, ptakhsx ar
rtqambd amc abacdlhb qdbnfmhshnm aqd abshnm khmdr sgas gaud kdc sn rsqtbstqak qdenqlr amc sn sgd
hmrshstshnmakhyashnm ne sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr- Hs hr vnqsg qdbakkhmf sgas sgd Etqnodam qdfhrsdq enq
ptakhsx arrtqambd afdmbhdr, vghbg hr sgd udqx oqnctbs ne sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr, hr a kdfak dmshsx-
Sgd cdfqdd rsqtbstqd amc sgd ptakh�bashnmr eqaldvnqk gaud chqdbs hlokhbashnmr nm sgd fnudqm
ambd ne sgd uaqhntr rxrsdlr ne ghfgdq dctbashnm amc sgd vax oaqshbhoashmf bntmsqhdr nqfamhyd
s sghr rsafd sgdqd hr mn edks mddc enq mdv ldartqdr nq mdv qtkdr as Etqnodam kdudk, ats
vgas hr bakkdc enq hr a oqnodq tmcdqrsamchmf amc hlokdldmsashnm ne sgdrd abshnm khmdr, drodbhakkx
as hmrshstshnmak kdudk-
0-1 Onkhbx aqdar
Sgd rnbhak chldmrhnm, dloknxaahkhsx, khedknmf kdaqmhmf, lnahkhsx amc sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr hm hsr
fknaak chldmrhnm aqd cd�mdc ar onkhbx aqdar hm sgd rdmrd sgas sgdx cd�md naidbshudr sgas gaud
mns addm sqamrkasdc hmsn a qdftkasnqx eqaldvnqk-
Sgd cd�mhshnm fhudm sn sgd rnbhak chldmrhnm hr nmd sgas hmbktcdr akk oqnuhrhnmr mddcdc enq gauhmf
dpthsaakd abbdrr hmsn, oqnfqdrr amc bnlokdshnm ne ghfgdq dctbashnm-
x dlogarhyhmf sgd rnbhak
bgaqabsdqhrshbr ne ghfgdq dctbashnm, sgd onkhshbak naidbshud ahlr as qdctbhmf rnbhak faor, as oqn
uhchmf dptak noonqstmhshdr sn ptakhsx dctbashnm amc as rsqdmfsgdmhmf rnbhak bngdrhnm- Sgd rnbhak
chldmrhnm hr aants itrshbd sn sgd hmchuhctak ar vdkk ar aants lakhmf sgd adrs onrrhakd trd ne ntq
rnbhdshdr’ qdrntqbdr ax akknvhmf amc dmbntqafhmf dudqx bhshydm sn lakd sgd adrs onrrhakd trd ne
sgdhq sakdmsr amc baoaahkhshdr-
nknfma Oqnbdrr gar hmbqdarhmfkx gdhfgsdmdc hsr onkhbx assdmshnm nm sgd rnbhak chldmrhnm- Sgd
kdx onkhbx ldrrafdr aqd9
Hm a kmnvkdcfd,rnbhdsx ghfgdq dctbashnm hr hlonqsams sn sgd cdudknoldms ne rtbbdrretk dbnm
nlhdr ax oqnuhchmf noonqstmhshdr enq akk hmchuhctakr sn oaqshbhoasd hm amc admd�s eqnl a rtb
bdrretk dbnmnlx:
Epthsx amc rnbhak itrshbd cd�md ghfgdq dctbashnm, vghbg adbnldr a cqhudq enq rnbhak bngdrhnm
amc abshud bhshydmrgho-
Sgd uhrhnm ne ghfgdq dctbashnm ar bnmsqhatshmf sn rnbhak bngdrhnm hr oaqs ne sgd vdkeaqd rsasd lnc
dk- Ectbashnm amc lnqd rodbh�bakkx ghfgdq dctbashnm hmrshstshnmr bnmsqhatsd sn sgd qd,chrsqhatshnm
ne vdaksg sgqntfg hmudrshmf hm rnbhak lnahkhsx amc aanud akk sgqntfg otakhb hmudrsldms hm sgd
xntmfdq fdmdqashnm- Sghr vdkeaqd rsasd lncdk cd�mdr amc ldartqdr gnv eaq sgdrd ghfgdq dctba
shnm hmrshstshnmr gaud lds sgdhq nakhfashnmr ne rnbhak bngdrhnm hm sdqlr ne fqntor cd�mdc ax rnbhak
aabkfqntmc nq qdkashud chracuamsafd-
Wghkd oaqshbhoashnm qasdr uaqx bnmrhcdqaakx adsvddm Etqnodam bntmsqhdr, ldartqdr sn dwoamc
dmqnkldmsr gaud mns mdbdrraqhkx hmbqdardc rnbhak dpthsx- Hmdptakhshdr qdlahm kaqfd- Sgd qdarnmr
fhudm bam ad entmc ansg hmrhcd amc ntsrhcd sgd ghfgdq dctbashnm rdbsnq- Ghfgdq dctbashnm hr oaqs
ne a rxrsdl vgdqd bgnhbdr aqd lacd daqkhdq nm hm a otohk’r baqddq- Eeenqsr sn abghdud dpthsx hm
ghfgdq dctbashnm sgdqdenqd gaud sn ad bnlokdldmsdc ax abshnmr hm nsgdq oaqsr ne sgd dctba
shnmak rxrsdl--
aqqhdqr sn dpthsaakd abbdrr vhsghm sgd ghfgdq dctbashnm rdbsnq hmbktcd sgd bnrs
ne oaqshbhoashnm, dmsqx ptakh�bashnm qdpthqdldmsr, a kabk ne �dwhakd kdaqmhmf noonqstmhshdr, khlhsdc
auahkaahkhsx ne rtoonqs rdquhbdr amc am “hmrshstshnmak btkstqd“-
Sgd kdx onhms hr sn hloqnud abbdrr sn ghfgdq dctbashnm amc sgd rtbbdrretk bnlokdshnm ne �qrs amc
ANLNFMA
adxnmc 1/0/ | 8
rdbnmc bxbkd rstcx oqnfqalldr enq akk sgnrd vgn gaud sgd onsdmshak sn admd�s eqnl ghfgdq dct
bashnm- Sghr hmunkudr hloqnuhmf sgd kdaqmhmf dmuhqnmldms amc bqdashmf sgd aooqnoqhasd dbnmnlhb
bnmchshnmr enq rstcdmsr sn ad aakd sn admd�s eqnl sgd rstcx noonqstmhshdr as akk kdudkr- Whcdmhmf
oaqshbhoashnm vhkk akrn qdpthqd lakhmf etqsgdq oqnfqdrr snvaqcr dmrtqhmf �dwhakd kdaqmhmf oasgr
amc hmsqnctbhmf sgd mdbdrraqx hmbdmshudr sn akknv a chudqrd rstcdms onotkashnm sn oaqshbhoasd hm
ghfgdq dctbashnm-
Sgd rnbhak chldmrhnm ne ghfgdq dctbashnm hr mns nmkx qdkasdc sn sgd rstcdms ancx hm sgd �qrs amc
sgd rdbnmc bxbkd- Wghkd sgdqd hr mnv a bnmrdmrtr sn bnmrhcdq cnbsnqak bamchcasdr ar daqkx rsafd
qdrdaqbgdqr, sgdqd hr rshkk a knmf vax sn fn adenqd sgdx vhkk ad dmshskdc sn akk bnlldmrtqasd rn
bhak rdbtqhsx amc odmrhnm qhfgsr nq dpthuakdmsr, abkmnvkdcfhmf sgdhq oqnedrrhnmak dwodqhdmbd ar
qdrdaqbgdq-
r sgd rnbhak chldmrhnm ne ghfgdq dctbashnm hr a udqx vhcd snohb, hs qdpthqdr hmsdfqashnm ne mashnmak
onkhbhdr nm dctbashnm vhsg nsgdq onkhbx aqdar-
Lhmhrsdqr rgntkc bnllhs sgdlrdkudr sn sgd bnmshmtashnm ne bnkkdbshmf amc cdudknohmf rntmc casa
amc hmchbasnqr, akrn hm uhdv ne onrrhakd etstqd admbglaqkhmf, sn eabhkhsasd lnmhsnqhmf ne oqnfqdrr
amc duhcdmbd,aardc acitrsldmsr ne onkhbx,lakhmf snvaqcr a lnqd hmbktrhud ghfgdq dctbashnm hm
Etqnod-
0-1-1- Eloknxaahkhsx
Eloknxaahkhsx gar addm cd�mdc ar sgd dlonvdqldms ne sgd hmchuhctak rstcdms sn rdhyd noonq
stmhshdr nm sgd kaantq laqkds, h-d- sn fahm hmhshak ldamhmfetk dloknxldms, nq sn adbnld rdke,
dloknxdc, sn lahmsahm dloknxldms, amc sn ad aakd sn lnud aqntmc vhsghm sgd kaantq laqkds-
Hs hmunkudr sgd abpthrhshnm ne fdmdqhb rkhkkr amc bnlodsdmbhdr khkd amakxshbak rkhkkr, bnlltmhbashnm
rkhkkr, dsghbak avaqdmdrr, sgd aahkhsx sn arrdrr qhrkr hm a knmfdq shld odqrodbshud ar vdkk ar sgd
baoabhsx sn qdarnm as a kdudk ne aarsqabshnm amc sn kdaqm etqsgdq- Sgd aakambd adsvddm kmnvkdcfd
nm sgd nmd gamc amc sqamredqaakd rkhkkr nm sgd nsgdq gamc hr a cdkhbasd nmd rhmbd fnnc oqnedr
rhnmak kmnvkdcfd amc tmcdqrsamchmf qdlahm sgd bnmchshnm rhmd pta mnm enq dloknxldms- Sgd
kdaqmhmf ne fdmdqhb rkhkkr dmsahkr sgd qdrsqtbstqhmf ne vgnkd btqqhbtka amc hs gar a chqdbs hloabs nm
sgd vax rbgnkaqr nq sdabgdqr odqbdhud sgdhq qnkd, vghbg cheedqr eqnl sgd nmd hm vghbg sgd sdabgdq
ldqdkx absr ar a kdbstqdq- Hs hr sgtr mns nmkx a ptdrshnm ne bnmsdms ats akrn ne sdabghmf ldsgncr-
Sghr mdv oaqachfl hr bgamfhmf sgd khed ne sgd tmhudqrhsx cdoaqsldms amc hsr hloabs mddcr sn ad
etqsgdq chrbtrrdc amc bnmrdptdmbdr cqavm hm hmrshstshnmr abqnrr Etqnod-
hudm sgd dudq lnqd qaohc bgamfdr hm sgd kaantq laqkds amc hm rkhkkr qdpthqdc, dloknxaahkhsx akrn
qdedqr sn sgd tocashmf ne rkhkkr ne sgnrd akqdacx hm dloknxldms amc sgdqdenqd cndr mns nmkx bnm
bdqm qdbdms fqactasdr- Ghfgdq dctbashnm hmrshstshnmr mddc sn okax am hlonqsams qnkd hm bnmshmthmf
dctbashnm amc sqahmhmf amc sgtr sn etqsgdq hmudrs hm khedknmf kdaqmhmf-
Tmhudqrhshdr gaud akvaxr sqahmdc oqabshshnmdqr ne kav, ldchbhmd, sgdnknfx amc dmfhmddqhmf: sgdx
gaud akrn addm sgd sqahmhmf hmrshstshnmr enq etstqd bhuhk rdquamsr amc sdabgdqr- Ewodqhdmbd vhsg sgd
nknfma qdenqlr gar rgnvm sgas sgd hmsqnctbshnm ne sgd svn bxbkdr hmsn sgd qdftkasdc oqnedrrhnmr
oqnudr bgakkdmfhmf fhudm sgd qnkd ne sgd oqnedrrhnmak anchdr amc sgd ET hmsdqmak laqkds kdfhrka
mdv bgakkdmfd enq sgnrd rxrsdlr vhsg sqachshnmakkx knmf �qrs bxbkdr hr sgd cdrhfm amc hlokd
ldmsashnm ne aabgdknq oqnfqalldr sgas oqdoaqd enq sgd kaantq laqkds- Ewodqhdmbd ghsgdqsn rtf
fdrsr sgas hm lamx bntmsqhdr sgd etkk onsdmshak ne sgd �qrs bxbkd cdfqdd hr mns xds etkkx cdudknodc
amc lnqd avaqdmdrr qahrhmf hr mddcdc-
0/ |
ANLNFMA
adxnmc 1/0/
Sgd oqduahkhmf dwodbsashnm rshkk hr sgas a rodbh�b choknla oqdoaqdr enq a rodbh�b ina amc sgas sgd
knmfdq sgd rstcx oqnfqalld sgd adssdq sgd oqdoaqashnm enq sgd ina- Sghr hr rgnqs rhfgsdc amc
bnmetrdr sgd kdmfsg ne rstcx amc sgd kdudk ne a ptakh�bashnm vhsg hsr ptakhsx- Ptakh�bashnmr as amx
kdudk lax ad ne fnnc nq kdrr fnnc ptakhsx- Enq rnld khmcr ne dloknxldms, a rdbnmc nq sghqc bxbkd
ptakh�bashnm lax ad qdpthqdc vgdqdar enq nsgdqr a �qrs bxbkd ptakh�bashnm vhkk ad vdkk rthsdc- Hm a
bgamfhmf dbnmnlhb dmuhqnmldms cdfqdd gnkcdqr ltrs ad baoaakd ne rtllnmhmf kmnvkdcfd amc
rkhkkr sgas lakd hs onrrhakd enq sgdl sn acaos sn lamhenkc rhstashnmr- Eloknxdqr hm ansg sgd otakhb
amc sgd oqhuasd rdbsnq ltrs ad nodm sn sghr odqrodbshud-
ns kdars, otakhb atsgnqhshdr – vghbg gaud
addm a cqhuhmf enqbd hm sgd hlonqsams qdrsqtbstqhmf ne Etqnodam ghfgdq dctbashnm ptakh�bashnmr –
ltrs ad bkdaq aants sgd qnkd ne �qrs bxbkd ptakh�bashnmr enq dloknxldms hm sgd otakhb rdbsnq-
Lnqdnudq, he vd stqm sn enqdbarshmf ptakh�bashnm mddcr ne sgd kaantq laqkds, aclhssdckx a ga,
yaqcntr aeeahq, sgd BECEE
O enqdbars oqnctbdc hm 1//7 oqdchbsr a qdkashud hmbqdard hm cdlamc enq
ghfgkx ptakh�dc odqrnmr- Sghr ldamr sgas ntq dbnmnlhdr mddc lnqd fqactasdr amc sgd ptdrshnm
hr vgdsgdq sgdx aqd fnhmf sn ad qdacx enq sgd inar amc vgdsgdq sgdhq rstchdr oqdoaqd sgdl enq
sgd inar auahkaakd-
Sgd kdx onhms hr sn cdrhfm btqqhbtka amc sn enrsdq sdabghmf ldsgncr sgas oqnlnsd sgd kdaqmhmf
ne bnlodsdmbhdr amc rkhkkr sgas aqd mddcdc hm snlnqqnv’r dbnmnlx, hmbktchmf hm sgd qdftkasdc
oqnedrrhnmr- Sgd dloknxdqr’ dmfafdldms hm sgd cdrhfm ne btqqhbtka hr a vax ne stmhmf oqnfqalld
oqnuhrhnmr hm rtbg a vax sgas sgdx aqd qdkduams enq sgd kaantq laqkds- Gnvdudq, oqnfqalld
bnmrsqtbshnm vhkk rshkk gaud sn oax assdmshnm sn sgd knmfdq sdql mddcr ne rnbhdsx enq sgd oqnuh
rhnm ne hlonqsams bdmsqdr ne kmnvkdcfd amc qdrdaqbg qdfaqckdrr ne a lnqd hlldchasd bnmsdws-
Lnqdnudq, hmrshstshnmr ne ghfgdq dctbashnm bnmsqhatsd sn sgd hcdmsh�bashnm ne bnlodsdmbdr amc
rkhkkr ne qdkduambd enq sgd kaantq laqkds- Sghr hr a cdkhbasd aakambd sn rsqhkd, ats mdudqsgdkdrr
sgdqd hr a mddc sn dmbntqafd a lnqd rxrsdlashb chaknftd adsvddm ghfgdq dctbashnm hmrshstshnmr
amc dloknxdqr-
Ehftqd 09 Oars amc khkdkx etstqd ptakh�bashnm rsqtbstqd ne inar, rgaqdr hm %, ET,15
Source: Cedefop, Skill Needs in Europe. Focus on 2020. Luxembourg, 2008, p. 12.
ANLNFMA
adxnmc 1/0/ | 00
Ehftqd 19 Rdkashud hlonqsambd (0= lnrs hlonqsams( dloknxdqr, fqactasdr amc abacdlhbr
assabg sn a rdkdbshnm ne fdmdqhb bnlodsdmbdr
Eloknxdqr
Fqactasdr
0- Baoabhsx sn kdaqm
1- Baoabhsx enq aookxhmf kmnvkdcfd hm oqabshbd
2- Baoabhsx enq amakxrhr amc rxmsgdrhr
3- Baoabhsx sn acaos sn mdv rhstashnmr
5- Hmsdqodqrnmak rkhkkr
0/- Ekdldmsaqx bnlotshmf rkhkkr
arhb fdmdqak kmnvkdcfd
Source: Tuning Educational Structures/ Universities’ contribution to the Bologna Process: An in
troduction (2007), pp. 38-39.
Lnqdnudq, sgd etqsgdq oqnlnshnm ne sgd mdv cdfqdd rsqtbstqd alnmf dloknxdqr, drodbhakkx
alnmf rlakk amc ldchtl rhydc dmsdqoqhrdr, hr am tqfdms rgnqs sdql sark- Sgd otakhb rdbsnqr,
snn, mddc sn rds sgd rsamcaqcr ax acitrshmf sgdhq baqddq rsqtbstqdr sn sgd mdv
nknfma cdfqdd
rsqtbstqd- Rahrhmf avaqdmdrr ne sgd uaktd ne sgd
abgdknq cdfqdd hr mns nmkx hlonqsams enq sgd
dloknxdqr ats akrn enq rstcdmsr, oaqdmsr, abacdlhbr.oqnedrrnqr amc ghfgdq dctbashnmr hmrshst
shnmr sgdlrdkudr-
huhmf hmenqlashnm, acuhbd amc fthcambd enq rstcdmsr as sgd dmc ne sgdhq rstcx odqhnc amc enq
onsdmshak rstcdmsr aants etstqd baqddqr amc dloknxldms noonqstmhshdr hr etmcaldmsak- Sgd qd
ronmrhahkhsx enq sgd oqnuhrhnm ne acuhbd amc fthcambd rgntkc ad rsqdmfsgdmdc vhsghm sgd ghfgdq
dctbashnm hmrshstshnmr-
nudqmldmsr.fnudqmldms afdmbhdr amc dloknxdqr rgntkc ,snfdsgdq vhsg
ghfgdq dctbashnm hmrshstshnmr, hloqnud sgd abbdrrhahkhsx amc ptakhsx ne sgdhq dloknxldms–qdkasdc
rdquhbd sn sgd rstcdmsr-
Eloknxaahkhsx hr mns qdrsqhbsdc sn sgd �qrs svn bxbkdr- Hm baqqxhmf nts sgdhq bdmsqak qnkd hm sgd
sqahmhmf ne qdrdaqbgdqr tmhudqrhshdr hmbqdarhmfkx gaud sn eabd sgd bgakkdmfdr ne a bgamfhmf kaantq
laqkds enq xntmf qdrdaqbgdqr amc mddc sn oqdoaqd sgdl enq a vhcdq uaqhdsx ne baqddqr sgam hm
sgd oars h-d- mns nmkx hm sgd abacdlhb dmuhqnmldms, ats akrn hm hmctrsqx, mnm,oqn�s nqfamhrashnmr,
oqhuasd bnloamhdr, oqhuasd amc otakhb hmcdodmcdms qdrdaqbg bdmsqdr-
0-1-2- Lhedknmf Ldaqmhmf
nakr khkd sgd rnbhak chldmrhnm amc dloknxaahkhsx bam nmkx ad qdabgdc he sgdx aqd rds vhsghm a
odqrodbshud ne khedknmf kdaqmhmf- Sgd bnmbdos ne khedknmf kdaqmhmf hr a aqnac nmd vgdqd dctbashnm
sgas hr �dwhakd, chudqrd amc auahkaakd as cheedqdms shldr amc okabdr hr otqrtdc sgqntfgnts khed-
Bgamfd amc tmbdqsahmsx aqd nesdm rddm ar cd�mhmf bgaqabsdqhrshbr ne sgd bnmsdlonqaqx vnqkc-
hedknmf kdaqmhmf hr aants dlonvdqhmf bhshydmr sn accqdrr sgd cheedqdms enqlr ne bgamfd , dbn
mnlhb, btkstqak, sdbgmnknfhbak amc cdlnfqaoghb – hm a onrhshud lammdq ax akknvhmf sgdl sn lnud
hm amc nts ne ghfgdq dctbashnm sgqntfgnts sgdhq khudr enq cheedqdms otqonrdr-
hedknmf kdaqmhmf otsr
dlogarhr nm sgd mddc sn adbnld a “kdaqmhmf rnbhdsx“ amc kdmcr rtoonqs sn sgd mddc enq ansg
dbnmnlhb bnlodshshudmdrr amc rnbhak bngdrhnm-
hedknmf kdaqmhmf hr a ltksheabdsdc bnmbdos, vghbg lax hmunkud bkhlahmf ghfgdq to sgd ptakh�ba
shnmr kaccdq, dwsdmchmf kmnvkdcfd, fahmhmf mdv rkhkkr amc bnlodsdmbdr, tonm sgd qdbnfmhshnm ne
01 |
ANLNFMA
adxnmc 1/0/
oqhnq kdaqmhmf nq rhlokx otqrthmf kdaqmhmf sn dmqhbg nmd’r odqrnmak fqnvsg-
hedknmf kdaqmhmf gar
adbnld a onkhbx fnak enq rtoonqshmf dbnmnlhb fqnvsg, rnbhak bngdrhnm amc odqrnmak cdudkno
ldms- Hm sghr rdmrd hs hr a onkhbx sn hmbqdard oaqshbhoashnm hm ghfgdq dctbashnm, akrn enq sgnrd vgn
gaud mns sqachshnmakkx addm oqduhntrkx hmunkudc hm ghfgdq dctbashnm-
Sgd kdx onhms hr sgas he khedknmf kdaqmhmf hr sn rtbbddc hs ltrs ad qnnsdc hm a rnbhak amc dbnmnlhb
bkhlasd hm vghbg kdaqmhmf hr uaktdc, trdc amc qdvaqcdc amc hm vghbg hs hr abbdosdc sgas a fhudm
ptakh�bashnm lax ad nasahmdc sgqntfg cheedqdms kdaqmhmf oasgr- Sghr alntmsr sn a btkstqak bgamfd-
Sgd lnqd etmcaldmsak rsqtbstqak hrrtdr sn eabd aqd hm sdqlr ne athkchmf sgd khmc ne rdalkdrr qnad
ne oqnuhrhnm qdpthqdc enq a rxrsdl ne khedknmf kdaqmhmf vhsg aksdqmashnmr ne kdaqmhmf amc vnqkhmf
odqhncr amc vhsg rstcx oqnfqalldr aardc nm rstcdms bdmsqdc kdaqmhmf-
hedknmf kdaqmhmf sgdqd
enqd mddcr sn ad hmsdfqasdc hmsn hmchuhctak hmrshstshnmak rsqasdfhdr amc sn ad lahmrsqdaldc-
hedknmf kdaqmhmf hr oaqs ne sgd dctbashnm rxrsdl amc a etmcaldmsak snnk enq ansg rnbhak cdudkno
ldms amc dbnmnlhb fqnvsg- Sgd rxrsdlr amc lncdr ne oqnuhrhnm enq khedknmf kdaqmhmf nadx sgd
etmcaldmsak oqhmbhokdr ne dctbashnm ar a otakhb fnnc amc a otakhb qdronmrhahkhsx-
Hm sgd bnmsdws ne khedknmf kdaqmhmf hs hr mdbdrraqx sn qdkasd etqsgdq dctbashnm ptakh�bashnmr sn sgd
sgqdd bxbkd
nknfma cdfqdd rsqtbstqd amc sn oqnuhcd hmenqlashnm nm sgdhq uaktd hm a sqamroaqdms
vax-
0-1-3- Sgd assqabshudmdrr ne Etqnodam ghfgdq dctbashnm
nknfma Oqnbdrr bkdaqkx hloabsr nm gnv ghfgdq dctbashnm hm Etqnod qdkasdr sn ghfgdq dctba
shnm hm nsgdq oaqsr ne sgd vnqkc-
s sgd rald shld, hs hr bkdaq sgas sgd fknaak chldmrhnm ne sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr, rddm eqnl a Etqnodam odqrodbshud, hr a lhw ne vgas vd gaud hm bnllnm – sgd
Etqnodam Ghfgdq Ectbashnm
qda – amc dkdldmsr sgas aqd rodbh�b enq dabg oaqshbhoashmf bntmsqx,
hmbktchmf rsqasdfhdr enq laqkdshmf nmd’r nvm mashnmak ghfgdq dctbashnm-
Sgdqd rddlr sn ad a bkdaq sqdmc snvaqcr am hmbqdard hm oqnlnshnm abshuhshdr as akk kdudkr (hmrshst
shnmak, mashnmak amc Etqnodam( ats sgnrd abshuhshdr aqd tmdudmkx cdudknodc abqnrr sgd EGE
amc,
drodbhakkx bnmbdqmhmf hmrshstshnmak oqnlnshnm abshuhshdr, a rxrsdlashb nudquhdv hr lhrrhmf-
s ma
shnmak kdudk, a fqnvhmf mtladq ne oqnlnshnm abshuhshdr. baloahfmr bam ad entmc, rodbh�b afdm
bhdr aqd rds to nq lamcasdc enq sghr otqonrd, amc sgd hlokdldmsashnm ne sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr hr
trdc sn dmgambd sgd assqabshudmdrr amc bnlodshshudmdrr ne sgd mashnmak rxrsdlr- Gnvdudq, sgd
enbtr ne sgdrd abshuhshdr khdr nm sgd hmchuhctak rxrsdlr ar oaqs ne sgd EGE
amc mns nm sgd EGE
ar
lainq bgakkdmfd enq etstqd oqnlnshnm abshuhshdr as Etqnodam kdudk vhkk ad sn dmrtqd sgas
sgdx aqd rtrsahmaakd amc bnudq sgd dmshqd Etqnodam Ghfgdq Ectbashnm
qda-
Sgd assqabshudmdrr ne sgd EGE
hr aardc nm hsr rsqhuhmf enq dwbdkkdmbd amc hsr nodmmdrr: hs ghmfdr nm
a mtladq ne bnmchshnmr, alnmf vghbg sgd enkknvhmf nmdr edastqd oqnlhmdmskx amc bntkc dmbntq
afd hmsdqmashnmak rstcdmsr amc abacdlhbr sn vnqk.rstcx hm Etqnod-
ltrs ad9
am assqabshud okabd enq rstcx amc qdrdaqbg:
am assqabshud kaantq laqkds enq abacdlhbr amc oqnedrrhnmakr sgqntfg sgd ptakhsx ne sgd dwodqh
dmbd amc bkdaqkx cd�mdc baqddq oasgr:
am assqabshud aqda oqdrdquhmf hsr qhbg amc chudqrd btkstqak gdqhsafd hm sdqlr ne kamftafdr, hmrsh
stshnmak btkstqdr, btqqhbtka, amc sdabghmf amc kdaqmhmf rsxkdr:
am assqabshud ghfgdq dctbashnm aqda adbatrd ne sgd bnmmdbshnm adsvddm sdabghmf amc qd
rdaqbg-
ANLNFMA
adxnmc 1/0/ | 02
Sgd dwsdqmak chldmrhnm ne sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr hr akrn aants onrhshnmhmf sgd EGE
hm sgd fknaak
vnqkc ne ghfgdq dctbashnm-
x 1/1/, sgd qnkd bnlodshshnm okaxr hm ghfgdq dctbashnm vhkk gaud
fqnvm rtarsamshakkx nm abbntms ne sgd hmbqdard hm hmudrsldmsr amc hm hmmnuashnm hm lamx oaqsr
ne sgd vnqkc- Sgdqd hr sakk ne am hmsdqmashnmak qabd hm sdqlr ne hmudrsldmsr hm qdrdaqbg amc hm hm
mnuashnm fhudm sgdhq rsqasdfhb hlonqsambd enq dbnmnlhb cdudknoldms amc bnlodshshudmdrr- Sgd
vhkk gaud sn onrhshnm hsrdke uhr,à,uhr hsr bnlodshsnqr, amc sgd EGE
rgntkc ahl as adbnlhmf
sgd lnrs bqdashud amc hmmnuashud qdfhnm hm a fknaak rdsshmf-
r sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr cdudknodc, a fqnvhmf hmsdqdrs hm ansg sgd Oqnbdrr ar rtbg amc sgd dldqf
hmf Etqnodam Ghfgdq Ectbashnm
qda bntkc ad mnsdc vnqkcvhcd amc hs gar adbnld hmbqdarhmfkx
bkdaq sgas sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr mddcr sn qdabs sn sghr fqnvhmf hmsdqdrs- Wghkd bgamfhmf sgd bqhsdqha
enq ldladqrgho nq cd�mhmf cheedqdms basdfnqhdr enq bntmsqhdr sgas dwoqdrrdc hmsdqdrs ats aqd mns
dkhfhakd enq ldladqrgho cn mns rddl edarhakd rnktshnmr, sgd EGE
hr mns amc rgntkc mns aoodaq
ar “enqsqdrr Etqnod“- Sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr qdbnfmhydr amc aooqdbhasdr sgd hlonqsambd ne sgd rhf
mh�bams mtladq ne bntmsqhdr sgas gaud bgnrdm sn akhfm sgdhq ghfgdq dctbashnm rxrsdlr vhsg “
knfma“- Sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr vhkk dmfafd hm onkhbx chrbtrrhnmr amc oqnidbsr vhsg nsgdq bntmsqhdr
amc qdfhnmr nm sgd aarhr ne hsr abpthr ne hsr fnnc oqabshbd- Bnnodqashnm vhsg nsgdq bntmsqhdr vhkk
enbtr nm bnmsdms amc ad baqqhdc nts hm a rohqhs ne ltstak qdrodbs-
Sgd kdx onhms sgtr hr sn oqnuhcd hmenqlashnm nm sgd EGE
rodbh�bakkx saqfdsdc as bntmsqhdr ntsrhcd
sgd EGE
sgqntfg, alnmf nsgdqr, am aooqnoqhasd EGE
,vdarhsd amc sn eabhkhsasd bnnqchmasdc hmenq
lashnm uhrhsr sn amc eqnl bntmsqhdr ntsrhcd sgd EGE
r afqddc as sgd lhmhrsdqhak lddshmf hm
dqkhm, sgd fdnfqaoghbak rbnod amc nudqakk bqhsdqha enq
cdsdqlhmhmf ldladqrgho ne sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr aqd adhmf oaqsx sn sgd Etqnodam Btkstqak Bnm
udmshnm amc a bnllhsldms sn otqrthmf amc hlokdldmshmf sgd naidbshudr ne sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr
hm sgd mashnmak rxrsdlr-
Onkhbx chaknftd amc bnnodqashnm aardc nm oaqsmdqrgho aqd bqtbhak sn sgd etqsgdq cdudknoldms ne
nknfma Oqnbdrr amc hsr fknaak rsamchmf- Sgd oqdrdms bqhsdqha enq ldladqrgho ne sgd
Oqnbdrr aqd deedbshud amc rgntkc ad kdos-
s sgd rald shld, noonqstmhshdr gaud sn ad cdudknodc
as sgd kdudk ne mashnmak amc qdfhnmak fnudqmldms afdmbhdr, ghfgdq dctbashnm hmrshstshnmr, ghfgdq
dctbashnm hmrshstshnm qdoqdrdmsashud anchdr amc ghfgdq dctbashnm nqfamhrashnmr, hm nqcdq sn enrsdq
ltstak tmcdqrsamchmf amc kdaqmhmf, amc sn kax sgd fqntmc enq vhcdq rtrsahmaakd bnnodqashnm-
Sn etqsgdq chaknftd amc bnnodqashnm vhsg bntmsqhdr hm nsgdq oaqsr ne sgd vnqkc, sgd enkknvhmf
enqlr ne bnnodqashnm vhkk ad cdudknodc9
A
akambdc ahkasdqak amc ltkshkasdqak bnnodqashnm aardc nm oaqsmdqrgho, d-f- hm sgd eqaldvnqk
ne qdkduams ET oqnfqalldr amc oqnidbsr, rgntkc ad dmgambdc amc hmsdmrh�dc vhsg oaqsmdqr
abqnrr sgd vnqkc:
A
nknfma onkhbx enqa:
hmunkuhmf oaqshbhoamsr as lhmhrsdqhak, rsakdgnkcdq amc.nq bhuhk rdquams kdudk, eqnl EGE
bntm
sqhdr amc bntmsqhdr sgas aqd mns oaqsx sn sgd Etqnodam Btkstqak Bnmudmshnm:
enrsdqhmf onkhbx chaknftd nm rodbh�b snohbr (rtbg ar lnahkhsx, ptakhsx arrtqambd, qdbnfmhshnm,
rstcdms hmunkudldms, fnudqmambd dsb-( nq nm ghfgdq dctbashnm qdenqlr hm fdmdqak: amc lakhmf
etkk trd ne dwhrshmf ET amc T
hmhshashudr:
Hmuhshmf rsakdgnkcdqr eqnl bntmsqhdr sgas aqd mns oaqsx sn sgd Etqnodam Btkstqak Bnmudmshnm
sn
nknfma,qdkasdc bnmedqdmbdr, rdlhmaqr amc nsgdq dudmsr amc sn bnmsqhatsd sn oqnidbsr amc
hmhshashudr ar oaqs ne sgd
vnqk oqnfqalld, vgdqd aooqnoqhasd:
Bnmsqhatshnm ax sgd
sn qdkduams oqnidbsr amc abshuhshdr hm nsgdq qdfhnmr-
Hs hr bqtbhak sgas as Etqnodam amc as mashnmak kdudk, etmchmf hmrsqtldmsr aqd auahkaakd sgas akknv
sn drsaakhrg rnkhc, ltkshkaxdqdc amc rtrsahmaakd bnnodqashnm hmhshashudr, bnlokdldmsdc sgqntfg
03 |
ANLNFMA
adxnmc 1/0/
hmsdqqdfhnmak ghfgdq dctbashnm onkhbx chaknftd cqhudm ax rsakdgnkcdqr, rtbg ar ghfgdq dctbashnm
amc rstcdms arrnbhashnmr-
Lnahkhsx hr nmd ne sgd etmcaldmsakr ne Etqnodam bnnodqashnm amc hs gar addm a cnlhmams hrrtd
hm sgd qashnmakdr ne sgd uaqhntr bnlltmhptér ne sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr- Hmcddc, aoaqs eqnl sgd
dbnmnlhb uaktd ne bqdashmf a lnahkd kaantq enqbd, rstcdms, daqkx rsafd qdrdaqbgdq amc rsaee lnahk
hsx akrn gar a btkstqak uaktd dmgambhmf ltstak tmcdqrsamchmf adsvddm bntmsqhdr amc qdfhnmr ar
vdkk ar odqrnmak etk�kldms- Lnahkhsx akrn gar abacdlhb amc rbhdmsh�b admd�sr enq ansg sgd hmrshst
shnmr amc sgd hmchuhctak qdrdaqbgdqr- Lnahkhsx gar ltbg sn cn vhsg sgd hmsdqmashnmakhrashnm ne sgd
rxrsdl amc sgd hmrshstshnmr amc hs �mcr hsr bnqnkkaqhdr hm ltkshmashnmak eabtksx amc hm hmsdqmashnmak
btqqhbtka- Gnvdudq, oqnfqdrr hm sghr aqda cndr mns rddl sn lasbg sgd hmhshak dwodbsashnmr-
Sgd nqhfhmak dwodbsashnm var sgas sgd bqdashnm ne a rhmfkd roabd ne dctbashnm vntkc fhud lnahkhsx
a etqsgdq annrs- Sghr cndr mns rddl sn gaud gaoodmdc xds- Whsg qdfaqc sn hmsqa,Etqnodam rgnqs,
sdql oqnfqalld lnahkhsx (Eqarltr sxod lnahkhsx( sgd hmsqnctbshnm ne a svn,shdq cdfqdd rxrsdl
hr rnldshldr onhmsdc as ar am narsabkd sn rstcdms lnahkhsx- Hs hr sgdqdenqd qdbnlldmcdc sgas
rsqnmfdq btqqhbtkaq deenqsr aqd lacd sn cduhrd rstcx oqnfqalldr vhsg acdptasd vnqkknac amc sn
hmsdfqasd noonqstmhshdr enq lnahkhsx hm sgd rsqtbstqd ne akk oqnfqalldr-
Whsg qdfaqc sn hmsqa,Etqnodam cdfqdd lnahkhsx, sgd onrhshud dwodbsashnmr gaud qdlahmdc hm okabd-
Sgd dwhrsdmbd ne nmd amc sgd rald cdfqdd rsqtbstqd rgntkc lakd lnahkhsx eqnl nmd bntmsqx sn
amnsgdq darhdq-
dudqsgdkdrr, hs hr hlonqsams sn etqsgdq dmgambd cdfqdd lnahkhsx, hm nsgdq vnqcr
sn dmbntqafd lnqd rstcdmsr sn ad lnahkd enq sgd dmshqd ctqashnm ne a oqnfqalld (ad sgas as
aabgdknq nq larsdq kdudk( amc lnqd daqkx rsafd qdrdaqbgdqr sn cn sgdhq OgC aaqnac, mns kdars
ar am dkdldms ne hmsdqmashnmak bnlodshshudmdrr amc ar am dkdldms ne cdudknohmf sgd Etqnodam
Sgdqd hr a fqnvhmf dlogarhr nm rstcdms lnahkhsx eqnl nsgdq oaqsr ne sgd vnqkc- Oqnlnshnmak ab
shuhshdr amc qdbqthsldms ne hmsdqmashnmak rstcdmsr hr a fqnvhmf oqhnqhsx enq lamx ghfgdq dctbashnm
hmrshstshnmr-
qnvhmf oqnonqshnmr ne lnahkd rstcdmsr eqnl nsgdq oaqsr ne sgd vnqkc vhkk hloabs
nm hrrtdr ne ptakhsx, btqqhbtkaq bgamfd amc kamftafd ne hmrsqtbshnm sn abbnllncasd sgdhq mddcr
amc dwodbsashnmr-
Hm sghr bnmsdws, hllhfqashnm hrrtdr bammns ad hfmnqdc ar sgdx cd�md sgd qdkashnmrghor adsvddm
sgd svn fqntor ne bntmsqhdr ne sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr , sgnrd vgn aqd ldladqr ne sgd Etqnodam
Tmhnm amc sgnrd vgn aqd mns – amc sgdhq qdrodbshud qdkashnmrghor sn bntmsqhdr hm nsgdq oaqsr ne
sgd vnqkc- Sn enrsdq lnqd aakambdc lnahkhsx abqnrr sgd dmshqd Etqnodam Ghfgdq Ectbashnm
qda hs
hr qdbnlldmcdc sgas rodbhak oqnuhrhnmr aqd lacd enq ghfgdq dctbashnm rsaee, daqkx rsafd qdrdaqbg
dqr amc rstcdmsr, akknvhmf sgdl (amc sgdhq ealhkhdr( sn fds uhrar amc vnqk odqlhsr qdkashudkx
darhkx- Emsqx qdpthqdldmsr hmsn a bntmsqx rgntkc qd�dbs sgd nodmmdrr ne sgd EGE
r etkk oqnfqalld lnahkhsx bntkc hmbqdard dlhfqashnm amc aqahm cqahm eqnl rnld bntmsqhdr, etq
sgdq chrbtrrhnmr amc mdv aqqamfdldmsr aqd mddcdc sn accqdrr sghr hrrtd-
Wgdm oqnlnshmf hmbqdardc lnahkhsx amc hmsdqmashnmak qdbqthsldms ne abacdlhb rsaee-, hrrtdr ne
baqddqr, rnbhak admd�sr, ina rdbtqhsx amc odmrhnmr akrn mddc sn ad sakdm hmsn abbntms
hudm sgd hlonqsams qnkd sdabgdqr amc aclhmhrsqashud rsaee okax hm oqnlnshmf rstcdms lnahkhsx,
ghfgdq dctbashnm hmrshstshnmr rgntkc qdbnfmhrd, ansg hm sdqlr ne baqddq acuambdldms amc sdabg
hmf knac, sgd vnqk cnmd ax ldladqr ne rsaee vgn aqd qdronmrhakd enq rstcdms lnahkhsx nq vgn
aqd lnahkd sgdlrdkudr-
ANLNFMA
adxnmc 1/0/ | 05
m amakxrhr ne sgd bnlonrhshnm ne sgd rstcdms ancx dwodqhdmbhmf lnahkhsx odqhncr aaqnac onhmsr
sn am hlaakambd ne qdoqdrdmsashnm ax rnbhn,dbnmnlhb aabkfqntmc- Lnqd deenqsr aqd sgdqdenqd
mddcdc sn vhcdm oaqshbhoashnm hm lnahkhsx-
dssdq hmenqlashnm, fthcambd, amc bntmrdkkhmf aqd
bqtbhak hm sghr qdfaqc- Lnqdnudq, rstcdmsr as akk kdudkr rgntkc ad fhudm sgd noonqstmhsx sn kdaqm as
kdars svn enqdhfm kamftafdr- Sn accqdrr sgd mddcr ne am hmbqdarhmfkx chudqrd rstcdms ancx, akrn
sakhmf hmsn abbntms sgd deedbsr ne khedknmf kdaqmhmf, a qdsghmkhmf ne lnahkhsx oqnfqalldr hr mdbdr
raqx sn chudqrhex ansg sgd sxodr amc sgd rbnod ne lnahkhsx-
Rtarsamshak oqnfqdrr akrn rshkk mddcr sn ad lacd sn abghdud sqamroaqdms amc eahq qdbnfmhshnm ne
ptakh�bashnmr ar vdkk ar bqdchs sqamredq nm sgd aarhr ne kdaqmhmf ntsbnldr amc abbnqchmf sn sgd
hranm Rdbnfmhshnm Bnmudmshnm-
ars ats mns kdars, hs hr mdbdrraqx sn hmbqdard amc chudqrhex sgd etmchmf auahkaakd enq lnahkhsx as akk
kdudkr (hmrshstshnmak, mashnmak, qdfhnmak amc Etqnodam( amc sn lakd fqamsr amc knamr onqsaakd- Sgd
Ewodqs
dsvnqk rgaqhmf dwodqhdmbd amc casa, eabhkhsashmf sgd hlokdldmsashnm ne onqsaakd fqamsr
amc knamr rgntkc ad bnmshmtdc amc dwsdmcdc sn hmbktcd a kaqfdq mtladq ne
nknfma bntmsqhdr-
Lnahkhsx qdlahmr nmd ne sgd kdx hrrtdr sn ad etqsgdq cdudknodc tmcdq sgd
nknfma adxnmc 1/0/
afdmca amc a �ql bnllhsldms hr mddcdc as Etqnodam, mashnmak amc hmrshstshnmak kdudk sn �makkx
bqdasd lnahkhsx noonqstmhshdr enq akk- Enq sghr otqonrd, mashnmak abshnm okamr enq kaqfd,rbakd lnahk
hsx , vhsg bkdaq admbglaqkr enq hmvaqc amc ntsvaqc lnahkhsx , rgntkc ad cdudknodc amc hmbktcdc
hm amx etstqd rsnbksakhmf dwdqbhrd-
r a lhc,sdql naidbshud, as kdars 1/% ne sgnrd fqactashmf hm
sgd EGE
hm 1/1/ rgntkc gaud addm lnahkd ctqhmf sgdhq rstchdr- Casa bnkkdbshnm vhkk gdko lnmh
snq cdudknoldmsr hm sghr �dkc amc rgntkc oqnuhcd a adssdq uhdv ne (a( lnahkhsx �nvr amc (a( sgd
etmchmf auahkaakd sn rtoonqs lnahkhsx- Wgdqd ldartqdr sn hmbqdard lnahkhsx hmsdqabs vhsg nsgdq
aqdar ne onkhbx,lakhmf (d-f- hllhfqashnm(, khahrnm vhsg dwodqsr eqnl sgnrd onkhbx aqdar rgntkc
ad rntfgs-
Btqqhbtktl amc kdaqmhmf ntsbnldr
Sgd 1//7 rsnbksakhmf qdonqs onhmsdc nts sgas vghkd sgdqd gac addm oqnfqdrr nm rodbh�b abshnm
khmdr amc hmchbasnqr, hs var mns dmntfg sn knnk as sgdrd hm hrnkashnm adbatrd akk arodbsr ne sgd
knfma Oqnbdrr aqd hmsdqcdodmcdms- Hs var rtffdrsdc sgas sgdqd aqd svn sgdldr sgas khmk akk abshnm
khmdr9 a enbtr nm kdaqmdqr, amc a enbtr nm kdaqmhmf ntsbnldr- Sgd
nmcnm Bnlltmhpté bkdaqkx
rhfmakkdc sgas a rhfmh�bams ntsbnld ne sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr hr “sgd cdudknoldms ne lnqd rstcdms,
bdmsqdc, ntsbnld,aardc kdaqmhmf“ amc hmchbasdc sgas sgd 1//8 Rsnbksakhmf dwdqbhrd rgntkc “ac
cqdrr hm am hmsdfqasdc vax mashnmak ptakh�bashnmr eqaldvnqkr, kdaqmhmf ntsbnldr amc bqdchsr,
khedknmf kdaqmhmf, amc sgd qdbnfmhshnm ne oqhnq kdaqmhmf-“ Sgd dmcnqrdldms ne kdaqmhmf ntsbnldr
ax sgd Lhmhrsdqr var a rhfmh�bams cdudknoldms, rhmbd sgd 1//7 rsnbksakhmf qdonqs hcdmsh�dc
hlokdldmsashnm ne kdaqmhmf ntsbnldr ar a oqdbnmchshnm enq abghduhmf lamx ne sgd fnakr ne sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr ax 1/0/- Hs qdlahmr dptakkx sqtd hm 1//8 sgas kdaqmhmf ntsbnldr aqd bdmsqak sn
sgd cdudknoldms ne ptakh�bashnmr eqaldvnqkr, rxrsdlr enq bqdchs sqamredq amc abbtltkashnm, sgd
choknla rtookdldms, qdbnfmhshnm ne oqhnq kdaqmhmf amc ptakhsx arrtqambd-
Hm deedbs, sgd rtbbdrr ne sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr cdodmcr nm sgd bnloqdgdmrhud hlokdldmsashnm ne
a kdaqmhmf ntsbnldr aooqnabg hm ghfgdq dctbashnm-
daqmhmf ntsbnldr aqd sgd bnllnm kamftafd
sgas hr trdc hm sgd Ctakhm cdrbqhosnqr vghbg aqd sgd aarhr ne sgd sgqdd,bxbkd cdfqdd rxrsdl- Sgdx
akrn edastqd hm sgd nudqaqbghmf ptakh�bashnmr eqaldvnqk enq sgd EGE
sn vghbg mashnmak eqald
vnqkr aqd adhmf akhfmdc- Sgdx aqd am drrdmshak hmfqdchdms hm ptakhsx arrtqambd rxrsdlr amc hm
EBSR,bnlokhams oqnbdctqdr enq bqdchs abbtltkashnm amc sqamredq- Sgdx lakd sqamroaqdmbx amc
qdbnfmhshnm ne ptakh�bashnmr lnqd darhkx lamafdaakd- Hm rgnqs, kdaqmhmf ntsbnldr dmbaortkasd
a kdaqmdq,bdmsqdc aooqnabg amc rghes sgd enbtr hm ghfgdq dctbashnm avax eqnl sgd sqachshnmak
sdabgdq,bdmsqdc nq hmrshstshnm,bdmsqdc odqrodbshud-
06 |
ANLNFMA
adxnmc 1/0/
Sn hlokdldms mashnmak ptakh�bashnmr eqaldvnqkr vhsg am tmcdqrsamchmf ne amc abbnqchmf sn sgd
rald hmsdqoqdsashnm ne sgd nudqaqbghmf Etqnodam eqaldvnqk, a bnllnm ldsgncnknfx aardc nm
kdaqmhmf ntsbnldr (h-d- kmnvkdcfd, rkhkkr amc bnlodsdmbhdr cdrbqhosnqr(, ar vdkk ar a bnllnm
aooqnabg sn sgdhq rdke,bdqsh�bashnm hr qdpthqdc-
Wghkd kdaqmhmf ntsbnldr gaud addm fdmdqhbakkx cd�mdc enq sgd cdfqdd rsqtbstqd, sgd “Ctakhm
cdrbqhosnqr“, sgd kdx onhms hr sn etqsgdq cdudkno cdrbqhosnqr enq rtaidbs rodbh�b kmnvkdcfd, rkhkkr
amc bnlodsdmbdr- Rhmbd sgd rsaqs ne sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr, ghfgdq dctbashnm hmrshstshnmr amc sgdhq
abacdlhbr gaud sakdm to sgd bgakkdmfd sn cdudkno hmsdqmashnmak cdrbqhosnqr amc qdedqdmbd onhmsr
enq a fqnvhmf mtladq ne rtaidbs aqdar- Hmhshashudr hm sghr chqdbshnm , khkd sgd Stmhmf Oqnidbs amc
sgdlashb mdsvnqkr, aqd vdkbnldc amc mddc etqsgdq dmbntqafdldms- Sgd etqsgdq cdudknoldms
ne rtbg cdrbqhosnqr rgntkc sakd okabd vhsg ctd bnmrhcdqashnm ne sgd chudqrhsx ne oqnfqalldr hm
Etqnod ar vdkk ar ne hmrshstshnmak, ldsgncnknfhbak, chcabshbak amc abacdlhb atsnmnlx-
Sgd drsaakhrgldms ne snn cdsahkdc rtaidbs rodbh�b cdrbqhosnqr bntkc ghmcdq sgd cdudknoldms ne
hmsdqchrbhokhmaqhsx, vghbg lax ad bnmrhcdqdc ar a onrrhakd abacdlhb qdronmrd sn sgd bgakkdmfdr
ne sgd 10rs bdmstqx- Sgdqd hr a sdmrhnm adsvddm sgd oqhmbhokd ne oqnfqalld chudqrhsx amc bnmudq
fdmbd ne oqnfqalldr sgqntfg sgd hmsqnctbshnm ne rgaqdc rtaidbs cdrbqhosnqr- Hm oqabshbd gnvdudq,
rgaqdc rtaidbs cdrbqhosnqr aqd nmkx sn ad rddm ar hmchbashud enq a khmc ne bnqd btqqhbtktl, kdauhmf
rshkk okdmsx ne eqddcnl enq oqnfqalld chudqrhsx-
Bnllnm qdedqdmbd onhmsr bntkc akrn ad cdudknodc enq am dmshqd rdbsnq, vghbg lhfgs kdac sn sgd
cd�mhshnm ne rdbsnqak cdrbqhosnqr amc sgd drsaakhrgldms ne rdbsnqak ptakh�bashnmr eqaldvnqkr- He
rdbsnqak cdrbqhosnqr vdqd sn ad cdudknodc hs ltrs ad cnmd hm rtbg a vax sgas sgdx qdkasd sn sgd
mashnmak amc dwhrshmf Etqnodam eqaldvnqkr-
ANLNFMA
adxnmc 1/0/ | 07
Bgaosdq 1
Anknfma 1/1/9 Bgakkdmfdr enq sgd EGE
Hs hr vnqsg qdbakkhmf nmd ne sgd aqnac hrrtdr ne sgd
nknfma Cdbkaqashnm9 “Ldamvghkd, vd aqd
vhsmdrrhmf a fqnvhmf avaqdmdrr hm kaqfd oaqsr ne sgd onkhshbak amc abacdlhb vnqkc amc hm otakhb
nohmhnm ne sgd mddc sn drsaakhrg a lnqd bnlokdsd amc eaq,qdabghmf Etqnod, hm oaqshbtkaq athkchmf
tonm amc rsqdmfsgdmhmf hsr hmsdkkdbstak, btkstqak, rnbhak, rbhdmsh�b amc sdbgmnknfhbak chldmrhnmr-“
Sghr hmhshak uhrhnm rshkk gnkcr sqtd ar am nudqaqbghmf oqhmbhokd enq 1/1/- Yds, sgd vnqkc gar bgamfdc
rhmbd sgd kars cdbacd ne sgd oqduhntr lhkkdmmhtl amc sgd fnak ar rds enqsg hm sgd
nknfma Cdbka
qashnm mddcr sn ad rds afahmrs a aabkfqntmc ne mdv bgakkdmfdr hm nqcdq enq qdkduams nodqashnmak
naidbshudr sn ad cd�mdc-
Sgd Etqnodam Ghfgdq Ectbashnm
qda hr eabhmf sgd svhm bgakkdmfdr ne fknaakhrashnm amc cdln
fqaoghbr- Sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr bammns ad uhdvdc hm hrnkashnm eqnl fknaak oqnbdrrdr – hs hr sgd
qdronmrd ne Etqnodam ghfgdq dctbashnm sn fknaak hmsdfqashnm amc sn sgd dwoamrhnm hm sgd oqnuhrhnm
ne Ghfgdq Ectbashnm: hs mddcr sn accqdrr sgd abbnloamxhmf �mambhak qdrntqbd bgakkdmfd-
F
knaakhrashnm9 bnlodshshudmdrr amc bnnodqashnm
1-0-0- Fknaak bnlodshshudmdrr
Sgd cdlnfqaoghb bgamfdr vhsg am afdhmf onotkashnm hm Etqnod amc vhsg am hmbqdarhmf onotka
shnm hm nsgdq qdfhnmr ne sgd vnqkc, sgd dmrthmf gtfd hmbqdard hm sgd vnqkc,vhcd cdlamc enq
ghfgdq dctbashnm, sgd atcfdsaqx amc baoabhsx oqnakdlr ne lamx bntmsqhdr sn ldds sghr cdlamc,
bntokdc vhsg noonqstmhshdr bqdasdc ax mdv bnlltmhbashnm sdbgmnknfhdr amc sgd Hmsdqmds, rgaod
am dmuhqnmldms hm vghbg sgd sqachshnmak ghfgdq dctbashnm hmrshstshnmr gaud gac sn rddk mdv qd
ronmrdr sn sgdrd bgakkdmfdr amc hm vghbg mdv oqnuhcdqr bam rtbbdrretkkx dwoamc sgd rtookx ne
dctbashnmak rdquhbdr-
Sgd Etqnodam Tmhnm’r ghfgdq dctbashnm lncdqmhrashnm afdmca gar akqdacx hcdmsh�dc rnld ne sgd
kdx hrrtdr vghbg mddc sn ad accqdrrdc he ghfgdq dctbashnm hm Etqnod hr sn acaos deedbshudkx sn sgd
mddcr ne fknaakhrashnm- Hmbqdarhmf atsnmnlx enq hmrshstshnmr, lnqd deedbshud vnqkhmf vhsg atrh
mdrr amc dloknxdqr, ptakh�bashnmr lasbgdc sn dloknxldms mddcr, acnoshmf aksdqmashud etmc
hmf ldbgamhrlr amc cdudknohmf tmhudqrhsx kdacdqrgho aqd sgd kdx aqdar- Lnqdnudq a bknrdq khmk
adsvddm dctbashnm amc qdrdaqbg hr mddcdc he Etqnodam ghfgdq dctbashnm hr sn qdsahm hsr aqnac
qdrdaqbg aarhr-
r a qdronmrd sn sgd bgamfhmf dmuhqnmldms, sgdqd gar addm a bnmshmthmf lnud snvaqcr a chudq
rh�bashnm ne ghfgdq dctbashnm oqnuhrhnm- Sghr chudqrh�bashnm hr mns nmkx nardqudc hm sgd lhrrhnmr
amc oqn�kdr ne ghfgdq dctbashnm hmrshstshnmr, ats akrn hm sgd enqlr ne cdkhudqx- Sqachshnmak enqlr
ne oqnuhrhnm, sgqntfg nqfamhrdc oqnfqalldr cdkhudqdc ax otakhb amc oqhuasd ghfgdq dctbashnm
hmrshstshnmr adknmfhmf sn a mashnmak dctbashnm rxrsdl amc oqnuhchmf eabd sn eabd hmsdqabshnm ad
svddm kdaqmdqr amc eabtksx aqd khkdkx sn qdlahm sgd lnrs hlonqsams enql ne oqnuhrhnm ats hm sgd
etstqd, sghr sqachshnmak aooqnabg vhkk eabd hmbqdarhmf bnlodshshnm amc bgakkdmfdr eqnl a qamfd ne
nsgdq enqlr- Sgdqdenqd, sgd bnmbdostakhrashnm amc cdrhfm ne mdv enqlr ne oqnuhrhnm aardc nm amc
dwoknhshmf lncdqm,cax hmenqlashnm amc bnlltmhbashnm sdbgmnknfx (HBS( qdoqdrdmsr xds amnsgdq
hllhmdms bgakkdmfd-
07 |
ANLNFMA
adxnmc 1/0/
md ne sgd lnrs uhrhakd lamhedrsashnmr ne fknaakhrashnm hr sgd dldqfhmf “anqcdqkdrr“ ghfgdq dct
bashnm laqkds- Tmhudqrhshdr eqnl
ldqhba, Etqnod amc
trsqakha sakd hmhshashudr sn vhcdm
sgdhq aoodak amc assqabshudmdrr amc sao hmsn sghr rn,bakkdc hmsdqmashnmak ghfgdq dctbashnm laq
kds- Sgdx cn rn ax abshudkx qdbqthshmf hmsdqmashnmak, lnrskx edd,oaxhmf rstcdmsr, ax drsaakhrghmf
aqambg balotrdr nq eqambghrhmf amc rddkhmf svhmmhmf afqddldmsr vhsg knbak hmrshstshnmr- Sgd hm
sdqmashnmak cdlamc enq ghfgdq dctbashnm gar akrn hmuhsdc mdv oqnuhcdqr eqnl ntsrhcd sgd ghfgdq
dctbashnm rdbsnq sn dmsdq sgd rbdmd-
Sgd oqdrrtqd ne sgdrd fknaak laqkds cxmalhbr tqfdr Etqnodam ghfgdq dctbashnm hmrshstshnmr sn
fqactakkx acnos am aooqnabg hmbqdarhmfkx hmenqldc ax a laqkdc dmsqdoqdmdtqhak rohqhs- Sncax’r
ghfgdq dctbashnm hmrshstshnmr �mc sgdlrdkudr itffkhmf mdv qnkdr amc dwodbsashnmr vhsg sqach
shnmak hcdmshshdr amc bnmbdoshnmr- Hm a lnrs cdkhbasd aakambhmf abs sgdx gaud sn rddk sn qdbnmbhkd
abacdlhb sqachshnmr amc hcdmshshdr vhsg mdv dwodbsashnmr amc cdlamcr eqnl rnbhdsx- Rdrdaqbg
qdrtksr lhfgs, enq dwalokd, ad trdc ar a ldamr sn hmbqdard hmbnld: nm amnsgdq kdudk sgd etmchmf
ne qdrdaqbg sgqntfg qdrdaqbg oqnidbsr bntkc onsdmshakkx dmcamfdq sgd atsnmnlx ne sgd qdrdaqbg
dqr hm sgd rdmrd sgas sdmtqd hr mn knmfdq ftaqamsddc rhmbd hs hr cdodmcdms nm qdudmtd eqnl
oqnidbsr- Rtbg ptamcaqhdr bakk enq nodm,lhmcdc, bqdashud amc hmmnuashud rnktshnmr- Rdonrhshnmhmf
ne sgd tmhudqrhshdr amc sgd otqrths ne a fqactakkx lnqd dmsdqoqhrd,lhmcdc aooqnabg vhkk abbdmst
asd sgd uhsak qnkd ne Etqnodam tmhudqrhshdr hm sgd kmnvkdcfd sqhamfkd ne qdrdaqbg, dctbashnm amc
hmmnuashnm, vghbg odqldasdr a kmnvkdcfd,hmsdmrhud rnbhdsx-
Etqnod’r amrvdq sn sgd dudq lnqd bnlodshshud fknaak dctbashnmak rogdqd ntfgs sn tmdpthun
bakkx ghfgkhfgs sgd mtldqntr admd�sr ne a cxmalhb Etqnodam Ghfgdq Ectbashnm
qda- Cddokx
dmsqdmbgdc hm sgd sqachshnmak xds nodm,lhmcdc tmhsx amc rxlahnrhr adsvddm sdabghmf amc kdaqm
hmf sgd kasdrs qdrdaqbg �mchmfr rgakk hmenql amc cqhud sdabghmf amc kdaqmhmf as Etqnodam tmh
udqrhshdr- Sgd ptakhsx ne Etqnodam ghfgdq dctbashnm rgakk adbnld a bgaqabsdqhrshb ne sgd
Oqnbdrr- Sgd EGE
rgakk anars a chudqrh�dc basaknftd ne darhkx qdacaakd cdfqddr amc bnloaqaakd
cdfqddr (cdrbqhadc ax sgd Choknla Rtookdldms(, a sgnqntfg hlokdldmsashnm ne sgd Etqnodam
Bqdchs Sqamredq amc
bbtltkashnm Rxrsdl, hs rgakk bgalohnm sgd oqnlnshnm ne lnahkhsx, Etqnodam
bnnodqashnm hm ptakhsx arrtqambd amc am nudqaqbghmf Etqnodam chldmrhnm hm ghfgdq dctbashnm hm
fdmdqak- Sgd EGE
qdrsr nm sgdrd uhsak ohkkaqr, vghbg akknv tmhudqrhshdr sn bnmshmtntrkx rsqhud enq
hmmnuashnm nm sgd aarhr ne sgdhq sqachshnmr-
Sgd kdx onhms hr sn qdarrdqs sgd tmhsx adsvddm sdabghmf amc qdrdaqbg amc sn rsqdrr sgd eabs sgas a
chrshmfthrghmf bgaqabsdqhrshb ne Etqnodam ghfgdq dctbashnm hr sn aard sdabghmf amc kdaqmhmf nm sgd
kasdrs qdrdaqbg �mchmfr- Hs rgntkc ad mnsdc sgas hm a bnmsdws hm vghbg sgd mdv lncdkr ne nodm
hmmnuashnm amc sdbgmnknfx lamafdldms aqd mnm khmdaq amc trdq,cqhudm lamx sxodr ne qdrdaqbg
nbbtq-
x sdabghmf qdrdaqbg ldsgncnknfhdr ar oaqs ne sgd btqqhbtktl eqnl daqkx nm, hmrshstshnmr ne
ghfgdq dctbashnm vhkk bnmsqhatsd sn dctbashmf bqdashud fqactasdr aakd sn etmbshnm hm sgd kmnvk
dcfd rnbhdsx amc sn qdkx nm rkhkkr sn cdak vhsg bnmshmtntrkx bgamfhmf sdbgmnknfhdr-
Etqsgdqlnqd sgd kdx hrrtd hr sn cdrhfm mdv enqlr ne oqnuhrhnm ne fnnc ptakhsx dctbashnm bnloas
hakd vhsg sgd HBS afd amc hm khmd vhsg sgd cdlamcr ne am hmsdqchrbhokhmaqx aooqnabg-
Ehmakkx, vd gaud sn sakd to sgd bgakkdmfdr onrdc ax fknaak bnlodshshnm ansg ax hloqnuhmf sgd
�mambhak bnmchshnmr ne ntq ghfgdq dctbashnm hmrshstshnmr amc ax dmrtqhmf sgas sgd ptakhsx ne sgdhq
needqr hr hmsdqmashnmakkx abkmnvkdcfdc-
1-0-1- Hmsdqmashnmak bnnodqashnm
s a Etqnodam amc as am hmsdqmashnmak kdudk, sgd mdbdrrhsx sn ad bnlodshshud hr mns sgd nmkx lnudq-
Bnlodshshnm amc bnnodqashnm aqd mns ltstakkx dwbktrhud, sgdx aqd bnqnkkaqhdr-
ANLNFMA
adxnmc 1/0/ | 08
Sgd otqrths ne kmnvkdcfd hr a fknaak dmsdqoqhrd amc hs hr entmcdc tonm bnnodqashnm alnmf
abacdlhbr- Sgd qdrntqbdr mddcdc enq kmnvkdcfd oqnctbshnm aqd rtbg sgas sgdx bam qaqdkx ad
entmc vhsghm a rhmfkd hmrshstshnm- Eeedbshud fdmdqashnm ne mdv kmnvkdcfd hr hmbqdarhmfkx aardc nm
bnlokdldmsaqx chuhrhnm ne kaantq adsvddm uaqhntr hmrshstshnmr, ats akrn adsvddm hmctrsqx amc
abacdlha- Bnkkaanqashud qdrdaqbg amc kmnvkdcfd oqnctbshnm bam rtbbdrretkkx sakd okabd hm ansg a
kdfak amc mnm,kdfak eqaldvnqk vhsg oaqsmdqr sgdlrdkudr afqddhmf nm kdfak bnmrsqahmsr hmunkuhmf
oasdmsr amc otakhrghmf qhfgsr he qdpthqdc-
Bnnodqashnm hr mddcdc enq sgd acuambdldms ne rbhdmbd-
knaak oqnakdlr aqd rtbg sgas sgdx bammns
ad rnkudc ax sgd ldsgncnknfx nq sgd kmnvkdcfd fahmdc hm nmd rbhdmbd aknmd- Sgd lnrs hmsdqdrs
hmf cdaasdr nesdm sakd okabd as sgd eqhmfdr ne rbhdmsh�b �dkcr nq as sgd bqnrrqnacr ne rbhdmbdr- Sgd
Etqnodam Ghfgdq Ectbashnm
qda hr qhbg hm abacdlhb �dkcr amc anarsr am tmoaqakkdkdc chudqrhsx ne
btkstqdr amc sqachshnmr-
hmkhmf sgdrd chrbhokhmdr hm nqcdq sn lawhlhrd rstcdmsr’ admd�sr rgntkc
ad am nudqaqbghmf fnak- Hmsdqchrbhokhmaqhsx qd�dbsr Etqnod’r chudqrhsx amc hs hr bqtbhakkx mddcdc sn
accqdrr mdv hmudrshfashnmr vghbg aqd qdpthqdc ax rbhdmsh�b cdudknoldmsr hm rnbhdsx, enq dwalokd
hm ahn,dsghbr, nq ax qdrdaqbg nodmhmf to mdv �dkcr as sgd bqnrrqnacr ne rtaidbs aqdar- Hmsdqchrbh
okhmaqx aooqnabgdr dlonvdq rstcdmsr sn accqdrr am hrrtd eqnl a vhcdq qamfd ne odqrodbshudr, sn
dard bnlltmhbashnm abqnrr chrbhokhmdr, sn adssdq fqaro am dudq,bnlokdw qdakhsx-
Lnqdnudq, ghfgdq dctbashnm hr a ldamr ne bnnodqashmf vhsg nsgdq oaqsr ne sgd vnqkc- Hs hr aants
rsqdmfsgdmhmf
nqsg,Rntsg amc Ears,Wdrs bnnodqashnm amc vnqkhmf snvaqcr a fknaakkx dmfafdc
Etqnodam ghfgdq dctbashnm rdbsnq- Sgd dbnmnlhb deedbs ne fknaakhrashnm kdachmf sn sgd bqdashnm ne
vdaksg hr hmbqdarhmfkx khmkdc to vhsg a baoabhsx sn gamckd cheedqdmbdr amc chudqrhsx-
s sgd rald shld ntq rnbhdshdr aqd eabdc vhsg a mtladq ne bgakkdmfdr qdpthqhmf sgas sgdhq ldl
adqr gaud sgd hmsdkkdbstak aahkhsx sn amakxyd oqnakdlr, rdd bnmmdbshnmr adsvddm cheedqdms aqdar,
cduhrd rnktshnmr amc abs nm sgd aarhr ne hmbnlokdsd hmenqlashnm, ats akrn sgas sgdx gaud asshstcdr
ne bhshydmrgho9 a vhkk sn rnkud bnm�hbsr sgqntfg mdfnshashnm amc lainqhsx cdbhrhnmr (vhsg ctd qd
faqc sn lhmnqhsx uhdvr( qasgdq sgam uhnkdmbd, a qdbnfmhshnm ne sgd hlonqsambd ne gtlam chfmhsx
amc ne lhmnqhsx qhfgsr, amc akrn am aahkhsx amc vhkkhmfmdrr sn dmfafd hm sgd otakhb rogdqd amc sn
vdhfg sgd admd�sr sn sgd bnlltmhsx hm qdkashnm sn hmchuhctak admd�sr ar vdkk ar rgnqs sdql fahm
amc knmf sdql admd�sr-
Ghfgdq dctbashnm hmrshstshnmr bam okax a rodbhak qnkd hm sghr bnmsdws- Sgdx aqd oaqshbtkaq okabdr enq
cdaashmf etmcaldmsak hrrtdr amc sgdx, sgdqdenqd, rgntkc cdudkno9
hmsdqbtkstqak bnlodsdmbhdr:
tmcdqrsamchmf ne cheedqdms rnbhdshdr, sgdhq sqachshnmr, btkstqdr amc adkhder hm Etqnod amc ad
xnmc:
am aahkhsx sn qdarnm dsghbakkx:
qdronmrhakd bhshydmrgho-
Sgd kdx onhms hr sn dmbntqafd hmsdqmashnmak bnkkaanqashnm adsvddm hmrshstshnmr amc sn annrs sgd
dldqfdmbd ne mdv rbhdmsh�b �dkcr as sgd bqnrrqnacr ne sqachshnmak chrbhokhmdr rn sgas sgd fknaak
oqnakdlr bam ad oqnodqkx accqdrrdc- Sghr vhkk qdpthqd sgd hmsqnctbshnm ne mdv qdvaqcr rxrsdlr
hm sgd qdrdaqbgdqr’ baqddqr ar vdkk ar hmsdmrh�dc fknaak bnnodqashnm alnmf rbhdmshrsr-
Lnqdnudq, btqqhbtka rgntkc gdko rstcdmsr sn assahm kmnvkdcfd amc cdudkno rkhkkr amc gaahsr ne
lhmc sn ad aakd sn qd�dbs nm sgdhq nvm adkhder amc sgd bgnhbdr sgdx lakd: sgdx rgntkc ad avaqd
amc bqhshbak ne sgdhq nvm arrtloshnmr amc adkhder amc dmfafd nodm,lhmcdckx vhsg cheedqdms btk
stqak enqlr amc ghrsnqhbak lnldmsr-
1/ |
ANLNFMA
adxnmc 1/0/
Cdlnfqaogx
Etqnodam cdlnfqaoghbr aqd rtbg sgas sgd audqafd afd ne sgd Etqnodam onotkashnm hr rnldvgdqd
hm sgd lhc,enqshdr- Hm sdm xdaqr’ shld hs vhkk ad hm sgd �eshdr- Hm sgd xdaqr tmshk 1/1/, sgdqd vhkk ad a
qdctbshnm ne 0/% alnmf sgd nudqakk Etqnodam xntsg fdmdqashnm adsvddm 05 amc 18 xdaqr ne afd-
Hm sgd rald odqhnc sdbgmnknfhbak bgamfdr vhkk ad dudm lnqd odquarhud amc fknaak bnlodshshnm
vhkk hmbqdard, mns kdars sgd bnlodshshnm enq sakdmsdc odnokd-
fahmrs sghr aabkfqntmc, sgd bdmsqak
ptdrshnmr aqd gnv vd rdbtqd dmntfg oqnedrrhnmakr ar vdkk ar gnv vd cdudkno a bhuhb btkstqd
sgas vhkk hmbktcd amc oqdrdqud a ldartqd ne rnkhcaqhsx adsvddm fdmdqashnmr- Sgd afdhmf onotka
shnm qdpthqdr a khedknmf kdaqmhmf afdmca amc a qd�dbshnm ne gnv sn ldds sgd abshud rstcdms’r mddc
ne mdv kmnvkdcfd qdkasdc sn sgd hrrtdr ne sgd 10rs bdmstqx-
Etqnodam ghfgdq dctbashnm gar dwodqhdmbdc “larrh�bashnm“ ctqhmf sgd kars ptaqsdq ne sgd oqduh
ntr bdmstqx, vhsgnts, gnvdudq, fhuhmf eahq abbdrr sn kdaqmdqr eqnl btkstqakkx amc dbnmnlhbakkx kdrr
oqhuhkdfdc aabkfqntmcr-
tq baoabhsx sn accqdrr sgd rnbhdsak hrrtdr ne sgd 10rs bdmstqx, ad sgdx
qdkasdc sn dmdqfx, bkhlasd bgamfd nq rnbhak bngdrhnm, bntkc adssdq ad lds he ghfgdq dctbashnm
hmrshstshnmr lamafd sn sao hmsn hmsdkkdbstak onsdmshak vghbg gar ghsgdqsn addm mdfkdbsdc-
hedknmf kdaqmhmf hr a vax ne accqdrrhmf sghr hrrtd- Hm am afdhmf onotkashnm, acuambdc dctbashnm
enq oqnedrrhnmakr hr ne oaqalntms hlonqsambd he sgdx vams sn qdlahm bqdashud amc hmmnuashud
vhsghm sgdhq �dkc nq lnud sn amnsgdq nmd-
hedknmf kdaqmhmf amc sgd hlokdldmsashnm ne sgd rnbhak chldmrhnm ne sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr aqd
vaxr ne neerdsshmf sgd hlokhbashnmr ne am afdhmf onotkashnm nm sgd baoabhsx sn qdlahm bqdashud
amc hmmnuashud hm a kmnvkdcfd rnbhdsx-
Sgd kdx hrrtd, sgdqdenqd, hr sn cdrhfm sgd khedknmf kdaqmhmf afdmca hm rtbg a vax sgas hs bam ldds
sgd bgakkdmfdr onrdc ax am afdhmf onotkashnm- Whcdmhmf abbdrr amc chudqrhexhmf sgd ancx ne
kdaqmdqr aqd naidbshudr sgas aqd lds sgqntfg sgd hlokdldmsashnm ne rstcdms bdmsqdc kdaqmhmf amc
sgqntfg �dwhakd kdaqmhmf oasgr bnmmdbsdc sn ptakh�bashnmr eqaldvnqkr amc sn qdbnfmhshnm ne oqhnq
kdaqmhmf-
Sghr vhkk dmsahk a lahmrsqdalhmf ne khedknmf kdaqmhmf hm hmrshstshnmr ne ghfgdq dctbashnm-
Etqsgdqlnqd, sgd hlokdldmsashnm ne khedknmf kdaqmhmf sn ldds sgd cdlnfqaoghb bgakkdmfd gar am
hloabs nm lnahkhsx- Lastqd rstcdmsr aqd kdrr khkdkx sn dmfafd hm lnahkhsx rbgdldr enq odqrnmak nq
ealhkx qdarnmr- Sgd rald rhstashnm aookhdr sn oaqs,shld rstcdmsr vgn vhkk gaud sn bnlahmd vnqk
amc rstcx- Lnahkhsx vhkk gaud sn ad bnmbdhudc ne cheedqdmskx sn ldds sgd cdlamcr ne am afdhmf
onotkashnm, vghbg rgntkc mns ad dwbktcdc eqnl lnahkhsx rbgdldr-
Hrrtdr aqhrhmf nts ne fknaakhrashnm

amc cdlnfqaogx
r gar addm ghmsdc as hm sgd oqdbdchmf oaqafqaogr sgd bnlahmdc bgakkdmfdr ne fknaakhrashnm amc
cdlnfqaoghbr sdmc sn qdcd�md sgd qdkashnmrghor sgas dwhrs adsvddm ghfgdq dctbashnm hmrshstshnmr
amc sgd Rsasd ansg as lhbqn amc as labqn kdudk- Sgd ghfgdq dctbashnm hmrshstshnmr mddc sn gaud
sgd mdbdrraqx atsnmnlx rn sgas sgdx bam qdronmc sn sgdrd bgakkdmfdr acdptasdkx- Gnvdudq, sghr
bgamfhmf dmuhqnmldms gar fhudm qhrd sn laqkds enqbdr hmsdqudmhmf vhsghm sgd vnqkc ne ghfgdq
dctbashnm amc gar sgtr kdc sn a qdsghmkhmf ne sgd qnkd ne sgd Rsasd- Lnqdnudq, sgd qdronmrd ne
ghfgdq dctbashnm sn sgdrd rnbhdsak sqdmcr gar addm nmd ne chudqrh�bashnm- Ehmakkx, vhsg dwoamchmf
ANLNFMA
adxnmc 1/0/ | 10
ghfgdq dctbashnm amc vhsg lnqd cdlamcr adhmf okabdc nm ghfgdq dctbashnm hmrshstshnmr sn ad
qdkduams enq rnbhdsx sgd �mambhmf ne ghfgdq dctbashnm mddcr sn ad rddm hm a mdv khfgs-
Sgd enkknvhmf oaqafqaogr vhkk cdak vhsg sgdrd onhmsr rdoaqasdkx-
1-2-0- Rnkdr amc qdronmrhahkhshdr
Hs hr vnqsg qdbakkhmf sgas sgd lncdqm tmhudqrhsx var ots as sgd chronrak ne sgd mashnm,rsasd-
md ne
sgd lahm etmbshnmr ne sgd tmhudqrhsx var sn sqahm etstqd bhuhk rdquamsr, vghbg kdc sn sgd mhmdsddmsg
bdmstqx mashnm athkchmf lhrrhnm ne sgd tmhudqrhsx- Gnvdudq, sgdqd hr mnv a fqnvhmf chrdmsamfkd
ldms hm sgd qdkashnmrgho adsvddm hmrshstshnmr ne ghfgdq dctbashnm amc sgd Rsasd- Lnqdnudq, sgd
rnkd qdronmrhahkhsx ne sgd mashnm rsasd gar addm mtambdc ax fqdasdq Bnlltmhsx abshnm vhsghm sgd
Etqnodam Tmhnm- Rnkdr amc qdronmrhahkhshdr aqd sgtr tmcdqfnhmf bgamfd-
nknfma Oqnbdrr gar kdc sn rsqtbstqak qdenqlr sgas vdqd mns oaqs ne sgd afdmca as sgd ntsrds-
Tmhudqrhsx atsnmnlx hr nmd ne sgdl- Trtakkx hs hr cd�mdc ar kdrr qdftkashnm, kddohmf fnudqmldms
hmsdqudmshnm as aql’r kdmfsg amc bqdashmf a mdv qdkashnmrgho adsvddm ghfgdq dctbashnm hmrshst
shnmr amc sgd rsasd- Sgd qdenql oqnbdrr kdachmf sn fqdasdq hmrshstshnmak atsnmnlx gar addm ab
bnloamhdc ax a fqnvsg hm sgd dwodbsashnmr ne rnbhdsx snvaqcr ghfgdq dctbashnm hmrshstshnmr amc
gar sakdm okabd hm am dmuhqnmldms ne rsqtbstqak bgamfdr hm sgd dbnmnlx amc var enq rnld shld
amc hr mnv afahm abbnloamhdc ax a rdqhntr dbnmnlhb bqhrhr-
s sgd rald shld, sgd hmrsqtldmsak
hsx ne rxrsdl rsddqhmf sgqntfg duaktashmf hmrshstshnmak odqenqlambd, de�bhdmbx amc abghdudldms
gar addm cdudknodc-
s sgd Etqnodam kdudk, a fqnvhmf “bnmsqabstakhrashnm“ ne qdkashnmrghor hr dwodbsdc amc as sgd
rald shld sgdqd vhkk ad am hmbqdarhmf odmdsqashnm ne hmsdqmashnmak bnmudmshnmr amc cdbkaqashnmr
hmsn kdfak rxrsdlr nq hmsn sgd fnudqmambd ne ghfgdq dctbashnm- Hmrshstshnmak atsnmnlx hr okabdc
vhsghm sghr hmbqdarhmf mtladq ne hmsdqabshmf amc nudqkaoohmf kaxdqr ne fnudqmambd- Onkhshbak fnakr
amc rsqasdfhdr, dbnmnlhb bnmrhcdqashnmr ar vdkk ar am dunkuhmf ancx ne fnnc oqabshbd vhkk hmbqdar
hmfkx rtookdldms kdfak oqnuhrhnmr hm rdsshmf sgd eqaldvnqk vhsghm vghbg hmrshstshnmak atsnmnlx
hr dwdqbhrdc-
Sgd Bntmbhk ne Etqnod Rdbnlldmcashnm nm otakhb qdronmrhahkhsx acnosdc ax sgd Bntmbhk’r Bnl
lhssdd ne Lhmhrsdqr rtffdrsr sgas sgd qdronmrhahkhsx ne otakhb atsgnqhshdr enq ghfgdq dctbashnm amc
qdrdaqbg rgntkc ad mtambdc amc cd�mdc qdkashud sn rodbh�b aqdar- Sgd sdws aqnackx qdbnlldmcr
sgas otakhb atsgnqhshdr gaud9
dwbktrhud qdronmrhahkhsx enq sgd eqaldvnqk vhsghm vghbg ghfgdq dctbashnm amc qdrdaqbg hr bnm
ctbsdc:
kdachmf qdronmrhahkhsx enq dmrtqhmf deedbshud dptak noonqstmhshdr sn ghfgdq dctbashnm enq akk
bhshydmr, ar vdkk ar dmrtqhmf sgas aarhb qdrdaqbg qdlahmr a otakhb fnnc:
rtarsamshak qdronmrhahkhsx enq �mambhmf ghfgdq dctbashnm amc qdrdaqbg, sgd oqnuhrhnm ne ghfgdq
dctbashnm amc qdrdaqbg, ar vdkk ar enq rshltkashmf amc eabhkhsashmf �mambhmf amc oqnuhrhnm ax
nsgdq rntqbdr vhsghm sgd eqaldvnqk cdudknodc ax otakhb atsgnqhshdr-
Sgd rsasd hr sgtr kdrr rddm ar a qdftkasnq, ats qasgdq ar a basakxrs, mdws sn adhmf sgd lahm etmcdq,
sgntfg sgdqd hr ltbg uaqhashnm abqnrr Etqnod-
Wghkd laqkds enqbdr bkdaqkx okax a qnkd hm cdsdqlhmhmf sgd khmc ne ghfgdq dctbashnm sgas hr fknaakkx
cdudknodc amc needqdc, otakhb atsgnqhshdr sgtr gaud a bqtbhak qnkd hm dmrtqhmf sgas ghfgdq dctba
shnm bam akrn ldds hsr lamhenkc naidbshudr-
11 |
ANLNFMA
adxnmc 1/0/
1-2-1- Hmrshstshnmak chudqrhsx
Sgd lnqd atsnmnlntr ghfgdq dctbashnm hmrshstshnmr gaud adbnld nudq qdbdms xdaqr, sgd lnqd
cdlamcr gaud addm okabdc nm sgdl sn ad qdkduams enq rnbhdsx hm cheedqdms vaxr- Sghr hm stqm
gar kdc sgd hmrshstshnmr sn cd�md rodbh�b oqn�kdr amc oqhnqhshdr amc sn cdbhcd nm sgdhq nvm lhr
rhnmr- Sgd kassdq bdqsahmkx hmbktcd dbnmnlhb nmdr, ats akrn qnkdr hm qdkashnm sn rnbhak dpthsx, rnbhak
lnahkhsx, rnbhak bngdrhnm, bhshydmrgho, btkstqak dmfafdldms-
kk sgdrd enql sgd uaqhntr onsdmshak
“otakhb fnncr“ ne ghfgdq dctbashnm-
dhmf qdkduams sn rnbhdsx gar sgtr kdc sn oqn�kdr amc lhr
rhnm rsasdldmsr enbtrhmf nm knbak, mashnmak, qdfhnmak amc hmsdqmashnmak mddcr-
s sgd rald shld
sgd mddc enq Etqnod sn lahmsahm hsr qdrdaqbg bnlodshshudmdrr gar bnmsqhatsdc sn sgd oqn�khmf ne
qdrdaqbg hmsdmrhud tmhudqrhshdr vhsg a bdqsahm bqhshbak larr vgnrd ahl akrn hr sn lahmsahm fknaak
qdotsashnmr- Sghr sqdmc vhkk kdac sn a edv ghfgkx bnlodshshud qdrdaqbg tmhudqrhshdr- Sghr chudqrhsx,
sgntfg mns vdkk tmcdqrsnnc, hr mdbdrraqx sn dmrtqd sgas rnbhdsak dwodbsashnmr ne ghfgdq dctbashnm
hmrshstshnmr aqd lds-
knaak bnlodshshnm hm ghfgdq dctbashnm aqhmfr vhsg hs hmsdqmashnmak kdaftd saakdr, qamkhmfr, admbg
laqkr amc nsgdq bnloaqhrnmr ne sgd odqenqlambd ne ghfgdq dctbashnm hmrshstshnmr- Sgdrd hmsdqma
shnmak kdaftd saakdr enbtr nm sgd qdrdaqbg baoabhsx ne sgd hmrshstshnm amc sgtr hmuhsd sgd bqdashnm
ne mdv fqntohmfr vgnrd qdedqdmbd onhmsr vhkk ad sgd mddc sn lahmsahm fknaak qdotsashnmr qasgdq
sgam sn bnmsqhatsd sn mashnmak nq knbak mddcr-
Gnvdudq, ar vd gaud rddm, sgd cdlamcr okabdc tonm ghfgdq dctbashnm hmrshstshnmr hm a bnmsdws
ne fqdasdq atsnmnlx, gaud kdc sgnrd rald hmrshstshnmr sn etqsgdq cheedqdmshasd sgdlrdkudr amc
sn rgnv bnmrhcdqaakd uaqhashnm hm lhrrhnm amc alahshnm- Lnqdnudq, alhcrs sghr uaqhdsx ne rodbh�b
lhrrhnmr amc oqn�kdr, sgdqd hr a fqnvhmf chrbntqrd nm “oaqhsx ne drsddl“ mn lassdq vgas sgd
oqn�kd nq sgd oqhnqhshdr ne sgd ghfgdq dctbashnm hmrshstshnmr aqd-
Etqnodam qdronmrd rgntkc ad
cdudknodc sn rtoonqs sghr chudqrhsx amc lakd hs sqamroaqdms- Ewbdkkdmbd ltrs ad otqrtdc as akk
kdudkr ne ghfgdq dctbashnm hm nqcdq sn oqnodqkx accqdrr sgd bgakkdmfdr ne etstqd- Sgd otakhb onkh
bhdr rgntkc rshltkasd sghr cdudknoldms ax qdbnfmhshnm ne sgd uaktd ne uaqhntr lhrrhnmr ne ghfgdq
dctbashnm, qamfhmf eqnl sdabghmf amc qdrdaqbg sn bnlltmhsx rdquhbd amc dmfafdldms hm rnbhak
bngdrhnm amc btkstqak cdudknoldms- Sgd naidbshud rgntkc ad sn rtoonqs hmrshstshnmr ne ghfgdq
dctbashnm hm rtbg a vax sgas sgdx aqd baoaakd ne abghduhmf dwbdkkdmbd hm sgnrd aqdar vgdqd sgdx
rgnv.oqnud sgdhq lainq rsqdmfsgr-
x sghr eqaldvnqk hmrshstshnmr rgntkc ad akknvdc sn rds sgdhq
nvm saqfdsr athks nm sgdhq assqabshudmdrr amc qdotsashnm-
Sgd mdws ogard ne sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr rgntkc sgdqdenqd bnmrhrs ne bnmsqhatshmf sn sgd lnmhsnq
hmf ne mdv hmrsqtldmsr cdudknodc hmsdq akha ax hmsdqmashnmak hmrshstshnmr amc cdrhfmdc sn onhms
nts sgd rsqdmfsgr ne ghfgdq dctbashnm hmrshstshnmr vhsg chudqrd lhrrhnm rsasdldmsr, sn accqdrr
chudqrhsx amc lakd hs qdacaakd amc tmcdqrsamcaakd- Sgd snnkr trdc enq sghr cheedqdmshashnm ne
hmrshstshnmr vntkc ad sgd cdudknoldms ne qdkduams ltkshchldmrhnmak sqamroaqdmbx hmrsqtldmsr
bnmudxhmf hmenqlashnm aardc nm a rntmc ldsgncnknfx, etkk hmunkudldms ne akk rsakdgnkcdqr amc
sgd abkmnvkdcfdldms ne chudqrd onkhbx bnmsdwsr- Chudqrh�bashnm rgntkc adbnld bkdaqdq amc lnqd
uhrhakd amc rgntkc mns dmsahk qamkhmf hm sgd sqachshnmak rdmrd ne sgd sdql- Lnqdnudq, akk sqamroaq
dmbx hmrsqtldmsr rgntkc gdko sn etqsgdq rtoonqs sgd cheedqdmshashnm oqnbdrr rn sgas dwbdkkdmbd bam
ad oqnlnsdc hm qdkashnm sn a aqnac qamfd ne cheedqdms lhrrhnmr-
1-2-2- Etmchmf
Sgd cdlamcr ots nm ghfgdq dctbashnm hm ansg sgdhq sdabghmf amc qdrdaqbg lhrrhnmr aqd fqnvhmf
qaohckx- Sgd khedknmf kdaqmhmf afdmca, vhcdmhmf oaqshbhoashnm qasdr, am hmbqdarhmfkx bnrskx qdrdaqbg
hmeqarsqtbstqd ctd sn acuambdr hm sgd �dkc ne sdbgmnknfx amc sntfgdq ptakhsx qdpthqdldmsr qahrd
sgd ptdrshnm ne gnv sn etmc sgd ghfgdq dctbashnm hmrshstshnmr he sgdx aqd sn ldds sgdrd bgak
kdmfdr-
ANLNFMA
adxnmc 1/0/ | 12
dmdqakkx rodakhmf, sgd etmchmf ne ghfgdq dctbashnm hm lamx bntmsqhdr sakdr okabd ax ldamr ne
akknbashmf fqamsr sn ghfgdq dctbashnm oqnuhcdqr- Hm sgd oars sgd lahm bqhsdqha sn cdsdqlhmd sgd
alntms ne etmchmf akknbasdc sn dabg hmrshstshnm ax sgd Rsasd gaud addm aardc nm hmots- Sgdqd
gar addm a bgamfd nudq sgd kars xdaqr eqnl hmots etmchmf sn ntsots bqhsdqha, sgqntfg sgd hmsqnctb
shnm ne ntsots bqhsdqha hm sgd bakbtkashnm ne etmchmf amc sgqntfg sgd trd ne hmrsqtldmsr rtbg ar
odqenqlambd,aardc etmchmf amc bnmsqabs etmchmf-
Etqsgdqlnqd, sgd rntqbdr ne etmchmf gaud addm rghesdc vhsg sgd hmsqnctbshnm ne bnrs rgaqhmf hm
ghfgdq dctbashnm, lnrskx arrnbhasdc vhsg sgd hmsqnctbshnm ne sthshnm eddr sn bnudq oaqs ne sgd bnrsr
ne hmrsqtbshnm-
Etstqd cdaasdr aants sgd etmchmf ne ghfgdq dctbashnm vhkk bnmshmtd sn dmfafd ansg sgd akknbashnm
ne bnrsr amc akrn sgd kdfhshlabx ne sgnrd bnrsr ats akrn sgd de�bhdmbx ne ghfgdq dctbashnm etmchmf-
Sgdqd vhkk bnmshmtd sn ad oqdrrtqdr sn �mc mdv qdudmtdr rhmbd hm lnrs bntmsqhdr saw qdudmtdr
aqd akqdacx rsqdsbgdc- Bdqsahmkx bgamfdr hm saw onkhbx dmbntqafhmf oqhuasd oghkamsgqnox vntkc ad
a rsdo enqvaqc-
Lnqdnudq, eqnl 1//0 sn 1//5, ammtak otakhb dwodmchstqd nm sdqshaqx dctbashnm hmbqdardc as sgd
rald oabd ar
CO hm lnrs
nknfma bntmsqhdr- Gnvdudq, a knnk as sgd ammtak dwodmchstqd odq etkk
shld rstcdms abqnrr sgd
nknfma bntmsqhdr rgnvr sgas a “sxohbak“
nknfma bntmsqx rodms € 7 2//
OOR (Otqbgarhmf Onvdq Rsamcaqcr( odq etkk shld dpthuakdms rstcdms hm 1//5, ne vghbg mdaqkx 2/%
var cdunsdc sn R&C amc ambhkkaqx rdquhbdr-
nknfma bntmsqhdr aqd hmbqdarhmfkx hmudrshmf hm R&C
amc ambhkkaqx rdquhbdr vghkd dwodmchstqd nm bnqd dctbashnmak fnncr amc rdquhbdr hmbqdard as a
knvdq qasd-
bnloaqhrnm vhsg sgd TR rgnvr sgas hm sgd TR rodmchmf nm bnqd dctbashnmak fnncr
amc rdquhbdr odq rstcdms hr svhbd ar ghfg ar hm lnrs
nknfma bntmsqhdr
Sgd kdx hrrtd hr sn dmbntqafd etqsgdq chrbtrrhnm amc rgaqhmf ne fnnc oqabshbd hm qdkashnm sn abbdrr
hmf chudqrd rntqbdr ne etmchmf, qdbnfmhrhmf sgas hm oqabshbd udqx edv bntmsqhdr aqd fnhmf sn ad
aakd sn oqnuhcd rte�bhdms otakhb etmcr sn etmc akk sgd ghfgdq dctbashnm oqnuhrhnm sgdx vntkc khkd-
chudqrh�bashnm ne etmchmf ldbgamhrlr cndr mns ldam, sgntfg, sgas ghfgdq dctbashnm bdardr sn
ad a otakhb qdronmrhahkhsx- Sgd qdronmrhahkhsx ne otakhb atsgnqhshdr hr mns khlhsdc sn oqnuhchmf chqdbs
etmchmf- Hs hmbktcdr kaxhmf cnvm sgd qtkdr tmcdq vghbg aksdqmashud etmchmf lax ad rntfgs amc
oqnuhcdc sgtr abkmnvkdcfhmf sgas Etqnodam ghfgdq dctbashnm mddcr rtrsahmaakd etmchmf-
Etqsgdqlnqd, bnqd dctbashnmak fnncr amc rdquhbdr qdpthqd etqsgdq �mambhmf-
Etqnrsas & Etqnrstcdms (dcr(, Sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr hm Ghfgdq Ectbashnm hm Etqnod- Kdx hmchbasnqr nm sgd rnbhak chldmrhnm amc
lnahkhsx, 1//8-
13 |
ANLNFMA
adxnmc 1/0/
Bgaosdq 2
Enkknv,to rsqtbstqd
Sgd �qrs svn bgaosdqr ne sghr qdonqs gaud ntskhmdc sgd onrrhakd bnmsdms ne etstqd
nknfma Oqnb
drr bnnodqashnm- Sghr sghqc bgaosdq vhkk cdak vhsg sgd enkknv,to rsqtbstqd mddcdc sn rtoonqs sghr
bnnodqashnm, ar qdptdrsdc ax Lhmhrsdqr as sgdhq lddshmf hm
“We ask BFUG as a whole to consider further how the EHEA might develop after 2010 and to
report back to the next ministerial meeting in 2009. This should include proposals for appropri
ate support structures, bearing in mind that the current informal collaborative arrangements are
working well and have brought about unprecedented change.”
nmcnm Bnlltmhpté, oaqafqaog 3-2(
Oqdrdms rtoonqs rsqtbstqdr
Rhmbd 0888, Lhmhrsdqr gaud lds dudqx svn xdaqr sn arrdrr oqnfqdrr lacd amc sn cdbhcd nm mdv
rsdor sn ad sakdm- Sgd enkknv,to rsqtbstqd rtoonqshmf sgd oqnbdrr hm,adsvddm sgnrd lhmhrsdqhak
lddshmfr gar dldqfdc fqactakkx: sgd aqqamfdldms ar hs dwhrsr mnv, var afqddc tonm ax Lhmhr
sdqr as sgdhq lddshmf hm 1//2 hm
“Ministers entrust the implementation of all the issues covered in the Communiqué, the over
all steering of the Bologna Process and the preparation of the next ministerial meeting to a
Follow-up Group, which shall be composed of the representatives of all members of the Bologna
Process and the European Commission, with the Council of Europe, the EUA, EURASHE, ESIB and
UNESCO/CEPES as consultative members. This group, which should be convened at least twice a
year, shall be chaired by the EU Presidency, with the host country of the next Ministerial Confer
ence as vice-chair.
A Board also chaired by the EU Presidency shall oversee the work between the meetings of the
Follow-up Group. The Board will be composed of the chair, the next host country as vice-chair,
the preceding and the following EU Presidencies, three participating countries elected by the
Follow-up Group for one year, the European Commission and, as consultative members, the
Council of Europe, the EUA, EURASHE and ESIB. The Follow-up Group as well as the Board may
convene ad hoc working groups as they deem necessary.
The overall follow-up work will be supported by a Secretariat which the country hosting the next
Ministerial Conference will provide.
In its �rst meeting after the Berlin Conference, the Follow-up Group is asked to further de�ne the
responsibilities of the Board and the tasks of the Secretariat.”
hm Rnld nm 03
nudladq 1//2 qdabsdc sn sghr qdptdrs ax Lhmhrsdqr amc etqsgdq cd�mdc
sgd qdronmrhahkhshdr ne
naqc amc Rdbqdsaqhas-
Hm 1//5, Ectbashnm Hmsdqmashnmak Oam,Etqnodam rsqtbstqd (EH(, E
amc T
HBE (mnv
ERRET
OE( vdqd abbdosdc ar acchshnmak bnmrtksashud ldladqr ne sgd
nknfma Enkknv,to
qnto-
ANLNFMA
adxnmc 1/0/ | 15
Sgd lahm
acuamsafd
ne sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr amc sgd oqdrdms rtoonqs rsqtbstqdr hr sgas sgdx dm
aakd sgd kdx rsakdgnkcdqr sn vnqk snfdsgdq ar oaqsmdqr- Sgd oqdrdms aqqamfdldms bqdasdr a rdmrd
ne bnkkdbshud nvmdqrgho alnmf lhmhrsdqr (amc lhmhrsqhdr( ar vdkk ar ghfgdq dctbashnm hmrshstshnmr,
rstcdmsr amc rsaee aardc nm hmenqlak bnnodqashnm amc oaqsmdqrgho-
, ETR
RGE, ERT, Ectbashnm Hmsdqmashnmak, E
amc
ERRETR
OE, snfdsgdq vhsg sgd Et
qnodam Bnllhrrhnm, sgd Bntmbhk ne Etqnod amc T
,BEOER, gaud fqdaskx bnmsqhatsdc sn sgd
oqnbdrr ne onkhbx enqltkashnm amc akrn okax am hlonqsams qnkd hm eabhkhsashmf sgd hlokdldmsashnm
ne sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr qdenqlr-
mnsgdq dkdldms ne sgd oqdrdms rtoonqs rsqtbstqdr sgas hr nesdm ldmshnmdc ar a rsqdmfsg (mns
kdars hm sgd
nmcnm Bnlltmhpté( hr sgdhq qdkashudkx hmenqlak bgaqabsdq, vghbg etqsgdq hmbqdardr
sgd rdmrd ne dmfafdldms amc nvmdqrgho alnmf akk oaqshbhoamsr-
Hm sdqlr ne
, sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr btqqdmskx gar svn basdfnqhdr9 ldladqr (sgd 36
bntmsqhdr amc sgd Etqnodam Bnllhrrhnm( amc bnmrtksashud ldladqr- Sn adbnld a ldladq ne
nknfma Oqnbdrr, bntmsqhdr gaud sn ad oaqsx ne sgd Etqnodam Btkstqak Bnmudmshnm amc sn cd
bkaqd sgdhq vhkkhmfmdrr sn otqrtd amc hlokdldms sgd naidbshudr ne sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr hm sgdhq
nvm rxrsdlr ne ghfgdq dctbashnm-
hmsqnctbdc sgd acchshnmak basdfnqx ne “
oaqsmdq“ enq nqfamhrashnmr sgas vhrgdc sn ad
hmunkudc lnqd bknrdkx vhsg sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr ats vdqd mns hmsdqdrsdc hm nq mns dkhfhakd enq
bnmrtksashud ldladqrgho-
Lhmhrsdqr qdronmrhakd enq ghfgdq dctbashnm hm sgd bntmsqhdr oaqshbhoashmf hm sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr
ldds nm a qdftkaq aarhr (btqqdmskx dudqx svn xdaqr( sn arrdrr oqnfqdrr lacd, sn cdbhcd nm mdv
rsdor sn ad sakdm amc sn rds oqhnqhshdr enq sgd odqhnc kdachmf sn sgd enkknvhmf
lhmhrsdqhak bnmedq
dmbd
- Sgdrd lddshmfr okax am hlonqsams qnkd hm nudqrddhmf sgd hlokdldmsashnm amc lahmsahmhmf
sgd lnldmstl ne sgd oqnbdrr ats akrn akknv Lhmhrsdqr sn qdabs sn mdv bgakkdmfdr- Sgd bnllt
mhptér amc qdonqsr dmcnqrdc ax sgd lhmhrsdqr aqd sgd onkhshbak fthcambd enq vnqk adsvddm sgd
lhmhrsdqhak bnmedqdmbdr-
nknfma Oqnbdrr hr btqqdmskx
bgahqdc ax
sgd bntmsqx gnkchmf sgd ET Oqdrhcdmbx, vghbg qnsasdr
dudqx rhw lnmsgr- Sghr ldamr sgd ET Oqdrhcdmbx bntmsqx bgahqr amc trtakkx akrn gnrsr sgd ldds
hmfr ne
nknfma Enkknv,to
qnto amc
naqc, nudqrddr sgd vnqk hm,adsvddm sgnrd lddshmfr amc
qdoqdrdmsr sgd
nknfma Enkknv,to
qnto as hmsdqmashnmak dudmsr- Hm sgd hmsdqdrs ne sgd bnmshmthsx
adsvddm sgd lhmhrsdqhak bnmedqdmbdr sgd uhbd bgahq sn sgd
bnldr eqnl sgd gnrshmf bntmsqx-
nknfma Enkknv,to
qnto
nudqrddr sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr adsvddm sgd lhmhrsdqhak
lddshmfr amc lddsr as kdars nmbd dudqx rhw lnmsgr, trtakkx enq nmd,amc,a,gake caxr- Sgd
gar sgd onrrhahkhsx sn rds to vnqkhmf fqntor sn cdak vhsg rodbh�b snohbr hm lnqd cdsahk amc akrn
qdbdhudr hmots eqnl
nknfma Rdlhmaqr-
Anaqc
, ar cd�mdc ax sgd
dqkhm Bnlltmhpté mnqlakkx lddsr nmbd adenqd dabg
ldds
hmf sn arrhrs Bgahq amc Rdbqdsaqhas vhsg oqdoaqhmf sgd
afdmca amc nsgdq lddshmf cnbt
ldmsr-
Sgd bdmsqak sark ne sgd
Anknfma Rdbqdsaqhas
hr sn rtoonqs sgd vnqk ne sgd
nknfma Enkknv,to
qnto as entq kdudkr9
naqc, vnqkhmf fqnto, rdlhmaq- Sgd Rdbqdsaqhas oqdoaqdr cqaes afdm
car, cqaesr qdonqsr, mnsdr amc lhmtsdr amc baqqhdr nts sgd oqabshbak oqdoaqashnm enq lddshmfr ar
qdptdrsdc ax sgd Bgahq- Hs hr akrn as sgd chronrak ne sgd Bgahq sn arrhrs hs hm hsr sarkr ne �mchmf bnl
oqnlhrd rnktshnmr, bnnqchmashmf vnqk amc rtllhmf to rhstashnmr- Wghkd sgd Bgahq ne sgd
Oqnbdrr qnsasdr dudqx rhw lnmsgr, sgd Rdbqdsaqhas oqnuhcdr bnmshmthsx hm oqnbddchmfr-
16 |
ANLNFMA
adxnmc 1/0/
mnsgdq sark ne sgd Rdbqdsaqhas sgas gar adbnld hmbqdarhmfkx hlonqsams hr sn oqnuhcd to,sn,casd
amc qdkhaakd hmenqlashnm aants sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr (enq ansg a Etqnodam amc a mnm,Etqnodam
atchdmbd( amc sn lahmsahm am dkdbsqnmhb aqbghud- Sn etk�k sgnrd etmbshnmr, sgd Rdbqdsaqhas lakdr
trd ne sgd
nknfma vdarhsd ar bdmsqak snnk-
Ehmakkx, sgd
nknfma Rdbqdsaqhas hr arkdc sn oqdoaqd sgd enkknvhmf lhmhrsdqhak bnmedqdmbd- To sn
mnv, sgd
nknfma Rdbqdsaqhas gar addm oqnuhcdc ax sgd bntmsqx.bntmsqhdr gnrshmf sgd enkknvhmf
lhmhrsdqhak lddshmf, vghbg kdc sn a etkk qnsashnm dudqx svn xdaqr- Rdbnmchmf mashnmak dwodqsr gar
addm a onrrhahkhsx sgas rn eaq gar mns addm trdc-
Rtoonqs rsqtbstqdr adxnmc 1/0/
Sgd rtoonqs rsqtbstqdr aqd cddldc sn gaud addm vnqkhmf de�bhdmskx amc deedbshudkx nudq sgd
xdaqr-
md ne sgd lahm acuamsafdr hr sgas sgd sgqdas ne nudq atqdatbqashyashnm gar addm rtbbdrr
etkkx aunhcdc- Sgd rsqtbstqdr hm okabd aqd khfgs nmdr amc sgd Rdbqdsaqhas bgamfdr nm a qdftkaq aa
rhr-
drhcdr, vhsg hsr “tmatqdatbqashb“ sntbg, sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr gar lamafdc sn bqdasd a rdmrd
ne nvmdqrgho alnmf hsr ldladqr sgqntfg sgd hmbhsdldms sn bnmsqhatsd sn rodbh�b onkhbx aqdar,
enq sgd fnnc ne sgd EGE
- Hs hr, sgdqdenqd, rtffdrsdc sgas sgdx ad lnch�dc nmkx rkhfgskx-
Sgd bgahq ne sgd
nknfma Enkknv,to fqnto rgntkc akrn hm etstqd ad khmkdc sn sgd qnsashmf ET oqdrh
cdmbx vghkd a svhmmhmf aqqamfdldms vhsg a mnm,ET bntmsqx rgntkc ad rntfgs- Sgd ptdrshnm ne
gnv sn cd�md sgd mnm,ET bntmsqx bn,bgahqhmf
rgntkc ad etqsgdq dwoknqdc-
naqc rgntkc ad lahmsahmdc, ats hsr sdqlr ne qdedqdmbd rgntkc ad tocasdc sn stqm hs hmsn am
acuhrnqx bnllhssdd enq sgd Bgahq amc sgd Rdbqdsaqhas sn oqdoaqd
lddshmfr- Sgd qtkdr enq hsr
bnlonrhshnm rgntkc qdlahm tmbgamfdc, aksgntfg a fnnc aakambd adsvddm ET amc mnm,ET bntm
sqhdr rgntkc ad rntfgs-
Sgd Rdbqdsaqhas rgntkc ad a qnsashmf Rdbqdsaqhas khmkdc sn sgd mdws gnrs bntmsqx(hdr(- Hs rgntkc
oqdedqdmshakkx ad hmsdqmashnmakkx bnlonrdc- Sgd hrrtd ne bnmshmthsx eqnl nmd Rdbqdsaqhas sn sgd
mdws mddcr dwoknqhmf-
odqlamdms vdarhsd vhkk ad drsaakhrgdc vhsg a bntmsqx,mdtsqak mald amc vhkk ad lamafdc ax
sgd Rdbqdsaqhas eqnl Itkx 1/0/ nmvaqcr-
Hm nqcdq sn hmsdqabs vhsg nsgdq onkhbx aqdar,
vhkk khahrd vhsg dwodqsr amc onkhbx lakdqr eqnl
nsgdq �dkcr, khkd qdrdaqbg, hllhfqashnm, rnbhak rdbtqhsx amc dloknxldms-
Sgd mdws lhmhrsdqhak bnmedqdmbd vhkk ad nqfamhydc hm 1/0/ inhmskx ax
trsqha amc Gtmfaqx- Sgd
dmdktw bntmsqhdr vhkk oqnuhcd sgd
nknfma Rdbqdsaqhas tmshk 0 Itkx 1/0/, vhsg mashnmak dwodqsr
eqnl
trsqha amc Gtmfaqx adhmf rdbnmcdc sn sgd rdbqdsaqhas hm
qtrrdkr-
Sgd enkknvhmf lhmhrsdqhak bnmedqdmbdr vhkk ad gdkc hm 1/01, 1/05, 1/07 amc 1/1/-
ANLNFMA
adxnmc 1/0/ | 17
Bgaosdq 3
Bnmbktrhnmr amc oqhnqhshdr enq “adxnmc 1/0/“
Rhmbd hs var nqhfhmakkx afqddc tonm hm 0888, sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr gar kdc sn sgd lncdqmhyashnm
ne Etqnodam ghfgdq dctbashnm ax athkchmf tonm amc rsqdmfsgdmhmf Etqnod’r hmsdkkdbstak, rbhdmsh�b
amc btkstqak chldmrhnm- Sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr gar aqntfgs aants a bnmrhcdqaakd cdfqdd ne bgamfd
vhsghm Etqnodam ghfgdq dctbashnm ax abghduhmf fqdasdq bnloashahkhsx amc bnloaqaahkhsx ne sgd
rxrsdlr ne ghfgdq dctbashnm- Lainq qdenqlr hm sgd rsqtbstqd ne ghfgdq dctbashnm gaud addm lacd
vhsg sgd acnoshnm ne a sgqdd bxbkd,rsqtbstqd, hmbktchmf vhsghm mashnmak bnmsdws sgd onrrhahkhsx ne
hmsdqldchasd ptakh�bashnmr: ptakhsx arrtqambd fthcdkhmdr gaud addm cdudknodc, a Etqnodam qdf
hrsdq enq ptakhsx arrtqambd afdmbhdr gar addm bqdasdc, amc am afqddldms gar addm qdabgdc as
Etqnodam kdudk nm aooqnoqhasd ptakh�bashnmr eqaldvnqkr aardc nm kdaqmhmf ntsbnldr-
nknfma Oqnbdrr gar lamafdc sn hmrshk Etqnodam ghfgdq dctbashnm vhsg a odqlamdms rdmrd
ne bnnodqashnm ax dmbntqafhmf amc hmbqdarhmf chaknftd adsvddm cheedqdms rsakdgnkcdqr, fnudqm
ldmsr, ghfgdq dctbashnm hmrshstshnmr amc nsgdqr- Sgdqd gar addm rsqnmf acgdqdmbd sn sgd oqhm
bhokdr ne oqnlnshmf bnloashahkhsx amc bnloaqaahkhsx ar vdkk ar qdrodbshmf chudqrhsx- Sgqntfg sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr Etqnodam ghfgdq dctbashnm gar abpthqdc a vnqkc,vhcd cdfqdd ne assqabshnm-
sgd rald shld, sgd oqnbdrr gar fdmdqakkx aunhcdc bqdashmf acchshnmak atqdatbqabx-
Etkk hlokdldmsashnm ne sgdrd oqhmbhokdr amc naidbshudr, vghbg aqd acgdqdc sn, vhkk rshkk qdpthqd
bnmshmtak lnldmstl aesdq 1/0/- Bn,nodqashnm vhsghm sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr vhkk bnmshmtd sn rto
onqs amc lnmhsnq sgd abghdudldms ne sgd hmhshak naidbshudr ne sgd
nknfma Cdbkaqashnm vhsg a uhdv
sn bqdashmf a Etqnodam Ghfgdq Ectbashnm
qda ne ghfg ptakhsx- Sgd lncdqmhrashnm ne Etqnodam
ghfgdq dctbashnm vhkk ad otqrtdc amc hs vhkk qdrs tonm hmbqdardc hmrshstshnmak atsnmnlx, ptakhsx
arrtqambd amc abbntmsaahkhsx, ar vdkk ar rtrsahmaakd etmchmf-
Sgd otqrths ne dwbdkkdmbd hm akk arodbsr ne ghfgdq

dctbashnm
Hm sgd xdaqr to sn 1/1/, sgd lainq bgakkdmfdr hcdmsh�dc aqd sgnrd ne fknaakhrashnm amc cdlnfqa
ogx- Etqnodam ghfgdq dctbashnm vhkk qdronmc acdptasdkx sgqntfg hsr bnmsqhatshnm sn athkchmf sgd
Etqnodam kmnvkdcfd rnbhdsx amc sn lakhmf hs a bngdrhud rnbhdsx- Etqnodam ghfgdq dctbashnm vhkk
bnmshmtd sn ad a otakhb qdronmrhahkhsx amc a otakhb fnnc-
Hmrshstshnmr ne ghfgdq dctbashnm aqd uhsak rntqbdr ne mdv kmnvkdcfd amc drrdmshak bnmsqhatsnqr sn
hmmnuashnm- Whsghm a eqaldvnqk ne otakhb qdronmrhahkhsx, sgdx abs ar oqnuhcdqr ne odqrnmmdk dct
basdc amc sqahmdc hm ansg fdmdqak amc rodbh�b rkhkkr mdbdrraqx sn sgd vdkk,adhmf ne rnbhdsx- Hm sgdhq
dmfafdldms vhsg sgd bnlltmhsx, hmrshstshnmr ne ghfgdq dctbashnm assqabs hmsdqmashnmak sakdms amc
atrhmdrr sn a qdfhnm, ats sgdx akrn bnmsqhatsd sn sgd rnbhak amc btkstqak uhsakhsx ne sgas oaqshbtkaq
qdfhnm- Ewbdkkdmbd ltrs sgtr ad otqrtdc as akk kdudkr ne sgd hmrshstshnmr ne ghfgdq dctbashnm, hm
sdabghmf amc qdrdaqbg ar vdkk ar hm hmmnuashnm amc bnlltmhsx dmfafdldms- Sgd bnmmdbshnm ad
svddm sdabghmf amc qdrdaqbg vhkk qdlahm a cd�mhmf bgaqabsdqhrshb ne Etqnodam ghfgdq dctbashnm-
Sgd nudqaqbghmf ahl ne sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr adxnmc 1/0/, sgdqdenqd, hr sn dptho hmrshstshnmr ne
ghfgdq dctbashnm hm rtbg a vax sgas sgdx lax abghdud dwbdkkdmbd hm sgnrd aqdar sgas aqd lnrs
qdkduams sn sgdhq rodbh�b lhrrhnm amc oqn�kd- Sgd Etqnodam Ghfgdq Ectbashnm
qda vhkk adbnld a
ghfgkx bqdashud amc hmmnuashud qdfhnm ar vdkk ar am assqabshud fknaak oaqsmdq hm sgd acudms ne a
fknaak kmnvkdcfd rnbhdsx-
17 |
ANLNFMA
adxnmc 1/0/
Epthsaakd abbdrr hmsn, rtbbdrretk oqnfqdrr amc bnlokdshnm ne ghfgdq dctbashnm enq sgd vgnkd rodb
sqtl ne sgd onotkashnm hm sgdhq uaqhntr vakkr ne khed amc afd fqntor bakk enq a kdaqmhmf dmuhqnm
ldms ne fqdas ptakhsx fdaqdc sn sgd mddcr ne a chudqrd rstcdms ancx- Wghkd a bngdqdms rsqasdfx
enq khedknmf kdaqmhmf vhkk ad cduhrdc, hloqnudc amc dmgambdc casa bnkkdbshnm vhkk gdko lnmhsnq
oqnfqdrr hm sgd rnbhak chldmrhnm- Sgd rstcdms ancx vhsghm ghfgdq dctbashnm rgntkc qd�dbs sgd
chudqrhsx ne Etqnod’r onotkashnmr amc rhfmh�bams oqnfqdrr rgntkc ad lacd vhsghm dabg oaqshbhoas
hmf bntmsqx nudq sgd mdws cdbacd- Sgdqdenqd dabg bntmsqx rgntkc rds to lnmhsnqhmf rxrsdlr amc
cd�md ldartqaakd saqfdsr-
L
hedknmf
daqmhmf
Sgd cdlnfqaoghb bgakkdmfd ne am afdhmf onotkashnm hm a kmnvkdcfd rnbhdsx bam nmkx ad lds ax
qdhmenqbhmf sgd rnbhak chldmrhnm ne ghfgdq dctbashnm amc ax etkkx dmfafhmf hm khedknmf kdaqmhmf
oqabshbdr-
hedknmf kdaqmhmf hr a ltksheabdsdc bnmbdos vghbg lax hmunkud bkhlahmf ghfgdq to sgd
ptakh�bashnmr kaccdq, dwsdmchmf kmnvkdcfd, fahmhmf mdv rkhkkr amc bnlodsdmbdr, tonm sgd qdbnf
mhshnm ne oqhnq kdaqmhmf, nq rhlokx kdaqmhmf sn dmqhbg nmd’r odqrnmak fqnvsg- Sgd qnkd ne dctbasdc
odnokd vgn bkdaqkx rdd gnv dbnmnlhdr amc uaktdr nodqasd snfdsgdq amc gnv sgdx aqd abbdkdq
asdc ax bqhshbak sghmkhmf amc chrbnudqx hr bdmsqak sn sgd abghdudldmsr ne ntq rnbhdshdr- Hs hr sgdqd
enqd bqtbhak sn lakd sgd adrs onrrhakd trd ne ntq rnbhdshdr’ qdrntqbdr ax akknvhmf amc dmbntqafhmf
dudqx bhshydm sn lakd sgd adrs onrrhakd trd ne sgdhq sakdmsr amc baoaahkhshdr-
Rnbhak amc gtlam fqnvsg aqd hmchrodmraakd bnlonmdmsr enq Etqnodam bhshydmrgho: sgd acudms ne a
Etqnod ne kmnvkdcfd sgas hr ghfgkx bqdashud amc hmmnuashud qdrsr tonm sgd aahkhsx ne hsr bhshydmr sn
rtllnm sgd bnlodsdmbdr sgas aqd mdbdrraqx sn accqdrr sgd mdv bgakkdmfdr- Sgd sdabghmf amc
kdaqmhmf hm sgd hmrshstshnmr ne ghfgdq dctbashnm vhkk ahl as dctbashmf bqdashud fqactasdr aakd sn
etmbshnm hm sgd kmnvkdcfd rnbhdsx amc sn oqn�s etkkx eqnl khedknmf kdaqmhmf noonqstmhshdr sgqntfg
sgd oqnuhrhnm ne acdptasd kdaqmhmf oasgr- Rstcdms bdmsqdc kdaqmhmf vhkk ad cdudknodc ar a mdv
oaqachfl vhsg kdaqmhmf ntsbnldr enbtrhmf nm rodbh�b rtaidbs aqdar-
hedknmf kdaqmhmf mddcr sn
ad hmsdfqasdc hmsn a mashnmak ar vdkk ar hmsn hmrshstshnmak rsqasdfhdr- Sgd Etqnodam Tmhudqrhshdr’
Bgaqsdq nm
hedknmf
daqmhmf vhkk rdqud ar a aarhr enq etstqd cdudknoldmsr hm sghr �dkc-
Sgd hlokdldmsashnm ne khedknmf kdaqmhmf vhkk ad rsqdmfsgdmdc ax etkk hlokdldmsashnm ne sgd ma
shnmak ptakh�bashnm eqaldvnqkr- Sgdrd mashnmak eqaldvnqkr, aardc nm kdaqmhmf ntsbnldr, rgntkc
bnmsqhatsd sn adssdq odqldaahkhsx vhsghm sgd rxrsdl ar vdkk darhdq qdbnfmhshnm ne oqhnq kdaqmhmf hm
bktchmf sgd mnm,enqlak amc hmenqlak- Sgd ahl hr sn gaud sgdrd mashnmak ptakh�bashnmr eqaldvnqkr
hlokdldmsdc amc oqdoaqdc enq rdke,bdqsh�bashnm afahmrs sgd nudqaqbghmf Ptakh�bashnmr Eqaldvnqk
enq sgd Etqnodam Ghfgdq Ectbashnm
qda ax 1/01- Rdrtksr ne sgd oqhnq kdaqmhmf bntkc ad arrdrrdc
vhsg qdedqdmbd sn sgd kdaqmhmf ntsbnldr ne sgd kdudkr cd�mdc hm sgd ptakh�bashnmr eqaldvnqkr-
Hmsdqldchasd ptakh�bashnmr vhsghm sgd �qrs bxbkd bam ad a ldamr ne vhcdmhmf abbdrr sn ghfgdq
dctbashnm-
Eloknxaahkhsx
Whsg kaantq laqkdsr hmbqdarhmfkx qdkxhmf nm ghfgdq ptakh�bashnmr amc qdpthqhmf cddodq kdudkr ne
dwodqshrd, ghfgdq dctbashnm rgntkc dptho rstcdmsr vhsg sgd kmnvkdcfd, rkhkkr, amc bnlodsdmbdr
hmchuhctakr mddc hm sgdhq vnqkhmf khudr- Eloknxaahkhsx hr dlonvdqhmf sgd hmchuhctak sn etkkx rdhyd
sgd noonqstmhshdr ne sghr bgamfhmf kaantq laqkds- Rahrhmf hmhshak ptakh�bashnmr ar vdkk ar lahm
sahmhmf amc qdmdvhmf a rkhkkdc vnqkenqbd vhkk enrsdq dloknxaahkhsx-
bknrd bnnodqashnm adsvddm
ANLNFMA
adxnmc 1/0/ | 18
ghfgdq dctbashnm hmrshstshnmr, rnbhak oaqsmdqr amc rstcdmsr vhkk ad etqsgdq cdudknodc- Sghr vhkk ak
knv hmrshstshnmr sn ad lnqd qdronmrhud sn dloknxdqr’ mddcr amc dloknxdqr sn adssdq tmcdqrsamc
sgd hmrshstshnmak odqrodbshud, sqahmhmf qdronmrhakd, hmudmshud amc dmsqdoqdmdtqhak fqactasdr enq
sgd etstqd- Ghfgdq dctbashnm hmrshstshnmr, snfdsgdq vhsg fnudqmldmsr, fnudqmldms afdmbhdr amc
dloknxdqr, rgakk hloqnud sgd oqnuhrhnm, abbdrrhahkhsx amc ptakhsx ne sgdhq baqddqr amc dloknxldms
qdkasdc fthcambd rdquhbdr sn rstcdmsr amc aktlmh- Wnqk okabdldms amc nm,sgd,ina kdaqmhmf, dl
adccdc hm rstcx oqnfqalldr sgtr akrn adhmf oaqs ne qdftkaq ptakhsx qduhdvr, mddc sn ad etqsgdq
cdudknodc sn hloqnud dloknxaahkhsx ne fqactasdr--
Rstcdms,bdmsqdc kdaqmhmf
Rstcdms bdmsqdc kdaqmhmf qdpthqdr mdv odcafnfhbak aooqnabgdr amc a btqqhbtktl enbtrhmf nm sgd
kdaqmdq- Btqqhbtkaq qdenql vhkk sgtr ad am nmfnhmf oqnbdrr kdachmf sn ghfg ptakhsx, �dwhakd amc
lnqd hmchuhctakkx sahknqdc dctbashnm oasgr-
bacdlhbr, hm bknrd bnnodqashnm vhsg rstcdms qdoqd
rdmsashudr, vhkk bnmshmtd sn cdudkno hmsdqmashnmak cdrbqhosnqr, kdaqmhmf ntsbnldr amc qdedqdmbd
onhmsr enq a fqnvhmf mtladq ne rtaidbs aqdar-
Ectbashnm, qdrdaqbg amc hmmnuashnm
Ghfgdq dctbashnm as akk kdudkr rgntkc ad aardc nm rsasd ne sgd aqs qdrdaqbg sgtr enrsdqhmf hmmnua
shnm amc bqdashuhsx hm rnbhdsx-- Cnbsnqak oqnfqalldr rgntkc qdronmc sn sgd bgamfhmf cdlamcr
ne a ears,dunkuhmf kaantq laqkds amc ghfg ptakhsx chrbhokhmaqx qdrdaqbg rgntkc hmbqdarhmfkx ad
bnlokdldmsdc ax hmsdq,chrbhokhmaqx amc hmsdq,rdbsnqak oqnfqalldr, aqhmfhmf accdc uaktd enq sgd
baqddq cdudknoldms ne daqkx rsafd qdrdaqbgdqr- Bnnodqashnm alnmf hmrshstshnmr ne ghfgdq dctba
shnm rgakk ad bnmrnkhcasdc sgqntfg sgd avaqchmf ne inhms cnbsnqak cdfqddr- Sgd mtladq ne odnokd
vhsg qdrdaqbg bnlodsdmbdr rgntkc hmbqdard- Hm sghr qdrodbs sgd onsdmshak ne ghfgdq dctbashnm
oqnfqalldr, hmbktchmf sgnrd aardc nm aookhdc rbhdmbd hr qdbnfmhrdc-
Hmsdqmashnmak nodmmdrr
Etqnodam ghfgdq dctbashnm vhkk cdudkno am hmrshstshnmak btkstqd ne hmsdqmashnmakhrashnm-
r sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr hr oaqs ne sgd fknaak vnqkc ne ghfgdq dctbashnm, sgd assqabshudmdrr amc nodmmdrr
ne Etqnodam ghfgdq dctbashnm vhkk ad ghfgkhfgsdc-
s sgd rald shld, bnlodshshnm nm a fknaak
rbakd vhkk ad bnlokdldmsdc ax onkhbx chaknftd amc bnnodqashnm aardc nm oaqsmdqrgho vhsg nsgdq
qdfhnmr ne sgd vnqkc-
3-7- Lnqd lnahkhsx
Lnahkhsx ne rstcdmsr amc rsaee hr sgd kdx hmrsqtldms vghbg ghfgdq dctbashnm vhkk etqsgdq cdudkno
sn qdronmc sn sgd aanud,ldmshnmdc bgakkdmfdr amc sqdmcr- Lnahkhsx hr hlonqsams enq odqrnmak
cdudknoldms, annrshmf odnokd’r rkhkkr amc dloknxaahkhsx: amc hs aqdakr cnvm aaqqhdqr adsvddm
odnokd amc fqntor, sgtr bnmsqhatshmf sn qdronmrhakd bhshydmrgho- Hm am hmbqdarhmfkx ltkshbtkstqak
rnbhdsx, lnahkhsx enrsdqr qdrodbs enq chudqrhsx amc hr a kdx hmfqdchdms enq a lnqd rsaakd amc odabd
etk vnqkc- Lnahkhsx akrn tmcdqohmr sgd ltkshkhmftak sqachshnm ne sgd Etqnodam ghfgdq dctbashnm
aqda- Hs hmbqdardr bnnodqashnm adsvddm hmrshstshnmr rhmbd hs eabhkhsasdr sgd �nv ne kmnvkdcfd
abqnrr sgd rodbsqtl ne ghfgdq dctbashnm-
2/ |
ANLNFMA
adxnmc 1/0/
Sgdqdenqd, lnahkhsx ne rstcdmsr amc rsaee vhsghm Etqnod amc dwbgamfdr vhsg sgd vhcdq vnqkc vhkk
edastqd oqnlhmdmskx nm sgd afdmca ne sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr adxnmc 1/0/-
r eaq ar lnahkhsx ne rstcdmsr hr bnmbdqmdc, as kdars 1/% ne sgnrd fqactashmf hm 1/1/ hm sgd
bntmsqhdr ne sgd Etqnodam Ghfgdq Ectbashnm
qda vhkk gaud addm ogxrhbakkx lnahkd-
kk btqqhbtka
vhkk ad cdrhfmdc hm rtbg a vax sgas sgdx hmsdfqasd lnahkhsx noonqstmhshdr hm sgd rsqtbstqd ne sgd
oqnfqalld amc sgd mtladq ne inhms oqnfqalldr vhkk gaud addm hmbqdardc- Sgd eqaldvnqk
bnmchshnmr vhkk ad rtbg sgas sgd fqamshmf ne uhrar amc vnqk odqlhsr ar vdkk ar sgd onqsaahkhsx ne
fqamsr vhkk ad lacd darhdq-
Lnahkhsx onkhbhdr ltrs sgtr aqhmf snfdsgdq hmhshashudr ne sghr khmc vhsg a qamfd ne oqabshbak ldar
tqdr qtmmhmf eqnl qdbnfmhshnm sgqntfg �mambhmf sn qdbdhuhmf rstcdmsr as gnrs hmrshstshnmr, amc
sgdx ltrs cduhrd cheedqdms enqltkar enq lnahkhsx sn rddk sn hmbktcd rstcdmsr vgn gaud ealhkx amc
vnqk nakhfashnmr-
r eaq ar lnahkhsx ne daqkx rsafd qdrdaqbgdqr amc rsaee hr bnmbdqmdc, eqaldvnqk bnmchshnmr vhkk
ad drsaakhrgdc sn rhlokhex aookhbashnm oqnbdrrdr enq hllhfqashnm hmsn sgd EGE
ar vdkk ar vhsghm
amc sn ftaqamsdd rnbhak rdbtqhsx amc acdptasd odmrhnm qhfgsr sn sgd lnahkd rsaee- Sgd
Oqnbdrr vhkk khahrd vhsg sgnrd qdkduams onkhbx aqdar sgas aqd ntsrhcd ghfgdq dctbashnm amc vhkk
rddk sgd acuhbd amc rtoonqs ne dwodqsr amc onkhbx lakdqr eqnl sgd �dkcr ne rnbhak rdbtqhsx amc
hllhfqashnm-
Casa bnkkdbshnm vhkk gdko lnmhsnq sgd hmsdqmashnmakhrashnm ne ghfgdq dctbashnm amc vhkk rdqud ar a
aarhr enq admbglaqkhmf-
Oqnfqdrr nm afqddldmsr enq abacdlhb qdbnfmhshnm rtoonqsdc ax sgd cdudknoldms ne mashnmak
ptakh�bashnmr eqaldvnqkr qdlahmr ne tslnrs hlonqsambd-
ashnmak ptakh�bashnmr eqaldvnqkr
bnloashakd vhsg sgd nudqaqbghmf eqaldvnqk ne ptakh�bashnmr ne sgd EGE
ar vdkk ar vhsg sgd Et
qnodam Ptakh�bashnmr Eqaldvnqk enq
hedknmf
daqmhmf vhkk dlogarhyd kdaqmhmf ntsbnldr, lakd hs
darhdq enq kdaqmdqr sn nasahm ptakh�bashnmr sgqntfg a uaqhdsx ne kdaqmhmf oasgr amc lakd qdbnfmh
shnm ne ptakh�bashnmr darhdq abqnrr sgd anqcdqr ne dctbashnm rxrsdlr- Sgd cdackhmd ne gauhmf sgd
mashnmak eqaldvnqkr hm okabd amc rdke,bdqsh�dc afahmrs sgd Ptakh�bashnm Eqaldvnqk enq EGE
ax
1/0/ vhkk mns ad lds ax lainqhsx ne bntmsqhdr- Sgd deenqsr rgntkc ad lacd sn �mhrg sghr ax 1/01-
Sghr vhkk akrn qdpthqd bnmshmtdc bnnqchmashnm as sgd kdudk ne EGE
ar vdkk ar vhsg sgd Etqnodam
Ptakh�bashnmr Eqaldvnqk enq
hedknmf
daqmhmf- Hm sghr bnmsdws rsqtbstqdc bnnodqashnm adsvddm
sgd mdsvnqkr ne bnqqdronmcdmsr ne ansg sgd nudqaqbghmf Ptakh�bashnmr Eqaldvnqk enq sgd Etqn
odam Ghfgdq Ectbashnm
qda amc sgd Etqnodam Ptakh�bashnmr Eqaldvnqk enq
hedknmf
daqmhmf hr
ne bqtbhak hlonqsambd-
Ltshchldmrhnmak sqamroaqdmbx snnkr amc casa

bnkkdbshnm
nknfma Oqnbdrr gar abghdudc sqamroaqdmbx sgqntfg hsr bnmudqfdms cdfqdd rsqtbstqd, hsr
ptakh�bashnmr eqaldvnqkr amc hsr ptakhsx arrtqambd rsamcaqcr amc fthcdkhmdr-
ksgntfg sgd khmk
adsvddm sdabghmf amc qdrdaqbg vhkk qdlahm a oqhmbhokd �qlkx dmsqdmbgdc hm sgd EGE
, hs hr qdb
nfmhydc sgas sgdqd aqd uaqhntr sxodr ne qdrdaqbg amc sgas sgdqd hr fqdas cheedqdmshashnm hm sgd
lhrrhnmr ne ghfgdq dctbashnm hmrshstshnmr- Oqnodq hlokdldmsashnm amc trd ne sgd Choknla Rtookd
ldms amc sgd Etqnodam Ptakhsx
rrtqambd Rdfhrsdq vhkk dmgambd sgd sqamroaqdmbx ne sgd EGE
Lnqdnudq, hm sgd khfgs ne sghr fqdasdq chudqrh�bashnm ne ghfgdq dctbashnm, sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr
vhkk lnmhsnq mdv hmrsqtldmsr cdrhfmdc sn rgnv amc ldartqd sgd rsqdmfsgr ne hmrshstshnmr vhsg
chudqrd lhrrhnm rsasdldmsr- Sgdrd hmrsqtldmsr vhkk gaud hloabs nm sgd cdudknoldms ne ghfgdq
dctbashnm rxrsdlr amc rgntkc ad cdudknodc vhsg etkk hmunkudldms ne akk rsakdgnkcdqr hm rtbg a
ANLNFMA
adxnmc 1/0/ | 20
vax sgas sgdx gdko hmrshstshnmr ne ghfgdq dctbashnm sn cdudkno chudqrhsx amc sgas sgdx aqd qdkduams
hmenqlashnm snnkr enq rstcdmsr amc abacdlhb rsaee hm ghfgdq dctbashnm- Enq hmrshstshnmr ne ghfgdq
dctbashnm rtbg snnkr vhkk ad gdkoetk sn drsaakhrg bnnodqashud oaqsmdqrghor amc sn bnloaqd amc
hcdmshex sgdhq bnlodshshud onrhshnm-
Sgdrd hmrsqtldmsr mddc sn qdkasd bknrdkx sn ptakhsx arrtqambd amc qdbnfmhshnm amc rgntkc ad
aardc nm sgd cdudknoldms ne acdptasd hmchbasnqr amc rntmc casa bnkkdbshnm-
3-0/- Rdrntqbhmf
Lnqdnudq, hm a fknaak vnqkc sgd qdkashnmrgho adsvddm sgd Rsasd amc sgd ghfgdq dctbashnm hmrshst
shnmr gar bgamfdc- Ghfgdq dctbashnm hmrshstshnmr gaud fahmdc fqdasdq atsnmnlx aknmf vhsg dw
odbsashnmr sn ad qdronmrhud sn rnbhdsak mddcr amc sn ad abbntmsaakd- Sgd cdlamcr ots nm ghfgdq
dctbashnm hmrshstshnmr hm ansg sgdhq sdabghmf amc qdrdaqbg lhrrhnmr aqd fqnvhmf qaohckx- Sgd khed
knmf kdaqmhmf afdmca, vhcdmhmf oaqshbhoashnm qasdr, am hmbqdarhmfkx bnrskx qdrdaqbg hmeqarsqtbstqd
ctd sn acuambdr hm sgd �dkc ne sdbgmnknfx amc sntfgdq ptakhsx qdpthqdldmsr qahrd sgd ptdrshnm
ne gnv sn etmc sgd ghfgdq dctbashnm hmrshstshnmr he sgdx aqd sn ldds sgdrd bgakkdmfdr- Ltkshokd
etmchmf rds vhsghm a eqaldvnqk ne otakhb qdronmrhahkhsx hr rddm ar am noonqstmhsx sn ftaqamsdd
etqsgdq rtrsahmaakd cdudknoldms ne hmrshstshnmr amc sgdhq atsnmnlx amc ar a vax ne accqdrrhmf
sgd bgakkdmfdr sgas sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr eabdr adxnmc 1/0/-
3-00- Sgd nqfamhrashnmak rsqtbstqd amc enkknv,to
Sgd oqdrdms nqfamhrashnmak rsqtbstqd ne sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr hr dmcnqrdc ar adhmf �s enq otqonrd-
Hm sgd etstqd, sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr vhkk ad bn,bgahqdc ax sgd bntmsqx gnkchmf sgd ET oqdrhcdmbx
amc a mnm,ET bntmsqx-
Hm nqcdq sn hmsdqabs vhsg nsgdq onkhbx aqdar,
vhkk khahrd vhsg dwodqsr amc onkhbx lakdqr eqnl
nsgdq �dkcr, khkd qdrdaqbg, hllhfqashnm, rnbhak rdbtqhsx amc dloknxldms-
nknfma Enkknv,to
qnto rgntkc ad arkdc sn oqdoaqd a vnqk okam sn accqdrr sgd bgakkdmfdr
hcdmsh�dc, akknvhmf enq sgd etstqd hmsdfqashnm ne sgd casa bnkkdbshnm qdrtksr amc sgd ntsbnld ne
sgd hmcdodmcdms arrdrrldms ne sgd
nknfma Oqnbdrr-
Sgd lnmhsnqhmf amc rsnbksakhmf ne sgd oqnfqdrr rgntkc bnmshmtd- Etqnrsas snfdsgdq vhsg Etqnrst
cdms rgntkc bnmshmtd sn ad dmsqtrsdc vhsg casa bnkkdbshnm ar cd�mdc aanud, hm bn,nodqashnm vhsg
Etqxchbd: sgd vnqk rgntkc bnmshmtd sn ad lnmhsnqdc ax sgd
nknfma Enkknv,to
qnto- Sghr lnmh
snqhmf vhkk akrn hmbktcd qdonqshmf nm sgd cdudknoldms ne ltkshchldmrhnmak sqamroaqdmbx snnkr-
Sgd mdws qduhdv amc qdonqshmf nm sgd oqnfqdrr lacd snvaqcr sgd abghdudldms ne sgd naidbshudr
enq sgd cdbacd sn bnld rgntkc ad baqqhdc nts enq sgd 1/01 lhmhrsdqhak lddshmf-
mmhudqraqx bnmedqdmbd vhkk ad nqfamhydc hm 1/0/ inhmskx ax
trsqha amc Gtmfaqx-
Sgd mdws qdftkaq lhmhrsdqhak bnmedqdmbd vhkk ad gdkc hm 1/01- Sgdqdaesdq qdftkaq lhmhrsdqhak bnmedq
dmbdr rgntkc ad gdkc hm 1/05, 1/07 amc 1/1/-
21 |
ANLNFMA
adxnmc 1/0/

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