Усі уроки англійської мови 10 Несвіт (профільний)

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© Мявшеоло О. ª., 2010
© ТОв «виебвоишб дсфрб “Осоовб”», 2010
М93 Усі фсоли бодліксьлоА нови. 10 ллбс. Псофільоик сі-
Посівоил рсороофє нбуесібли еля ріедоуовли уб рсовеееооя фсолів
бодліксьлоА нови ф 10 ллбсбх рсофільоодо сівоя віеровіеоо ео шиоооА рсо
дсбни. Авуеоуишоик і блуфбльоик уелсуовик нбуесібл і лонфоілбуивоб
срсяновбоісуь ибвебоь еороножфуь фшиуеля ефелуивоо осдбоіифвбуи рсо
чес обвшбооя. гофшлісуь сусфлуфси фсолів суинфляє увосшф еіяльоісуь
ªречібльоик блчеоу ф росівоилф исовлеоо об оиобконлеооя уб усеоф
вбльоф совоуф и вилообооя уесуових ибвебоь євсорексьлодо фоснбуф, що
обебє вшиуеля ножливісуь ефелуивоо доуфвбуи фшоів ео иовоішоьодо ое
Topic: Personal Relationship
— more than just friends
Topic: Society and Spor
Topic: We and Environmen
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Topic: Foods and Nutritio
Topic: Art and Artist
Topic: Science and societ
Topic: Educatio
The system of education in Great Britain, United States and Ukrain
Topic: Work and Profession
Ask students to define the term
Write their ideas on
sheet of newsprint. Help students understand that self
People with high self
esteem are realistic about their strengths
and weaknesses and are able to set goals and work toward them with
optimism and humor. They also feel competent in areas they consider
important and do not take other people’s negative impressions of them
People with low self
esteem have a
hard time honestly evaluating
their strengths and weaknesses and often have an unrealistic, overall
negative impression of themselves. They take other people’s opinions
of their strengths and weaknesses more seriously than they should.
Also, they do not feel competent in areas they consider important. Peo
For more information about research on self
esteem, visit the fol
Tell students that an important first step in building self
is taking a
realistic look at their strengths and weaknesses and likes
and dislikes. This helps them know what goals are realistic to pursue,
what aspects of their personality and lifestyle to seek to improve, and
how to identify their weaknesses without worrying about how others
perceive them
. Tell students that self
knowledge helps lay the founda
Then tell students they are going to complete a
personal inventory
during this Lesson to help them achieve better self
ing. Tell students to follow the directions, filling in blanks or
checking the answers that apply to them. You may copy the inven
tory for students, read it out loud, or write it on a
piece of news
First semester. Topic: Personal Relationships
I prefer being involved in individual activities __ or group activi
Relationships with Friends and Adults (Check the statements that
I have the support of significant adults in my life: __.
I like relaxing alone __ or with other people __. (Check one.)
Give students ample time (it should not take more than 10
minutes) in class to complete the inventory. Then ask students
to take the information they learned about themselves and create
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drawing, collage, or short essay that illustrates who they are.
Make available paper, art supplies, and magazines to cut up. Give
During the next class period, ask for student volunteers to share
their artwork or essays, and their personal reflections, with the
Ask students what they learned about themselves. How can they
apply this information to their lives How does it affect the goals
they set for themselves Tell them that understanding their own
strengths, weaknesses, and preferences is essential in boosting
Conclude the Lesson by asking students what role they think self
esteem plays in leading a
healthful life. If students feel good about
themselves, do they think they will make good decisions about
friends; diet; exercise; sex and abstinence; dangerous habits such
as drugs, smoking, and drinking; and overall work habits Why
do they think this is so Help students understand that if they feel
Using what you learned about yourself from the inventory, do you
think you have high self
esteem or low self
esteem What is one
thing you can do to build your self
esteem (Be sure to tell stu
dents that they need not share this information with anyone.
These are questions that they can think about as they begin to
What do you think the relationship is between self
esteem and be
coming involved with drugs, alcohol, or a
potentially bad crowd at
school Do you think that a
person with high self
esteem or low
esteem would be more likely to do those things Give reasons
Do you have a
friend who has low self
esteem What are some of
the signs of low self
esteem What could you do to help your
Use the following three
point rubric to evaluate students’ in
volvement in class discussions, their attitude toward completing
Three points:
was highly engaged in class discussions; demon
strated positive attitude toward completing the personal inven
tory; created a
realistic proj
ect highlighting the results of the in
First semester. Topic: Personal Relationships
Two points:
was moderately engaged during class discussions;
demonstrated mostly positive attitude toward completing the
personal inventory; created a
project that highlighted some key
One point:
was not engaged during class discussions; demonstrat
ed negative attitude toward completing the personal inventory;
was not able to produce a
project highlighting the results of the
help them build their self
esteem. For example, students can tutor
younger child, help coach an elementary school sports team, or assist
in an arts and crafts program for young children. Have students keep
log of the progress of the child they are assisting. Make sure your
students note how the child they are assisting felt about his or her abi-
lities when they first started and whether their attitude changed over
the course of a
couple of months. Encourage students to notice signs of
improved ability in the subject or activity, such as more facility in
reading, better performance on the sports field, or more proficiency in
Then ask students to observe signs of improved self
esteem, such
as more self
confidence or a
more optimistic outlook. Do students see
correlation between improved competence in a
specific area and
greater self
esteem Are their own findings consistent with the defini
tion of self
esteem they learned about in this lesson Aside from help
ing the younger child improve his or her skills, what else did they do to
Building healthy relationships
We form relationships as soon as we are born with parents, sib
lings and family. As we move outside the home, school or neighbor
hood friends may become important. As we get older new relationships
such as teacher
student, employer
employee are formed. A
ship involves a
connection between people and although we come into
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contact with many people in our daily lives only a
few encounters will
result in relationships or friendships. Some people have many rela
tionships, a
wide circle of friends and acquaintances, and others pre
Students may equate the term ‘relationship’ only with dating, for
Ask students to list some of the benefits of relationships.
Students identify the characteristics of a
healthy and unhealthy
Assign the topics “healthy relationships” and “unhealthy rela
Give the groups 5
minutes to brainstorm as many characteristics
Ask each group to present their list on newsprint to the large
group. Ask for further suggestions and add to the lists. You may
want to leave these lists up around the room while covering this
topic to remind the group how to identify if a
relationship is
First semester. Topic: Personal Relationships
John is a
good student who has always enjoyed school. He has al
ways maintained good working relationships with teachers and has felt
able to ask for help and advise when appropriate. Recently John has felt
that his math teacher has been treating him unfairly during class by
questioning his performance in a
series of tests. In fact John would go
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play scenarios should include a
conversation between the
Your group must work together to develop a
conversation provid
Maya and Leticia consider themselves best friends Recently Maya
has noticed that Leticia has been losing a
lot of weight. She sees Leticia
passing on food and has heard her claiming that she is “fat” to other
friends. Maya is now very concerned for her friend but is not sure how
play scenarios should include a
conversation between the
Your group must work together to develop a
conversation provid
Joe lent Craig some money 6
weeks ago. He has not asked for the
money back but knows that Craig started a
new part-time job 3
play scenarios can include conversations between any combi
Your group must work together to develop a
conversation provid
Jordan is keen to take a
year off from study to travel and work in
Europe before attending college. He believes that his parents will see
this as a
waste of time and money and has decided to approach them
play scenarios can include conversations between any combi
Your group must work together to develop a
conversation provid
First semester. Topic: Personal Relationships
Amanda has known Joanne since 3rd grade. She has covered for
Joanne several times, saying that they are having a
sleep-over when in
fact Joanne has been staying with her boyfriend. Amanda no longer
Your group must work together to develop a
conversation provid
Students practice skills for building, maintaining and enhancing
Explain that the following role
play activity will allow students
to practice skills for building, maintaining and enhancing healthy,
Play Scenario Card.
Explain that groups must plan and present a
play as outlined
on the card they received. The role
play should provide appropri
plays should range from 1–3
minutes in length. No inappro
minutes to plan and practice their role
Instruct the audience to listen carefully to each presentation, and
inform them that there will be a
discussion after each presenta
Have each group begin by reading the scenario and introducing
After each presentation, use the following questions to lead a
Can you suggest other ways the characters may have handled this
Why can dealing with friends, family and the people we work with
What are the most effective ways to start talking about a
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What skills and elements were used to maintain these rela-
Can you suggest other ways the characters may have handled this
Identify the characteristics of both healthy and unhealthy
Develop effective ways to build healthy relationships and deal
Develop skills to evaluate whether a
relationship is healthy or
Describe the attitudes for building, maintaining and enhancing
Test practice.
According to an article in Management Today, the British ma-
nager still stops work for tea. The French managing director of Novo
tel, the hotel group, tells what happened at his first management meet
“The meeting was in the afternoon, and it got to about 3.30
everyone started looking at their watches. I
didn’t know what was go
ing on. I
turned to my secretary, who was English, and she said that
they probably wanted to break for tea. I
couldn’t understand it. In
France we just carry on until we have finished. Now we always break
I am not sure how many English managers now break for tea. Not
that many, I
imagine. Twenty years ago it was commonplace. I
never forget a
Canadian sales director, pink with fury, telling me at
First semester. Topic: Personal Relationships
that time how he had been offered tea and biscuits at three in the after
noon in Northampton: “I come three thousand miles, and take three
taxis and a
damn steam engine into the sticks, and I
wanna do busi
ness, and this guy gives me a
`nice cup of China tea and a
biccy’. What
IS he ” Mind you, this was the same man who in Rome told his Italian
It is not so much the cup of tea as the pint of bitter that managers
from outside Britain find a
bar to efficiency. In the article, a
manager tells how when he first took over a
job in Britain, he dis-
covered that at lunchtime and especially on Fridays, the majority of
his management team left for the pub. He says: “I stopped that right
away. Now they are not allowed off the premises. It didn’t make me
very popular at the time but it is not good for efficiency. There is no
According to European managers the British are still too con
cerned with class and status. A
German says: “People say that the class
system is a
hindrance to progress and then two weeks later you over
hear them discussing a
colleague and saying, `Well, he is not very well
spoken, is he ’” And another says: “The class gaps translate into big
gulfs in the pay league, too. In Germany, I
might earn three times more
Some criticisms are rather like those levelled at Japanese manage
ment. For example, talking about status, a
Dutch manager says: “A
rector is God here. They respect him and think that he is right even
when he is wrong. It’s quite difficult to have an open conversation.
Too great an interest in money is also criticised. A
Dutch manager
says: “My first impression on coming to Britain was that profit seemed
to be the most important thing”. And a
Frenchman points out the dif
ference between the UK and France: “In France there is no pressure on
The French manager also points out a
difference in educational
standards: “In France all the secretaries, or personal assistants as we
call them, would have degrees. You wouldn’t consider recruiting one
without a
degree. So, that means you can delegate much more to the
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Why did the Canadian say the Colosseum would make a
nice park
The German didn’t like his managers going to the pub because
he believed playing sports would be better for them.
In Britain, managers are paid much more than their secretaries
English and Japanese managers are similar in that they
First semester. Topic: Personal Relationships
The world ought to be a
quieter place. Anti
noise has hit the mar
ketplace. It means, for example, that refrigerators will no longer
whine, vacuum cleaners no longer roar, and washing machines no
longer rumble. It may even soon be possible to cancel out the low
quency throb of the teenage stereo blasting its bass through the wall
from the flat next door. Already Toshiba has introduced a
silent re
frigerator. Built into the fridge is a
system that silences the hum of
What is anti
noise It is the exact opposite of a
particular sound.
It peaks when the other sound dips, and dips when the other sound
wave peaks. The anti
sound is fired at the unwanted sound through
loudspeaker. The two waves cancel each other out, like ripples meet
There must, however, be a
perfect match, otherwise you end up
with double the din. Thus anti
noise has had to wait for the micropro-
cessor in order to be effective. The microprocessor can monitor the un
A typical active noise cancellation system has been sold to a
way company in the United States. The company unloads grain from
trains by using giant vacuum tubes. These tubes produce as much noise
jet taking off. After installing the system, the noise was reduced to
the level of an air
conditioner’s hum. Forty were installed, to the re
In the aircraft industry, active noise cancellation is contributing
to a
revival in propeller
driven passenger aircraft, which passengers
disliked because of their noise. The first test flight with an anti
system took off in 1989. The system has now move on from research to
commercial development, with passengers likely to hear the benefits
In the car industry, conventional mufflers generate back
sure, which forces the engine to work harder. An active noise canceller
removes the need for sound
absorbing chambers, and improves fuel
consumption by as much as six per cent. From the point of view of sa-
It won’t be long before silent washing machines, fridges and va-
cuum cleaners are in the High Street shops. Electrolux has signed an
agreement to manufacture the technology which should be on the mar
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The trouble is, once you remove one noise, you become more aware
of all the others. How will we be able to shut up the sparrows at five in
After the anti
noise devices were installed, the life of the people
First semester. Topic: Personal Relationships
One day, 43
years old, Walter Hudson walked out of the front door
of his home on Long Island for the first time in 17
years. He sat down
on a
specially made concrete chair and told the reporters and TV ca-
meras assembled there, “This is the best day of my life”. A
bit unsteady
on his feet, having spent the past 28
years in bed, he looked half the
man he used to be: that is, he had cut himself back from 600
kilo to
Although few Americans aspire to Walter’s size, 34
million of
them are heavier than they ought to be. So, a
few years ago, when Wal
ter fell out of bed and was stuck on the floor until the fire brigade came
to help him up, there was some general sympathy with his predica
ment. Walter explained: “As long as I
lay in bed, my size never bo-
thered me. It never even dawned upon me that I
couldn’t do what
wanted to until the day I
fell and couldn’t get up. That was the com
plete turn
around that made me want to change my life”. The publicity
which resulted changed his life. More than one thousand people con
tacted him. He set up a
hotline to his home, and now spends a
lot of
time talking to fellow
sufferers. A
true American, he has marketed his
In the case of the severely obese, drastic answers may be neces
sary. In America, obesity is seen as an illness, a
disease, and treated
accordingly. In extreme cases, surgery could be recommended. Sur
gery was first used in America during the 50s with an operation to
circuit the small bowel in order to prevent the absorption of fats.
Weight was lost but some of the side
effects of the operation turned
out to be fatal. In 1981, in Iowa, the first gastroplasty operation was
performed. The stomach was stitched across, horizontally, so that only
half of it could be used. The latest development, an alternative to sur
gery, is to have a
balloon put in the stomach. There are 20,000
in America walking around with balloons in their stomachs. The bal
loon is made of specially prepared rubber, is inflated in the stomach
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and left there for three months. The big danger is deflation and block
age of the bowels. Otherwise, it’s like having permanently just eaten
All her life, Barbara Quelch had weighed 140
kilo. She was suc
cessful, the director of an advertising agency and the mother of four
children. She had made several attempts to lose weight, even going to
the lengths of having her jaws wired. She explained: “It was very anti
social and over nine months I
cut my weight down by half. However,
when my jaws were unwired, I
soon returned to my usual weight.
didn’t suffer as much as other fat people. I
had a
full and happy life.
But I
got out of breath very quickly, and was tired and irritable a
lot of
the time. Then I
had the gastroplasty operation. I
lost weight within
days. I
could only take fluids for the first two months after the opera
tion, and in the following five months I
lost three kilo a
week. I
can’t eat certain foods, such as meat and potatoes. Most of my meals
wouldn’t fill a
saucer. I
am often sick after meals, but I
don’t regret
thing. I
have always wanted to wear modern clothes and now I
can go
to a
shop and choose what I
want instead of having to take something
because it fits. I
am more assertive now. I
used to be quieter and didn’t
want to do anything in case it drew attention to my figure. Now I
what I
like. I
don’t care what people think any more. It’s not a
The stomach can stretch again, usually after three years, so it is im
portant to eat small amounts of food, often. If this fails there is noth
First semester. Topic: Personal Relationships
According to Barbara Quelch, the big problem with having your
After she had had her gastroplasty operation, Barbara
In 1928, Thomas Midgley, a
scientist and engineer in America,
found a
way to use chlorofluorcarbons (CFCs) as a
refrigerant. They
proved to be a
valuable compound, stable, non
poisonous, non
Their low thermal conductivity made them ideal for coolants in
refrigerators and air
conditioners. In the Second World War, CFCs
were widely used as cleaning solvents and in plastic foam for food and
These are the products which, doubling in output every ten years,
have contributed to the destruction of the ozone layer, the thin veil in
the stratosphere which protects animals and plants from disease and,
Other man
made chemicals, a part from CFCs, are eating ozone
molecules. Among them are halon gases used in fire extinguishers,
sols, and refrigerators, and two compounds widely used as solvents:
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methyl chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. Their combined reaction
on the ozone layer is devastating, allowing ultraviolet rays from the
Bs cause skin cancer. Medical journals in Australia say two
thirds of the population alive today will develop some form of skin can
cer. More than 250,000
of the continent’s 16
million inhabitants will
Bs can damage the immune system and leave you open to infec
tious diseases. They damage your eyes, burning the cornea, injuring
the retina and generating cataracts. In southern Chile, blindness has
begun to strike humans, sheep, rabbits and horses. The radiation kills
off the plankton on which larger sea creatures depend, and in southern
The scientists who know about the ozone layer are worried. They
ozone depletion is now general over the globe, and occurring twice
as fast as had been predicted: according to reports, in the first two
months of this year, parts of the ozone layer shrank by 20
cent, and levels of chlorine, the ozone
eating chemical, were
depletion is now being caused by the CFCs released in the mid
1970s, and so the chemicals being released now will endanger our
no one knows what the cumulative effects of the depletion of the
ozone layer will be, but they do know that things from now on are
First semester. Topic: Personal Relationships
word normally used with reference to
result of UV
Bill Gates, the head of Microsoft, the creator of Basic, MSDOS,
Windows and Flight Simulator, is the richest man in America. If you
lived to be 70, you would have to make $100
million dollars every year
of your life in order to come up with what Gates is currently worth.
__ . Gates himself draws a
salary around $300,000, about a
He is a
man band: he works 15
hour days and loses his temper
easily. He is addicted to competition, and to winning. He enjoys poker
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(4) __ . By the time he was 16, he had already set up a
and was making money from computing. Maths was his strong subject,
important because it shares with programming the same ways of think
ing. Gates was paid to debug the local mainframe, and he also offered
When the first PC appeared on the cover of Popular Computer in
January 1975, Gates, then 19, phoned the manufacturer. He claimed
he had a
version of Basic for the 8080
microprocessor and was ready to
do business. Working night and day, Gates and a
friend squeezed the
language into 4K with enough space left over to run a
Things were done so quickly that a
bootstrap loader had to be writ
ten on the flight to deliver the completed tape. (6) __ . Gates never
forgot how his Basic was immediately pirated by computer companies
all over the world. He became a
very sharp businessman indeed, un
A typical example of the Gates technique can be demonstrated by
his relationship with IBM. IBM split with Microsoft and produced its
own version of OS/2
to compete with Windows. (7) __ . When OS/2
had to be Windows
compatible to stand a
chance of survival, Microsoft
released Windows 3.1
and made other changes so that IBM’s product
(8) __ . They wear T
shirts and anoraks, eat pizzas and read sci
but they know more than the difference between ROM and RAM, and
IBM is a
company whose management were tied to old technology.
Of course, that wealth is largely the result of Microsoft’s astro
But Microsoft makes money on every copy of OS / 2
that IBM sells.
Big crime, like big business, seems to be much the same world
wide. It is all about money and, ultimately, breaking people’s legs,
First semester. Topic: Personal Relationships
Throughout America the Mafia is a
powerful business entity, ab
sorbing one per cent of the GNP of the world’s largest economy. It de
prives the US government of an estimated $30
billion in lost taxes.
__ . It owns sections of the trucking, garment and construction in
dustry in New York and other cities. It also controls the trade unions
The American Mafia are not alone: glasnost has revealed that they
have their exact Russian counter parts, perhaps not quite so glitzy,
but still doing well. The Moscow correspondent of The Independent
newspaper describes one of them: “Known as the Uncle, he is 73. He
made millions of roubles by running underground textile factories all
over the Soviet Union and could have retired long ago. (2) __ . The Un
cle was a
political prisoner in one of Stalin’s labour camps in the Thir
ties. But he quickly realised that common criminals got better treat
ment, so he went over to them. He met all kinds of villains in the camps
and learnt their skills. He last came out of jail in 1953. The police have
“He has a
good, three
roomed flat which is large and luxurious by
Moscow standards. The outer door is reinforced with double metal
plates. (3) __ . He dislikes ostentation but he cannot resist fashion. He
wears his clothes well because daily tennis has left him looking an agile
“Like the classic mafia godfather, the Uncle is a
family man, loyal
to his wife, who, though 25
years his junior, is no longer pretty. His
daughter has a
pampered life and spends hours in front of a
__ . They fear even to brush the daughter’s hand by accident. The
There is one important difference between the American and Rus
sian mobs: the Russian mafia are more interested in the consumer
goods that people in the West take for granted. (5) __ . One business
man had to arrange for three cars packed with colleagues to meet him
and protect him when he arrived in Moscow from Paris with a
Like carrying samovars to Samarkand, such business would not
interest the Japanese mafia, the yakuza. Japan has 80,000
which, according to the Economist, is 20
times the membership of
America’s mafia. The rackets are the same: drugs, extortion, protec
tion, gambling and prostitution. But the system is different: it is Ja-
panese, and very orderly. Crime in Japan, like everything else, is done
in orderly, organised groups. (6) __ . Instant trouble, probably fatal,
would come to the intruder who tried to collect protection money from
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an already protected street market. No pickpocket would dare operate
The Japanese mafia are glorified as the modern equivalent of the
samurai. Such glorification is found also in America and Russia.
Gangs have their own pitches, their own lines of business.
Inside, chandeliers light up the mahogany furniture, the porce
But he has moved with the times and is now trading in videos.
The hottest item is a
personal computer which sells for ten times
murderer, isn’t he
It has moved into legitimate companies which provide a
The sidekicks who come and go, bringing crates of beer from the
Catastrophes at sea and in the air make grim headlines: they rep
resent a
great deal of sorrow for the families of the dead and injured.
Why do they occur (1) __ . Pyromaniacs light fires, as in the case of
the ferry, Scandinavian Star, sailing from Norway to Denmark. In
the week following that tragedy, there were two other cases of fires on
board ferries: on one plying between Wales and Ireland, and on
another between Portsmouth and Cherbourg. In both of them, a
Clearly, fire is a
commonplace hazard, and a
very dangerous one,
at sea. Talking after the Scandinavian Star had been towed into the
small port of Lysekil, a
Swedish police spokesman made it clear how
awful if had been. He said: “The toll from the blaze that engulfed the
ferry south of Oslo fjord is still officially 75
dead and 60
__ . People tried to save themselves in the cabins and they are lying
in big piles and it’s difficult to figure out how many there are. There
(3) __ . On board the Scandinavian Star, a
fireman said the ferry
had only one system to pump and spray water on to the flames and that
pumping and spraying had to be done alternately. On a
wider scale,
newspapers reported once again on the world
wide system of “flag
First semester. Topic: Personal Relationships
out” which means that ships are not registered in the countries
where they operate, and where the regulations are strict and expen
sive, but in places like Panama and Cyprus and the Bahamas, where
they are lax and cheap. The Scandinavian Star, although Danish
One of the more outrageous cases came to light in October 1989.
general cargo ship named the Bosun set sail from Hamburg under
the flag of the small central American state of Belize. (4) __ . They
were charged with flying a
false flag, and forgery of Belize govern
ment documents. A
police officer said: “Belize was not the latest en
trant in the cheap flag stakes; they in fact operate no shipping what-
soever. When we contacted the Belize High Commission in London,
they were astonished to learn that a
ship was pretending to be regis
Rules are laid down for ship safety by United Nations organisa
tions. The rules are strict, and specify that a
ship must be built with
heat and fire resistant bulkheads, fire doors to passenger and crew ar
eas, sealed cable and air conditioning trunking to block smoke, non
combustible materials and / or sprinkler systems, smoke detectors and
alarms, and signposted emergency exits. (5) __ . He explains: “The big
loophole is the lack of power to test whether these rules are being en
forced. The port state is entitled to carry out spot checks on ships to
make sure their safety certificates are in order; the lifeboats are all
there and don’t have holes in them; and that there are the necessary
charts, life
jackets in the racks, and fire hoses in their reels. But they
don’t have the power to test whether they all work, or the crews know
how to use them. I
think the public has a
right to be worried”. He goes
on to point out that the Scandinavian Star would have been built to
very high design standard. However, it is likely that neither her crew
nor her safety equipment could have been checked in the Bahamas be
Why do the shipowners do it According to the Secretary of the
National Union of Seamen, the answer is cost. He says: “The Danish
owners of the ill
fated Scandinavian Star could have registered her in
Denmark and employed ratings belonging to the appropriate union.
__ . The ship would have come under the rigorous scrutiny of the
“But the inspectors might have insisted on potentially costly
modifications and the ratings would have asked for Danish wages and
accompanying social benefits. Much simpler (not to mention cheaper)
to register her in the Bahamas and at a
stroke free the owners from
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About 100
bodies have already been taken off the ship and as many
In the immediate aftermath of such catastrophes reports of inad
Among the survivors of this horrific tragedy there may be some
West German police arrested and charged two men, the ship’s
These would have been properly trained in fire
fighting and life
boat drills and been able to communicate with their officers and
It is surprising that the insurance companies do not demand more
Terrorists plant bombs, as in the case of the destruction of the
But all these rules of ship design are meaningless according to an
A New York newspaper is inviting its readers to “give the gift of
hate” in its classified advertisement columns. The Manhattan Pen
nysaver invites its readers to “slay a
rotten neighbour, to badmouth
the public figure of your choice, to spew forth your anger”. Among
entries on the hate page has been this missive from Janet to Jake:
“Thanks for the wonderful dinner. After eating with your fingers,
burping and passing wind all evening, I
say, “Find someone else to date
You cannot stay neutral about New York. (2) __ . As far as New
Yorkers themselves are concerned, they love to hate it. For example,
The New York Times last year ran a
series of leading articles under the
overall title: “New Calcutta: an occasional series”. Several of the ar-
ticles have dealt with homelessness and the need for public housing.
specific case is that of the mentally ill. In New York, as in London,
many of the city’s homeless are former occupants of mental institu
tions who have been put on the streets without adequate shelter pro
vided for them in the city. No one knows exactly how many in New York
have no homes to go to, but it is roughly estimated at 100,000. (3) __ .
There are the weepers, those who sit with their knees drawn up, hand
First semester. Topic: Personal Relationships
out, crying continuously. There are the ones who ask for big money:
Everything in New York is extreme. It is a
city of the incredibly
rich and the miserably poor. For the rich, there are expensive private
schools and hospitals, concert halls and theatres
— although fewer of
those than formerly
— and restaurants. The poor are on a
hiding to
nowhere: all public facilities, schools and hospitals and housing, are
deteriorating. (4) __ . There are 250,000
heroin addicts, 500,000
Of all New York statistics, those concerning crimes of violence
are most often quoted. About five people are murdered every day. The
record for one day’s killing was set on 9
July 1988
when 20
people were
murdered. The total for any one year is going on 2,000. These are not
the traditional gangland slayings. (5) __ . A
typical killing occurred in
the Bronx when a
old boy saw two friends being harassed by
another teenager. When he tried to cool things down, the teenager
pulled out a
revolver and shot him. He was dead in seconds. In another
case, a
woman went to pull her child away from her apartment door
because she knew that her flatmate’s boyfriend was outside and angry.
The latest fashion in violence is called “wilding”. Posses of teen
agers often go on the rampage. Their most frequent victims are fellow
blacks and Hispanics from the ghetto, violent and drug
infested neigh
bourhoods which are no longer in anyone’s control. (6) __ . The strang
est attacks have been on white women by gangs of black teenage girls:
victims have reported being stabbed from behind by needles or pins,
and some of them feared
that they had been injected with an Aids
New Yorkers routinely compare their city with Calcutta. But the
comparison is unfair: (7) __ . It also has the know
how. In the early
eighties, through the drive of one man, Richard Ravitch, the New
York subway system was saved from total breakdown. Mr Ravitch, by
huge efforts, raised the $8
billion capital needed to clean the stations
and trains of their graffiti, to lay down new track, and buy new, air
What Washington has spent its money on is laser
guided weapons
systems, and the other fancy hardware of the star wars programme,
such as the free electron laser. A
single research facility for the FEL,
The streets are filled with beggars, or panhandlers, as Americans
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New York has the wealth to do something about its problems.
These are the result of casual violence combined with easy access
And from Susan to Ginger: “Darling, next bus out of town. Be
children from the ghetto commonly battle each other with
The statistics of social breakdown make depressing reading.
Choose the correct answer from the text. The answers may be in
not drive on if there is another vehicle in front of him
On wet roads, drivers should double the recommended distance
between their car and the one in front, allowing two car lengths for
every 10
mph. They should reduce their speed and steer with a
touch. However, they should at the same time grip the wheel firmly
enough to resist the steering deflection that may occur when the front
wheels, travelling at speed, hit a
pool of water. These pools are often
Modern tyres are designed to keep their grip on the road surface
by squeezing water on the road out of their path, but at high speeds
there is not always time for the water to escape. A
car travelling at
mph on a
quarter of an inch of water may lose practically all adhe
sion as the tyre aquaplanes along the road on a
cushion of water. Worn
First semester. Topic: Personal Relationships
Drivers should not attempt to drive through a
flooded stretch of
road if there is a
danger that the engine, especially the ignition sys
tem, will be under water. Drivers should get out and check on foot, or
wait until a
bus or lorry goes through the water and indicates the
depth. If a
crossing seems possible, take the crown of the road, and
enter the water carefully to avoid a
splash. Maintain a
steady speed,
not so fast that the water surges through the radiator grill, but fast
enough to create a
slight bow wave which will reduce the depth of wa
ter in front of the engine and help to keep the fan clear. Keep the en
When ice makes road adhesion minimal, drivers should brake,
steer, accelerate and change gear with an extremely delicate touch.
Most skids start when wheels lock or spin, and so drivers need to be
careful with acceleration as well as braking. Double or even treble the
distance from the vehicle in front, and use high gear to lessen the
chances of wheel spin and skids. As much weight as possible should be
kept directly over the wheels, and any passengers should sit in the
back. If driving alone, weights such as bags of sand should be put on
the back floor of front
engined cars, and in the front luggage compart
To climb a
hill in deep snow, gain as much speed as possible before
the slope and avoid over
revving during the ascent, even if it means
letting the engine over
work. If a
gear change
down becomes essential,
make it quickly to keep up forward movement. When you go down
covered hill, use a
lower gear to make use of engine
rather than the wheel brakes, which may lock and slide. If a
slide does
occur, release the brakes at once, steer a
straight course, and then ap
ply gentle braking by dabbing at the pedal. Try to avoid climbing
bound hill if there is already a
vehicle on it, because of the dan
When there is thick falling snow, drivers should use headlights
and anything else which will help them to see and be seen. Drivers
should stop occasionally to clean away the build
up of snow at the li-
mits of the windscreen wipers’ travel, and clear the back windows, wing
mirrors and lights at the same time. It is a
good idea to carry a
or rubber
bladed scraper in the car of this purpose. Keep the de
working and, if necessary, open a
window to cut down interior misting.
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The road surface quickly becomes slippery as snow falls, so the driver
should accelerate, steer and brake gently and allow extra braking dis
Choose the correct answer from the text. The answers may be in
Melt half the butter in a
small dish, break into it the eggs,
with salt and pepper, and put the remainder of the butter on top in
small pieces. Bake for 10
minutes in a
medium hot oven. Serve in the
Melt the butter in a
small saucepan. Brown in it the thinly sliced
onion, stir in the curry powder, flour, stock and chopped apple; sim
mer gently for 3O minutes. Cut 3
of the hard
boiled eggs in halves. To
First semester. Topic: Personal Relationships
the curry sauce add salt, lemon juice and chutney, and re
heat the eggs
in the sauce. Pour into a
dish, cut up the remaining egg into small pieces
Melt the butter in a
saucepan. Add the flour, stir well and cook for
minute. Add the milk, stir until very thick, smooth and glossy. Re
move from the burner and add the eggs, ham, parsley, salt and pepper.
Mix well, turn on to a
floured board and divide into equal pieces. Shape
each piece into a
cutlet. Brush with the beaten egg and coat with bread
crumbs. Fry in smoking hot fat for a
few minutes until crisp and
Boil the eggs hard, and dip in cold water for a
minute; remove
shells, divide in half lengthwise, and dish in a
circle. Have the sauce
Melt the butter, stir in the flour, seasoning, milk, stock, and
Coat the eggs with this, and sprinkle over with Parmesan cheese.
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Mark the shell on one side of each egg. Place the eggs in cold water
in a
saucepan and bring to the boil. Immediately they boil turn the eggs
over and boil for 10
minutes. It is necessary to turn the eggs so that the
yolks can be kept in the middle, the mark serves as a
guide. Place at
Skin the sausages, flatten each out on a
floured board. Dry the
eggs in a
cloth and dip them in flour. Cover each egg evenly with the
sausage meat. Brush with egg and dip into crumbs. Fry until a
To serve hot, cut the coated eggs in half, slantwise, using a
sharp knife. Serve each half on a
fried round of bread or on a
mound of mashed potato which should be hollowed to hold the egg.
To serve cold, place the coated eggs on a
bed of lettuce or water
Choose the correct answer from the text. The answers may be in
Cheddar is one of the oldest English cheeses on record. There are
two main kinds of Cheddar cheese, the factory Cheddar and the farm
house Cheddar. Factory Cheddar is made of cow’s milk wherever and
whenever cow’s milk happens to be cheap: it is made in as large quanti
ties as possible and as economically as possible Its cost is usually half
that of the genuine farmhouse Cheddar. Farmhouse Cheddar is made
from May to October, of milk from one and the same herd of cows when
First semester. Topic: Personal Relationships
they are out at grass It is made in ones or twos, from day to day, by
maker who is a
specialist at his job. its texture is close and
buttery; its favour is full and nutty but not strong, varying from fine
to finest according to the skill of the cheese maker and the age of the
cheese; its colour is the same all through; above all, it will mature with
Cheshire cheese is a
hard cheese, made from cow’s milk, like Ched
dar. It is the oldest English cheese. Cheshire cheese is made in two co-
lours: red and white, but the best Cheshire cheese is the Blue, because
it is both the richest and ripest. Blue Cheshire is not made — it just
happens; it begins by being red, the milk from which it is made being
loured at the time of the making. Red Cheshire cheeses mature early
and remain mild, whilst others, a
small proportion of the whole, first
of all lose their carroty colour and then develop a
blue system of veins
which spreads over the cheese, as in the case of Stilton and other ‘blue’
cheese. Cheshire cheese may be imitated like Cheddar and Stilton, but
not with anything like the same success. This is due to the rich depo-
sits of salt in Cheshire soil and the peculiarly saline composition of the
Cream cheese is made in many parts of the country but chiefly in
Devon and Cornwail. In the making of cream
cheese all that is re
quired, besides fresh milk, is a
piece of muslin and a
perforated box.
The cream automatically drains away its own excess moisture and be
comes about as firm as fresh butter in three or four days, when it is
ready to eat. The ripening goes from the outside to the centre. Conse
quently, the temptation is to place them on the market too soon, and
when this has happened, the purchaser finds a
cheese oozy at its sur
face but hard in the centre. Being short
lived, they are often salted and
refrigerated for transport, so a
genuinely creamy cream
cheese is
found less by cunning than by grace. In the country, it is easier to come
In shape it is flat, round and large. Its texture is firm and crum
bly. It has a
pronounced, but mellow, delicacy of flavour, being pun
gent without being sharp. A
ripening ease, it keeps reasonably
well, but in its early days it suffers from draughts, and when cut, how
ever ripe, has that tendency of crumbly cheese to become dry, To ma
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Single Gloucester, made during spring and summer, needs but
couple of months to mature. It is usually white, and is of the same as
the Double, but smaller and flatter, and from this it presumably derives
its name. Being a
ripening cheese, Single Gloucester is rather soft
Stilton is a
seasonal, double
cream, blue moulded, semi
hard cheese;
seasonal because can only be made from May to September; double
because Stilton is from the richest milk, to which the cream of other
milk is added; blue
moulded because it is inoculated with a
mould which
is responsible for the blue veining of Stilton; semi
hard, because it is not
put through the curd
mill nor pressed like Cheddar. The right colour of
Stilton is white with veins of blue mould evenly distributed over the
whole of its surface. The rind should be well crinkled and regular, free
from cracks, and of a
drab colour. Stilton is at its best when fully
ripe, not less than six months and preferably nine months after it has
been made. It is quite wrong to add port or anything else to a
good Stil
ton. It is only done to moisten it when it has been allowed to get too dry
through exposure to the air. Good Stilton has been made from rich milk
Grammar revision
Underline the appropriate personal pronoun in each of these fif
Her grade is higher than (mine, him). (gj) Does this instrument
Were you able to hear (us, we) from that spot (We and they, Us
and them) will meet at the movies. @ Please help (they, us) lift
Listen to what (she, her) is telling (you, your) about the ship’s
First semester. Topic: Personal Relationships
Indicate the action verbs by writing A
on the line before the sen
tence. Do the same for the linking verbs (L) and the helping verbs
(H). There are at least three examples of each of these verbs with
Last night’s audience members seemed more enthusiastic than to
This talented surfer rode the wave all the way to the shore.
Since Vicki had not eaten much today, her dinner tasted especially
Much of the required information will be reviewed during the
Greta felt tired after the grueling boot camp exercises.
Each of these fifteen doctors was interviewed by the county health
will not be able to go to the field for I
have not completed my sci
Paola would like to be here with us, yet she has to watch over her
This seems like a
terrific plan, but I
am not sure that the town can
Perhaps you or your neighbors will be able to organize the block
Do you think that we should put the paint on now so it will have
Use an appropriate subordinating conjunction to combine each
pair of ideas or sentences. Insert punctuation where it is needed.
Write your answers on a
separate sheet of paper. Feel free to add
The bell rang. The students moved to the next period.
You finish your science project. You cannot play your video
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We were watching the nightly news. We received a
phone call
My cat, Belinda, started to hiss. The veterinarian approached my
You will want to try an even harder puzzle. You solve a
Francois explored the surroundings. His friends asked him ques
The garbage cans were left out in the street. The garbage collec
ghost. Eduardo is my brother.
Identify each underlined word’s part of speech. An answer can be
used more than once. Use these abbreviations on the line before each
sentence: n
= noun; pro = pronoun; adj = adjective; v
= verb; adv =
! Are you complaining about our group’s meeting
These geese wanted to cross the street,
the tourists escorted
Identify each underlined word’s part of speech. An answer can be
used more than once. Use these abbreviations on the line before
each sentence: n
= noun; pro = pronoun; adj = adjective; v
= verb;
First semester. Topic: Personal Relationships
adv = adverb; prep = preposition; c
= conjunction; and int = inter
Gary was
athletically talented that he was recruited by several
would love to attend the ceremony,
already have another
of these comedians will be appearing at local clubs this fall.
— more than just friends
Dating provides teens with the opportunity to develop skills and
behaviours for building and maintaining healthy relationships. This
Lesson encourages students to think about the important qualities of
intimate relationships by identifying what first attracts people to one
another and what helps a
relationship grow and change. There is no set
time or age to start dating and students will have differing opinions
about this based on their personal values and cultural and religious
For classes that have already established ground rules, quickly re
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These discussion points will help students to clarify what is meant
Dating usually means that two people are spending time together
in a
close relationship. These relationships can be complex, and usually
develop over time and may consist of friendship, romantic love, and /
Do you think there is pressure to date If so, where does it come
Some teens may feel pressure to date from friends. There is no set
age or time to start dating. Many people do not start dating until they
have finished school because other things are more important to them
such as their school work, a
sport they enjoy or just hanging out with
The media may present images of couples in movies, TV shows and
Do you think that males and females have similar expectations
This is a
good opportunity to discuss stereotypes around dating
with your students. You can talk about who asks who out on a
who pays when on a
date etc. The topic of sexual decision
making and
sexual pressure may be raised and it is important to dispel the stereo
types that only males initiate sexual activity and place pressure on
their partners. Each individual and couple is different and there is no
set time in a
relationship for these decisions. Communication is very
How do we know what factors influence the qualities we look for
Some suggestions may include from our parents / family, TV,
movies, magazines, music, and peers. Many of the examples of rela
tionships we see in the media are not realistic and present an over
manticized image. Sometimes we are able to learn from other couples
A teacher can play a
very important role in helping students de
velop respect for sexual diversity. Teachers should also be sensitive to
the fact that there may be students in their class who are in varying
Some students may wish to talk about same sex relationships and
this may be uncomfortable and challenging for other students. You
First semester. Topic: Personal Relationships
may wish to explore this topic further by using the CALM Lessons Re
Students who are developmentally delayed or have physical dis-
abilities may experience different types of relationships and may need
Depending on class size of the group divide students into groups
Explain that the purpose of this exercise is for groups to devise
set of interview questions they could use to question a
tive dating partner. Groups should think about what they want
from the other person in terms of qualities and characteristics
Give the groups 10–15
minutes to record their questions on news
Ask each group to present their list on newsprint to the large
group. Ask for further suggestions and add to the lists. You may
want to leave these lists up around the room while covering this
topic to remind the group of important qualities in a
dating rela
If you had to rank the qualities in order of importance, which
How do we learn about these qualities For some it may be a
of trying relationships and realizing what you definitely do not
Students explore the idea of ‘safe dating’. Begin by asking stu
Raise the following discussion points if not addressed by stu
Dating should be fun and provide you with an opportunity to get
to know the other person. It is important to share decisions around
If it is your first time together you may want to go out with
another couple or in a
group. Stay in places where other people are
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Be aware of the effects of substance use and the risk of sexual ac
Know your limits around sexual activity. Being clear about your
limits makes it easier to express them to a
date and to stick by
them. It is important to discuss issues such as abstaining from
Be honest with your date and use assertive communication strate
gies. If you no longer want to date the other person explain why
Students brainstorm ways in which they can stay safe when dat
You may wish to set this task in class if time allows or as an evalu
Together with your group, produce material for an adolescent au
of the following types of promotional material for
Do your research. Your promotion must address each of the fol
What can you do to ensure you are safe when out with
How can you avoid making poor choices and decisions while
dating (e.g. avoiding substance use, be clear about your va-
Are there any agencies or community support networks that
Plan the layout / design of your promotion.
Ensure that the pro
motion would convince an adolescent audience to date safe
. Brain
Work together to develop the finished product. Ensure that the
First semester. Topic: Personal Relationships
Use the following checklist to ensure you have created high qua-
The promotion would convince an adolescent audience to date
Explain that groups must plan and present promotional material
Allow groups time to plan and develop their promotional material
Have groups present their promotional material to the class.
If time permits, answer student questions and have students ge-
Identify positive elements of relationships (e.g. trust, integrity,
Recognize that dating should happen at an individual’s own
When relationships change
Relationships do not remain static. As a
couple gets to know one
another, new feelings, ideas and issues can evolve and develop. This
Lesson encourages students to consider how relationships progress
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from the first meeting, through dating and eventually, if a
chooses sexual activity. There is no set time or age to start dating, fall
in love or begin sexual activity and students will have differing opin
ions about this based on their personal values and / or cultural and
For classes that have already established ground rules, quickly review
Students question how relationships progress from the first feel
Introduce the activity by explaining that we will be building a
lationship, step by step. We will be looking at the components of
There are several ways in which you may want to divide your
group. With groups of 15–20
students prepare for one group.
With larger groups have two groups
— you may want to split the
Hand out the Relationship Progression Cards giving one or two to
each person. Ask the students to hold their cards so everyone can
see them and line up in order as quickly as possible. Cards can be
placed on the table or students can physically stand in line if the
room is big enough. Be sure to tell the group where the starting
Encourage comments to be kept for large group feedback and dis
First semester. Topic: Personal Relationships
Unconditional Regard (Knowing Someone’s Good / Bad Points
Students discuss relationship progression and personal values.
You can lead the group discussion using the following questions
Does everyone agree that this is the “right” order If not, what
There is no “right” way for a
relationship to develop, everyone is
different. Not everyone in the group will agree with the order the
group has placed the stages. It is most important that the people in the
relationship are happy with the speed the relationship is progressing.
Communication and honesty enable couples to go at their own pace and
Many couples choose abstinence in their relationship and it is im
portant that you make it clear that this is a
choice. Thinking about
marriage or long
term commitment may be difficult for teens to con
template at an opportunity to experiment with what qualities you look
Some students may feel uncomfortable with this activity. Be sure
to emphasize that all relationships may progress differently and that
romantic relationships may start and end at different times through
out their lives. Romantic relationships may consist of male
(If there are two groups) How do the progressions compare with
each other Are they dramatically different If the groups were
It is important to address gender stereotypes that may come up at
this point in the discussion. Not all males want sex in a
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Where does / should love be placed in the progression
(You may want to leave this card out until this point in the discus
Can people fall in love at first sight Does there need to be love
Have we built a
“real” relationship or an” ideal” relationship Do
It is important to emphasize that if a
couple chooses to be sexually
What happens if we take the intercourse card and put it near the
This idea may have been raised when you addressed question
above. Some relationships may be “one
night stands” and involve lit
What does your group think about this from an emotional stand
Everyone is different; there is certainly no timeline that must be
Chances are the group will have put these cards near the end of the
relationship. Challenge them to put “thinking about” and “talking
about” cards earlier. If one or both people in the relationship want to
choose abstinence it is important they have this conversation early in
Students think about how relationships progress and change from
Often, people feel that they are in love, but sometimes it turns out
Immature love may involve one person “taking” more than “giv
ing;” jealousy; one person “calling all the shots”, broken promises; and
Using the Handout, Important Qualities in an Intimate Relation
Show that you care for the other person:
There are many ways to
show that you care for someone. This means “being there” when your
First semester. Topic: Personal Relationships
Have a
sense of humour:
Laughter can help us to not take our
Many relationships fail because partners do not let
Do meaningful things together:
Joining clubs or societies, doing
Maintain relationships with other people:
Ensure you have time
for yourself to spend with your friends even if your partner does not
like them! During relationship hard times or if the relationship ends
Understand your partner’s decisions:
You may not agree with
your partner’s choices but it is important to show respect and support
Need to tolerate each other’s weaker moments:
This is a
true sign
Accept each other’s style:
Chances are the reason you chose to date
your partner is because you found their style attractive (e.g. attitude
toward life, sense of humour). If these things become problematic in
Sexual fulfillment:
Not necessarily sexual intercourse. A
may choose not to be sexually active but enjoy being close to one an
Describe skills for building, maintaining and enhancing healthy,
Recognize that dating should happen at an individual’s own
Describe attitudes and behaviours for building, maintaining and
Home reading
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dentifying unhealthy relationships
For teens to develop positive, healthy relationships they need to
be able to identify when relationships are unhealthy and damaging.
Problems may begin with what seem to be “innocent” issues and can
eventually lead to abuse and violence. Many teens settle for unhealthy
relationships and find it difficult to communicate their concerns to
their partners. This Lesson encourages students to identify some of
the signs of an unhealthy relationship, communication skills to help
deal with the problems, and when necessary, strategies for ending re
For classes that have already established ground rules, quickly review
Students identify healthy and unhealthy characteristics of a
Introduce the activity by stating that sometimes it is necessary to
step back and evaluate our romantic relationships. Often we can
Place the CARDS that say HEALTHY and UNHEALTHY around
Hand out the Relationship Statement Cards giving one or two to
each person. Ask the students to place their cards under the
It is O.K. with you when your partner spends time alone with
It is O.K. with your partner when you spend time alone with
Your partner likes the way you look and act and tells you so. You
Your partner pressures you to do sexual acts you don’t want to
When you refuse to do certain sexual acts, your partner puts you
First semester. Topic: Personal Relationships
You are afraid of your partner’s temper, so you avoid making him /
Your partner scares you by driving fast, drinking too much or
Your partner says, “I can’t live without you” and it scares you
You worry that the relationship might end and She
/ he would do
You have both agreed that you are a
couple and trust each other to
You can both be honest about your feelings and talk about them
You and your partner are safe from sexually transmitted infections
Lead a
group discussion about the card placements using the fol
Considering the other person’s opinions and feelings
solution that is good for both of you.
Shouting or yelling when you are angry at your date
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Why is it sometimes difficult for someone to acknowledge that
The expression “love is blind” is often true. Someone may feel
they are so in love that they do not look deeply at the problems and
People who are in unhealthy relationships often believe that
things will get better, the problems are just a
phase or that they
Sometimes they will have seen this type of behaviour in another
relationship, for example at home and not realize that the charac
Teens often feel that having a
boy / girl friend is more important
They may be scared to break it off either because they feel they
cannot cope without the other person of that the other person may
If someone is in an unhealthy relationship what can she/ he do
It is important to acknowledge unhealthy characteristics in a
lationship before they become abusive characteristics. Emotional
abuse such as verbal attacks may eventually turn into physical or
sexual abuse. Show Handout: Know the signs: abusive relation
Dominating and controlling your date’s other relationships /
Pushing, hitting, restraining or holding your date against his /
If someone feels that their relationship is unhealthy they should
talk to their partner and make it clear that unless things change the
relationship will end. Talking to friends or others they trust is impor
— often friends can provide some insight by letting you know how
First semester. Topic: Personal Relationships
Students identify unhealthy aspects of relationships and explore
Jen and Mark met for the first time in their Block 1
art class. As
they worked together on art projects they began to know each other
better and started to talk about more personal things. As their friend
ship grew they started to realize that they were increasingly attracted
to each other. They started to date and spend more and more time to
gether and found that they could communicate openly and honestly.
But several months later, it became apparent to Jen that Mark was
changing. His way of talking to her, his treatment of her (not only
when they were alone but also around their other friends) and even
the physical aspects of their relationship were all taking what might
be called an unhealthy direction. Jen, and several of her other friends
What are some of the unhealthy or even abusive behaviours that
Jen might be seeing in Mark Jen decided to give Mark a
longer to change his behaviours and even told him how she felt
when he said and did some of the things that were a
problem for
her. Mark said that he was sorry and began telling her that he
could not imagine life without her. Things did not change and in
fact Mark became increasingly more controlling, insisting that
she not spend time with her friends and pressuring her to have
sex. So Jen decided that she could no longer remain in the rela
tionship. One or two of her friends who had been urging her to
break up with mark were relieved. They offered to help her find
Jen has decided to end the relationship because it is becoming abu
sive. What other reasons might a
person have for ending a
Despite how difficult the breaking up process might be, why is it
If you were one of Jen’s friends, what advice would you give to
Give each student a
copy of the handout Jen and Mark
— a
Students should work in pairs or small groups to address the ques
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Unhealthy or abusive behaviours Jen might be experiencing might
Other reasons a
person might have for ending a
relationship in
no longer caring for the other person, finding someone else, hav
ing increasingly different interests, realizing that their first im
pressions were wrong, constant fighting, parents’ disapproval,
Jen should end the relationship by talking in person (rather than
choosing a
comfortable, safe place; by trying not to lose her tem
she may still love him, she may be afraid, she may blame herself
and keep trying to make things right, she may feel that she will
The process of breaking up may be difficult for Jen but it is im
Mark is likely to continue with his abusive behaviours and over
The type of advice a
friend may give to Jen will vary depending
Ask students how they would approach a
friend if they felt that
First semester. Topic: Personal Relationships
Students review unhealthy relationships and safety planning in
It is normal to have intense feelings about ending a
As well as negative feelings, people often have positive feelings
Talk over your feelings and decision to break up with someone you
Think safety at all times. If you suspect that the other person
Discuss the reasons teens may stay in relationships and accept
Addressing violence in relationships
Approximately one in ten teenagers experience physical violence
in a
dating relationship. The average age of a
first violent relationship
experience is around 15
years of age.3
Teens are vulnerable to abuse in
their relationships due in part to inexperience and also myths that in
clude viewing violence as an act of love. In this session students will
identify warning signs of being a
victim of violence and strategies to
deal with abusive relationships. Students will also practice ways to
For classes that have already established ground rules, quickly re
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Students clarify the definition of the term ‘relationship violence’.
Relationship violence means using emotional, physical and sexual
abuse to frighten, hurt or maintain power over a
partner. NOBODY
Ask students to brainstorm the various forms of violence under
Physical abuse:
The intentional use of force or threats of force.
Emotional abuse
pattern of destructive behaviour that attacks
person’s self
esteem. Can include spreading rumors, lying, or
Sexual abuse:
When someone forces any form of sexual activity
Psychological abuse:
Manipulation, mind games, or guilt trip
Ask students how common they think these types of violence are
Statistics collected by the Canadian Red Cross show that 40% of
females and 30% of males report being violent at some point in their
dating careers. It is important to emphasize that relationship violence
is not confined to males being violent to females as the stereotype sug
gests. Any couple, whether male / female, male / male or female / fe
Some students may identify their own relationships as unhealthy
or violent as a
result of these discussions. It is important to be sensi
tive towards these students and to be aware of agencies and services
In high school, 25% of females and 10% of males reported vio
lence in a
Studies of battered wives show that women
39% of all Canadian women have experienced at least one incident
Ask students to brainstorm the warning signs that may indicate
A person who is experiencing relationship abuse may show the fol
First semester. Topic: Personal Relationships
Sudden changes in mood or personality (e.g. becoming anxious or
/ he may want to get serious quickly (e.g. will not take NO for
/ he is jealous and possessive (e.g. wants to pick your friends
/ he is controlling and bossy (e.g. makes all the decisions, does
not take your opinions seriously, or uses put
downs when alone or
/ he uses guilt trips (e.g. “if you really loved me, you
Blames you for relationships problems (e.g. “it’s because of you
/ he may apologize for violent behaviours promising never act
Ask students to discuss reasons why teens don’t tell parents or
Convinced that it is their fault or that their parents will blame
Confused — they may think this is what a
relationship is all
Afraid of losing privileges like being able to stay out late or use
Jen and Mark met in Art class. Working on projects, they got to
know each other better. As they became friends, they realized they
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Thy started to go on dates and spend more and more time to
Several months later, their friends noticed that the relationship was
changing. They noticed that he put her down often and was demanding
and aggressive with her. They also noticed that Jen and Mark were
rarely a part and that when Jen was away from mark, he would con
stantly call her cell phone. Jen seemed anxious when she was with
Mark, and often worried about making him angry. Jen’s friends began
After talking to her friends, Jen decided to give Mark a
longer to change and told him how she felt. Mark said that he was sorry
and began telling her that he could not imagine life without her. He
promised to change and said that he did not mean to do hurtful
Things did not change, and in fact, their friends worried that
Mark was becoming increasingly more controlling. Mark was also pres
suring Jen to have sex. Jen often called friends to cancel plans. Mark
also became closed and didn’t spend time with friends. He would be
Jen’s best friend, Ann, and Mark’s best friend, George, are very
worried about the situation. They have decided that it’s time to talk to
Jen and Mark about the relationship. Ann will talk to Jen and George
You are either Ann or George. You are preparing to talk about
mark and Jen’s relationship. Answer the questions below to pre
pare for your conversation, based on how you think your charac
What needs to change in the relationship Should the relationship
Mark is pressuring Jen to have sex. What decision do you think she
How would you express your opinion about the relationship in
Students identify ways that they can support a
friend who is being
Explain that the following role play activity will help students
identify ways that they could support a
friend who is being abused
First semester. Topic: Personal Relationships
Give each group a
copy of the handout Jen and Mark
— a
Explain that groups must plan and present a
play as outlined
in the handout. The role
play should provide appropriate exam
ples of how they would support either Jen or Mark. Role
should range from 1–3
minutes in length. No inappropriate lan
minutes to plan and practice their role
Instruct the audience to listen carefully to each presentation, and
Have each group begin by telling the audience who they have cho
sen to support and then introduce the actors and their roles.
After each presentation, use the following questions to lead a
Can you suggest other ways the characters may have handled this
Discuss the Safety Planning for Teens. Other safety suggestions
If you are physically abused or assaulted, seek medical attention.
Document any physical abuse, in writing and with pictures if
If you are alone with your partner, note escape routes in case
Debrief the activity using the overheads: If you think your friend
Note that while it may be healthier and safer for Jen to leave the
relationship, she may choose to stay. For the friends and family
Nobody deserves to be abused. Abuse is not a
sign of love or affec
If you are being abused find someone you trust to talk to. Talk to
your partner and explain that you are going to leave if the abuse
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If your friend is being abused, talk it out by being a
good listener
and offering your support. Tell your friend that nobody deserves
to be abused. Be patient; it can take time for your friend to make
If you are abusing talk it out with a
friend or counselor. Abuse is
Discuss the reasons teens may stay in violent relationships and
Identify the abusive behaviour
and talk about what is happening
to your friend. Remind your friend that jealousy and possessive
Tell your friend, “You are not to blame”.
Remind your friend that
Don’t tell your friend that it is wrong
if a
choice is made to stay in
the relationship. Keep listening, talking and challenging your
Continue to be a
even in the times when you feel frustrated
Get new ideas on how to help your friend
from people who under
Confront your friend and name abusive behaviours
when you see
— do not be a
silent bystander to abuse. Remember early
First semester. Topic: Personal Relationships
Challenge your friend’s stereotyping
and putdowns of people.
Talk about the consequences of violence
. Abusive behaviour builds
Encourage your friend to get help.
Let your friend know it will
probably happen again and may be worse next time. Phone a
Be there for your friend
when your friend accepts responsibility
If you are in an abusive relationship, or trying to get out of one,
code word with friends or parents for danger.
shelter about your situation.
When with your partner, keep in mind warning signs that things
Make sure someone knows where you are and when you’ll be
restraining order.
Test practice. Use of English
From the words listed below, choose the ones which best fit the
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Scandal has haunted the Olympic Games in modern times. At the
very first Games, an Englishman called Flack (01) __ off briskly in
front of the (02) __ in the marathon. He was (03) __ by his butler on
bicycle. When they neared Athens, he (04) __ the butler back to
__ who was behind him. The butler went back about a
mile but
found nobody. He rode back to Flack and said, “There’s nobody. You
can win this thing on your head”. Then soon after, (06) __ ran one
Greek, then another, and another, and another. They were full of run
At the next Marathon, in 1900, in Paris, the winner was a
man who worked as a
baker’s roundsman. It was (08) __ suspected that
he was able to take numerous short (09) __ because of his experience
Four years later, the Games were held in St Louis, in the USA.
This (10) __ suspicions were proved, and the scandal great. The Amer
ican runner who finished first in the marathon was discovered to have
It is not so much the scandals and disputes of recent years that
have (12) __ the Games. It is their sheer (13) __ , their excessive cost,
their indulgence of national pride. One very sensible suggestion is that
future Games should be restricted to individual (14) __ in which one
person clearly wins. All team games would go, and no one would feel
any loss at the disappearance of Olympic soccer, a
pale (15) __ of the
First semester. Topic: Personal Relationships
From the words listed below, choose the ones which best fit the
The death of Fred Hill was recorded by a
(01) __ article in the
Times newspaper. Fred was 74
years old and died in prison. He was in
prison for the 32nd time. Why . (02) __ for any great crime, but for
reason you may find difficult to understand. You see, Fred was a
He believed that he was a
safer motorcyclist (04) __ a
crash hel
met. More importantly, he believed that, right or wrong, the decision
to wear a
crash helmet was his to (05) __ . It was not for the State to tell
him (06) __ to do. So Fred went out on his old motorbike with no hel
The police (07) __ him. They (08) __ a
blind eye when they could.
But often they had no choice. And in the court they had no choice
usually (10) __ him 30
days. But the last time, they gave the old man
two months. Some way through the sentence, Fred suffered a
heart at
Was he heroic If he was, he was a
most unlikely hero. But per
haps we do need someone to (11) __ out for the little liberties, the sort
of (12) __ which the greater boring mass of “public opinion” considers
too silly, too undignified, not worth (13) __ about. The sort of thing
there are no votes in for (14) __ Fred Hill stood for an individual free
dom, which is a
freedom to do things that the (15) __ generally consi-
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From the words listed below, choose the ones which best fit the
(01) __ English people will forget to say “Thank you” after (02) __
, and “Please” after acceptance. It is always “No, thank you” and “Yes,
please”. If you phone an office, and (03) __ to speak to Mr Smith, his
secretary will say, “Oh, I’m (04) __ sorry. He’s out”. It seems to be her
Typical of English good manners is the typical fictional murderer.
The typical American murderer is a
killer, a
gangster, or a
dict. He is the complete outsider, fighting against the (06) __ of the
rest of society. The typical English murderer is completely (07) __ . He
will be a
little, (08) __ man. As far as his work is concerned, he is
__ to be a
habitual criminal. He is more likely to belong to the pro
fessional classes, perhaps a
dentist or a
solicitor. He will be completely
respectable, and live in the prim and (10) __ suburbs. The chances are
that his house will be semi
detached so that his inquisitive neighbours
can hear (11) __ noises through the wall. He will be a
drinker, per
haps teetotal. Conservative in politics, he will go to a
The (12) __ for murder will be a
guilty passion for his secretary or
the wife of a
colleague. The person he murders will be his wife, And the
murder will not be done on the (13) __ of the moment. It will be planned
to the (14) __ detail, His motive will be that it is better to murder his
First semester. Topic: Personal Relationships
From the words listed below, choose the ones which best fit the
But it isn’t so (01) __ that marriage is expensive in terms of mo-
ney, as that it is expensive in terms of life (02) __ , especially when it
goes wrong, as it did in the (03) __ of Mr and Mrs Stark. Mrs Stark was
given a
divorce because of the unreasonable behaviour of her husband.
He was (04) __ to have (05) __ up a
contract which he forced her to
sign. (06)
__ some points of view
— particularly the point of view of
— the contract does not seem to be too bad a
(07) __. In it,
Mrs Stark was not allowed to mention the names of her parents or
brother in the house. She could only visit her parents twice a
the cost to be (08) __ from the household budget. She would have to
return to the house in (09) __ of time to prepare Mr Stark’s evening
meal. Her parents could visit her once a
month while he was out. If he
was in, then they would have to meet somewhere else. Mrs Stark would
be allowed £2
week (10) __ money for her personal use. In the (11) __
of a
death in the family, she would be allowed two days (12) __from the
house. She could spend up to five days a
year away in the event of fa-
mily illness. No presents for her parents were to be paid (13) __ from
Mrs Stark was (14) __ a
divorce, but Mr Stark appealed against
the decision. It cost him
in legal fees, much more than it cost
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Wedding photographers are now asking (01) __ payment (02) __
advance because so many marriages are breaking (03) __ in the first
One photographer had to sue the bride for his money after the cou
ple split (05) __ on their honeymoon. His photographs were submitted
(06) __ the court who said they were (07) __ sufficient standard, and
(09) __ another case, the bride’s mother saw the photographs and
(10) __ enlargements and albums. The photographer said; “I called
(11) __ to say they were ready, and the bride’s mother said, ‘Don’t
Couples are now (14) __ to pay a
“divorce deposit” (15) __ the pho
Nasrudin made a
bet that he could spend a
night on a
Nasrudin took a
book and candle and sat (01) __ . the coldest night
he (02) __ known. (03) __ . the morning, he was half
dead as he went
“Did you have (05) __ . at all to keep you warm ” The people in the
Some months later he invited the same people (08) __ . a
__ his house. They sat. They waited. Hours (10) __ They started to
They all went (13) __ the kitchen. They found a
huge pot of water.
Nasrudin said: “It is not ready (15) __ . I
don’t know why
— it has
From the words listed below, choose the ones which best fit the
First semester. Topic: Personal Relationships
(01) __ the recession, Britain’s pet owners are willing to pay for
permanent memorial (02) __ much
loved furred and feathered
friends. The Rossendale Pets Cemetery, near Rawtenstall in Lanca
shire, now stretches to over 10
acres covered by 1,600
graves and
It was started 26
years (03) __ by a
local farmer who ran his dog
(04) __ . with a
tractor and was (05) __ grief
stricken that he put up
headstone. That has long since been dwarfed (06) __ elaborate monu
ments, including a
marble gate flanked by pillars. Dedicated to a
called Brandy, it cost well (07) __
seven years ago. Other ani
mals commemorated in the cemetery vary from budgies to a
The owners of the cemetery, Mr and Mrs Annable, have had some up
“We had a
man (08) __ tried to climb into the incinerator to kiss his
Irish wolfhound goodbye. He was an educated man (09) __ well, an Eng
“Every Sunday a
distance driver brings fresh flowers (10) __
his dog. Rain, hail, fog or snow, he never (11) __ And then (12) __ is
Kakkoo the parrot, who spoke four languages. His grave is marked by
“(13) __ couple arrived carrying a
cage. They had not seen their
hamster for (14) __ time. Was it in hibernation or was it dead They
couldn’t bear to look. In fact, it was as stiff as a
board. When I
them, they burst into tears. I
didn’t (15) __ the heart to charge
In Euro
Disney, an investment of $2
billion has created a
haunted house. Simulated space travel. Railway rides and Peter Pan
and Dumbo __ There must be (01) __ of Europe’s 60
or so million child-
When I
hear (03) __ this monstrous creation is a
bare 24
miles from
the centre of Paris, I
think it represents the death of civilisation. One
(04) __ have thought the French (05) __ more sense, better taste, but,
(07) __ me be clear about it. Disney should stay (08) __ he belongs:
in the swamps of Florida or the suburbs of Los Angeles. People (09) __
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Perhaps the most perplexing response (10) __ Disney, that pap
merchant, has been made by collectors. In the United States, a
volume Illustrated Disneyana Catalog and Price Guide is (11) __ It
lists 26,000
prices (12) __ $1
for a
Donald Duck book (13) __
In America, there are an estimated 50,000
collectors. The highest
(14) __ are paid for cels, paintings on celluloid, a
specialised market
worth an annual $60
million. The most paid (15) __ far for a
cel has
To fill the spaces, use a
word formed with the words in the list
Newspapers have a
(01) __ for what the French call “squashed
dog” stories. In England, they are “goldfish emerging from bathroom
tap” stories. Such stories run under the “Man Bites Dog” (02) __ . From
France comes the story of an (03) __ savage attack on an old man near
Calais carried out by a
swarm of bees. The scenario might have pleased
Hitchcock. The victim was (04) __ himself in his garden at the time.
The firemen were called but were driven back into their van by the
__ of the insects. After 45
minutes someone arrived with (06) __
clothing and (07) __ . By then the man sitting in the deck chair was
The French liked the story from London about grafting a
kidneys on to a
human patient. They went for the animal rights angle.
They like the idea of putting a
(08) __ ring round the hospital to repel
people who are intent on rescuing the pig from (09) __ . From London,
too, came the story of the brown paper parcel in London’s main parcel
sorting office, a
parcel which moved. Packages do not normally move
very quickly through the post office at the best of times, but this one
was definitely frisky. A
lady customs officer was summoned to X
the package. The X
ray revealed a
(10) __ reptile called a
gila monster
wrapped in a
sock. The subsequent police trail led to a
salesman in
Hampshire whose back bedroom was filled with rattlesnakes, lethal
lizards, snapping turtles and a
python, most of which he had sent him
First semester. Topic: Personal Relationships
To fill the spaces, use a
word formed from the words in the list
In the middle of Wales is the village of Lackerpandy. It has a
The village is rather scattered. It spreads over eight kilometres in
each (01) __ . But, conveniently, especially for its 4,500
(02) __ , it has
graveyards. Twelve of these are empty. The (03) __ is the (04) __
The graveyards
— that is, the empty graveyards
— have a
area of over 500
acres, You could grow a
lot of potatoes on 500
as one of Lackerpandy’s citizens explained. It appears, as a
result of
government (05) __ , that the new graveyards were financed by the
village council. Most of the work was done by a
local (06) __ , a
Speaking to the (08) __ of the (09) __ committee, Mr Dai Jones,
the new mayor, provided an (10) __ . He said that the old mayor, Mr
Tommy Davis, had a
serious problem. He said, “Mr Davis was very
worried about his own death. And so, whenever a
new cemetery was
To fill the spaces, use a
word formed from the words in the list
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Parliament consists of two houses: the House of Commons and the
House of Lords. The third part of the (01) __ is the Monarchy, which
The Lords are not elected. A
member of the House of Lords can
inherit his position, or he can be made a
member, appointed for his
service to the State. The members of the House of Lords receive no sa-
lary for their (04) __ . work. However, they receive travelling expenses
The House of Commons is a
(07) __ (08) __ elected by everyone
over the age of 18. Members receive a
salary for their work, and are
elected. The Commons is presided over by the Speaker who is elected by
English politics have been dominated by two parties: the Conser-
vative, or Tory, party, and the Socialist, or Labour, party. The small
Liberal party also has quite a
lot of popularity. However, as England
To fill the spaces, use a
word formed from the words in the list
Tom Jones, a
psychologist, reports a
new role for pigeons. Asked
by a
pharmaceutical company to measure the effects of drugs on ani
mal behaviour, Jones noticed one day that some 70
women were em
ployed to check flawed capsules. “That is a
job any pigeon could do”, he
On (02) __ , capsules left the (03) __ line. There, Jones arranged
for a
bright, narrow beam of light to pass through them. If a
was perfect, the light showed a
single spot; if it was (04) __ , the light
First semester. Topic: Personal Relationships
In their training, two pigeons were rewarded with food every time
they correctly identified a
wrong capsule. The experiment worked.
(05) __ belt carried the capsules as fast as two a
second past the pi
But the company rejected (07) __ of the pigeons on a
basis. They feared (08) __ that might be bad: The public might think
pigeons were not as (09) __ as humans. “A main obstacle to progress”,
commented Jones sadly, “ remains man’s obstinate belief in his (10) __
Complete the second sentence, using between two and five words,
The dog is wagging its tail because it is trying to be friendly.
law has invited us to share her house.
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The path was so narrow they had to walk one behind the other
Complete the second sentence, using between two and five words,
The experts thought that the cost of petrol would rise next year.
If he isn’t careful, he is bound to end up in hospital.
First semester. Topic: Personal Relationships
The younger you marry, the greater the chance you will be un
Complete the second sentence, using between two and five words,
If Mary hadn’t failed her driving test, she wouldn’t be unhappy.
He couldn’t lend us the car because it didn’t belong to him.
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Complete the second sentence, using between two and five words,
The idea that the Scots are miserly is simply not true.
I’ve never met anyone who works as hard as he does.
It was difficult to hear the speaker from the back of the room.
The following are two activities to get you thinking about stress.
The first can also be used to help members of a
small class (8–12
First semester. Topic: Personal Relationships
ple) get to know one another in a
short period of time. Pick only one
Have the group sit in a
circle or around a
table. The first person on
the instructor’s left begins by introducing himself or herself (first
name only is easier). The instructor can also have each person give
their home state, favorite vacation spot, hobby, or favorite holiday.
When finished the next person on the left introduces himself or her
self, plus repeats the information provided by all previous individu
als. If there are 8
people in the group, the last person would repeat all
names along with any other information, plus their own name and
added information. At the end of the exercise, ask the participants
how they felt when asked to remember everyone’s name and home
state. Was it stressful What did they feel, think, or do that made
Complete the
Are You Stressed Out
Quiz (
see Worksheet 1
) on your
own. Next, pick one area where you are hoping to improve your stress
Instructor Note:
Have volunteers share what they hope to achieve
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Congratulations! You don’t seem to be experiencing many com
mon symptoms of stress. You will discover new ways to main
You have quite a
few symptoms of stress. Learn how to cope bet
The many symptoms you are experiencing may be related to high
levels of stress. You can begin to relieve these symptoms through
learning and practicing many of the skills to be discussed in the
to use the term “stress” to describe physiological and psychological de
mands on organisms and their attempts to return to something called
“homeostasis” or back to the way they were before the stressor. You
see nobody likes to change. Even positive change (like getting married,
starting an exercise program or losing weight) can be stressful. In ge-
Stress is anything that pressures us to change. Illness is stressful.
Watching your favorite team lose is stressful. Jumping out of perfect
ly good airplanes is stressful. However, what causes one person dis
Hans Seyle (1946, as cited in McCance, 1990) popularized the con
cept of “stress”. He showed that hormones are released by our body in
response to both psychological and physical stressors. This explains
why our heart races, our breathing and perspiration increase, and why
we are ready to fight, flee, or freeze when we are feeling stressed.
Adrenaline rushes through our body helping make us ready for action.
If we perceive the stressor as good (for example, our team is winning)
the adrenaline rush we feel is seen as positive (that is, exciting, ener
gizing). However, if we think of the stressor as bad (“I know I
have double checked that parachute”) the rush we feel is viewed as ne-
gative (that is, sick to my stomach, queasy). In either case, Seyle point
ed out that chronically high cortisone levels can lead to diseases such
as high blood pressure, peptic ulcer disease, and heart disease. Too
Philosophers, theologians, and scientists have divided a
into many different parts in an effort to describe what makes us unique
from the rest of the animal kingdom. However, recently the focus has
First semester. Topic: Personal Relationships
been on how the body works together as one unit. We know that it does
not matter where stress starts, it soon spreads to affect all the parts
that make up who we are. Physical stressors affect the way we think
(our mind) and the way we feel about our self (our soul). The way we
feel about our self (for example, feelings of guilt or shame) affects the
For example, scientists have discovered that “life changes and /
or emotions resulting from life changes occurring for a
prolonged pe
riod of time were associated with decreases in one or more immune
functions” (McCance, 1990). This is not really a
new finding. Galen,
physician during the 2nd century A.D. observed that depressed wo-
men developed breast cancer more often than non
depressed women
(McCance, 1990). We now know that depression (feeling sad or blue)
lowers your body’s ability to fight infection. This in turn can lead to
illness. The two new fields of psychoneuroimmunology and neuro-
immunology look at the relationship between our perceptions of stres
Stress is any demand (positive or negative) that requires our
mind, emotions, or body to change. Is all stress bad No, some stress
ful situations we seek out because of the thrill. Some changes stressful
situations bring make us change for the better. Also, the right amount
of stress can help us function at our best or “Be All You Can Be”. How
ever, too little stress and we feel bored; too much stress and we may
feel “burned out”. The proper balance of stress is important to func
Take a
few moments and answer the following question:
How do
you react to being under stress
If you are completing this Lesson as
part of a
group, take five minutes and discuss this issue with the per
son sitting next to you. If you find you have extra time, discuss better
ways to manage your stress. If you are completing this on your own,
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The table below lists some of the more common ways people re
spond to stress. Perhaps you will find some of the ways you react to
stress listed. If some of the ways you react to stress are not listed, feel
People respond to stress in different ways because of tempera
ment, situational factors, modeling by parents and significant others,
and past history of coping with stress. Some of the ways we respond to
stress may be helpful. Some responses help us focus on or have enough
energy to complete a
task. Other responses to stress may signal the
need for positive change in our lives and give us the drive to make
those changes. However, there are some ways of reacting to stress that
On Worksheet 2, there are two columns: “To Avoid” and “To Do”.
In the “To Do” column, write down several positive ways to decrease
stress. In the “To Avoid” column, write down several negative ways
Worksheet 3
is a
partial listing of ways people tend to respond to
stress. Some are positive and some are negative. Compare these lists
with the ones you created. Don’t be overly critical or get down on your
self. Instead, use them as a
starting point for change. No one can
change unless they first know where they are and then develop a
or road map for how to change. Praise yourself for areas where you are
First semester. Topic: Personal Relationships
Change does not normally occur by chance. It is the result of being
aware of what you do now to handle stress and developing a
plan for
how to do it differently. Once the plan is made, try it out. If it does not
help you manage your stress better, do not get down on yourself. Being
too critical of yourself reduces your ability to change. Though others
may try to help you make positive changes in your life, only you can
make the changes stick. If the plan you developed does not work the
first time, revise it. Keep working on your plan for positive change
until you are successful. Oh, and one more tip—work on the small
changes first. Build a
history of solid success before you start to tackle
major areas that you want to change. Always remember, the more you
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work at changing, the better you get. Practice may not make perfect,
Here are some additional terms to keep in mind as you develop
Target Behavior
: This is a
feeling, thought, or action that you
Healthy Alternative
: This is a
feeling, thought, or action you
: Plan the day and times that you will practice the healthy
: How well did the practice go What can be done to
Didn’t Work
: Don’t get down on yourself. You need you! Either
pick another healthy alternative, practice more, or in some other way
change how you are doing it now. New habits are formed by doing
something once and then repeating it. Keep trying. Practice makes
: Congratulations! Don’t forget to reward yourself. Re
wards or positive reinforcement help to maintain the positive steps
Go Back to Practice
: Continue to practice and fine tune the new,
healthier alternative behavior until it becomes second nature. The
We have already looked at negative ways to cope with stress. Now
let’s talk about change. Look back over the list of things you do to cope
with stress. Pick one negative way you use to manage stress and de
First semester. Topic: Personal Relationships
velop a
plan for positive change. Use
Worksheet 4
and set a
date to be
gin to make positive changes in your life. Next pick one positive co-
ping technique you do not use, but would like to begin using to help
you manage stress. You may also pick one coping technique that you
already use, but would like to use more often. Write down a
plan for
how you would increase the use of that technique everyday. Some ex
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One final point, it does not matter where you start to change the
way you manage stress. The
can be a
feeling, or an action. For example, if you tend to withdraw from
others when under stress, instead you can seek opportunities to be
with others. The “action” of being with others will lead to different
ways of “thinking” about yourself and your situation. This will in
turn lead to different ways of “feeling” about yourself or your situa
tion. Additionally, you may discover new resources for dealing with
Here is another example. You may want to take a
different tack if
you tend to get down on yourself when under stress by calling yourself
names (e.g., “stupid”, “clumsy”, “I’ll never amount to anything”,…).
Go ahead and fill in the blank. We all have a
preferred name or two
call ourselves when we foul up, and everybody fouls up from
time. There is an old joke that goes, “How many psychologists
does it take to change a
light bulb Only one, but it has to really want
to change”. Though other people can help us change, the only one who
can really change you is you. Calling yourself names is like shooting
yourself in the foot. It does not help you get to where you want or need
If you take this approach to handling stress, you may want to
change the way you think about yourself. Say, “STOP” to yourself
(loud enough so you can hear it over the name calling), and start
making positive statements to yourself. Hitting a
home run is rare.
Build your confidence by picking small areas to improve on first,
then build upon those successes. Reward yourself when successful.
If not successful, don’t go back to name calling. A
baseball player
whose batting average is .300
is highly successful, even though he
failed to get a
hit 7
out of 10
times. Go back to the drawing board and
change the plan for success. Remember, the more you practice, the
Stress is anything that places a
demand on us physically, mental
First semester. Topic: Personal Relationships
Most of us think of stress as a
crisis, but not all stress is bad.
Without stress (astress), life would be boring. There would be no
growth and no change. With too much stress (distress), we reach over
load. Our ability to cope becomes limited, and we feel burned out. How
ever, some stress is good. It can provide an opportunity to bring about
positive changes in our lives. We call this eustress. This type of stress
Take a
few moments to write down ten stressors in your life on
Worksheet 6
. Examples are finances, work hours, illness, conflict
with co
workers, etc. Now rank them, with “1” being the most
Have each person share these with another class par
You may discover that you share many of the same stressors with
others. Sometimes knowing we all share similar problems helps us feel
Stress is the spice of life. Without stress, life would be boring.
Productivity would decrease. Excitement in living would dwindle. Be
lieve it or not, we often seek out stressful (or thrilling) experiences to
heighten our sense of excitement and adventure in life. Roller coaster
rides are stressful, yet some people flock to them. Most movie plots
center around the hero or heroine’s attempts to get out of a
conflict or
stressful situation. Athletes talk of getting “psyched up” before
match to help boost their performance. However, most of us view
stress as negative and something to avoid. Let’s look at the negative
Stress brings about many physical and emotional changes. Your
heart rate and breathing increase. Your muscles tense. The adrenaline
begins to flow. In general, your body is getting geared up to meet
challenge. Worksheet 7
shows some of the physiological, emo
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Take a
moment to look back over the lists. Perhaps you know of
some other way you or someone you know responds to stress.
How a
person reacts to a
stressor depends on their own constitu
tion, temperament, past experiences, training, and a
number of other
factors. However, probably the two factors that most affect how we
react to stress is how we perceive the stressor and our own ability to
handle the stressor successfully. For some, jumping out of perfectly
good airplanes is extremely anxiety arousing. They doubt their own
ability to cope successfully with this unnatural situation. However,
others find parachuting exciting and thrilling. They may experience
some fear, but do not doubt their ability to cope. Military obstacle
courses are often called “Confidence Courses”. They stress us by pre
senting novel situations, which upon successful completion expand
our confidence in our own abilities to meet these challenges success
fully. Tough, realistic training is one of the best ways to help soldiers
develop resistance to the effects of stress on the battlefield. It builds
confidence in the soldier’s ability to operate in a
combat environ
When stress is too high or lasts too long, some of the negative ef
First semester. Topic: Personal Relationships
Granted, the effects of stress in your life may not be felt immedi
ately. They tend to accumulate. However, over the years stress may
reduce your immune system’s functioning which may lead to some of
Take about ten minutes and complete the Holmes
Rahe Stress
Test (Worksheet 8). This test is based on the fact that stress effects
tend to accumulate over time. To score this test, add up the points as
signed to each of the positive and negative life events you have experi
enced within the past 12
months. The higher your score, the more like
ly you are to develop a
significant physical illness within the next
— all because of the effects of stress on your body. In the next sec
Score yourself on this
Life Change Test
. Check only
those events which you have experienced in the past year. Add the
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Change in health of family
Change to different line of
The more change you have, the more likely you will suffer a
cline in health. Of those who scored over 300
“life change units”,
percent have a
chance of a
serious health change. With 150–299
change units, you have a
percent chance of getting sick in the near
future. With less than 150
life change units, your chances drop to
There are many strategies you can use to reduce stress. Work
sheets 9
and 10
show two different styles used by many people to con
trol their stress. List the advantages and disadvantages of using each
First semester. Topic: Personal Relationships
Both styles may help to reduce stress levels. They both have ad
vantages as well as disadvantages. The first is an avoidance technique
that works occasionally and for stressful events of short duration.
“I sometimes suspect that half our difficulties are imaginary and
So, at times it may be helpful to “just let things go”. However,
The “Work Hard and Drive On” style may also work for situations
that are short lived and when relationship issues are not of concern.
This style is commonly used by individuals with Type
A personalities.
It has an advantage of helping the person feel more in control of the
situation. However, it tends to lead to burn
out—not only for the indi
vidual, but also for those who live or work with him or her. However,
when the stressful situation continues over a
longer duration, both
styles tend to lose their effectiveness. One key may be in adjusting
your style to match the situations. This is the idea behind the serenity
Though each stress management style may have advantages, there
is a
way of coping with stress that may help overcome the disadvan
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The key to managing stress is in maintaining a
balance. This
means balancing in all dimensions of life: Work vs. Play, Self vs.
Others, Inactivity vs. Activity, and so on. When things are out of bal
ance, then our ability to effectively manage stressful situations be
Take a
moment to complete the exercise in Worksheet 11. Follow
the example in the first row. If too much time is spent at work, then
family and social life may suffer. Your ability to concentrate may be
impaired and your ability to see potential solutions to problems at
work may be constricted. On the other side, if too much time is spent at
“Play”, work may suffer, deadlines are missed, and the mission may
not be accomplished in a
timely manner. One row is left blank, so you
can write in other dimensions of your life where keeping a
balance is
Keeping life in balance requires effort. It means watching where
your time is spent and making a
conscious effort to maintain a
If the demands at work are high, those demands need to be balanced by
The following are some activities to help keep a
balance in your
First semester. Topic: Personal Relationships
Look over the dimensions of life above. Highlight one area where
you feel you could use more of a
balance. Next, pick an activity from
the list we just reviewed, from those suggested by the American Can
list of the work you want to accomplish
each day. Prioritize your list and work on accomplishing the top
to relieve the stiffness and
down your walk and conversation, you absorb more of your surround
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to overwhelm you. Once your mind is rested, you will see solutions
way that
they are long enough and frequent enough to allow you to relax and
week, tend to live longer and
healthier lives than those who do not. Walk, run, bike, play sports
day is important for all of us.
number of research studies have suggested that those who have
day (especially those who eat breakfast) live longer and
balanced diet. Listen to
o your body’s
work. Relax on weekends by doing something different from the pat
and visualize an extremely relaxing and peaceful scene. Try to see it as
purpose. It allows you to
key factor in being able to cope with
stress. Keep the channels of communication open with those close to
Make a
plan to practice doing that activity at least once a
day for
plan for how you can avoid interruptions.
First semester. Topic: Personal Relationships
Determine an alternate time or activity if you can’t do the one you
If you do not feel that the activity is helping you manage your
stress better, feel free to change it or pick another. Refer back for ad
Make a
contract (Worksheet 13) with yourself and post it in a
balance in my life. For the next seven
am unable to do it at that time, I
Stress is a
crisis and an opportunity. How we perceive our situa
tion plays a
major role in the way stress affects our lives. Balance is
important, including the need to relax and to not let the negative ef
fects of stress continue to build throughout the day. Fortunately,
there are many activities that can be done to help offset the negative
Seek out new and healthy ways to counter the stress in your life.
Use the tips provided by the American Cancer Society,
What Can
The more an activity is enjoyable, the more you are likely to con
Home reading
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Grammar revision
Fill in each blank with one word that logically fits the sentence’s
sense. Then, on the line preceding the sentence, write the word’s
part of speech using the code letters—noun (n), pronoun (pro), ad
jective (adj), verb (v), adverb (adv), preposition (prep), conjunc
Either the doctor __ the nurse will explain the Procedure to you.
Lucille is the gymnast __ scored a
perfect ten on the floor exercise.
__ ! That bicyclist almost crashed into the parked car.
The brave soldier ran __ the field during the skirmish.
Two police officers __ the building looking for the town officials.
One of the most important __ is found on that busy street.
__ of the guitar players stayed late to rehearse the number.
The machinist selected her tool from the __ cabinet.
The singing group was __ into the Music Hall of Fame.
It had rained __ often lately that we cannot play our last sche-
Insert a
word in each blank. On the line before the sentence, write
challenging situation.
Either Brian __ Madeline will help you with these problems.
__ several hours, many of us were very nervous after hearing the
These __ singers captured first place in the most recent contest.
Those talented __ sold many of their stories to major publishers.
Helen’s __ actors were waiting for the director’s advice.
We think that she had __ the record for the mile run.
First semester. Topic: Personal Relationships
Fill in the direct object with a
word having these first and last let
ters and the total number of letter within the parentheses. The
s __ n (4).
Johnson, a
reckless gambler, placed a
large w __ r (5) on that
Sylvia selected a
b __ t (4) from the vegetable section of the super
Seymour found his old woolen s __ r (7) in the closet.
Circle the indirect object, and underline the direct object in each
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In each sentence below, underline the prepositional phrase, and
Unless the Grant family adds more space to their home, they will
The puppets were sold by Christina and Carla. Was he waiting
Twenty objects are underlined. There are eight direct objects (DO),
seven indirect objects (IO), and five objects of the preposition (OP).
The scientist brought the experiment’s results to his
Brad Lawrence, the hotel’s owner, went to the
Answer the questions. The teacher provides two pictures: a
Can you name different kinds of sport The teacher provides a
to play a
sport when we speak about games in which one tries to
win against another person or team (to play football, tennis, hand
to do a
sport when we speak about a
sport that is not a
team sport
(aerobics, gymnastics, exercise etc.). It has a
more general mean
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to be into a
when we speak about being interest
is used when we speak about sport activity, which is
not done pro
“Jack goes swimming”
means that he is not a
sional swim
is used when we speak about sport, which
is done professionally
“Jack swims”
means that he is a
professional swimmer
Some sport verbs are used only without play / do / go
(to box, to
He is a
professional. He
(goes skiing / skies / does skiing)
I want to be fit. That is why I
(go / do / play)
aerobics in our fit
Jack is really
(into / playing / doing)
football. He plays himself
In her teens my mother
(swam / went swimming / did swimming)
Work in pairs. Say what kinds of sport people in your place do /
Match the sentences in A
and the definitions in в
which cor-
First semester. Topic: Society and Sport
Mark the statements you agree with and explain your reasons to
Look at the pictures. What does sport give to each of these people
The teacher provides pictures of sports e.g. basketball, golf, aero
has allowed
me to make a
lot of friends. (Does he have many
have acquired
confidence. It’s easier for me to solve my
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to show the connection between the past and the present (the re
Make sentences in the Present which show the result of each of the
have overcome some of my difficulties
— I
don’t have
Racing has given me an increased sense of individuality.
deeper understanding of our beautiful planet.
My fitness has increased and my weight has decreased.
How has sport changed the life of the teenagers Work in pairs.
Compare the present with their memories writing as many sen
The teacher prepares a
few sets of two contrasting pictures, in one
In groups discuss your statements. Speak about the arguments in
In your groups divide into pairs. Each pair joins a
pair from an
In the new groups discuss your position about sport. Use the argu
Produce a
leaflet “Sport in our city / town”. Write about the at
titude of the citizens to sport and about the kinds of sport most
paragraph “Why is it good / bad to do sports ”
Write a
paragraph beginning like this “For me sport is…” Write
about your personal experience in sport. What sports have you
done Are you doing any sport now Has it changed you or your
First semester. Topic: Society and Sport
Professional athletes are spoilt and overpaid. They contribute
Professional athletes represent their country and provide a
Match the expressions in italics in A
with the phrases nearest in
He’s a
wonderfully kind and honest man and he is an excellent
Jane is a
gymnast but she often
in choco
lates and ice
the 2000
Russian Olympic handball team which won
She is suffering from a
and can’t participate in the ten
in eating and physical exercise is the key to good
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Read the article headlines from sport newspapers. What do you
Read about three famous gymnasts. What would you ask them if
Mary Lou Retton, born 1968, an American athlete, Olympic cham
pion at the Los Angeles Games in 1984. she lives in Houston with
Olga Korbut is a
famous gymnast from the former Soviet Union.
She won three gold medals in 1972
at the Munich Olympics. She
Nadia Comaneci, a
gymnast from Romania who won three gold
medals at the 1976
Olympic Games in Montreal. She was the first
gymnast ever to receive the highest score
— ten out of ten! Now
she lives in Oklahoma, USA, and runs a
gymnastics school with
Translate the questions Nadia, Olga and Mary Lou were asked in
You are no longer in training. Do you have any secret indulgen
What advice would you give youngsters hoping to follow in your
Olga Korbut: At first, when I
stopped…, I
thought I
would eat all
First semester. Topic: Society and Sport
Mary Lou Retton: To make my own decisions was one of the hard
Mary Lou Retton: I
indulge in rollerblading and skiing. We were
Nadia Comaneci: I
believe… in everything is the key. I
can’t think
In groups discuss which of the factors from the chart below you can
prove by the facts you personally know. Can you add your ideas
Divide into two teams: for and against professional sport.
In your team choose a
role for each member (coach, active profes
sional athlete, former professional athlete, medical doctor, ath
Think of one or more arguments to support the idea you have cho
sen. Make notes (refer to your personal experience, refer to the
experience of the people you know, refer to the historical facts
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In your teams discuss the arguments prepared. If necessary, help
The teacher opens and closes the discussion. Teams take turns to
Write a
paragraph “Professional sport has / doesn’t have the
Test practice.
Look at the pictures (the teacher prepares a
set of movie screen
Quickly read these four reviews of different films. Choose from
the list below the kind of film being reviewed. There is one extra
horror film • action film • comedy • romance • thriller
Once again, Tom Granger shows in his latest film why audiences
find him so amusing. Playing his usual character, the loveable loser
Benny, Granger makes fun of doctors and hospitals in a
hilarious film.
Crazy situations and funny dialogues keep you grinning, and the car
This film proves that you can’t make a
great film just by giving
director a
lot of money. The special effects and costumes are wonder
ful, but the story is about as frightening as a
rabbit. Ghosts and grave
yards may scare small children, but most of us will yawn through this
First semester. Topic: Society and Sport
I, for one, was glad when the monster finally did get the girl. At
Director Sarah Howard, best known for her exciting chases and
explosions, tries a
new style in this complicated story of two people in
New York whose lives are changed when they are both arrested. The
film is full of suspense as they are passed from the police to the FBI
and the CIA. Set in a
world of spies and secrets, this film will leave you
You’d better bring your tissues if you’re going to see the latest
from Sam Goldberg. From the very beginning he plays with your emo
tions. Based on a
true story, the film follows the heroine, Nadine,
through her struggle with cancer and her developing relationship with
the young doctor trying to save her. Goldberg lets us into their hearts
How did you know Underline two words or phrases in each re
Which of these titles might be best for each of the films There is
What kind of film might have the title you haven’t used In pairs,
discuss your answers. Did you choose the same titles Why / Why
The story is the same old plot of boy meets girl, boy loses girl, boy
gets girl back. We’ve seen it a
thousand times before. With women play
ing strong characters on our screens these days, we’ve had enough of the
gentle heroine who just waits for the boy to fall in love with her. Patty
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LeBelle, who plays Wendy, cries and sighs but does little else, and those
The Good Guys Always Win is a
missed opportunity. Starring
John Devon and written by Carol West, all the ingredients were there
for a
great movie, but, alas, this one proves that the good guys some
times lose. With their work together in the past, I
was looking forward
to seeing what they had been working on. The answer is a
film that lets
The dialogue is slow and too much of the film is people pausing
and looking at each other. Donna Short, the director, must take most
of the blame since it’s her job to guide the actors. It’s difficult to see
exactly why she was given this film when her last two efforts, Catch
Me, I’m Falling and The Man Next Door, were so unexciting. Let’s
Read these quotes from film trailers and choose a
title for each
‘Watch out! Bill Fredericks is back, and this time he’s better than
ever! When Bill decides to take his family on holiday, you just
know it won’t be long before he causes trouble! Even before they
get to the airport, Bill finds some way of messing things up! You’ll
‘It was a
time of innocence. A
time of love. A
time that Mary Jones
would never forget. When the stranger rode into town on his black
horse, nobody in Watersville knew how it would change all their
lives, forever. A
tale of passion. A
story of two people fighting for
‘Based on a
true story, this award
winning film takes you to the
heart of tragedy. A
mother’s search for a
cure for her son takes her
far from home. They said he would never walk again, and she is
determined to prove them wrong. There are times when she must
fight, and times when she wants to give in. The human spirit fi
First semester. Topic: Society and Sport
Read these sentences and then use the words in italics to complete
haven’t seen the film, but I’ve seen the
and it looks really
All the members of the
had to wear strange costumes in one
haven’t seen it on the
decided not to go and see the film.
When they had finished the scene, the __ shouted ‘Cut!’.
Even though the film starred a
lot of children, the __ was very
Which of the items below do you think an athlete should have if he
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Look at the title and say what the article is going to be about. Read
Tour de France
— one of the most famous cycling races in the
One year ago, if I
had to read a
headline that promised to tell the
inside story about drugs and cycling, I
would have been skeptical.
That’s because very few professional cyclists are prepared to give that
inside story. To do so is to break the law of silence. If I
am breaking
team rider for four years. If I
had won the Tour de France, there
would be no need to introduce myself, but if I
had won, I
wouldn’t have
First semester. Topic: Society and Sport
I was a
sensible, strong
willed, good Catholic Irishman, and
would have sworn on any Bible that I’d have never taken illegal sub
Professional cycling in Europe is so hard. As an amateur I
needed anything stronger than a
vitamin C
drink. But as a
it was all different. It was all day, every day. There is much less time
to rest, and your body runs down. Soon you’re reaching for things
Does “illegal substances” mean here tobacco, alcohol or drugs
What is the opposite to the word “professional” in the para
What do you think happened next What are Paul’s reasons for
It happened during the Tour de France. I
was riding well the first
week, but then started running out of gas. The time has come for some
serious decision making. Most of my teammates were getting regular
injections, and they seemed to be wearing much better than i. if I
stuck to my principles, I
would have been forced, through exhaustion,
to abandon the Tour. So, I
took an injection
— nothing illegal, just
some vitamin B
with iron. But the significance was that I
had made the
It was exactly one year later that I
took my first charge of am
phetamine. I
rode 20
stages of the Tour de France, but abandoned, to
tally exhausted, with four days remaining. I
was sick about it, de
stroyed with guilt. I
couldn’t even face training. But nine days later
got a
phone call. It was an invitation to race the next day in Chateau
Chinon, a
small French village. If I
raced, the organizer would pay me
I hesitated. There was never any dope control at these races, and
knew most of the pros would be charging. I
hadn’t ridden for ten
days. How would I
keep up And if I
didn’t finish, the promoter prob
ably wouldn’t pay me. And damn it, I
needed the money, and there was
no control. So I
agreed. The effects were startling. Once the drug took
hold, my character transformed. I
felt a
maddening urge to jump on
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What do you think Paul mean when he called himself a
Was I
cheating No, I
was not, I
was using the system. There was
no dope control. If there had been, none of the riders would have used
amphetamine. You see, in professional cycling the sin is not in taking
drugs. It’s in getting caught. And the reason why drug abuse is so
prevalent is because the international federation of professional cy
cling refuses to face the realities of modern sport
— that honour and
Work in pairs. Write five questions, which, together will give
Do you agree with the way Paul solved his dilemma
If Paul had read a
headline promising to tell a
If there had been dope control in Chateau Chinon __ .
If Paul Kimmage hadn’t taken the injection of vitamin B
If the international cycling authorities faced the truth about the
Add a
comment to each of the sentences in the previous exercise to
First semester. Topic: Society and Sport
If athletes were to go through doping control at all competitions
Write an open letter to professional athletes of the world accord
The teacher prepares a
set of pictures with sky diving, bungee
jumping, pot holing, rock climbing, white
water rafting and scuba
Sky diving, bungee jumping, pot holing, rock climbing, white
Would you agree that all of them are sports Why Why not
Do you know any people who have done any of these sports What
Translate the sentences paying special attention to the words and
He has done a
lit of dangerous sports because he likes to
go to ex
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to travel around the world becomes stronger and
Being an actor or an actress can be rather dangerous, sometimes
Personally I
am not a
risk taker
, so white water rafting or scuba
I think moderation in everything is the key, and I
Read what Chris Rowan, a
mountaineer, writes about the feelings
and emotions he had when he was climbing a
mountain. Do the
Find more opinions about risk taking different from Chris Rowan’s.
When you’re high in the mountains, your attention becomes so
extremely focused on your purpose that you no longer notice sore
knees, the tired back, the strain of non
stop concentration. A
like state settles over you, the climb becomes a
eyed dream. Hours
pass by like minutes. The routine of day
day existence
— the unpaid
bills, the lost opportunities, the dust under the sofa
— all of it is for
gotten, forced away from your thoughts by the absolute clarity of pur
At such moments something like happiness actually stirs in your
What do you think about risk taking Discuss it in pairs, then
First semester. Topic: Society and Sport
Work in pairs. Read the quotations and explain their meanings in
“To win without risk is to triumph without glory”. Pierre Cor
daring adventure or nothing at all”. Helen Keller
“Do the thing you fear most and the death of fear is certain”. Mark
“The greatest rewards in life go to the risk takers”. James McCor
Choose one quotation you agree with and one you disagree with
Write an opinion essay on one of the quotations. Follow the
Answer these questions and discuss your ideas in pairs.
Who will you wrote for (your teacher, peers, a
magazine, ex
What is your purpose (to inform, to explain, to give your
In pairs, brainstorm the ideas for each other’s essay. Discuss and
Individually review the ideas. Cross out those that do not seem
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Grammar review
Five of the underlined words are predicate nominatives (PN); five
are predicate adjectives (PA);and five are neither (NE). On the
line before each sentence, write the two
letter code to indicate
All of the musicians in the orchestra recalled their favorite
Last year’s festival held in the state capital’s fields was
These experienced carpenters displayed great
Monty and his buddies saw the
in the store’s large win
Underline the prepositional phrases and circle the object of the
preposition in each of these ten sentences. There may be more than
sight in her backyard.
First semester. Topic: Society and Sport
In each of these sentences, insert an adverb phrase that answers
the question in the parentheses found after the sentence. Do not
None of these young children could lift the heavy packages __ .
The championship boxing match was canceled __ . (Why )
On the line before each sentence, write ADJ if the underlined
prepositional phrase is an adjective phrase or ADV if it is an ad
Underline the prepositional phrase in each sentence. Then write
ADJ on the line before the sentence if the phrase is an adjective
Tickets to tomorrow night’s concert will be sold starting this morn
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Several investigators asked us questions during their investiga
The Senior Citizens Center requested donations instead of some
Insert an appositive phrase into each of these five sentences. Re
member that verbs are not included in appositives or appositive
December, __ , seems to go by very quickly each year.
scholarship to college.
Indicate whether the underlined phrase is an appositive (A), verb
(V), or prepositional (P) phrase by writing the corresponding let
LeBron James,
an NBA star
, can easily score against most of his
The boxer used his most powerful weapon, the left hook, very of
Some of the marchers
had been exhausted
by the hot sun during
Abraham Lincoln
, a
man of many talents
, was the sixteenth U.S.
First semester. Topic: Society and Sport
the color of my aunt’s car
, is also my favorite color”, Mitch
Which football team were you supporting for the 2010
Which team do you think is the most popular team Why do you
Which football player do you most admire Why do you think
The date of today’s article is May 24. Where is the Brazilian
How many times will they have won the world title if they win
On the banks of Lake Lucerne with a
population of 4,000, the
sleepy Swiss village of Weggis looks perfect for some peace and
The world champions have chosen to spend 12
days in the idyllic
lakeside resort to prepare for their assault on an unprecedented sixth
world title. While the team are isolated in their hotel, their training
sessions will be watched in close proximity by a
crowd of 5,000
in a
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The sessions will be broadcast live back in Brazil and the players’
“This is a
result of what Brazil represents in world football today”,
said coach Carlos Alberto Parreira. “You can’t hide the Brazilian team”.
Why does the article talk about the population of the village and
what it is like in this article (Hint: look at the title of the article
Why does the coach say that you can’t hide the Brazilian team
Read Part Two of the article and say whether these sentences are
Most of the best teams in the world let reporters watch them
The Brazilian coach believes it would be a
silly idea to stop the
If people watching the training sessions get too excited, they may
The Brazilian coach believes that the place where the crowd will
The players will probably be able to hear what people in the crowd
While many of the world’s top teams keep the media away from
their practice sessions, Brazil have always been refreshingly open at
Parreira said it would be pointless to shut out the media and public.
But he warned that if the fans got too boisterous, he would con
sider the drastic move of keeping out the public. “As long as it doesn’t
First semester. Topic: Society and Sport
reach a
level which gets in the he said. way, the public can watch”, he
Brazilian media, however, have already speculated that the stands
The stands have been built less than two metres from the touch
lines which means that almost any remark shouted from the crowd can
Parreira, however, prefers to take all the attention as a
ment. “If you look at the tradition, history and quality of our players,
they are the best players. They have the best skills and the best tech
“For that reason, everyone is looking forward to having Brazil at
— an expression of praise, something showing
Work in groups of three and choose one of the roles below. Try to
talk for one minute in your role. When you have each had a
turn at
You are from the village of Weggis. Say how you feel
about having the Brazilian team staying in your village. How is your
Speaker B.
You are the Brazilian coach. Say how you are feeling
You are a
fan of the Brazilian team and you have man
aged to get in to watch them train. Why did you come to Weggis How
What is your ‘favorite moment’ in football Describe it to your
Which team do you think shows the best sportsmanship Why do
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Fill in the gaps in the advertising booklet using the given words in
Be into, increase, decrease, improve, sense of individuality, to ac
quire, self
confidence, to overcome, fitness, weight, make a
big im
First semester. Topic: Society and Sport
A sport such as cycling has always m __ on people. If you a __ cy
cling, your live will completely change. You are sure to a __ , your f __
will i __ . You will be able to i __ __ tasty things because your intensive
training will prevent putting on the __ . Moreover, it will d __ . Cy
cling will help you to o __ difficulties and avoid i __ . Your friends will
not recognize you because of your new looks and s __ . And your out
I fell down from the oak
tree. I
tried to climb it in high
have no time to spend with my family.
I injured my foot. It was raining, and the track was slippery.
bicycle in my childhood.
can’t go windsurfing or yachting.
I missed a
very exciting football match. I
didn’t manage to buy
I watched a
skating championship on TV when I
was 5, and
The International Sport Federation is searching for projects on
newly invented sports
— the best project will get an award of
chance for every person to enjoy it
How can we motivate people generally not interested in sports
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A brief description of your sport
— name, kind (team, individual,
winter / summer, etc.), place where it can be done, necessary
How will this sport motivate people who are generally not in
Is this sport safe If it is risky, then how risky is it Why
Make up an advertisement for the sport (poster, radio advert, TV
Home reading
Test practice.
You are going to read a
magazine article about films. Choose the
most suitable heading from the list A–I for each part (1–7) of the
First semester. Topic: Society and Sport
article. there is one extra heading which you do not need to use.
Making a
film is such a
complicated process that it’s a
wonder any
of them ever get made. When you go to your local cinema to see what’s
on, do you ever think of all the separate steps that have to come to
gether to end up with what you see on the big screen Where does it
Most films start as an idea. It might be in a
director’s mind, or in
writer’s mind, but wherever it comes from, it’s the producer who
needs convincing. The producer is the businessman who finds the mo-
ney to make the film. If you’ve got an idea for the next blockbuster,
you need to find somebody who is willing to make your film. The pro
ducer will then organize the budget and decide how much it is worth
The producer will decide who is going to be responsible for making
This is an important decision since the director is the person who
will be in charge of the whole cast and crew. The producer will either
find somebody who has made similar films in the past or he or she
might take a
chance on a
new director. Most importantly, the producer
wants someone he or she can trust to do a
good job and to stay under
The producer and director will then choose the other people to
work on the film and will decide on the members of the cast. People feel
very strongly about actors and a
film has to have the right ones if it is
to draw people into cinemas. Actors usually become associated with
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particular kind of film in the mind of the public and it can be a
risk to
cast an actor in a
different kind of role. Auditions and screen tests
While the actors are developing their characters, the director will
be making other key decisions concerning things such as location.
Where the film is shot is very important and the locations for filming
will be chosen carefully. The film will also be storyboarded, with pic
tures of all the key moments. Special effects will be planned and cos
tumes will be designed. This pre
production phase can take a
long time
The actual shooting can take anywhere from a
few weeks to a
or possibly even more. The actors spend a
lot of time waiting for every
thing to be right
— the set, the lighting, the cameras
— and boredom
can be a
real problem. Life at the Oscars might seem wonderful, but
Once filming is over, post
production begins. This is the stage
where all the elements of the film are brought together.The film is
edited so that it tells a
clear story and any special effects are perfected.
Music is added to emphasise the excitement or the emotion of certain
moments in the film. Often, the film is previewed to small audiences
and changes are made, depending on their reactions. Finally, the film
Once the process is over, what the backers will want to know is
where the money has gone. We hear a
lot these days about the huge
fees commanded by stars but the cast will typically cost around 10 %
of the total budget. Pre
and post
production costs will account for
%, while the director and crew will take another 10 %. This leaves
In pairs, discuss the answers you have chosen. Have you chosen
First semester. Topic: Society and Sport
Decide why these sentences have been written in the passive by
The process is more important than the people who do it.
The writer wants to emphasise that the actors are famous.
The writer wants to emphasise the computers rather than the
There are many different people who might make mistakes.
film is released, cinemas decide whether to show it.
Topic summary
Look at this list of common weather words. Note that most of
sunny; rain
rainy; cloud
cloudy; fog
foggy; chill
— hot; cold
— cold (not “coldly” which is different);
We are having rough weather.
— We are having calm
The roads are dry today, it’s not dangerous to drive.
First semester. Topic: We and Environment
The frost is going to kill all the flowers in the garden.
Sort out the following adjectives into columns according to the
Flood, wet, cloudy, to forecast, sultry, hot, shower, Fahrenheit,
clap of thunder.
The river overflowed and the town had to cope with a
You can’t see the moon and the stars now because the sky is __ .
In summer a
spell of very __ and __ weather usually ends with
can’t say that it is very cold outside but it’s rather __ , you’d bet
You can’t sit on the grass it’s still __ after the rain.
The temperature has fallen down and the roads are so __ that it’s
short period of time we call it a
degrees __ .
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There will be plenty of __ in the mountains and Dick will return
can’t say that it was really raining, it was __ but we got wet all
Ancient people didn’t know any other way of __ the weather than
Complete the situations guessing what kind of weather people are
I can hardly breathe. I
wish it would rain to cool us down. —
metre deep. —
We were able to sit in the garden in the middle of the winter. —
lot of plants died. —
Fill in the gaps in the following text. bear in mind that more that
In many parts of the world there are four seasons every year
Summer, of course, is the time of (1) __ weather and winter of
cold weather. And autumn and spring are in
between seasons. Many
parts of the (2) __ have these 4
seasons. Lands near the equator, how
ever, have pretty much the same temperature all the (3) __ round.
Those lands that do have 4
seasons do not all have them at the same
time. When lands north of the equator are having winter, lands south
of the (4) __ are having summer. The change of seasons is caused by
Warm September brings the fruit; sportsmen then begin to shoot.
Fresh October brings the pheasant; then to gather nuts is pleasant.
Dull November brings the blast; then the leaves are whirling fast,
Chill December brings the sleet, blazing fire and Christmas treat.
First semester. Topic: We and Environment
Translate the words from the poem into your native language.
In the poem some months of the year are described by adjectives,
for example “hot July”. Would you use the same adjectives to de
Choose the necessary adjectives given below and make up your
Warm, grey, cold, cloudy, frosty, bright, rainy, snowy, sunny,
Think and say what kinds of weather are good or bad for doing
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Read the following sentences and put their numbers in the cor-
It is a
good time for sledding and tobogganing, making snowmen
People enjoy picking mushrooms and berries in the woods and fo-
Gradually it gets colder and colder and rains more often.
The rivers and lakes are frozen over and you can see a
lot of fisher
The days become shorter and the nights become longer.
It’s a
wonderful time when the air is transparent and the trees
stand red, brown, golden and yellow against the beautiful cloud
After several chilly weeks people look forward to the wonderful
There are occasional storms with thunder and lightning but peo
It is so pleasant to see snowdrops in the woods and to enjoy the
The sun sets very early and rises very late, it’s still dark in the
In this season people particularly dislike the sleet and slush under
Most nations usually celebrate the shortest night in the year with
First semester. Topic: We and Environment
The trees start blossoming and everything around looks festive in
Strawberries are the first fresh fruit that you eat in this season.
The roads are icy and it is the most dangerous time for drivers.
New green grass covers the ground and all parks and gardens look
The dry winds usually bring droughts which are bad for crops.
What do you like / dislike about the weather today Does it suit
Did you listen to the weather forecast for today and tomorrow
before you left home Why Do you usually listen to weather
forecasts How often What do you need it for Which member of
Does your mood depend on the weather What do you do to change
Can you say that you have a
favourite month or season If yes,
Can you say that you particularly dislike any month or season and
Do you agree with the saying “Nature doesn’t have bad weather”
Some astrologists believe that people’s favourite season is the one
Englishmen say “There is no bad weather, there are just bad
clothes”. Do you think it is true Can you name at least 3
you like and dislike in each season and explain why Which do you
think is the best season to tour Ukraine Ground your opinion.
Some people don’t like to have holidays in winter. Do you agree
Tubers, Berries and Bugs
the site of the recent disaster at a
nuclear, reactor in
the Soviet Union. Radioactive fallout from the accident reached
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Genetic engineering: scientific experimentation in which an
organism’s genes are altered for specific purposes. Genetic
Watchdog: an individual or group that monitors the activities of
another individual or group. Those being observed are believed to
be engaged in activities that might threaten the health, safety, or
Biodegradable: able to be decomposed by nature. Biodegradable
Frost: a
covering of ice crystals on a
surface. Frost kills fruits and
Mutant: produced by mutation; changed due to alterations in the
Parasite: an organism that lives in or on another organism. Some
Pesticide: insecticide; chemicals used to destroy pests. Certain
Recombinant: characterized by genetic recombination; having
Tuber: a
fleshy underground stem. The potato is an example of
In a
dusty half
acre potato patch near the tiny (pop. 1,000) farm
ing community of Tulelake, Calif., scientists in canary yellow over
alls clambered aboard a
tractor last week and began what looked like
workaday farm
yard chore. They were planting ordinary potatoes,
tubers in all, that had been treated with an extraordinary addi
tive: a
genetically altered bacterium designed to in
hibit the forma
First semester. Topic: We and Environment
tion of frost. This experiment— and a
similar one performed only
five days earlier—marked a
turning point in the efforts of scientists
to apply the advances of recombinant DNA technology to agriculture:
the first authorized release of man
made microbes into the environ
The routine Tulelake operation stood in marked contrast to the
more dramatic previous test, 350
miles away in a
Brentwood, Calif.,
strawberry field. There, technicians wrapped in head
foot “space
suits”—required by federal regulations governing airborne use of po
tentially toxic substances—sprayed 2,400
strawberry plants with
slightly different strain of the same ice
inhibiting bacterium. The
event drew a
crowd of reporters and government officials, who arrived
with elaborate devices to sniff the air and taste the dirt around the test
site. The start of the experi
ment was delayed for an hour because of an
act of sabotage: the night before, vandals, ap
parently expressing their
disapproval of the ex
periment, cut through a
link fence and up
The uninjured berries were quickly replanted, and the project
proceeded without further incident, but the protest was symptomatic
of the fierce controversy sur
rounding the open
air trials. They have
come the focal point of a
bitter debate over the creation of new or
ganisms and the risks in
volved in releasing them. Most biologists have
argued that the outdoor tests are a
necessary first step that may help
reduce the $1.5
billion lost by U.S. farmers each year to frost and may
someday lead to the replacement of chemical fertilizers and pesticides
Opponents, captained by Washington
based Activist Jeremy
Rifkin, have raised legitimate questions about how well these ex-
periments are regulated and monitored. But Rifkin and his supporters
have also played on public fears by painting the specter of a
Chernobyl—an experiment gone haywire, spreading man
made germs
that could ruin crops, change rain patterns and render large swatches
The current experiments, almost everyone agrees, do not pose any
such threat. They in
volve a
modest bit of genetic engineering on the
bacterium Pseudomonas syringae, a
mon parasite that lives on the
bark and leaves of many plants. The bacterium produces a
protein that
serves as a
seed for the formation of ice crystals when the temperature
drops below 32 F. By snipping the seed
making gene from the DNA of
Pathologists Steven Lindow and Nickolas Panopoulos created
mutant form of P. syringae that does not promote frost. They call
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their new microbe “ice
minus”. In the laboratory, leaves coated with
In 1982
Lindow and Panopoulos applied for permission to treat
potatoes with ice
minus. They failed to anticipate Rifkin. A
tiwar activist with a
fertile imagination and a
knack for using the
bureaucratic process, Rifkin organized what may be the longest
ning regulatory battle ever. One of his victories: a
temporary in
junction against Lindow and Panopoulos issued by Federal District
There have been excesses and lapses on both sides. Rifkin, who
makes his living speaking against genetic engineering, sowed fear and
doubt among the public even after his supporters had concluded that
the experiments were safe. But the scientists have not been blameless.
Advanced Genetic Sciences Inc., the Oakland
based start
up firm that
ducted the strawberry tests, managed to alienate most of Califor
nia’s Monterey Coun
ty in 1986
when its closely held plans to test the
microbes in that area were uncovered by a
local newspaper. While that
issue was being debated, Rifkin revealed that AGS scientists had al
ready injected mutant bacteria into fruit and nut trees growing on the
roof of their Oak
land labs—a violation of federal and state regula
AGS learned its lesson. This month’s ex
periments were preceded
by a
chestrated campaign that included public meetings,
The final legal hurdle fell the day before the first test. “The court is
convinced”, said Sacramento Superior Court Judge Darrell Lewis,’
‘that [the experiments] are not unleashing some deleterious bacteria
It was a
setback for opponents of such re
search, and for Rifkin in
particular. But it does not mean smooth sailing for the genetic en-
gineers. Strict guidelines are now in place, and as long as there are in
dustry watchdogs, every experiment will be closely checked. Rifkin
shows no signs of giving up. “We will battle every step of the way”, he
promised last week. “This protest is not going to go away”. For Lin
dow, however, the long battle was over. Said he, when the tubers were
finally in the ground: “It’s quite a
relief to finally see science
First semester. Topic: We and Environment
Who is Jeremy Rifkin What are he and his supporters protest
Do you think the testing of the “ice
minus” microbe should have
Should a
government establish the rules and regulations regard
ing the testing of genetically engineered material, or should sci
entific researchers be in charge of this Or should there be no
In groups of four or five, decide which of the
statements given
below best describes your collective viewpoint. After you reach
consensus, develop arguments in support of your group’s posi
No genetic engineering research whatsoever should be allowed.
Genetic engineering research should be allowed only on plant
Genetic engineering research should be allowed on plant life and
Genetic engineering research should be allowed on all forms of
Poll five to 10
people to learn their opinions on the following ques
Are you in favor of scientific research in genetic engineering
Record the answers you receive and tally the results. Summarize
New Life Under the Volcano
Nature is rebuilding the area around the Mount St. Helens volca
National monument: an area reserved by the federal government
as public property. Canyons and mountains are often designated
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U.S. Forest Service: a
federal agency charged with the maintenance
U.S. Geological Survey: a
federal agency that is concerned with
geological research. The USGS studies earthquakes and volcanos,
canopied: protected, as if by a
canopy, covered by the uppermost
Dormant: inactive; at rest. Things lying dormant have the
Ecologist: a
specialist in ecology. Ecology is the study of the
Epicenter the center of activity. The part of the earth’s surface
pumice volcanic glass. Pumice stone is often used to smooth and
Seismometer: an instrument that measures movements of the
Silviculturalist: a
specialist in silviculture. Silviculture deals
tiltmeter: an instrument that measures the slope or incline of the
In the seven years since Mount St. Helens exploded in a
spume of
gas, ash and pumice, there have been 24
additional eruptions at the
volatile peak in the Cascade Range. The last, a
small explosive belch of
magma that added 85
ft. to the height of the lava dome inside the cra
First semester. Topic: We and Environment
ter, occurred eight months ago. As a
result, the U.S. Forest Service,
cautious guardian of the 110,000
acre Mount St. Helens National Vol
canic Monument, has decided to let the general public have a
look at a
postvolcanic environment. Since early May, some 100
bers a
day have been issued permits to slog across solidified mudflows,
What they observe is nothing less than a
landscape being reborn.
Nature is laboring mightily to transform the scoured flanks of the
mountain, its debris
filled river systems and chemically polluted
ponds and lakes into a
facsimile of the sylvan setting that existed be
fore the eruption. To the untutored eye, the evidence of devastation
still seems overwhelming. Scientists, however, see a
glass filling itself
up slowly but surely. Says James MacMahon, head of the biology de
partment at Utah State University: “It’s not a
forest yet, but the rate
That progress encompasses both flora and fauna. Inside the
boundaries of the monument, where by law people are not allowed to
assist regeneration, a
mammalian equivalent of the bulldozer has been
the pocket gopher. Colonies of these tiny industrious burrowers have
helped mix the nutrient
poor ash and pumice with rich, pre
soil, creating a
more hospitable turf for windblown seeds. Deer mice,
ants and beetles have also assisted in the regeneration of the soil. Flow
ering lupine, with root nodules that convert nitrogen into compounds
necessary for plant growth, has seized a
foothold on the pumice plain,
Farther from the epicenter, in hummocky fields of loose volcanic
ash and fine pumice pebbles, willows, red alder and an occasional Doug
las fir have taken root near small ponds. At the waters’ edge, Pacific
tree frogs and salamanders now flourish. Large bodies of water like
Spirit Lake, which was filled with organic debris and robbed of its oxy
gen by ac
companying bacteria during the eruption, have made even
more rapid recoveries. Algae, zooplankton and freshwater crustaceans
have all recolonized the lake, prompting authorities from the state de
partmentof game to push for the restocking of such game fish as rain
But others oppose the plan, arguing that the volcano has provided
them with an unprece
dented opportunity to watch unhindered rege-
neration. Says Cliff Dahm, a
biologist at the University of New Mexi
Outside the monument, where nature is allowed an assist from
man, recovery has been even more striking. The Weyerhaeuser Co.,
which lost 60,000
acres of timber when Mount S: Helens blew, finished
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replanting conifers last fill. In Clearwater Canyon, nine miles from
the center of the blast, one
acre test plots set up in . 951
are flourish
ing. Douglas, noble, grand and Pacific silver firs planted by the Forest
Service surf have enjoyed an almost 90% survival rate. Some are al
ready 12
ft. tall. “The trees are growing faster than normal”, says Eu
gene Sloniker, a
Forest Service silviculturist. The im
pressive growth
rate of these species is partly attributable to the fact that they were the
first ones reintroduced. Explains Sloniker: “They have nad less compe
The reopening of the mountain worries scientists at the U.S. Geo
Reason: the vulnerability of sensitive, un
tended monitoring
equipment that provides a
constant readout of the peak’s vital signs.
Hikers are given a
handout warning that tampering with seismome
ters, tiltmeters and other equipment would cripple the USGS early
warning system and could lead to the reclosing of the mountain. Al
though geologists feel comfortable with their ability to predict the
behavior of Mount St. Helens itself, they freely admit that the inner
workings of the volcano are still a
mystery. Says Research Geologist
C. Dan Miller, who assesses vol
cano hazard for the USGS: “We learn
as we go along. There is really no alternative to study
ing each vol
Geologists who have been monitoring Mount St. Helens’ hiccups
since 1980
have predicted all but one volcanic event and believe they
can continue to do so. As long as the volcano remains dormant, more
and more people are certain to come and marvel at what Jerry Frank
lin, the Forest Service’s chief plant ecologist, calls “the resilience of
nature”. Since the $5.3
million Mount St. Helens visitor center opened
in nearby Silver Lake last December, more than 150,000
people have
paraded through its exhibits. Now they can see the mountain for
themselves. “We’ ve got quite a
way to go yet”, says Franklin. “We’re
% along the way. In another hundred years, we’ll have a
Why did the U.S. Forest Service decide to reopen the area to the
What group of animals is helping the area to recover How
Why are the scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey worried
First semester. Topic: We and Environment
Do you think that it is safe to reopen the area around Mount
Do you think that the printed warnings to the public about the
sensitive scientific equipment in the area are sufficient Why or
In groups of approximately four or five, choose one of the follow
ing two positions to defend. (
Half the groups should choose
The rule that man should not assist nature in the restoration of
the area damaged by the volcano is a
good one and should not be
Man should be allowed to help restore the area damaged by the
In your small groups, identify arguments in support of the state
ment chosen. Be prepared to have your group present the argu
Would you be interested in visiting Mount St. Helens or another
area where a
volcano has recently erupted Why or why not Sum
marize your reasons in a
brief written report (one page maxi
Erosion is a
critical problem in all coastal areas. Efforts to stop
Dune buggy: a
wheeled open vehicle designed for use on
beaches. Dune buggies are outlawed in many areas because of the
Great Lakes: the collective name for Lake Superior, Lake Michigan,
Lake Ontario, Lake Huron, and Lake Erie. The Great Lakes are
Hurricane Gloria: a
tropical storm that hit the southeastern
part of the United States. Hurricanes are named in alphabetical
order as they occur. Gloria was thus the seventh hurricane in
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Parish a
division of a
state similar to a
county. Louisiana is the
Robbing Peter to pay Paul: using one part of a
system to aid or
repair another part of the system. Such a
procedure may help at
Encroaching: trespassing; advancing beyond what is expected or
Erosion: the process of wearing away. Wind and water both cause
Formidable: difficult to overcome; having qualities that
Gale: a
very strong wind. Gales are often accompanied by severe
Precipice: an overhang; a
piece of land that drops steeply to the
Replenishment: replacement; an act of building up or filling up
Patricia and Francis O’Malley bought their summer home in Long
Island’ s
fashionable Westhampton Beach four years ago. “There used
to be a
dune in front and a
beach in front of that”, Patricia recalls.
“The very first winter we had a
horrible storm, and we lost the dune”.
Two years later gale
force winds blew the house’s roof and top floor
off. “We rebuilt a
whole new house. Since then, we’ve lost 8
ft. of
sand”. Now, she complains, “there’s water under the house. The steps
First semester. Topic: We and Environment
are gone. The houses on both sides of ours are gone”. She adds bitterly,
“And they say you can’t lose in real estate.” The O’Malleys figure their
home will wash away completely by next year. The potential loss: hun
Jan and Bill Alford’s troubles began during the devastating win
ter storms of 1982. That January a
ft. chunk of earth slid away
from in front of their bluff
top home in Bolinas, Calif., about 30
north of San Francisco, and crashed to the beach below. A
year later
another 15
ft. vanished, leaving the house just a
few feet from the edge
of a
ft. cliff. So, in the summer of 1984, the Alfords moved their
ft. house 32
ft. back from the edge. Then came Valentine’s
Day 1985. Fol
lowing unusually high tides, 30
ft. of land dropped into
the sea. The foundation of the house remained just a
foot from the
precipice, with nothing but air between the guest
room deck and the
“We loved the lot”, says Jan. “On a
clear day, you could see all the
way to San Francis
co. We tried everything to save it, but the erosion
just didn’t stop”. Last autumn the Alfords moved their home again,
this time haul
ing it a
third of a
mile to a
new site more than 300
The problem is hardly limited to New York and California. The
scourge of coastal erosion is felt worldwide, especially in such coun
tries as Britain, West Germany and the Netherlands, where ocean
front property has been heavily developed. In the U. S., entire coastal
areas are disappearing into the sea. Virtually every mile of shoreline is
affected in every state that bor
ders an ocean, as well as those on the
five Great Lakes, where large chunks of waterfront property have been
lost or damaged due to record
high water levels in recent years. Some
86% of California’s 1,100
miles of exposed Pacific shoreline is reced
ing at an average rate of between 6
in. and 2
ft. a
year. Monterey Bay,
south of San Francisco, loses as much as 5
ft. to 15
ft. annually. Cape
Shoal water, Wash., about 70
miles west of Olympia, has been eroding
at the rate of more than 100
ft. a
year since the turn of the century; its
sparsely set
tled sand dunes have retreated an astounding 12,000
Parts of Chambers County, Texas, have lost 9
ft. of coast to Galve
since 1970; entire parishes may disappear in the next 50
ca Grande Pass, an inlet on the Gulf Coast of Florida, some 200
cu. yds. of sand have been carried seaward by the tidal currents. In
North Carolina, where erosion this year alone has cut into beachfront
property up to 60
ft. in places, the venerable Cape Hatteras lighthouse
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is in peril of the encroaching sea. Soon it must either be moved or sur
rounded by a
wall. Otherwise, it is likely to suffer the fate of the Mor
ris Island light, near Charleston, S.C. Once on solid land, it now stands
Coastal erosion is only one of the natural processes that have al
tered the world’s shorelines ever since the oceans first formed some
billion years ago. Over geologic time, the daily scouring action of
waves and the pounding of storms, as well as the rise and fall of ocean
levels, have changed coastlines dramatically. “Sandy beaches are dy
namic. They are meant to erode”, says Richard Delaney, chairman of
the Coastal States Or
ganization, a
group that advocates better coas
management in 30
states (including those that border the Great Lakes)
and five ter
ritories. The problem, however, is Americans’ passion for
living and vacationing at the seashore. That has led to a
boom in the
development of U. S. coastal areas since World War II. “When you put
permanent structure onto a
piece of land that is by nature mobile”,
“If we had known 30
years ago what we know now, New Jersey and
much of the rest of the country would be in better shape”, admits Go-
vernor Thomas Kean, a
strong believer in shoreline protection. “We
wouldn’t have built m
those areas, and we wouldn’t allow people In
build in those areas”. Even now, however, billions of dollars worth of
coastal develop
ment — some would say runaway overdevelop
cannot simply be abandoned. Says Chris Soller, management assistant
of the Na
tional Park Service’s Fire Island National Seashore, off Long
Island: “It’s a
tough tightrope to walk. Our whole concept of property
Along with property, receding U.S. coastlines threaten the sur
vival of shore
ing wildlife. Florida’s sea turtles, for example, in
cluding loggerheads, green turtles and others, cross hundreds of miles
of ocean to lay eggs on the same sections of the same beaches. If the
beach has eroded badly, a
turtle is forced by instinct to use it anyway,
dooming the eggs to be washed away or eaten by seabirds and rac
Least terns, Gulf Coast shellfish and beach
spawning fish, like the
In the past few decades, as property owners began to demand
that coastal areas stay put— by buying up seaside property and erect
ing multimillion
dollar beachfront houses, con
dominiums, hotels
and resorts on the shifting sand—the natural process of erosion be
gan to matter to growing numbers of Americans. Along with the
roads, parking lots, airfields and commercial interests that serve
them, development projects not only put more people and property in
First semester. Topic: We and Environment
harm’s way but also unwitting
ly accelerated the damage to U.S.
How On the West Coast, houses perched atop cliffs create new
runoff patterns for rain
fall and irrigation; combined with seepage
from septic systems, the drainage weakens the land itself. On the East
and Gulf coasts, the major problem is destruction of beaches and sand
dunes that normally check the ocean’s force. Of particular concern are
the 295
barrier islands—strips of sand dune, marsh and some
forest—that protect most of the U.S. coast from Maine to Texas. Not
surprisingly, they are considered prime development spots: Atlantic
City, N.J., Virginia Beach, Va., and Hilton Head, S.C., among others,
It is mainly the dunes, explains the Nation
al Park Service’s Soller,
that keep coastal areas, including barrier islands, intact. “The natural
process is for dunes to roll over on themselves”, he says. When the
ocean breaks through, “what was once the secondary dune becomes the
primary dune. The beach retreats as the ocean level rises. When you
In Ocean City, Md., developers hoping to reinvent Miami Beach,
where a
single mile of oceanfront is now worth an estimated $500
lion, began building high
rises on the dune line in the 1970s. So that
people on the lower floors could have an unimpeded view of the ocean,
the dunes were simply bulldozed away. Since then, the ocean has come
to see the tourists: beneath many buildings, pilings are exposed to the
waves. At Garden City, S.C., just south of Myrtle Beach, where big
condos dot the waterfront, crumbled seawalls and wrecked swimming
Sand dunes can also be destroyed in sub
tler ways. For a
dune to
form in the first place, sand must somehow be trapped, much as a
fence traps drifting snow. That some
thing is dune grass. After the
dunes form, the roots anchor the sand in place. “Dune grass is pretty
hardy stuff”, explains Stephen Leather
man, a
University of Mary
land coastal
erosion expert. “It can take salt spray and high winds.
But it just never evolved to take heavy pedestrian traffic or dune bug
gies”. Since the plants depend on chlorophyll in their green leafy parts
to convert sunlight into food, he says, and since there is only so much
food reserve in the roots, “a couple of weekends with a
few hundred
people walking back and forth to the beach, or a
single pass from an
Shoreline erosion, however, is exacerbated by less well under
— and perhaps more ominous — factors. Over the past 100
the ocean has risen more than a
foot, a
rate faster than at any time in
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the past millennium. Sea
level fluctuations are part of a
natural cycle,
but scientists suspect that this one may be different. They believe it is
magnified by a
fundamental change in world climate caused by a
nomenon called the greenhouse effect. Since the Industrial Revolu
tion, people have been burning greater quantities of fossil fuels, such
as coal, oil and gas. One by
product is carbon dioxide, which has en
While carbon dioxide allows the warming rays of the sun to reach
the earth, it blocks the excess heat that would normally reradiate out
into space. As a
result, the atmosphere is gradually growing warmer,
thus melting the polar ice caps and raising sea levels. It may be years
before scientists determine just how sig
nificant the greenhouse effect
is—but they know the process is accelerating. Sealevels are expected
For all the danger, people still want to own seafront property.
And why not They are still protected — and encouraged — by know
ing that they can write off storm damage on their taxes. In many
cases, they can depend on federal flood insurance for at least partial
bursement in case of disaster. Environmen
talists believe the in
surance program actually encourages building in high
risk locales.
Says Town Councilman Neil Wright, of Surfside Beach, S.C: “It’s an
incentive to build in dangerous places. The feds need to change the
Federal flood insurance has traditionally reimbursed owners for
rebuilding, rather than for relocating houses to safer ground. The
owners of the Sea Vista Motel on Topsail Is
land, N.C., whose property
was damaged in 1985
by Hurricane Gloria, wanted to move in
land, but
their federal insurance would not cover the $150,000
cost. It would,
however, pay $220,000
for repairs and renovations. The motel stayed
put. Then came last winter’s New Year’s storm, which tore out all
of the first
floor units. Says Manager Frances Ricks: “There’s
That does not stop people from trying. The growing damage to
oceanfront property has generated a
host of makeshift solutions to
erosion. On Galveston Bay, desperate ranchers have positioned junked
cars on the shore to prevent the waters from washing away roads. Con
servation officers are planting dense patches of cordgrass just off
shore in an effort to buffer the bay’s clay banks from the relent
lapping waters. To protect the transplants until they take hold, conser-
vationists have jury
rigged a
protective barrier of old Air Force para
chutes in the water to ab
sorb and attenuate the force of the waves.
Harry Cook, a
Texas shrimper, is considering wire mesh and old tires
First semester. Topic: We and Environment
to keep the bay waters from chewing away any more of his bluffs,
which he is losing at the rate of 10
ft. yearly. On Long Island, beach
residents shore up dunes with driftwood and old tires. And in Carlsbad,
Calif., the community has come up with a
number of ideas, from plant
ing plastic kelp to laying a
like tube along the beach in order
There are more substantive approaches to beach protection. When
properly designed and built, they can slow beach erosion. Nonethe
most are ineffective in the long run and can actually exacerbate da-
mage. A
seawall, for example, may protect threatened property be
it, but it often hastens the retreat of the beach in front as waves dash
against the wall and scour away sand. Louis Sodano, mayor of Mon
mouth Beach, N.J., knows the process firsthand. “When I
moved here
years ago, you could walk the whole beach”, he remem
bers. “Now
A variant on the seawall that can also has
ten erosion is rip
rocks and boulders piled into makeshift barriers to absorb the force of
incoming waves. While seawalls and riprap run parallel to the beach,
groin fields extend directly out into the water. Made up of short piers
of stone extending from the beach and spaced 100
yds. or so apart,
they can slow erosion by trapping sand carried by crosscurrents. But
down current, the lack of drifting sand can result in worse erosion.
“It’s like rob
bing Peter to pay Paul”, says Leatherman — a concept the
O’Malleys of Westhampton Beach understand all too well, since it was
boring groin field that robbed their beach of replenishing
Jetties can cause beach larceny on an even grander scale. Long
concrete or rock struc
tures, they jut out into the water to keep inlets
and harbors navigable by keeping sand and silt from drifting in. Like
groin fields, jetties can keep sand from replenishing beaches down cur
rent. The construction 90
years ago of a
pair of jetties to improve the
harbor at Charleston, S.C., altered currents and natural sand drift so
drastically that there is no beach left at high tide at nearby Folly Beach.
In Florida an estimated 80% to 85% of the beach erosion on the state’s
Atlantic Coast is caused by the maintenance of 19
inlets, all but one of
them made or modified by man to link the open ocean and inland water
There is one anti
erosion scheme, however, that can be effective:
beach nourishment, which simply involves replacing sand that has
washed away. Between 1976
and 1980, a
mile stretch of Miami Beach
was rejuvenated with a
new, 300
wide beach. Ocean
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Calif., has struggled for more than 40
years to maintain its sandy
Pendleton during World War II interrupted the flow of sand down
the coast. More than 13
lion cu. yds. of sand have been dredged
from offshore or trucked in from nearby rivers to replenish the Ocean
Beach nourishment, however, is expensive. Just off the southern
tip of Key Biscayne, Fla., an Army Corps of Engineers’ hydraulic pump
ran 24
hours a
day, from mid
April to early July, sucking up sand from
the ocean bottom and piping it to the beach half a
mile away. By the
time the dredge had finished, it had moved some 400,000
cu. yds. of
sand at a
cost of $1.55
million, much of it from the pockets of local
businesses. In the early 1980s, the Army Corps brought in sand to wid
en the dwindling strip at Wrightsville Beach, N.C., by 200
ft., as well
as to construct and regrass new dunes. Price tag: $2.95
million. That
is small change, however, compared with a
program begun in 1976
the New York City Rockaway beach project. Total cost for the twelve
year, 11.5
yd. project: $52
million in federal, state and
But even beach replenishment is a
porary measure. At the
sprawling resort com
plex of Myrtle Beach, S.C, the community had
little choice but to haul in 854,000
cu. yds. of new sand along ten miles
of beach that had dwindled to a
ft. width in places, creating a
tening l00
wide strip at high tide. Ex
Mayor Erick Ficken says the
community will be paying for the $4.5
million project over the next
ten years. Naturally, he wonders, “How long will it last ” There are no
guarantees. John Weingart, director of coastal resources for New Jer
sey’s departmentof environmental protection, recalls one of that
state’s first replenishment projects. The 2
yd., $5
nourishment of the beach at Ocean City was unfortunately timed; it
was completed just before the stormy fall season. “Within ten days of
finishing”, he says, “we had several really bad local storms. Over 60
A major problem in the battle against coast
al erosion is the lack of
statewide coordination. Says Dick McCarthy, a
member of the Califor-
nia coastal commission: “We have a
series of fractionalized local ef
forts that has each com
munity involved in its own projects, often
without taking into account the effects its protective measures may
One problem with getting the Federal Government involved in
coastal management is that there is no single responsible Govern
agency. The Army Corps of Engineers comes closest, but it is often
First semester. Topic: We and Environment
hamstrung by its dual mission: it is charged with both protect
ing vul
nerable wetlands and keeping water
ways navigable. In Louisiana,
waterways win every time. This does not have to be the case, contends
Bill Wooley, planning chief for the corps’s Galves
ton office. While he
concedes the task is formidable, he insists that’ ‘we can manage both.
It’s a
matter of how much we want to spend.” The simplest and most
effective response to coastal erosion would be to prevent people from
living at the edge of the sea. The non
profit, Washington
based Nature
Conservancy encourages just that by buying threatened coastal areas
and refusing to develop them. The group has made 32
separate pur
chases in eight states, sheltering more than 250,000
acres, including
barrier islands off the coast of Virginia that it bought for $10
lion. Says Orrin Pilkey, a
Duke University geologist and one of the
country’s top experts on beach erosion: “Retreat is the ultimate solu
That is not likely. “Abandonment is a
joke”, scoffs Folly Beach
Mayor Richard Beck, noting that his island is almost com
pletely devel
oped and that tourism is just too valuable an income source. Indeed,
unless it is voluntary, any restriction of land use, even for good envi
ronmental reasons, must respect property rights. Two recent Supreme
Court decisions served as timely reminders that local governments
have a
constitutional respon
sibility to protect property owners. Even
so, those who resist a
balanced policy of coastal management, whether
they are motivated by greed or by genuine concern for the well
of coastal communities, will probably lose in the end—to the sea. Says
Coastal Geologist Griggs: “In the long run, everything we do to stop
erosion is only temporary.” John Tesvich, a
Louisiana oysterman, per
haps puts it more feelingly, “The land has shrunk. It looks like a
What else besides property do the receding coastlines threaten
What purpose do sand dunes serve What happens if they are de
Is erosion a
problem in any place you have lived If so, what ef
forts have people made to slow the process Have they been suc
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What is the greenhouse effect What has caused it Do you think
Environmentalists believe that federal insurance programs de
signed to help homeowners in high
risk areas actually contribute
to the destruction of these areas. Explain their thinking. Do you
In groups of five or six, list and discuss the various methods men
tioned in the article to slow coastal erosion. Do any of them seem
effective Can your group add any solutions to the list Do you
think such efforts are a
losing battle against nature Be prepared
Do you think that people should be allowed to build on coastal
Do you think that people already living in coastal areas should be
encouraged or forced to leave Explain your answers in a
oming Back from the Brink
Crocodile Dundee: the main character in an Australian movie of
the same name. Crocodile Dundee had great skill in capturing
Endangered list: an official listing of the plant and animal species
in danger of extinction. Every year more species are added to the
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service: a
federal agency responsible for
Bayou: a
marshy body of water; a
creek that leads to a
river or
Feline: any member of the cat family. Lions, tigers, and leopards
First semester. Topic: We and Environment
Habitat: the location where a
kind of plant or animal naturally
Harvest: a
killing of animals. Normally the term harvest refers to
Poacher: a
person who illegally captures or kills animals. Poachers
Tanning factory: a
place where animal skins are treated for use.
To animal preservationists, leopard coats and alligator shoes have
long ranked among the most flagrant symbols of human indif
ference to
the fate of wild animals. Even among the general public, consciousness
has been raised high enough so that anyone sporting finery made from
The attackers may have to shift emotional gears, however. Last
month the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service formally announced that the
American alligator is no longer an endangered species. And, at a
ing this week in Ot
tawa, the U.N’.s Convention on International Trade
in Endangered Species will release a
report urging not only that the
common leopard be removed from its list of endangered animals but
While the alligator’s recovery has been “ phenomenal”, according
to David Klinger of the FWS, it seems that the spotted feline may nev
er have faced a
catastrophe in the first place. Unlike its truly rare
cousin the Himalayan snow leopard, the common leopard made the
list, in the 1970s, largely for emotional reasons. Worries about shrink
ing habitats and excessive hunting were “clearly overblown”, admits
Jaques Berney, deputy secretary
general of CITES. “Leopards are not
The push to recategorize the leopard is based on a
study, conducted in 23
countries by Rowan Martin, chief ecologist for
Zimbabwe’s departmentof national parks and wildlife management,
and Belgian Biologist Tom de Meulenaer. The pair used eyewitness ac
counts and statistical computer modeling to estimate Africa’s leopard
population at a
thy 700,000
to 850,000. The 75
to 150
lb. cats
have even been sighted recently on the out
skirts of Nairobi. The biolo
gists went so far as to recommend the resumption of international
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trade in leopard skins. The best approach to leopard management, they
argue, is to legalize a
limited “harvest”, diverting revenues from
poachers and providing an estimated $29
lion to “governments and
The reclassification of the alligator, however, is a
true victory.
Twenty years ago, the toothy reptiles had been so assiduously hunted,
says FWS Director Frank Dunkle, “that many believed the species
would never recover.” Skin
seeking poachers had killed the animals by
the tens of thousands. In 1966
gress passed the first of the Endan
gered Species Acts, which banned hunting any animal at risk of elimi
nation over a
major part of its range. Such legislation was spectacular-
ly successful for the gators, thanks in large part to the FWS agents
One of the heroes was David Hall, an agent who went undercover
for nearly ten years in the swamps and bayous of the South. Hall would
get to know the locals and start buying alligator hides from traders; at
one point, he operated a
tanning factory for more than a
year’. ‘The
big traders would bring their skins to me in 18
wheel trucks”, says
Hall, “and we’d bust them on the spot. I
know the real Crocodile Dun
Alligator populations rebounded rapidly. Says Klinger: “All we
had to do was stop the poachers, and the gators did the rest”. In Ala
bama, for example, biologists reported a
tenfold increase in alligators
between the mid
1970s and the early ‘80s. By 1985
the FWS declared
the animal no longer endangered in Louisiana, Florida and Texas,
where 90% of the animals live, and last month it extended that deci
sion to the seven other states where gators are found. “We’ve got more
alligators than we know what to do with”, exclaims Klinger, who says
The alligator is not the only FWS success: the brown pelican, once
in danger, is now off the list in several states. The bald eagle is up from
its 1963
low of 417
active nests in the lower 48
states to some 2,000
ing pairs this year—not enough to be declassified but an impressive
return for the national symbol. Un
fortunately not all protected species
can be coaxed into bouncing back. Despite govern
ment protection,
there are no known Califor
nia condors left in the wild; the remaining
are in captivity. And in 70
years of trying to save the whooping
crane, the population has grown from a
low of 15, in 1941, to just
birds. Nor can deletions from the endangered list begin to keep
pace with the new additions. At the moment, 449
animal and plant spe
First semester. Topic: We and Environment
Why has the alligator been taken off the endangered species list
What accounts for the large numbers today, especially in the
Why was the leopard put on the endangered list What are some
What are some other animal species that have larger populations
How many plant and animal species are on the endangered list for
Do you think a
limited legal harvest of leopards should be allowed
Do you believe that protecting species of plants and animals is
Can you think of any other endangered species besides those men
tioned in the article If so, what is their habitat Is there hope
In groups of five or six, select the statement below that best des-
Only furs from unendangered species should be used for cloth
Only furs from domesticated animals, such as rabbits and minks,
Once a
consensus is reached, discuss reasons in support of your
group’s position. Be prepared to present your position to the en
Poll five to 10
people to learn their reactions to the following ques
If you could afford to, would you buy a
fur coat Why or why not
Tally the responses and summarize your findings in a
brief written
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s There Hope
Our planet Earth is in trouble. Every day we hear more and more
about the destruction of the environment. Make a
list of the three
Work in small groups. Compare and discuss your three most im
portant problems connected to the Earth today. Try to reach a
sensus on the top three problems. Then try to think of possible
solutions to the problems. Try to suggest realistic solutions. (For
Read the following three situations. What do you think of them
Are these situa
tions problems or not Write a
sentence or two
The world’s population reached 6.3
billion in 2000
and is expected
to grow by another one billion to reach 7
billion by 2015. About
The number of living species on earth is estimated at up to 80
lion, but only 12.4
million have been briefly described; 25
By the end of the century, the 33
developing countries that are
now net export
ers of forest products will be reduced to fewer than
10. Remaining reserves of tropical hardwoods in Asia are now
only sufficient at current rates of removal to last for about
years. The figures for Africa and Latin America are 85
Work in small groups. Compare and then discuss your answers to
Make a
list of a
few things that we can realistically do in our daily
lives to help save the planet Earth. For example, “not drive cars
anymore” would be great for the envi
ronment but is not a
First semester. Topic: We and Environment
Work with one or two other students. Compare your answers for
the above exercise. How many of the people in your group actually
How friendly to the planet are you Take this test about the envi
ronment and you. For each item, write the number of your answer
usually __ .
__ take my own shopping bag to the store.
Our car gets __ miles per gallon. (1
mile = 1.6
km, 1
gallon =
walking / biking (1), train (2), subway (2), bus (3), carpool (4),
I __ check my car tires to make sure they are properly in
There __ a
saving device in my toilet (such as a
plastic bot
I __ make an effort to buy recycled goods when they are avail-
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on a
clothesline (1), separately (lightweight separate from heavy
ing) in a
clothes dryer (2), in a
clothes dryer without paying
Now add up your score for the environmental awareness test. Re
fer to the chart below to see how friendly you are to the this planet we
call home. Discuss your scores and answers in groups. If your score is
very high, listen to what students with low scores are doing in their
Check your score. The lower your score, the better for the envi
ronment. The lowest possible score is 20, and the highest possible score
= very friendly to the earth; 31–40
= somewhat
friendly to the earth; 41–50
= needs improvement; 51–60
= not friend
Find a
short article on some aspect of the topic of the environ
ment. Read the article and write a
summary of 50
to 75
Also, write your own reaction / opinion (in 25
words or less) about
Bring a
copy of the article to class and make a
presentation to the
class. Be pre
pared to speak between three and five minutes. After your
presentation, give your opinion about the article. Other students will
First semester. Topic: We and Environment
Students should be encouraged to ask the presenters ques
tions. One possible method of doing this is to have students draw names
just before the presentation day so that a
certain student has to ask the
presenter a
question. In this way, everyone is required to participate
Here are some interesting facts about things we can do in our dai
Buy the right appliance. The older the appliance, the more energy
it needs to run. Replacing your old refrigerator with a
ciency type can reduce your energy cost by approximately
year, and cutting our electricity bills helps to reduce pollu
Check to see that your car tires are properly inflated. America
could save up to 2
billion gallons of gas per year with properly
Drive alone less. Americans drive more than a
trillion miles a
with the average motorist driving 10,100
miles a
year and burn
ing up 507
gallons of gasoline. Every gallon of gasoline burned
produces 22
pounds of carbon dioxide. Adding just one person to
our cars would reduce the number of single
occupant cars and
Bring your own grocery bag to the store. This idea seems so simple
that you would not think that it is very important. However, it is.
Cut down on meat and increase the amount of vegetables and fruit
that you eat. It takes seven pounds of grain — usually fertilized
corn—to produce a
pound of beef; by contrast, it takes only two
pounds of grain to produce a
pound of chicken. Cows also use up
tremendous amount of water and produce ma
nure and methane
Putting a
plastic bottle in our toilets will not affect the toilet sys
tem but will save several hundred gallons of water a
year per
Turn off the water when you are brushing your teeth. This could
save approxi
mately 300
gallons of water per year per person. In
the United States, this would translate roughly into more than
billion gallons of water each year (300
67,500,000,000). Isn’t it shocking how such a
small thing can
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Read the key word in the left column. Circle the letter of the word
The next reading selection contains a
number of terms for illness
es and disorders. Study the definitions of those given below. Then
First semester. Topic: We and Environment
“play doctor” by making a
diagnosis (medical judgment about what is
wrong with someone) for each of the imaginary patients on the list.
anginal pains discomfort produced by angina pectoris, a
heart dis
ease in which there are spasms of pain in the chest, with feelings
asthma a
chronic disorder characterized by coughing, difficulty
high blood pressure too much pressure produced by the blood press
rapid loss of water
depression an emotional condition characterized by discourage
migraine a
severe headache usually limited to one side of the head
neurosis a
mental disorder characterized by worries, fears, obses
sions, and other symptoms that seem to have no physical cause.
Mary Wong: “I went to bed early but stayed awake all night long.
was completely unable to relax, and in the morning I
was very
Abdul James: “My head kept hurting intensely on the right side,
Vindu Gopal: “My six
old baby took almost no liquids yes
terday, and by evening he seemed too quiet and looked pale. He
Miguel Garcia: “My seventy
old father complains of
sharp pains in his chest that come and go and of respiratory
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Peter Kahn: “I am concerned about eating because so many foods
contain harmful ingredients. For this reason I
never eat in restau
rants, and I
spend three to four hours a
day cleaning my kitchen
Biometeorology is said by some to be a
new science that researches
the effect weather has on people and their health. Perhaps you have an
aunt who can predict the weather by some ache or pain, or a
cousin who
suffers from migraine headaches or depression when the humidity is
high. Julius Fast, bacteriologist, hematologist, and author of Weather
Language, says that one out of every three persons is “weather sensi
tive”. This means that he or she reacts physically to winds, humidity,
hot and cold weather. Read the following selection from Fast’s book
Some four hundred years ago the great Swiss physician and alche
mist Paracelsus stated, “He who knows the origin of the winds, of
thunder, and of the weather also knows where diseases come from”. He
could have added, “And why weather
sensitive people shudder when
the winds blow”, for they do. Some winds can put weather
people through every agony known to biometeorology. In fact, these
same winds can also affect people who usually are not weather sensi
Winds blow hot and cold, and it’s a
up which is worse. Statis
tics show that when cold polar winds sweep down on the land, there is
an in
crease in the number of heart attacks. Anginal pain gets worse
and blood pressure shoots up because the heart must work harder to
Psychological tests given while hot winds were blowing have
turned up some good news and some bad news about the relations
among winds, personality, and ability. The bad news first: Hot winds
make people more neurotic and irritable, and then they do worse on
intelligence tests. They can’t understand mechanical instructions as
The good news: Hot winds won’t keep you from doing your best in
Some winds are lovely, cool, and refreshing
— poets’ winds, warm
west winds. But others are terrible
— veritable monsters. Europe’s
is one of these. In medieval times, people thought the foehn blew
in from Phoenicia, and they named it the “Phoenicias”, then shortened
First semester. Topic: We and Environment
that to foehn. This hot, dry terror is deadly not only in the biometeoro
logical sense but in a
physical sense as well. It blows in from Italy load
ed with wet, humid air, drops its moisture on the Swiss Alps, and then,
warm and dry, sweeps down into the northern reaches of the land. As
Albert is a
resident of Bad Tolz, a
town in Germany in the foothills
of the Alps. I
talked to him about the foehn, and he shook his head
sadly. “Some reporters from Munich came here a
few years ago to talk
about the foehn, and they told us it was all in our heads. But they didn’t
understand. They weren’t here while it was blowing. Everyone in the
village was upset. You couldn’t talk to your neighbor, or if you did,
“Every night while the foehn was blowing, I’d have trouble sleep
— the nightmares. And I’d wake up with a
headache. My sister
“It seems to go on forever, day after day. It’s so dry. You sweat,
and the sweat is just pulled out of you by the wind. We were all thirsty.
“It starts with warm air over the cold ground. At first it’s wet
before the real blowing begins, and once it comes it goes on for weeks.
In our street there was one suicide, and I
put it down to that devil wind.
And it’s not only sickness and upset. My cousin who works in a
in Munich told me there were more accidents during the weeks of the
Albert’s report had the ring of truth, and I
had additional scien
tific con
firmation of the foehn’s deadly quality from other sources.
psychiatrist told me that in mental institutions there were almost
quarter more pa
tients with problems when the foehn struck. An
internist in another Alpine town told me that he had at least one
Why the foehn affects people is still not clear. Some researchers
lieve the hot, dry wind creates an enormous number of positive ions
cause of the friction of its descent down the Alps. Positive ions have
been held to be the cause of many upsets, and Dr. W. Morikofer tried
to test this with ion
testing apparatus. He reported, however, that he
Other researchers feel that certain people have nervous systems
particularly vulnerable to hot, dry winds — that, in fact, these are our
Other European winds are hard on people in their paths. The
warm, dry
blows along the Rhone Valley in France, and it is
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accompanied by low
pressure systems’. Babies are usually the first to
react: They run high temperatures and suffer dehydration, become
restless, and can’t sleep. Some children don’t do well in school when
the autan blows, and others suffer respiratory troubles, colds, and
sensitive adults react strongly to the autan, almost as
strongly as they do to the foehn. Quarrels, insomnia, heart attacks,
The mistral is another Rhone Valley wind, but unlike the autan, it
is cold and dry. This strong wind, however, is still ugly in its effects.
Like the foehn, the mistral causes migraine and insomnia and is dread
There are other “killer winds” around the world; in Africa and
Asia the simooms are hot, dry, desert winds. In India there is the
In the Mediterranean countries there is the
; in Spain, the
. And so it blows all through Europe, Asia, and even Australia,
where they have the
. This wind earned its colorful name by
blowing clouds of dust from the brickfields. After a
while it was re
Israel has its own killer wind, the
. It is heated up by the
desert sands, and it brings with it depression, headache, irritation,
In the United States we have few natural deadly winds, perhaps
because of the geography of our country. Winds on the Pacific North
west Coast blow wet against the Rockies, then dry and sometimes hot
down the landward side. The
is one such wind, and it causes
almost as many problems as its European cousin, the foehn. In south
ern California, the Santa Ana wind has a
deadly reputation. When it
blows across Los An
geles, its heat and dryness seem to cause an enor
Many winds are given names to personify them, and perhaps as an
cient way of pacifying them. You can plead with a
named object,
wind, or mountain or storm god, and you can ask it to spare you. The
chinook was named after an Indian tribe, and in the United States we
name our hurri
canes. But the old practice of giving them women’s
names has been re
placed, after protest, by naming them alternately
Hurricanes are killer winds, but their destructive power lies in
the phys
ical damage they can do. They will lift houses, turn over cars,
and destroy entire communities. We respect them for this, but we may
have winds that are just as dangerous and, for some, even more dan
First semester. Topic: We and Environment
Dr. H. B. Schultz studied the disposal of agricultural wastes in
northern California and found that the “monsoonlike inflow of oceanic
air” cleaned the air over the nearby cities. However, in the fall, when
million tons of rice straw have to be burned for pest control, these
same winds can blow the burning pollutants over the nearby cities.
In Colorado, there is a
vast nuclear installation at Rocky Flats.
gentle wind blows from Rocky Flats toward Denver, and an area near
the city in the path of the wind has recorded twice as many cases of
leukemia and lung cancer as one would normally expect. Here another
When nature fails to provide us with the winds like the foehn and
Most pieces of factual writing contain a
number of general ideas
that are supported by details and examples. Tell which details on the
right give support to each of the general ideas listed on the left. (You
might find some details that you feel do not really support any of the
Besides the European winds, there are other “killer winds”
When nature fails to provide us with destructive winds, we
the higher number of accidents at a
factory in Munich during the
the doubling of the number of cases of leukemia and lung cancer
the quarrels, insomnia, and migraines that people suffer when the
the custom in the United States of calling hurricanes by people’s
the depression and headaches said to accompany the sharav in Is
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The distinction between fact and opinion often is not clear. Events
taken to be common knowledge or statements supported by scientific
evidence are generally considered to be facts. Beliefs expressed by only
one person are often considered just opinions, unless the person is
Which of the following statements in the reading do you think are
“He who knows the origin of the winds, of thunder, and of the
“Statistics show that when cold polar winds sweep down on the
“Hot winds make people more neurotic and irritable, and then
“My cousin who works in a
factory in Munich told me there were
more accidents during the weeks of the foehn than for months and
“A psychiatrist told me that in mental institutions there were al
most one
quarter more patients with problems when the foehn
“Other researchers feel that certain people have nervous systems
particularly vulnerable to hot, dry winds — that, in fact, these
“When [the Santa Ana wind] blows across Los Angeles, its heat
Expanding vocabulary: adding suffixes to form adjectives from
Many adjectives are formed by adding a
suffix to the root of a
lated verb or noun. Fill in each of the following blanks with an
adjective used in the article “The Cruel Winds”. Each adjective
will be related to the word in italics type preceding it. The first
Everyone knows that many winds do not cause any apparent
In fact, these (1)
winds often
us. After a
hot day,
__ breeze in the evening can be very welcome. Winds sometimes
the air over cities. For example, the (3) __ action of winds from the
Some winds, however, sweep down from the North or South
These cold (4) __ winds seem to produce adverse physical symptoms in
many people. Hot winds also cause troubles. Two warm, dry winds in Eu
First semester. Topic: We and Environment
rope, the foehn and the autan, can cause an increase in heart attacks, mi
graines, and difficulties with
. These (5) __ problems are par
ticularly serious for asthma sufferers, but there may also be psychological
symptoms, such as
and irritability. People often find that they
feel irritable, on edge, or even (6) __ when the foehn comes to certain
towns in the
. The inhabitants of these (7)
__ towns are not alone,
however, for people all over the world suffer as a
result of winds. Canadi
ans who live in Calgary, Alberta, a
city on the side of the Rocky Moun
tains facing away from the ocean and toward the
, sometimes experi
ence amazing temperature changes of 40
degrees in one hour as a
result of
the chinook, a
wind that sweeps down the (8) __ side of the mountains.
Even more serious is the great physical damage caused by hurricanes, the
of Asia, and (9)
__ winds in other places. These winds kill peo
Answer the following questions about the article “The Cruel
What are the names of two harmful European winds What ad
Where is Calgary located What inconvenience do Calgarians
What is the name of an Asian wind famous for the destruction
Are there destructive winds in your country that cause damage or
Besides winds, what other kinds of weather affect people Can
certain weather conditions make you sleepy or happy On edge
In your opinion, what is the best way to predict the weather
If you take this article as an example, do you think that biomete
Why do you think that hurricanes in the United States used to be
called by women’s names How and why has this custom changed
Does climate affect human behavior How are the people who live
in colder climates different in customs and character from people
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Together we can save a
How can a
life be saved Discuss the given words and complete the
sentences. Which of the activities is the most important and why
All the professions below can save a
life. Can you explain how In
groups, discuss and find one thing each of them could possibly do
Which of the listed below should be common for the professions
Read about the American Red Cross and find the answers to the
What is the most important area of activity of the American Red
How does this area of activity correspond to your answers to the
The American Red Cross, as one of the world’s premier humani
tarian organizations, is dedicated to helping people in need through
out the world. It depends on generous contributions of time, blood,
First semester. Topic: We and Environment
tissue, and money from the public to support its lifesaving services
and programs. Prior to the First World War, the Red Cross introduced
its first aid, water safety, and public health nursing programs. With
the outbreak of war, the organization experienced phenomenal growth.
After World War II, the Red Cross introduced the first nationwide
civilian blood program that now supplies nearly 50
percent of the blood
and blood products in the USA. Since the Vietnam War the Red Cross
has been focusing on service to veterans and enhanced its programs in
home care for the sick, as well as safety trainings, and accident pre
vention. It has also provided relief for victims of some major disasters
The objective of the American Red Cross now is providing reha
bilitation and developing activities and programs to train general pub
lic to act confidently at the very start of the disaster response phase.
These programs, as agreed, should be focused on approaching real
emergency circumstances, and not just lecturing in the conditions of
classroom. Only if all people are aware of how to respond to different
emergencies and not panic, then together we can save a
life. That is
All the emergencies, disasters and crises basically fall into two
Read and discuss the following definitions. Can you guess the
meanings of the words ‘natural’ and ‘anthropogenic’ by their ori
Natural Disasters
are those caused by nature. People cannot yet
possibly prevent those since many of the forces that cause these emer
Anthropogenic Disasters
are those caused by people, intentionally
or not. These could be prevented or avoided by proper behavior and at
titude. It is people that are fully responsible for both causes and conse
Match these words with their definitions. Mark them ‘N’ if they
are natural ‘A’ if they are anthropogenic. The first one is done for
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Decide which of the disasters above are typical for your region
Do you know what people should do if they are caught in a
disaster Have you ever heard about any specific Procedures in
Ukraine Discuss this in groups, then read the text below to find
WATCH: storm conditions are possible in a
specified area, usually
WARNING: storm conditions are expected in a
specified area,
Identify ahead of time where you could go if you are told to evacu
Take these items with you when evacuating: Any prescribed me-
dicines you are currently on. Battery
operated radio, First Aid Kit and
Know what to do when a
Storm Watch is issued: Listen to local
Check your Personal Evacuation Plan and make sure you are pre
Know what to do when a
Storm Warning is issued: Complete pre-
Listen to the advice of local officials, and leave if they tell you to
do so. If you are not advised to evacuate, stay indoors, away from win
dows. Be aware that the storm is not over until the Warning is called
First semester. Topic: We and Environment
off. Be alert for tornadoes. Tornadoes can happen during a
storm and
Know what to do after a
Storm is over: Keep listening to local ra
dio or watch local TV broadcasts for instructions. If you evacuated,
play the following telephone conversation. Student A
trapped by a
storm in his own house. Student B
is an emergency
Call the emergency. Tell them your name and ask
Tell what happened to you. Identify your location.
Tell the caller what to do until help arrives. Let him /
Tell the officer that you can’t reach your parents.
Ask him / her to call and let them know that you are safe. Give the
Divide into 2
groups. Make up an evacuation plan for your class in
case of a
storm warning. Present and discuss both plans in class.
Look at the pictures. Which are more likely to be seen in your
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The teacher prepares a
set of contrasting pictures: those describ
ing calm and pleasant environment and those describing some kind of
Using your background knowledge and the information above,
— Undesirable intrusion of unclean harmful sub
Every citizen of any modern urbanized city is being constantly af
fected by myriads of forms of pollution. Starting with the air we
breathe. Did you know that every one of us is inhaling and processing
through own lungs a
tablespoonful of dust daily Dare to count how
much it will make in a
year Now, the water. Remember, your mom
always used to tell you not to drink tap water Open your teapot and
look at its inside. Can you see a
touch of rusty and ugly substance on
the sides of it Where do you think it comes from If you drunk that
water without boiling it, this stuff would be in your belly by now. Have
you ever come home after a
long day out having a
headache and both
ered by that constant nasty noise inside your head Think about it,
now you do know why your neighbors are so mad at you when you turn
your room into a
rock club in the middle of the night. Have you ever
gone to make a
barbecue in the countryside Tell me, how long did it
take you to find a
clean spot of land near the river, or a
clearing in the
woods without any rubbish on the grass Do you own a
car Do you
smoke Do you have a
pet It doesn’t really matter, because many
people around you do. The question is: Who is responsible for all that
Complete the dictionary entries for the following issues, then dis
First semester. Topic: We and Environment
Complete the sentences identifying the activities, which pollute
How would you classify the types of pollution What makes you
See if you can put the activities below into the appropriate pollu
tion groups. Complete the sentences. Consult a
dictionary if ne-
In groups, discuss why the activities mentioned above may be
harmful for the environment. Then, decide who should take care
of them. Match the problem and the authority to handle. Some
Do you know the difference In pairs match the word with its de-
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In pairs think about 3
possible solutions to these problems appro
priate for your region, complete the charts below, share your ide
Look this picture over carefully. It contains obvious evidence of
TASK 1. Choose one object and tell why you think it is the evi
TASK 2. As a
writer, gather your information, organize it and
compose a
message to your local authorities suggesting a
possible solu
First semester. Topic: We and Environment
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Home reading
Grammar revision
Indicate whether the underlined group of words in each sentence
is a
participial phrase by writing P
on the line before the sentence.
Startled by the loud noise
, the parakeet excitedly flew around the
Leaving her child at nursery school on the first day of class
It was difficult for Perkins
to remember his neighbor’s telephone
The screens
placed into their windows by Patsy
had been repaired
Reading three newspapers a
, Christine enjoyed herself on
read by many high school students
is To Kill a
Ten of these underlined groups of words are gerund phrases. Place
mark on the line next to those ten sentences that contain
Brushing Murphy’s hair
, the dog groomer seemed to be enjoying
First semester. Topic: We and Environment
My uncle recalled
walking two miles to school with his friends each
Monique’s arms were tired from
lifting all these heavy weights at
Trying to reach his friends by telephone
, Willy looked forward to
After that, the commentator was
interviewing the country’s new
Underline the infinitive phrase in each sentence. Then indicate on
the line before the sentence if the infinitive phrase is used as
Claudio left early to meet his brother. Haley’s dream is to revisit
We walked to the pizza parlor to buy some Italian hero sand-
My relatives were the most important people to invite to the cere
Underline the verbal phrase in each sentence. Then, in the space
before the sentence, indicate if the phrase is a
participial (P),
participating in the Indy 500
this year was fun for the veteran
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Knowing how to get back to its nest, the oriole started on his jour
Watching the bathers swim occupied the man’s time this morn
The crossword puzzle contest held in New York City was well at
Match the underlined, numbered phrase in each selection with its
name and code found in the box. The same code letters will be used
in both selections. Each letter is used only once in each selection.
Driving the golf ball more than two hundred yards (1), Phil want
ed to do the same on the next hole (2) in this tournament (3). He had
played (4) well last week here at Green Valley Golf Course, but he
wanted today to be special (5). Putting the ball accurately on these
First semester. Topic: We and Environment
Have you ever wanted to visit Ireland (1), the home of many tal
ented writers (2) Going to a
foreign country (3) can be a
opportunity. Many people traveling in tour groups (4) like that the
trip has already been planned (5) for them. Others choose to tour by
themselves (6). No matter how you go, visiting Ireland is the experi
Topic summary
Home reading
Food. You are what you eat
Food is fuel. Our minds and bodies depend on it for the energy to
be healthy and strong. not just any food will do, though, and a
bad diet
Explain the meanings of the words below. You may need to find
Let’s begin with the most basic questions of all… What is it in food
which our minds and bodies need Well, the answer comes in six parts:
Naturally, different foods contain different amounts and combi
nations of these six. Some are high in protein or carbohydrates, for
example, while others are low in fibre or fat. It can all seem very con
fusing, but it isn’t really. All you need to know are a
few simple facts,
First semester. Topic: Foods and Nutrition
Adults need 30
grammes of fibre per day. Why Because it helps
the diges
tive system to work properly and pro
tects it against diseases
like cancer. Here’s a
list of foods which have a
high fibre content (no
tice that they’re all grown either directly or originally in the ground):
— Nuts
— Ce
— Beans
— Fruit
— Wholemeal bread
There are two kinds of fat
— saturated and unsaturated. The
healthy kind is unsaturated and you can find this in fish which contain
lot of oil (e.g. trout and mackerel), nuts, soya oil and some kinds of
margarine. Saturated fat, on the other hand, is found in meat, dairy
products, crisps, cakes, biscuits and chocolate. Too much of this vari
Fat contains a
lot of calories, and too much of these can make you
overweight. Seriously overweight people often suffer from a
Fat also contains cholesterol. Too much of this can gradually start
to block your arteries. This means that your heart has to work
harder than usual to pump blood around your body. The result
fat products (cheeses, milk, etc.) whenever possible.
Sugar contains energy (in the form of calories), but that’s all.
Very sweet foods don’t give you any vitamins, min
erals, fibre, fat or
protein. So, although sweets, cakes, cola drinks and chocolate are deli
cious, they’re not very healthy
— they cause obesity and they’re also
bad for your teeth. If you’d like to re
duce the amount of sugar in your
Eat more fruit (it contains all the sug
ar your body needs) and
Reduce (or preferably cut out completely) die sugar you take in
On average we eat about 10
grammes of salt per day. Twenty
per cent of this consists of the salt we add to food ourselves. Twenty
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per cent occurs naturally in our diet. Fifty per cent is added to products
How much salt do we actually need The answer is one gramme
per day. Too much salt causes high blood pressure, which increases the
When you buy tinned vegetables, look for ones with ‘No added
Don’t add salt to food (a) while you’re cooking it, (b) at the table.
Eat more raw fruit and vegetables, wholemeal bread and other
Check the ‘Contents’ labels on pack
ets and tins to see what they
If you want to lose weight, do it grad
ually. People who lose weight
steady flow of energy.
Scientists believe they may have found the key to a
longer life.
The human lifespan could be extend
ed by as much as 50
years if
Research with mice and rats has shown that a
strict diet not only
Dr Brian Merry, of the Institute of Human Ageing at Liverpool
“We are quite literally eating our
selves to death”, he said. “Only
“We have managed to extend a
rat’s lifespan by anything up to
First semester. Topic: Foods and Nutrition
“It not only slows down ageing but also protects animals against
Biologists have now launched a
troversial international trial
The U.S. government is expected to give its approval later in the
year to ex
pand the programme. British volunteer Malcolm Greenhill,
41, hopes to cut his body weight by up to 20
per cent on a
diet of vegeta
“It was about a
year ago that I
first became interested”, he said.
“My moth
er had just died of cancer and my fa
ther suffered a
heart at
“I am going to live to 140. I
know that’s a
wildly provocative thing
sition to take advantage of all the new science that is going to extend
The research team, based in
sas, took the decision to try the
Dr Merry predicts that scientists will understand the reasons why
But he is sceptical of trying out the diet model on human beings.
“People should not even think of doing this to themselves because it
“I think we need to understand a
tle bit more about how this
process works before taking it a
step further. We are concerned with
How do you understand the saying “You are what you eat” In
In the following article after the introduction, there are three
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Picking out the headings in a
long article helps you see the or
ganization and major ideas. Headings are usually of two kinds: They
tell the main topic of a
section, or they simply give a
small detail to
catch the reader’s interest. The ones that tell the main topic are the
most helpful for. comprehension. Which two of the headings are of
this kind In your own words, tell what you think you will read about
The only uncommon word in the title may be
. To infer its
meaning, notice how it is in a
parallel construction with the word
king: “Eat Like a…, Feel Like a…”. A
parallel construction is used
either for comparison or for contrast. So peasant means either
something very similar to king or something very different. With
this clue in mind, read the sentence in paragraph 6, and tell what
you think is meant by a
“peasant diet”. How does this relate to the
Words (often in italicss) sometimes follow the title of an article
and give a
brief summary of its main idea. In this case, the word
elite is used at the end of the summary. Do you know its meaning
If not, notice the context: “Eat simple foods, not elite treats”. The
word not tells you that elite treats are the opposite of simple foods.
Elite is also used to describe a
group of people. Look at this con
Look at the second word of the second paragraph:
. It de
scribes the menu that makes up the entire first paragraph. Read
that paragraph and think about what is special and unusual about
the grouping of foods described here. Then explain the meaning
Scan the first two sections of the essay for the noun
its related adjective
, which are used four times. From the
contexts, guess its meaning and write it below. Can you also find
in the fifth paragraph a
synonym for affluence, beginning with
The word
is used five times in the essay. Scan for it and,
“You are what you eat” is a
popular American saying, and what
you eat can contribute to destroying your health. According to modern
research, certain cultures have healthier diets than others. Which cul
tures are these What foods should you choose in order to avoid can
cer, hypertension, and heart disease Read the following article from
First semester. Topic: Foods and Nutrition
Research around the globe points to a
recipe for well
being: Eat
Start with miso soup, a
classically simple Japanese recipe. For an
appetizer, try a
small plate of pasta al pesto. On to the main course:
grilled chinook salmon, with steamed Chinese cabbage on the side. End
with a
Greek salad, sprinkled with olive oil, and a
New Zealand kiwi
An eclectic menu, to be sure. But it could contain some of the
world’s healthiest dishes. Miso soup, according to recent Japanese re-
search, may help prevent cancer, as may cab
bage. Salmon, olive oil,
and the garlic in your pesto can all help fight heart disease. Even the
In the last few years, nutritionists have been studying such inter
national super
foods — dishes from around the globe that may hold
the key to healthy eating. They’re building on research that began in
the ‘40s and ‘50s, when researchers first realized that a
country’s diet
is intimately connected to the health of its people. Since then, an ex
plosion of medical studies has produced a
flood of information on di-
verse human diets — from the Eskimos of the Arctic to the Bushmen
of Africa’s Kalahari Desert. But the globe
trotting researchers have
done more than discover the best fea
tures of each country’s cuisine.
They’ve also demonstrated broad nutritional principles that apply to
In many countries, they’ve found, the healthiest diet is simple,
inexpensive, tradi
tional fare — precisely the diet that people abandon
as they move into affluence. Japan
ese immigrating from the high
bohydrate Pacific to high
fat America have a
greater risk of heart dis
ease the more westernized their diet becomes. The same pattern holds
for developing nations that emerge from poverty into prosperity. Poor
people who can’t get enough to eat are at risk, of course, whatever
their diets. But as a
country’s food becomes richer, the scourges of
poverty (infectious disease and malnutrition) are re
placed by the
The simple, ideal diet — often called the “peasant diet” — is the
traditional cuisine of relatively poor, agrarian countries such as Me-
xico and China. It’s usually based on a
grain (rice, wheat, corn), fruits
and vegetables, small amounts of meat, fish, eggs or dairy products,
The advantages are obvious: low fat and high fiber, with most
calories coming in the grains and legumes. “A low
fat, high
fiber diet
is a
preventive diet for heart disease, certain cancers, hypertension,
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adult onset di
abetes, obesity”, says Dr. Wayne Peters, di
rector of the
According to Peters, “We evolved eating a
fat diet, and that’s
Studies of one of the world’s most primitive diets — and one of
the healthiest ones — back him up. In southern Africa’s Kalahari
Desert, some tribes still eat as early humans did, hunting and gather
ing. Anthropologists say the foods of the Bushmen are probably clos
est to foods that, over two million years, shaped our intestines, our
“Hunting and gathering may not have so been such a
bad way of
life”, says Richard Lee, an anthropologist at the University of Toronto
who has studied the !Kung tribe since the 1960s. “The main element
for the !Kung is the mongongo, a
superabundant nut eaten in large
quantities. They routinely collect and eat more than 105
edible plant
Another student of the !Kung—Stewart Truswell, a
professor of
human nutrition at Australia’s University of Sydney — says their eat
ing schedule is really continual “snacking” (the gathering) punctuated
by occa
sional feasts after a
successful hunt. They are nutritionally
healthy, the only shortfall being fairly low caloric intake. And Bush
men show few signs of coronary heart disease. Those who avoid acci
Few people, though, would choose a
!Kung diet—or even a
peasant diet from western Europe. …In an affluent so
ciety, it takes
willpower to keep fat intake down to the recommended maximum:
% of total calories. (The average American gets more than 40
% of
his calories from fats.) When a
country reaches a
certain level of af-
fluence, as the U.S. and Japan…, grains and beans give way to beef and
butter. And animal protein — in meat and dairy prod
ucts — usually
In India, for example, many middle
come people are now gain
ing weight on a
rich diet — even though the poor half of the population
still can’t afford enough to eat. As the middle class has become more
affluent, they’ve been able to indulge, and Indian doctors are report
edly seeing more obesity, hypertension, and heart disease. Many In-
dian dishes are soaked in ghee (clarified but
ter) or coconut oil, one of
the few vegetable oils that is virtually all saturated fat. Very re
though, Indians have gone in for the diets and aerobics classes that are
First semester. Topic: Foods and Nutrition
If it’s just too difficult to stay with a
really low
fat “peasant” di
et, the alternative is to rehabilitate high
calorie dishes. Cut down on
overall fat intake and substitute, in the words of one researcher, “nice
fats for nasty fats”. Americans have already been following this ad
vice. In the past 20
years the consumption of “nasty” saturated fats
has declined, while we’ve taken in more of the polyunsaturated fats,
such as corn and safflower oils, that can help lower blood cholesterol.
This change may help explain the simultaneous 20
% to 30
% drop in
An even better strategy for changing our fat intake may come
from studying diets in the Mediterranean—Spain, Greece, and south-
ern Italy. With some regional variation, peo
ple in these cultures eat
small amounts of meat and dairy products (although consumption has
increased steadily since World War II) and get almost all of their fat in
the form of olive oil, says physiologist Ancel Keys, professor emeritus
at the University of Minnesota School of Public Health and leader in
Keys has noted that farmers sometimes quaff a
wineglass of the
oil before leaving for the fields in the morning. Elsewhere in the Medi
terranean, bread is dipped in olive oil. Salads are tossed with it. Every
Though people in some of these coun
tries eat nearly as much total
fat as Ameri
cans, they are singularly healthy, with very little heart
disease. Now laboratory studies of olive oil help explain why. Unlike
most other vegetable oils common in the West, olive oil consists main
ly of “monounsaturated” fats. Recent research indicates that monoun
saturates do a
better job of prevent
ing heart disease than the more
As Americans become ever more con
cerned with healthy eating,
we’re likely to pay more and more attention to world cui
sines. The
glot among nations, we’ve started to seek out ethnic flavors from
everywhere. “Foreign” ingredients, from seaweed and bean curd to
tortillas and salsa, are now readily available in large supermarkets.
And Mexican and Asian restaurants have become more widespread
than any other eateries ex
ist) cept ice cream parlors, hamburger
stands, and pizzerias, according to the National Res
taurant Associa
But the trick to finding healthy food, wherever it comes from, is
to look carefully at each dish. No single cuisine is all good or all bad.
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The moral is simple: Whether you’re eat
ing an American beef
stew or a
French cas
soulet, you need to know what’s in it. With a
nutritional knowledge, you can sample some of the world’s tastiest
The Chinese eat a
diet that’s about 69
% carbohydrate,
10% protein, and only 21
% fat. That’s remarkably close to the mix-
ture that western nutritionists recommend. Rice, noodles, Chinese
cabbage, and mushrooms, along with other vegetables and small por
tions of fish and meat, are staples of Chinese diets. Recent medical
research suggests that oriental mushrooms help boost the immune sys
tem and also have qualities that may help prevent heart disease. The
downside of Chinese cookery, as in Japan, is the excess of salt and the
use of monosodium glutamate (MSG). MSG is as bad as salt if you’re
fighting high blood pressure, and it can also cause allergic reactions.
For many people, when dining in Chinese res
taurants it is best to ask
What Mexican dishes are best for health
conscious din
ers Though it’s high in fat, guacamole is a
surprisingly good bet.
Most of the fat in avocado is monunsaturated, like the fat in olive oil.
Seviche (fish marinated in lime juice) is low in fat overall; so are some
chicken dishes like chicken tostadas, if they’re not fried. And in case
you’re wondering, the hot chili peppers of Mexican cuisine could actu
ally be good for you, if you can take the heat. Chili peppers are an ex
cellent source of vitamins A
and C. They may even help you fight
The tremendous amount of fish that Eskimos eat helps to
prevent heart disease. Fish oil is beneficial in that it low
ers blood pres
sure, cholesterol, and the blood’s capacity to clot. A
recent Dutch study
showed that eating as few as two fish meals a
week cut the death rate
In southern Italy, age
old staples
—such as pasta, olive oil,
garlic, wholewheat bread — provide a
true gift of health: protection
Like oriental mushrooms, garlic is good for the heart and the im
Two products of the lowly soybean—miso and tofu—are
healthy staples. Miso soup may fight cancer; tofu gives low fat pro
tein. Seaweed, the Japanese lettuce, is high in many nutrients. On the
other hand, Japan’s smoked, salted, and pickled foods lead to a
First semester. Topic: Foods and Nutrition
seems to lower blood pressure, cholesterol, and the blood’s capa-
rich in vitamins A
and C
and possibly a
help in fighting colds and
contributes to high blood pressure and may cause allergic reac
The main idea of the article is given in simple terms in the title
and the sentence that follows it. In your own words, what is the
Another key idea is the relationship between affluence, diet, and
health. The article illustrates this by referring to several different
societies. In your own words, explain how affluence changes diet
Sometimes a
particular word is used in a
very special way that de
pends on the meaning of the entire sentence or paragraph. For exam
ple, the most common use of the word sober is as an antonym of the
word drunk. A
sober person is one who is not under the influence of
alcohol or drugs, one who is clear
headed, in full control of his or her
“But the globe
trotting researchers have done more
than discover the best features of each country’s cuisine. They’ve also
demonstrated broad nutritional principles that apply to people all over
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The italicized sentence can be paraphrased (put into clear and di
rect words) like this: The main conclusion of the researchers makes us
First read the vocabulary hints. Then paraphrase the italicized
The usual meaning of the word
is to put punctuation
marks into a
piece of writing so as to separate it into meaningful
chunks. Think about what it means in the following excerpt from
“Another student of !Kung ...
says their eating schedule is really
continual ‘ snacking’ (the gathering) punctuated by occasional
The word
is quite unusual, but its meaning can be guessed
simply by looking at the two words that follow it and making the
obvious inference. Read the following sentence and tell what com
“Keys has noted that farmers sometimes
wineglass of the
What are your favorite cuisines After reading this article, which
What kind of restaurant do you like to go to At what time of day
What do you think of “fast food” Is it healthful Why do you
Can you explain what “junk food” is Give some examples. Do you
Besides diet, what other factors are important for our health In
Many English words are made up of two shorter words. These are
called compound words, and they are usually adjectives or nouns. Some
compound words are written with a
hyphen between them, such as low
fat; others, such as wineglass, are written as one word, while others,
such as grocery store, are written as two separate words. Breaking
apart compound words can help you understand their meaning. For
example, look at the word well
being in the introductory quote in the
reading selection “Eat Like a
Peasant, Feel Like a
King”. What do you
First semester. Topic: Foods and Nutrition
think it means When taking vocabulary tests, try breaking apart the
Circle the word or phrase that best explains the meaning of the
underlined word or phrase. Refer back to the context in the selec
Grammar revision. Phrasal verbs
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After the party, we had to __ up the kitchen, which was a
break since.
Complete the first part of the phrasal verbs. Use each verb only
— __ me out. I’m grounded.
When Simon was little, he used to sing in a
choir. But after his
Complete the phrasal verbs according to their meaning in bra-
(found) __ this article.
We were at a
complete loss, and then Jane (produced) __ a
What it all (signifies) __ is that you’ll have to pay more for less.
For the production of his new film, the actor (came here) __ from
Where did you (buy) __ this old painting in the living room
When I
tried to open the door, the door handle (became detached)
First semester. Topic: Foods and Nutrition
I know that you’re still in love with your ex. But believe me, you
Quick, get __ the car. I’m not supposed to stop here.
I tried to get my point __ , but nobody seemed to care.
What you did was very mean. I
don’t think you’ll get __ so easi
bit faster.
Well, go __ being so selfish and you will soon have no friends any
Could you go __ the exercise with me I
haven’t got a
clue what to
workers went __ to prevent further wage cuts.
We cannot play football here. The sign says, “ __ the grass”.
beautiful voice.
Don’t smoke in the forest. Fires __ at this time of the year.
I’m afraid, we have __ apple juice. Will an orange juice do
— __ the good work.
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Test practice
It’s a
very popular restaurant
— we should apply for / book / keep
large dish / plate / portion
Please help / serve / wait yourself to salads from the salad bar.
see the catalogue / directory / menu, please
called / commanded / ordered.
speciality of our restaurant.
Have you tried the crude / raw / undercooked fish at the new Jap
vegetable / vegetarian / vegetation.
Have you decided what to have for your main course / food / help
Complete each sentence (a–j) with a
suitable ending (1–10). Use
First semester. Topic: Foods and Nutrition
Bacon, butter, bread, forks, chocolate, pepper, instant coffee,
__ Frying pan, __ saucepan, __ casserole, __ dish, __ jar, __ ket
Let’s look __ the market before we buy any vegetables.
I can’t understand this recipe. Can you work __ what it means
don’t feel up __ eating another cream cake.
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farm once, and it put me __ eating meat for a
Why don’t we warm __ last night’s leftovers for lunch
Keith usually makes __ his recipes as he goes along.
bit put __ .when we didn’t leave a
Choose the most suitable word or phrase to complete each sen
wonderful smell of __ bread in the kitchen.
second __ , please
First semester. Topic: Foods and Nutrition
This recipe is both (1)
and cheap. If you use dried chickpeas,
__ them for at least twelve hours in cold water. Drain them and put
them in a
large (3) __ with plenty of water. Bring them to the boil, and
then let them simmer gently (4) __ the chickpeas are soft. I
find it eas
ier to use (5) __ .chickpeas, which are already cooked. This (6) __ time,
and also guarantees that the chickpeas will be soft, since it can take
hours of boiling before they (7) __ . Two small 450
gram cans are usu
ally (8) __ Strain the chickpeas, but keep some of the liquid for the
soup. (9) __ three tablespoons of olive oil into a
saucepan, and gently
heat a
chopped (10) __ , two or three cloves of garlic and some (11) __
carrot. (12) __ half the chickpeas and turn them in the oil over a
heat. Meanwhile blend the remaining chickpeas in a
food (13) __ until
they make a
smooth cream. Add about half a
litre of water to the veg
etables and bring to the boil. Mix in the creamed chickpeas and cook
slowly. Add salt and (14) __ and a
pinch of mixed herbs. Some (15) __
lot of very good bargains / sales.
On Saturday morning the High Street is full of customers / shop
change / rest.
bit priced / pricey.
A carrier bag is free with each buyer / purchase over Ј10.
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per cent cutting / discount.
good shoe shop, but the costs / prices are very high.
Rewrite each sentence so that it includes the word given in capi
I can’t manage to see what the price is. Let’s ask inside.
Two masked men robbed the supermarket yesterday.
I don’t know whether to buy this car. I’ll consider it.
Topic summary
Home reading
Test on Listening
Test on
Test on Translation
Test practice.
Look at the pictures. In pairs, ask and answer the following ques
In what ways do the teenagers in the pictures look similar to each
First semester. Topic: Foods and Nutrition
Do you think their appearance tells us anything about their per
Which of these teenagers were / are you most similar to
Read the reports as quickly as you can, and answer the questions
Unfortunately, I’m rather disappointed with Rebecca’ s
and performance this term. She doesn’t seem to be committed to her
studies in the way that she was in the past. She often arrives late to
class and she has become quite disruptive. All too often, her homework
hardworking and dedicated student. The results of her end of term
exam were equally disappointing. I
am worried that, unless she starts
taking her studies more seriously, she won’t pass her Geography GCSE
Underline the words, phrases or sentences which tell us that Re
Rebecca is trying hard but her level is currently too low.
Although Charlotte is struggling with some of the terminology
and concepts at this advanced level, I
feel certain that in due course
she will be a
fine A
level Economics student. She has all the qualities
required: an analytical brain, a
desire to learn and the will to study
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hard on her own. At this stage there’ s
really no need to worry about
her rather low mark in the end of term exam. I’m confident that things
will come together nicely over the next couple of terms. Generally,
Underline the words, phrases or sentences which tell us that Char
Charlotte needs to work a
little harder if she wants to be sure of
Chris has a
natural talent for all forms of painting and drawing,
He certainly deserved to win the Art Prize. He makes very mature
choices as to what he draws and paints and he has a
good eye for per
spective. He does need to develop his shading skills, but that will come
with practice. I
very much look forward to seeing his pictures dis
Underline the words, phrases or sentences which tell us about his
Here are three more reports. They were written by a
social work
er. Read each report as quickly as you can and underline ONE sen
tence which you think is the MAIN PROBLEM that the person
has, and ONE sentence which tells us the action to be taken by the
Having worked in the railway industry for over twenty years,
Reed was made redundant in 1998. Since then, his wife has di
vorced him and he has developed an alcohol problem. He lost his house
because of gambling debts last year and is currently homeless and un
First semester. Topic: Foods and Nutrition
employed. After several interviews with Mr Reed, I
am convinced that
he wishes to break his alcohol addiction I
therefore recommend that he
This would provide him with accommodation and the medical and
counselling support needed to break his addiction. Mr Reed is aware
the programme, he will lose his accommodation. He assures me that he
Ms Jackson’s flat in Almsgrove Drive was burgled on 22
Since then, she has been unable to sleep properly and is terrified of stay
ing at home alone. Her work as a
secretary is suffering. She was referred
to me by Dr Claire Parker; her G.R I
have arranged to visit Ms Jackson
once a
week for the next two months and advised her to seek counselling
with a
professional therapist if her condition does not improve. How-
ever as Ms Jackson is in private accommodation rather than council
housing, and as she has already been prescribed sleeping pills by her doc
In pairs, discuss your answers. Did you underline the same words
Tim Adams has frequently played truant from school for the past
three months. I
was asked to interview Tim by the school’s Truancy
Officer It appears that Tim has been severely bullied by other children
at his school. From what Tim has said, much of this bullying has re
volved around the fact that his parents are too poor to buy him fa-
shionable clothes and trainers. Both Tim’s parents are currently un
employed. On discovering the cause of the bullying, I
contacted the
headmaster, who assures me that the bullies will be punished and that
he will make sure Tim is not bullied in future. I
shall check up on Tim’s
In pairs, discuss your answers. Did you underline the same sen
Now match these summary sentences with the three reports in C.
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Read these sentences and then use the words in italics to complete
Although she’s now one of the richest women in the world, she
Society has changed its attitude towards disabled people in the
Simon is a
very mature young man; I’m sure we can trust him to
Mr Reed is aware that the programme is very strict.
You’ve got the talent, but have you got the will to succeed
The headmaster said that he would not put up with bullying in his
Doctors expect her condition to improve over the next twenty
Our English teacher is quite __ , but at least we learn a
lot in her
don’t care about being __ , I
just want to wear comfortable
Do you know the English expression, ‘Where there’s a
__ there’s
Teenage girls are usually more __ than teenage boys.
The buildings in such a
bad __ that I
think it will have to be pulled
What’s your __ towards taking a
year off before going to univer
Not many people know that Mahatma Gandhi was originally a
First semester. Topic: Foods and Nutrition
When you choose the heading / sentence, always UNDERLINE
the words, phrases or sentences in the text which give you the an
You are going to read a
magazine article about cloning. Choose
from the list A–H the sentence which best summarises each part
(1–6) of the article. There is one extra sentence which you do not
Most people do not understand what cloning really means.
According to scientists, the cloning of humans could have medical
cloned cell is identical to the DNA of another cell.
To clone or not to clone That is the question. Eileen Peters ex
What exactly is cloning According to the Human Genetics Advi
sory Commission, cloning is defined as ‘producing a
cell or organism
with the same nuclear genome as another cell or organism’. Basically,
that means that a
clone is a
living being with exactly the same DNA as
another living being. At the time of writing, some mammals have suc
Although frogs were first successfully cloned in the 1950s, it was
not until the mid
1990s that cloning became a
major political issue.
This was when Dolly the sheep became the first successfully cloned
adult mammal. Suddenly, it seemed that the cloning of humans had
gone out of the realm of science fiction and was close to becoming sci
entific fact. Some people were extremely excited by this prospect.
So, why are some scientists so keen to clone human cells First of
all, it’s important to understand that cloning human cells does not
necessarily mean that you make a
new human being. Scientists believe
that in the future we will be able to clone human organs such as the
heart, liver and kidneys which we’ll be able to use in transplant opera
tions.They also think that cloning will help us get rid of genetic di-
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So what can we expect to happen in the future Most Western go-
vernments are in the process of legislating against human cloning.
However, unless all the countries of the world make human cloning il
legal (which is highly unlikely), we are likely to see more and more at
tempts at human cloning in the near future. It is too early to say how
There are both political and ethical arguments against human
cloning. Some religious groups say that cloning would allow us to ‘play
God’: to determine the sex, the eye colour, even the height of our child-
ren. They say this is morally wrong. Others argue that clones will suf
fer severe psychological problems when they learn they have been
cloned, and may suffer prejudice and intolerance from non
cloned hu
However, most scientists are against human cloning at present
because they argue it is not safe. It took 272
attempts before the clon
ing of Dolly, and even she has not enjoyed good health since her birth.
At present, we do not have the technology to safely clone humans. But
what if we are able to solve the safety issues Will human cloning be
Whatever happens, one thing is sure. This issue is not going to go
away. Scientists such as Severino Antinori and Panagiotis Zavos are
not going to give up trying to develop safe human cloning techniques.
And religious organisations such as the Roman Catholic Church will
Unless she takes her studies seriously, she won’t pass her Geogra
phy GCSE next year. = If she doesn’t take her studies seriously, she
‘Unless we hear from Alan tonight, we won’t leave tomorrow
morning’. Alan phones them that night. Do they leave the next
First semester. Topic: Foods and Nutrition
‘Unless you tell me who broke that window, you’ll all be in serious
trouble’. They told the teacher who broke the window. Were they
‘Unless cloning is controlled carefully, it will never be safe’.
Does the speaker think that cloning is currently controlled care
‘Unless cloning is controlled carefully, it won’t ever be safe’.
Does the speaker think that cloning can be safe in the future
Test on Writing
Test on
Home reading
Understanding art. Line
Look at the drawing by Paul Klee and give it a
name of your own.
Second semester. Topic: Art and Artists
Sister Wendy Beckett is a
British nun, described by The Washing
ton Post as “a woman plucked from another world, who had never
watched TV, never been on it, who looks, acts and talks like no one who
has, who shows up on TV one day and becomes a
most beloved TV art
taught “art nun” guides television viewers through each great era
of Western art. Sister Wendy believes that each great work of art has
fascinating story to tell about what it means to be human. “So often
people are held back because they fear their own ignorance”, says Sister
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Wendy. “The STORY OF PAINTING is my guide for those who want to
Read the description of this picture made by Sister Wendy
Beckett and say whether the author’s impressions are similar to
Sunday Afternoon on the Island of the Grande Jatte
one of those rare works of art that stands alone; its transcendence is
instinctively recognised by everyone. What makes this transcendence
so mysterious is that the theme of the work is not some profound emo
tion or momentous event, but the most banal of workaday scenes: Pa
risians enjoying an afternoon in a
local park. Yet we never seem to
fathom its elusive power. Stranger still, when he painted it, Seurat
was a
mere 25
(with only seven more years to live), a
young man with
scientific theory to prove; this is hardly the recipe for success. His
theory was optical: the conviction that painting in dots, known as
pointillism or divisionism, would produce a
brighter colour than paint
Seurat spent two years painting this picture, concentrating pains
takingly on the landscape of the park before focusing on the people;
always their shapes, never their personalities. Individuals did not in
There is no untidiness in Seurat; all is beautifully balanced. The
park was quite a
noisy place: a
man blows his bugle, children run
around, there are dogs. Yet the impression we receive is of silence, of
control, of nothing disordered. I
think it is this that makes La Grande
Jatte so moving to us who live in such a
disordered world: Seurat’s
control. There is an intellectual clarity here that sets him free to paint
this small park with an astonishing poetry. Even if the people in the
park are pairs or groups, they still seem alone in their concision of
— alone but not lonely. No figure encroaches on another’s space:
This is a
world both real and unreal
— a
sacred world. We are often
harried by life’s pressures and its speed, and many of us think at times:
Stop the world, I
want to get off! In this painting, Seurat has “stopped
the world”, and it reveals itself as beautiful, sunlit, and silent
— it is
Second semester. Topic: Art and Artists
Read the text again and fill in the table with brief notes from the
Match the words from column A
to the words from column B
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Read the dictionary entry and say what thing or place can be de
— a
deliberate combination of two words that mean the
His work is very __ It makes viewers think and sympathise with
The __ of his pictures attracted hundreds of people to the gal
You can recognise the building in the background by the __ of its
The artist was sure that painting __ rather than __ is much more
lack of new ideas.
The __ idea of the picture is difficult to understand.
This artist never painted people, he adored nature and became fa
Look again at the drawing by Paul Klee and think what you can
Second semester. Topic: Art and Artists
Why and how may the idea of space be important to the sculptor
Do you find beauty in mathe
matics and geometry Why /
Constantin Brancusi (1876—
— a
Romanian sculp
tor, who
was one of the leaders of the modern
movement and later pioneered ab
straction. His sculpture is distin
guished by its elegance and sensitive
use of material. It combines the so
phistication of the avant
garde and
— an art move
ment started in New York in the
1960s. Simple forms and an imper
sonal style are characteristic of min
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Work in pairs. Read the extract from an article about Carl Andre
What does the sculpture in the picture actually represent, accord
Look at the words and expressions in italics and answer the ques
I can remember being in a
gallery once and realising I
was stand
ing on an Andre sculpture. After the shock, the piece began to assert
its power
— the sheer simplicity of it, the humility of the materials,
the silence of it. It had the effect of undermining a
lot of what was
around it. “Art is not a
form of communication”, said Andre many
years ago, and he stands by it now. “A great work of art is about new
it changes your state
”. He feels that good art only
something that cannot be conveyed in any other way, just as
great poem cannot be paraphrased. In his own work, he aspires to
The decibel level around us continues to rise, both literally and in
terms of all our senses being assaulted. In galleries, the tide of text and
educational explanation continues to lap at the sandcastle of the art it
He speaks of order and calm
in connection with
his sculpture.
When his work is going well, Andre feels that “thought and act become
Did Carl Andre’s sculpture produce a
strong impression on the
How does the sculptor explain his idea of art Find the words in
Have you ever seen a
work of art that changed your state of mind
sculpture can convey an idea. What other things can convey an
Second semester. Topic: Art and Artists
— desire and work towards achieving something impor-
— affect something in a
way that makes you uncom
able or upset
These are different features which may be discussed in connection
Choose the words and expressions from the box to fill in the gaps
Nothing can beat the quiet beauty and great __ of his sculptures.
Many galleries have rejected old
fashioned realistic works of art
“I concentrated on the eyes __ my early paintings”, explained the
The __ memories of this exhibition will last for a
long time, I
Some art schools were set up __ the existing art movements.
Although the painting was created hundreds years ago, it is full
of larger
life characters and __ a
vivid sense of “being
Eternal youth and beauty have been __ since time began.
Try joining the copying the mixing the brush __
— and you’ll get
more __ influence on people than science.
The clean and simple __ of the drawings started to __ as soon as
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Complete the table putting ticks in the boxes to make colloca
Home reading
Grammar revision
Match the items in A
with those in B. Use each number and letter
Second semester. Topic: Art and Artists
a noun or pronoun that is placed beside another noun or pronoun
includes at least one main verb and one or more helping verbs
noun, an adjective, or an adverb
a prepositional phrase that mod
ifies a
verb, an adjective, or an
Here are ten tasks to check on your knowledge of various gram
mar topics that you have covered in class thus far. Every sentence
Here is your chance to show how you can use many different types
of word and sentence constructions in your writing. Underline
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The noun or pronoun that generally ends a
prepositional phrase is
gerund phrase can be removed from the sentence, and the sen
“We went to the dance” includes a
prepositional phrase that func
There are three types of verbals—the participle, the gerund, and
“The candidate to choose is Juan Ramos” includes a
prepositional phrase acting as an adjective generally follows
“To see the beauty of nature” is an example of an infinitive
In the sentence, “Removing the furniture from the upstairs rooms
was not easy”, the phrase “Removing the furniture from the up
Ten of these sentences contain adverb clauses. The other five do
not. Place a
checkmark on the line next to those sentences that
Second semester. Topic: Art and Artists
Test practice.
Look at the pictures. In pairs, ask and answer the following ques
Read the paragraphs as quickly as you can, and write on the line
below each paragraph which job you think the person is describ
‘I spend about half of my time in my office, and the other half in
court. I
don’t have customers. I
have clients. They come to me with
legal problems and I
represent them. Its a
very demanding job, because
you feel responsible for what happens to your clients, but it’s also very
satisfying. One of my clients was recently arrested for a
crime he
hadn’t committed, and I
was able to persuade the police they’d made
‘Many people think that this is an easy job, but in fact it can get
very tiring and lonely. You’re often away from your family for long
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periods of time
— maybe two or three weeks, if you have to go to Ger
many or somewhere. That can be difficult. I
do love it, though. I
being on the road behind the wheel, and being able to look down on all
the cars. But it’s a
pain when you have to unload all the boxes and stuff
‘Well, I
used to work for a
tabloid, but now I
work for a
more seri
ous paper. I
generally write two or three pieces a
day. You really have
to keep up with current affairs in this job, though. I’m often going to
press conferences and interviewing politicians and famous people, so
have to know what questions to ask. The most satisfying thing is see
ing my name in print above a
story. I
look at it and think, ‘I wrote that
‘People have this image of us being very boring and old
but I
don’t think that’s true at all. Where I
work, it’s often very lively
and interesting and, these days, people don’t have to whisper all the
time. Kids are welcome, and it’s a
very friendly place. Of course, you
couldn’t do this job if you didn’t love books. I
adore literature, and it’s
great being in an environment where everyone around you also gets
pleasure from it. I
think we provide a
very valuable service to the pub
lic. People can borrow books from us which they would never be able to
Write TWO words or phrases from each paragraph which helped
Second semester. Topic: Art and Artists
According to the writer, one of the skills required to do this job
Here are two more descriptions of different jobs. Quickly read
An actor’s life for me / Luck is so important / The same every
do do a
little TV work, but I’m mainly based in the theatre. Every
night, Monday to Saturday, and twice on Thursdays. At the moment,
I’m in a
production of King Lear. I’m playing Cordelia. It’s a
role, and I’ve been lucky to have some very good reviews. The rest of
the cast are so supportive
— we’re like a
— and John, the direc
tor, is marvellous. I
just can’t wait to get on the stage every night. And
the audiences are so appreciative, too. We got a
standing ovation last
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‘You actually feel a
real sense of achievement once a
house is fin
ished. You know, you’ve seen it grow from just a
hole in the ground to
somewhere for someone to live in. And you’ve made it happen. You’ve
dug the foundations, laid the brickwork, put the roof on, put in the
windows and the doors. It’s actually very creative. Of course, it’s hard
be prepared to get dirty, and work outside in all weathers, but that’s
Here’s another description of a
job. Can you think of a
good head
‘I have to be very careful in my job. Working with wires, cables
If you make a
mistake, you could be electrocuted. But of course I’ve
been trained, so I
make sure nothing like that happens to me. I
do all
sorts of things each day, from changing an old lady’s light bulbs to
rewiring a
whole factory. That’s why I
like my job
— it’s so varied.
You’re in a
new place almost every day and, without you, people
Now write the letter of one of the three job descriptions above,
In pairs, discuss your answers. Which words and phrases helped
Read these sentences and then use the words in italics to complete
When I
worked on the building site, I
was paid my
Second semester. Topic: Art and Artists
is Ј15,000
per year and you will be paid at the end of
workers were made
when the company went bank
live outside the city, so I
have to
to work every day by
Please send a
C.V. /
Curriculum Vitae / Resume
with your applica
You need to update your __ if you’re going to start job hunting.
The best thing about working from home is that you don’t have to
Although she’s ninety
two years old, she still walks to the Post
nurse, even though the __ isn’t very good.
job since he was made __ two years ago.
You’ll get your __ every night before you leave the bar.
In this company, you generally get __ every two years or so.
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There is a
plan to exhibit a
work of contemporary art in your school
Choose one work of art from those shown above5
and write an es
Reinforcing your choice with your interpretation of a
Second semester. Topic: Art and Artists
Great myths in art
Look at the pictures of the Tower of Babel which were done by to
two different artists from different times and answer the ques
What might these pictures have to do with language
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The biblical tale of the Tower of Babel describes how, in the early
days of the world, all mankind spoke the same language. Journeying
from the east, people came to the Great Plains of Babylonia and settled
there. They wished to build a
tower so high that its top could reach
heaven. This made God angry and one day they found themselves all
speaking different languages. They could not understand each other
and were unable to finish building the tower. People sometimes men
tion the Tower of Babel when describing a
scene of confusion, disorder
Although the story of the Tower of Babel is often thought to be
purely a
myth, there are archaeological indications that a
tower really
The Tower of Babel has been gone for many years, but has con-
Look through the ideas below and decide which picture they re
fer to. Mark them “B” for Brueghel’s painting and “E” for Es
Second semester. Topic: Art and Artists
Read and this extract from Paradise Lost (1667) by John Milton
Because they could not hear what the others were saying, the
builders did not build the building according to the plan and it
Instead of understanding each other, as a
result of an act of God,
all the builders spoke to each other using strange words, so that
God appeared to the builders and they were all scared, so that they
Which of the pictures of The Tower of Babel do you associate with
In pairs choose the
Describe your impres
sions of it to your
Read the following
description of Rem
brandt’s picture The
Return of the Prodi
Match the words in
italics wit
h the expla
“…I was standing in
front of Rembrandt’s pic
ture “The Return of the
Prodigal Son” and that
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was a
moment I
would have liked to be stretched out longer. I
love his
work, I
love the way he
people and his
and the dark
ness of his colours. When I
was looking at “The Return of the Prodigal
Son” I
could really have stayed there for hours probably because there
is so much to see in the picture, so many emotions, such
the moment when the father welcomes the son back from his wander
ings. It’s such an
— one, which I
could just look at
for ages. Rembrandt’s use of colour and light and shade is something
that’s always impressed me, particularly the blend of light and shade.
In that picture, which, I
think, is one of his later works, he seems to
accomplish it in a
masterful way. So much to see… And somehow the
parable that is in the picture, is quite close to my own experience, and
would really have loved to have stayed with it for a
longer time, but
that’s a
picture gallery for you, you can’t escape the need to go on to
Read the text once again and fill in the chart with words connect
The painter (1) __ details carefully. I
was impressed by the (2) __
of his images and the (3) __ of his colours. It’s a
very (4) __ piece of
Second semester. Topic: Art and Artists
— You've got to be joking Modern art is (5) __ primitive and
Make the sentences more intensive in meaning by adding
so / such
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Choose the best alternative to fill in the gaps in each of the follow
The painting __ to have some reference to the artist’s childhood.
The scene framed by two trees forming a
Gothic arch reminded me
have no __ what is drawn in the picture.
long time to figure __ who drew this landscape.
This work is untypical of the artist
— it stands in __ to what he
can remember__ to the Hermitage for the first time.
Second semester. Topic: Art and Artists
What I
like about the novel is that it__ life in Ancient Greece so
In the picture you could see a
huge room __ of the sun and bright
When you look at the picture you get this strong __ of belonging
The __ of the colours in her flat made me exhausted.
If you do the crossword correctly you will get a
word which is con
limit or border (4)
single movement of a
pen or brush when you are writing or
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Fill in the gaps in the sentences with suitable words. To form these
When you see his paintings you __ feel they convey a
very power
Some critics are __ that the artist’s manner has a
medieval quali
The __ we receive when we look at the sculpture is of the mystery
It was __ the natural beauty of the sculpture that attracted people
There is no __ in his paintings
— everything is neatly arranged.
The sculptor wanted to express __ in these moving forms.
The __ world created by the artist reminds you of your dreams.
The __ of the idea makes you exhausted when you spend too long
The artist’s __ of vision impressed all who knew him.
Read the description of a
painting and fill in the gaps with the cor
The source for this painting is Shakespeare’s account of the death
of Ophelia in Hamlet. Ophelia has been driven mad by (1) __ murder of
her father by her lover Hamlet. Out picking flowers, she slips and falls
Second semester. Topic: Art and Artists
Millais spent nearly four months from July to October 1851
ing (2) __ background, on the bank of the River Hogsmill at Ewell, in
Surrey. He endured considerable difficulties and discomfort and (3)
whole story of the painting of Ophelia is evidence of the extraordinary
dedication of the young Pre
Raphaelites to their goal of “truth to na
ture”. In December, Millais returned with (4) __ canvas to London,
where he inserted the figure. The model was Elizabeth Siddal, who
posed in (5) __ bath full of water kept warm by lamps underneath. The
lamps once went out, she caught (6) __ severe cold and her father
threatened Millais with legal action if he didn’t pay (7) __ doctor’s
The brilliant colour and luminosity of Ophelia is the result of the
Raphaelite technique of painting in pure colours onto (8) __ pure
white ground. (9) __ ground was sometimes laid fresh for each day’s
— the “wet white” technique
— which gave added brilliance and
The picture contains dozens of different plants and flowers paint
ed with the most painstaking botanical fidelity and in some cases
charged with symbolic significance. For example, the willow, the net
tle growing within its branches and the daisies near Ophelia’s right
hand are associated with forsaken love, pain and innocence respective
You are going to organise your own art exhibition and guide your
guests through it. You may bring any piece of art from home (a paint
ing or reproduction, a
sculpture, a
photograph of an art object or your
own piece of art). Don’t be afraid to free your imagination and creati-
vity as long as you are able to explain the idea behind your work of art
Remember that you should be prepared in advance! (You may use
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Take turns to show your classmates around your group exhibi
Fill in the Student’s Peer / Self
Evaluation card and give yourself
1 2 3 4 5
Home reading
Grammar revision
Underline the adjective clause in each sentence. Then circle the
relative pronoun. Finally, draw a
line from the relative pronoun
Second semester. Topic: Art and Artists
This next batter, who has sixteen home runs, is only twenty years
The motorcycle that your dad purchased should be cleaned often.
Our former college president for whom this award has been named
Have the answers that you submitted been reviewed yet
Miguel, who won last year’s contest, is seeded first in this year’s
This is the exact spot where the hide
seek game began last
Some films, which I
have not watched, were made in black and
This is the hour when most people should be getting ready for
few graduates whom I
have already contacted will help with the
Doctor Gavigan, who is a
very competent podiatrist, practices in
These proposals that the committee has questioned will be dis
Those who chose to leave the session can get the information next
The only person to whom I
have told this personal information is
Indicate the function of the underlined noun clause in each sen
tence. Write the correct letter codes on the line preceding each
These math teachers taught us
whatever we needed to know for the
The winner will be
whichever speller correctly spells the most
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That these clams cannot be opened more easily
frustrates Saman
Winnie presented
whoever had earned fifty tickets
with a
My younger brother forgot
that he needed to pick up the shirt from
Working diligently for many years is
why Dr. Hutter is a
leader in
Circle the correct letter of the underlined clause, and then write
that letter on the line before the sentence. Finally, write these ten
consecutive letters on the line below the last sentence to spell out
Identify the underlined group of words by writing the code letter
that is found within the box below. Write the letter on the line
Second semester. Topic: Art and Artists
Writing so many plays
kept Tennessee Williams very busy for
Unless I
have enough vacation time
, I
will not be able to share that
The musician
signing autographs in the lobby
has been there for
Touching the finish line before the others
, the talented swimmer
Fifteen groups of words are underlined in these sentences. Iden
tify the name of each group with its name from the phrases and
clauses listed below. Write the code letter on the blank next to
Win’s birthday is April 23rd,
the same day as Shakespeare’s birth
Until Lucinda’s grades improve
, she will not be allowed to partici
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Walking down the darkened stairway
, the policewoman was very
Test practice.
Always quickly read the text FIRST, before you look at the ques
When you answer the questions, always UNDERLINE in the text
the words which give you the answer. This will help you make sure
your answer is the correct one, and will allow you to check your
You are going to read an extract from an autobiography. For ques
tions 1–7, choose the answer (A, B, C
or D) which you think fits
Although I
left university with a
good degree, I
suddenly found
that it was actually quite hard to find a
job. After being unemployed
for a
few months, I
realised I
had to take the first thing that came along
or I’d be in serious financial difficulties. And so, for six very long
I knew it wasn’t the best company in the world when they told me
that I’d have to undergo three days of training before starting work,
and that I
wouldn’t get paid for any of it. Still, I
knew that the hour
ly rate when I
actually did start full time would be a
lot better than
unemployment benefit, and I
could work up to twelve hours a
seven days a
week if I
wanted. So, I
thought of the money I’d earn and
put up with three days of unpaid training. Whatever those three days
taught me
— and I
can’t really remember anything about them to
— I
wasn’t prepared for the way I
would be treated by the super
It was worse than being at school. There were about twenty inter
viewers like myself, each sitting in a
small, dark booth with an ancient
Second semester. Topic: Art and Artists
computer and a
dirty telephone. The booths were around the walls of
the fifth floor of a
concrete office block, and the supervisors sat in the
middle of the room, listening in to all of our telephone interviews. We
weren’t allowed to talk to each other, and if we took more than about
two seconds from ending one phone call and starting another, they
would shout at us to hurry up and get on with our jobs. We even had to
ask permission to go to the toilet. I
was amazed how slowly the day
went. Our first break of the day came at eleven o’clock, two hours after
we started. I’ll always remember that feeling of despair when I
look at my watch thinking, ‘It must be nearly time for the break’, only
to find that it was quarter to ten and that there was another hour and
quarter to go. My next thought was always, ‘I can’t believe I’m going
It wouldn’t have been so bad if what we were doing had been use
ful. But it wasn’t. Most of our interviews were for a
major telecommu
nications company. We’d have to ring up businesses and ask them
things like, ‘Is your telecoms budget more than three million pounds
year ’ The chances are we’d get the reply, ‘Oh, I
don’t think so. I’ll
ask my husband. This is a
corner shop. We’ve only got one phone’. And
The most frightening aspect of the job was that I
was actually
quite good at it. ‘Oh no!’ I
thought. ‘Maybe I’m destined to be a
researcher for the rest of my life’. My boss certainly seemed to think
so. One day
— during a
break, of course
— she ordered me into her of
fice. ‘Simon,’ she said, ‘I’m promoting you. From tomorrow, you’re
off telecoms and onto credit card complaints. I’m sure you can handle
Three weeks later I
quit. It was one of the best decisions I’ve ever
Why did the writer become a
market research telephone inter
they told him he wouldn’t receive payment for his training.
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How did he feel when he realised it wasn’t time for the break yet
He felt that he wouldn’t survive to the end of the day.
He felt that the end of the day seemed so long away.
In pairs, discuss the words you underlined that gave you the ans-
I’ve had lots of jobs; I’ve been a
singer, a
comedian and a
Present Perfect Continuous: from then until now / since (without
She has been working as a
civil servant for the past six
Second semester. Topic: Art and Artists
Now read these sentences and circle the correct time word or
‘Are you giving your cat lots of water to drink ’ asked the vet.
Imagine a
home of the future. How does this home differ from
Which of the questions from the list below can you answer before
How will disabled people be helped to lead fuller lives
Read the five short texts and say which of the above questions you
Cords and wires are likely to disappear from our homes after 2015.
Extremely efficient batteries will provide cable
free operation of many
household devices, including vacuum cleaners, computers and irons.
For this reason plug sockets will be replaced by battery re
stations. Most of the electricity required in such wireless power net
works will be generated by conventional technology, although ad
vanced solar panels, wind and wave power generators will become quite
common. Some high
tech homes will use other alternative energy
Second semester. Topic: Science and Society
Movable walls made of lightweight sound
will al
low us to section off another bedroom for a
visitor or create a
single space to host a
party in just half an hour. Other walls will func
tion as huge screen displays. Still more flexibility will be achieved with
purpose furniture. At our request it will change structure and
By 2050
computers will be almost in complete control of our homes.
Small and cheap, they will sense changes outside and inside and adjust
light, temperature and humidity levels auto
matically. They will check
efficient use of energy for heating and cooling and operate numerous
mechanical devices, e.g. they will immediately detect litter
Sophisticated networks of small TV cameras linked to sensors will
make our homes safe and secure. Police will be automatically alerted if
an unauthorised visitor tries to enter. You will never lose your key, as
biometric locks will replace traditional ones. To get in, a
sensor will
What do you think
means Find two more words
Kitchens filled with vegetable peelings, dirty dishes and unpleas
ant smells will become things of the past. Advances in both microchip
and biotechnology will change them completely. A
smart fridge will
keep an eye on the quantity and quality of the food stored in it and
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automatically notify the nearest shop if you are short of fruit or milk.
Cookers will scan cooking data on the food and apply the right amount
of heat for the right amount of time. Electric dish
washers will pro-
bably become outdated too as dirty dishes made of biodegradable
battery, texture, sensor, production, protein, photosynthe
Build the English words using the word
building elements:
Read the sentences below and say what sort of advance it is about.
Think of the best explanation and / or translation for the under
The factory has installed
machinery at enormous ex
The United Nations has done a
lot to
the cause of world
In May 1681, a
force of about 2,500
on the tar
Second semester. Topic: Science and Society
pollution of the
fuelled transport will be prohibited in the 21st century.
Experiments carried out on space stations will lead to many unex
like robot servants will not take over from real people, as
Domestic robots will be used to take care of the old and the disa
Although it is possible technically, people will not substitute nu
In the near future, virtual reality will be used to treat some psy
Which question from the list in before the texts can you answer
Prepare to tell other students what your article is about.
Find out the rest of the answers for the questions in and other in
Talk to one of your classmates about what you have read. Togeth
er, you can now answer two more questions. Talk to another class
In groups, make a
list of predictions about the technology of the
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Think how the technology of the future may change people’s
Remember that for the people of the future this fantastic techno-
Your text could be a
diary, an adventure story, or just a
Is the distance at which we start hearing a
sound and stop hearing
If no, how can you find the answer now, in the classroom
If you don’t know / don’t feel sure about how to complete some
items, leave them for now. You’ll be able to do them after reading
The method of scientific research is a
procedure consisting of the
Read the introductory chapter from the textbook Biology for Life
Whatever branch a
scientist is interested in, he observes things
and asks questions about them. What is that structure for How does
it work Why is the animal behaving like this Why are weeds growing
Suppose we want to know why a
certain type of plant grows well in
place A
but badly in place B. The first thin
g to do is to put forward
possible reason. Scientists call this a
hypothesis. The next step is to
Second semester. Topic: Science and Society
test this hypothesis to find out if it is true or not. This is done by car
Scientists often investigate things by first thinking of a
thesis, and then testing it by observing things or by doing experiments.
Suppose we want to test the hypothesis that light is needed for the
We obtain a
plant and put it in the dark. If the green colour fails
to develop, we will conclude that light is needed for it. However there
is something more that we must do: we must obtain a
second plant and
put it in the light. We need this second plant in order to provide
standard with which to compare the first plant. The second plant is
called the control. In carrying out experiments it is essential that the
two plants should be kept in exactly the same conditions, except for
the light they receive. To put it in a
general way: we keep all the vari
An experiment of this kind, in which the experimenter controls
something that must happen first before something else can hap
extremely important or necessary in order to do something suc
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In which cases do we talk about particular plants, and in which
Insert the indefinite, definite or zero article depending on whe-
The trick is to drop (1) __ playing card into (2) __ hat resting at
your feet. If (3) __ card is held vertically when released, it flutters
wildly and completely misses (4) __ target. Held horizontally, it set
This phenomenon, sometimes displayed with (6) __ coins dropped
in (7) __ liquids instead of (8) __ cards in (9) __ air, is not only (10) __
subject of (11) __ amusement and bets, but also (12) __ topic of consi-
derable interest to (13) __ researchers studying (14) __ chaotic dynam
ics. It has applications in chemical engineering, meteorology, sedi
Write your own report on the experiment like the one you read
What did you do, and how did you do it Give labelled diagrams
where these help to explain what you did. Remember to include details
As you carried out your experiment, you observed things and per
haps made measurements. These are the results. It’s often convenient
to put the results together in a
table. Sometimes it is useful to go a
This is where you look carefully at your results and answer the
question: What do they mean Do they show any kind of a
Second semester. Topic: Science and Society
Do your results answer your original question Do they support
negative result in science is still a
result. If you wish
to find a
prince, be prepared to kiss many frogs. The chance of finding
prince grows each time you find a
new frog. (Experimentalist folk
Choose one of the research questions from the list offered by your
Describe your experiment and prepare to present it at the science
Read the four paragraphs from an introduction to a
book called
Science and Society, a
collection of lectures given by 11
Nobel lau
What, according to the author, motivates people to do science Do
To say that curiosity motivates science is to say that the process ends
there, and certainly it does end therewith most people […]. Scientists go
further, however. They make models which express the underlying
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pattern in the observations, such as Newton’s laws or quantum me
I believe that the impetus to condense data into a
theory origi
nates from an aesthetic sense, the same sense that inspires artists […].
We consider a
theory elegant and great when it is able to integrate and
simplify phenomena in a
simple and conservative fashion. The same
criteria are applied to great art. For example, it is generally conceded
that Goya and Turner improved their art as their style evolved from
How similar this was to the work of James Clerk Maxwell, who
was able to unify all classical, electrodynamic, magnetostatic, magne
todynamic, electro
magnetic and optical effects into one phenomenon
describable by four rather simple equations. In fact, it was this drive
to unify which directed Maxwell to the conclusion that light has elec
The physical laws which constitute our theories, simplify our per
ception of nature, nature being infinitely more complex than our theo
ries in the same way that the subject portrayed in a
painting is more
complex than the painting itself. Consider the famous and powerful
prehistoric cave painting of a
horse discovered in the Lascaux cave. It
is obvious at a
glance that part of the power of the painting stems from
the fact that not all the details of the horse are given
— some are im
— and we are grateful for and moved by that simplification. This,
then, is art’s great appeal, and science’s, too, except that this aspect of
science is not as generally known as it is in art… Science, like art, is
very much a
thing of the spirit. It is not the philosophical but aesthetic
Second semester. Topic: Science and Society
Discuss in pairs and decide which of the following statements
Most scientific terms were borrowed from dead languages (an
to show that the language of science is for educated and
living language
Some scientific terms of Greek or Latin origin have become widely
Note that they still preserve some of the original features, e.g.
Read the sentences below and say what sort of implication / im
suggest / a
suggestion that something is true without saying it
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liar but that was obviously the implication.
The level of radiation in the samples implies that they are of natu
Read these definitions from a
specialised dictionary and choose
Those items which make up the environment of an object, sub
stance or organism and which may have an effect on a
process in which
the object, substance or organism is involved e.g. the presence of oxy
A part of a
whole is __ if, when removed, the identity of the
whole is destroyed, i.e. the whole can no longer be identified, e.g.
wick (фиуиль) is essential to a
candle because if a
wick is removed
only a
block of paraffin wax is left, which cannot be identified as
Second semester. Topic: Science and Society
An idea that is suggested as a
possible way of explaining a
A rule, principle, definition or standard used to test or to assess
statement, fact or object for placing it into a
class. E.g. the __ for
Any property we have knowledge of, directly or indirectly,
through our senses, e.g. magnetism, mass, atmospheric pressure, elec
The intentional use of the senses for a
special purpose, e.g. when
seed is germinated (рсосбщивбуь), a
student records the __ on the
Use the words you have learned or their derivatives to substitute
In this experiment all conditions were constant,
only one was va
A small
change in the position
of the objective lens in the micro
These students are too
well prepared
in their studies to talk to
Commonly used
telescopes are not powerful enough to observe
Newton started a
area of research in
Physics which was later
Let’s imagine that
the force applied to this point equals the force
Curiosity is
strong enough
factor in attracting people to do sci
ence. But it is definitely not strong enough to keep them in labo
A group of students estimated the probability of the following ad
Rewrite the statements using the appropriate way of expressing
the degree of probability: will V
/ will not V
/ likely to V
/ un
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Fill in the gaps with a
word built with the help of these word
Oxygen has no
, but although it is __ and __ we
People in this area have to be __ They speak the
of the
On board a
spaceship in the absence of acceleration, objects and
nothing. __ is one the main difficulties for astro
this question last year and made a
decision. Any
One can
some organic molecules through a
powerful elec
tron microscope. But, normally, molecules are not __ they are too
Second semester. Topic: Science and Society
Don’t worry about bad
with these new synthetic
The waste is processed for
as fertilizer. The aim to make 95%
What if some
presses this red button
— Don’t worry, this
This criterion can be
to any research paper. In fact, it is __
On its way to (1) __ near
Earth asteroid, (2) __ spacecraft late last
month took some 500
snapshots of a
tiny rock called 431
Mathilde. Af
ter viewing (3)__ images, which depict (4) __ battered rock pitted with
(5) __ craters, planetary scientists had one key question: Why does
(6) __ craft, known as NEAR (near
Earth asteroid rendezvous),
spied five craters more than 20
meters in diameter gouged into
(7)__ sunlit side of Mathilde which is about 50
km across. “This rock
has been through collisional hell”, says Joseph Veverka of Cornell Uni
versity, yet its surface indicates it has survived for at least 2
An initial analysis of radio wave observations suggests (8)__ pos
sible explanation. (9) __ data indicates that the dark rock has (10)__
low density, like that of (11)__ pile of sand loosely bound by (12)__
gravity. When (13)__ object strikes such a
body, notes Veverka, “it’s
like hitting a
sponge”. Rather than shattering Mathilde, (14)__ Shock
You are going to take part in the International Student Science
Conference. In turn, you will be a
speaker, a
participant, an interpre-
Choose one of the topics from the teacher’s list or think of one of
Look through the papers prepared by your colleagues in advance.
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You introduce the speakers, keep order and time the presenta
You summarise the discussion at the end of the session.
Do not allow the speaker and the discussion to exceed the time
At the end, say something nice to every speaker and thank the in
You will present your research work and answer the questions
Do not panic if the translation is not quite accurate
— you cannot
You translate the questions from English into your native lan
Look through the list of technical terms prepared by the speakers
Do not hesitate to ask the speaker to rephrase or explain the idea
Interrupt politely, if the speaker speaks for too long.
Second semester. Topic: Science and Society
You ask questions (at least three during the whole session).
You express your opinion on the research presented.
Listen carefully and put down the questions that come into your
Remember, you are supposed to ask at least three questions.
Take a
few minutes to think about what was the most difficult
role for you personally. Why Share your observations with your class
Home reading
Grammar revision
Combine these ideas in each number as requested within the pa
(adjective clause) My sister is tall. My sister is in the fifth grade.
(adverb clause) The bell rang. Three mice ran throughout the
(adjective clause) We visited the restaurant last Tuesday. It is in
(noun clause) Here are two magazines. I
would like to buy these
(adverb clause) School was canceled on Tuesday morning. There
was a
big snow
storm on Monday night. The storm dropped ten
(adverb clause) Lucy tells us scary stories. These stories are about
(noun clause) Someone will win the potato sack race. The deputy
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Match these seven ways to start a
sentence found in A
with the
appropriate example of that technique found in B. Each answer is
Brilliantly, Sasha had attained her life’s goal by skating in chal
Satisfied, Sasha had achieved her life’s goal by skating in chal
For her life’s goal, Sasha wanted to skate in challeng
ing competi
Skating in challenging compe
titions, Sasha had brilliantly at
After Sasha had skated in challenging competitions, she had at
Match these ten sentences in A
with their content descriptions
B. Write the corresponding letter on the line after the number
As an example, if the sentence reads, “I left my glove with you”,
the content description will read “Pronoun subject—past
tense verb—
Sitting on the old wooden dock, the elderly fisherman was en
Watching the business channel throughout the day is my
Second semester. Topic: Science and Society
Gerund phrase—verb—predicate nominative (with two modi-
Five sentences (S), five fragments (F), and five run
on senten-
ces (ROS) are found in these fifteen groups of words. Write the
appropriate code letter(s) on the line next to the group of
The men fixing the heater need more time, they can bill us
Bring the empty cartons back from the factory they can be
While you dial Molly’s number, the rest of us can continue to
There are too many people in this elevator, who can take
Several telephone operators tried to assist me finally I
Leaving through the back door in the middle of the night last
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All ten groups of words are either fragments or run
on sentences.
Write a
logical, grammatically correct version of those words.
Here is an
“An unfamiliar car in the driveway”. This can
Mount Rushmore is fabulous it is located in South Dakota
great friend he never speaks badly about anybody
Skateboarding is wonderful exercise my friends and I
like to go
This author had written for seven consecutive hours she was ex
Test practice
You are going to read some sentences from different texts about
education. For each of the sentences, decide what kind of point
for a
point which CONTRASTS (disagrees) with the point made in
for a
point which SUPPORTS (agrees with) the point made in the
for a
point which gives the CAUSE (the reason) for something
Moreover, many educational psychologists argue today that strict
classroom discipline is actually a
disincentive to effective and ef
As a
result, more and more graduates are leaving university with
Second semester. Topic: Science and Society
However, this ignores the fact that mixed
ability classes often
In addition, society has to recognise that schools can never totally
On the other hand, school uniforms do instil in pupils a
sense of
Apart from that, we also need to consider the important issue of
whether university lecturers have actually received any training in
What’s more, it has never been proved that children who are
taught by their parents at home receive less of a
grounding in social
In consequence, it seems clear that the way forward is to have as
Thus, until we deal with the generally inadequate standard of
state school teaching, there will always be a
market for private
Lastly, the school has recently introduced craft, design and tech
Despite this, teachers are still leaving the profession in droves,
fed up with the education system being treated as a
political football
Underline the words or phrases in each second sentence which
helped you make your decision. Then write them in the appropriate
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Here are some more sentences. For each one, decide what kind of
for a
point which CONTRASTS (disagrees) with the point made in
for a
point which SUPPORTS (agrees with) the point made in the
for a
point which gives the EFFECT (the result) of the point made
for a
point which is someone else’s OPINION F
for a
On the one hand, we do have to have a
system that adequately tests
Firstly, there is no evidence that left
handed students are treated
any differently by teachers than right
handed students. Second
A number of teachers have managed to reduce the amount of
homework they assign their students without it affecting overall per
We have seen in this chapter that there are a
number of ways for
the teacher to attempt to motivate a
troublesome class. To sum
The number of school leavers from disadvantaged backgrounds
entering higher education is falling dramatically. According to the
If education doesn’t prepare our children for the realities of mod
ern working practices, then it is failing both our children and our soci
Corporal punishment is seen by most people today as being bar
Second semester. Topic: Science and Society
Underline the words or phrases which helped you make your deci
Here are some more words, phrases and expressions which we
sometimes find in texts. Writers use them to make their argu
Write a
letter from the list A–G in exercise above next to each
Read these sentences and then use the words in italicss to com
are exam results which prove you have reached
The qualification you get when you graduate from university is
In the USA, a
public school is a
school, which is run by the
She went to
nursery (school) / kindergarten
when she was two
We’re not taking exams this year at school; all our work is
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I’ve got to write an __ this weekend on the causes of the First
GCSE in English, do you have any other __
35% of this course is examined, and the rest is __ throughout the
Because Jeffrey had been a
boarder at an expensive __ , he adapt
personally believe that the __ system is much fairer, as every
pupil, irrespective of how much money their parents have, re
There are far too many __ adults today; something must be done
Almost all children round here go to a
__ until they’re five years
He’s got some very impressive qualifications, but do you think
As long as I
don’t completely mess up my university final exams,
think Helen’s got an honours __ in German Literature from Hull
Quickly read the text first to get a
general idea about what it is
Sometimes sentences have been removed from the text, and some
times paragraphs. For sentences, make sure that the sentence you
think is the answer fits LOGICALLY and GRAMMATICALLY in terms
of what comes before and what comes after. Look for any linking ex
pressions that might help you. Leave the most difficult sentences until
You are going to read a
guide for international university stu
dents. Seven sentences have been removed from the guide. Choose
from the sentences A–H the one which fits each gap (1–6). There
is one extra sentence which you do not need to use. There is an
Inside, you will find a
number of shops, bars and food outlets, as
Generally, your course will consist of lectures, seminars and reg
Second semester. Topic: Science and Society
In addition, you are free to join any of the university clubs and
societies and attend Union
organised events such as pop concerts
As a
result, a
number of ethnic societies, such as the Greek Socie
ty, the Irish Society and the Jewish Society, exist to fill your cul
As an international student, you may have some questions that
neither your Hall Tutor nor your Personal Tutor are able to an
However, they are not expected to do your washing
up or tidy
For this reason, we have produced this small factsheet which may
Welcome to the University of Alcot. We very much hope that your
time here will be both highly productive and highly enjoyable, but we
do recognise that it is not always easy for students from other coun
Your Hall of Residence contains twelve rooms, all like yours. The
kitchen and bathrooms are communal. In the interests of hygiene and
respect for your flatmates, we would ask you to keep these shared fa
cilities as clean and tidy as possible. These rooms will be cleaned by
Please be polite and respectful to your cleaners
— they have a
ficult and unpleasant job to do. Your Hall Tutor will introduce himself
or herself to you over the next few days. If you have any problems with
Student social life revolves around the Student Union, which is
the large yellow building opposite the library. (2) __ . As a
student at
Alcot, you are automatically a
member of the Union. This entitles you
to use all the facilities and to vote in all Union elections and meetings.
(3) __ . See The Alcot Excalibur, the free weekly student newspaper,
Regarding your course of studies, you will receive a
letter in the
next couple of days from your Head of Department inviting you to at
tend a
welcome meeting for new students. You will be given further
information concerning your course at this meeting. (4) __ . He or she
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will be able to deal with any academic problems or questions you may
(5) __ .
If you have any problems, issues or concerns directly related
to that fact that you are a
British citizen, these can be referred to
the International Office. Situated next to the Arts Building, the Inter
national Office is staffed by one permanent Welfare Officer and a
of trained student volunteers. They are experienced in handling issues
Further information regarding other university facilities, such
as the medical centre, sports centre, arts centre and library, can be
found in the accompanying Alcot Guide for Undergraduates. This also
In pairs, discuss your answers. Which words or phrases in the text
We do recognise that it is not always easy for students from other
countries to adapt to campus life in Britain. = ‘We recognise…’with
He did pass the exam. = ‘He passedwith extra emphasis. This is
Why did the writer or speaker decide to use the emphatic form in
However, in the end she did manage to get her essay handed in on
think in fact Matthew does want to get better grades, but he
to emphasise the reason why Matthew doesn’t get better
to express disagreement with what someone else has just sug
really do love physics; it’s such an interesting subject.
to express disagreement with what someone else has just sug
did enjoy our Latin lessons.
to emphasise the contrast between the writer’s feelings for
Second semester. Topic: Science and Society
Many teachers do still believe that students should just sit quietly
to show that the writer disagrees with what the teachers be
Look at the list below. What kinds of TV programmes do you
Match the types of TV programmes with the programmes from
pm) Glaswegian rock band Texas perform live in the
pm) Elspeth throws a
dinner party for the feuding Nut
and Singh families that ends in more than one revelation, prompting
pm) Cooking tips, recipes, features and consumer
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pm) Andrew Dilnot, Director of the Institute for Fiscal
Studies, reveals the true state of inequality in Britain today and asks why
pm) Jerry Springer hosts the quiz in which contest
pm) The extraordinary history of Alaska’s Mount
pm) Nicolas Cage, Bridget Fonda and Rosie Perez star
this irrepressible romantic comedy) inspired by the true story of
Which of the programmes from the TV guide would you choose to
The series La Femme Nikita is one of the few that I
attempt to
regularly tune into each week. Some friends talked me into giving this
It is about a
woman falsely accused of a
murder and sentenced to
life in prison. Then people who belong to a
terrorism group
take her away and make her work for them. The lead character Nikita
(Peta Wilson) is beautiful
— tall, blonde, blue
eyed, well
built. She
I’m not a
hard fan analysing every sentence, glance, or breath
of every character in every episode, but I
certainly enjoy the show.
person who says this show has poor acting or poor character and plot
development is most likely disappointed by any TV series and not be
ing fair to the genre. This show says more with a
moment of silence
than most shows say in an hour of dialogue. It is impossible for a
that has run as long as this one to dot every “i” and cross every “t”, and
of course there will be holes. But by and large the show remains true to
itself and at the top of its genre. The acting and action are appropriate,
the plot works well enough to create suspense and the character devel
Second semester. Topic: Science and Society
If you want to see a
good drama / action show, watch La Femme
Can you replace
who belong to a
counter-terrorism group
Is it possible to take
who says this show has poor acting or poor
character and plot development
out from the sentence Why /
Translate the words below. Try to translate the same words ac
Match each phrase in italics with the correct definition. Translate
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— a
group of words with a
meaning of its own that is dif
Which of the phrases above are idioms according to the defini
Which of the relative clauses can you take out from the sentences
Mainly Big Brother, The West Wing, The Sopranos and News
People are complaining that there is not enough distinction be
tween programmes that are shown before and after 9
pm. Do you think
Look. It is impossible to keep children away from all the hor
Not at all. I’d say the questions which are being discussed today
and the way of presenting material haven’t become less exciting since the
I suppose the thing that would still make me cry with happiness
is Daffy Duck between 1959–1967, when Fritz Freeling and Chuck
Continue the list of the features Richard Peplinski likes in La
What words and expressions helped you to understand that this
Read the TV programme review again. Write the number of the
Second semester. Topic: Science and Society
Read the beginning of another review of the series La Femme Ni
negative review Why do you think so
review. Use the Language Support box.
A friend of mine talked me into watching the series La Femme
Nikita. The first episode was not a
complete disaster, but all the re
Which of the programmes would be inappropriate for children
Do these facts mean that violent programmes should be for-
Between 22
and 34
% of young males imprisoned for committing
Dr Ming, University of Illinois, found that youngsters who
watched a
lot of TV when they were eight years old were more likely to
Read the two texts below and answer the questions after each of
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Do children know which programmes are suitable and which are
inappropriate for them Obviously, they don’t. These days, violent
programmes are attracting bigger and bigger audiences, especially
among the young. Did you know, for example, that 64% of all violence
takes place in cartoons And how many parents would stop a
child from
watching a
cartoon In any case, few parents actually check up on what
their kids are watching, especially now that so many of them have a
in the bedroom. And that’s where the problems start. It’s not always
easy for children to determine the difference between reality and fan
tasy, and some of them begin to imitate the violent behaviour they see
Has anyone heard about the experiment with dolls I
read about it
recently. Apparently, psychologists showed two groups of children
separate versions of a
video. The first group saw a
girt playing with
doll, whereas the second group saw another girl kicking and hitting
the same doll. Afterwards, the children (I’m
not sure how old they
— sorry!) were left alone in a
room with a
doll like the one in the
videos. The first group played normally with the doll and the other
toys, but (you’ve guessed it!) the second group soon started behaving
Do you think violence on TV should be forbidden Who should be
American parents today are deeply worried about their children’s
According to a
recent CNN
USA Today
Gallup poll, 76
per cent of
adults agree that TV, movies and popular music are negative in
on children. Moreover, there is a
direct link between our violent and
degrading entertainment culture and the horrifying new crimes among
Second semester. Topic: Science and Society
Therefore we, the undersigned, call upon executives of the media
industry to join with America’s parents in a
new social compact aimed
at renewing our culture and making our media environment more
We appeal to industry leaders in all media to develop a
new volun
state the industry’s vital responsibilities for the health of our cul
establish certain minimum standards for violent, sexual and de
forbid the practice of selling adult
oriented programmes to youth
oriented entertainment.
We strongly urge parents to express their support for a
new vo-
According to the writer of the appeal, who is responsible for deal
Why is it important that the code of conduct should be volun
Is this an effective way to deal with TV violence Why / Why
Read the dictionary definitions and fill the gaps in the sentences
— to ask strongly for something, especially because you
call for
— if someone, especially a
group of people, calls for some
thing such as justice, equality, etc., they ask for it strongly and
publicly because they think an unfair situation needs to be
call on / upon someone
— if someone, especially an organisation in
bad situation, calls on someone to do something, they ask strongly
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appeal to
— to make a
strong and urgent public request for help,
money, information, etc., especially to help someone in a
very bad
— to strongly advise someone to do something because you
I __ you not to let your daughter watch this programme, as it is
We were very noisy and the teacher __ an explanation for our be
All Parents Associations __ a
ban on programmes showing violent
Parents __ executives of the media industry to develop a
new code
The organisation __ the public to support the action against drug
Answer the questions below and fill in the chart. If necessary, go
Second semester. Topic: Science and Society
Complete the task. Pay attention to the text structure and voca-
You are a
member of an on
line discussion group. Today’s topic is
TV violence. Write an e
mail stating your viewpoint on the prob
Write a
letter of appeal against TV violence to the television exe-
Write a
letter of appeal to parents explaining that television vio
TV-Turnoff Week
Read a
title from the magazine American Reporter and guess by
Read the first part of the article and check if your ideas were
It’s been nearly 35
years now since I
left my parents’ home at
and entered into a
life without television. In all the time I
have ne-
I have read more than 2,000
books, seen more than 1,000
spent 5,000
hours in conversation with some 10,000
people, spent
thousands of hours in public service to my community, traveled to
I am less inclined to talk in sitcom cliches, less likely to mention
brand names, and less likely to be afraid to go outside at night. I
far more about world events, speak better English, know more of my
neighbors, have more opinions about everything, and am more inclined
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You will probably laugh a
little at that list, but there is a
relationship between the amount of tv viewing one does and all of the
qualities I’ve described. After all, being the audience for a
tv is a
sive act; scientists told the Los Angeles Times that on average, a
watching television slips into the passive brain state within 30
of beginning to watch television. Most adults I
know seem to start out
For me, watching television is an exercise in observation; I
aware of camera angles, stage
setting, editing and message
more than of what tv tries to sell me: indeed, it doesn’t take much to
become a
sophisticated tv viewer
— all you have to do is turn it off for
while to see how empty and manipulative it is when you turn it on
That unreality was never more painfully real than the time
watched Mike Wallace recap key moments of the ‘70s during a
Year’s Eve broadcast. The most powerful of the images was of the ter
rorists at the 1972
Munich Olympic Games. I
experienced the hor
ror of the murders of the Israeli athletes growing more deeply involved
With no warning, a
Miller Beer commercial suddenly blared onto
the screen, and it was as though a
loaded garbage truck had
plowed into my gut. I
almost vomited with the shock and sense of vio
Admittedly, I
have spent a
few great moments in front of the
tube. Live [law] coverage of the Detroit riots in 1966, the assassina
tion of Lee Harvey Oswald by Jack Ruby in 1963, and the end of Pre-
sident Reagan’s first State of the Union address might qualify,
Each of those events, I
would note, was broadcast live, free of
commercial interruption. But I
suspect that television executives
would decide whether to show Jack Ruby’s act today. That’s another
problem with
: It’s carefully controlled and information is fed to
Americans by just a
few huge corporations, and they seem unable to
April 23–29
is National TV
Tumoff Week, and I
urge everyone
who wants to see another world in this lifetime
— namely, this one
What are the British equivalents for “garbage”, “truck” and tube”
Second semester. Topic: Science and Society
What are the advantages of a
free” life according to
Do you share the author’s point of view Why Why not Did the
Are the sentences below examples of British English or of Ameri
tube n
1. a
round pipe made of metal, glass, rubber, etc., especially
for liquids or gases to go through;... 4. [the] BrE informal the system of
trains that run under the ground in London;... 6. [the] AmE informal
the television; 7. the part of a
television that creates the picture
biscuit j
n 1. BrE a
thin, flat, dry, usually sweet cake that is usu
ally sold in packages or tins; 2. AmE a
type of bread baked in small
round pieces subway n
1. BrE a
path for people to walk under a
road or
purse n
1. BrE a
small flat bag, usu. made of leather or plastic,
used esp. by women for carrying coins or paper money (AmE wallet)
Descriptions and illustrations of subway signals and marker signs
All the trains in the subway are safe during “daytime” hours
Officer! My purse has just been stolen in the subway! It was in my
The biscuit was old and dry and I
didn’t like the cream cheese
found a
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Join the sentences and the contrasting ideas from the For Your
American children spend 900
hours a
year at school.
— Although American children spend 900
hours a
year at
Ail children spend hours and hours watching TV. (Although)
Parents think it necessary to control what TV programmes chil
It is very harmful to watch television while eating. (Even
There are worries that children are not getting enough exercise.
Second semester. Topic: Science and Society
Do you think the figures would be the same for Russia
What idea do they support Do you support this idea Why /
Work in pairs where one person is for and one is against televi
Try to persuade each other to change his / her opinion.
year in front of the TV.
American parents spend only 38.5
minutes a
week in meaningful
Only one out of sewn named TV when asked what their idea of
Over 50
per cent of British children have their own TV in their
six per cent of Americans regularly watch television while
Parents often do not allow children onto the streets so children
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violent one
which is entitled “Big World, Small Screen: The Role of Televi
that have shown the long
range effects of televised violence who
Children (1) __ are less aroused by violent scenes than those who
only watch a
little. One example: in several studies, those (2) __ were
slower to stop the fight or to call for help when they saw younger child-
Findings from the laboratory, (3) __ are supported by field stud
ies (4) __ . Leonard Eron, Ph. D., and his associates at the University
of Illinois, found that children who watched many hours of TV vio
lence when they were in elementary school tended to show a
level of aggressive behavior when they became teenagers. By observ
ing these youngsters until they were 30
years old, Dr Eron found that
the ones (5) __ were more likely to be arrested for criminal acts as
In spite of this accumulated evidence, broadcasters and scientists
continue to debate the link between the viewing TV violence and child-
ren’s aggressive behavior. Some broadcasters believe that there is not
enough evidence to prove that TV violence is harmful. But scientists
(6) __ say that there is a
link between TV violence and aggression, and
in 1992, the American Psychological Association published a
(7) __ . The report, (8) shows that the harmful effects of TV violence do
Read people’s opinions about TV programmes and fill in the gaps
Second semester. Topic: Science and Society
You can (1) __ this show every Friday night on ABC’s TGIF. This
particular programme portrays the life of a
teenager. The (2) __ Cory
Matthews, and his friends get into a
problem in every (3) __ and usu
ally resolve it by the end of 30
minutes! The show describes life as
— abbreviation for Thank God it’s Friday. Here it is the
I’m not (4) __ becoming a
fan of this show, but this is a
show ad
mired and loved by thousands nationwide! It’s just about a
few friends
who face countless problems each week. Admittedly, the show hasn’t
Full of suspense fantasy drama (7) __ about a
teenage girl who
fights to rid the (8) __ world of supernatural evil. Buffy finds herself
at odds with her new roommate and is also troubled by a
series of dis
Just give it (9) __ and you won’t be able to move yourself from the
series of drawings
Funny programme with a
different story each week about the
La Femme Nikita has a
unique place among the action adventure
shows on TV. Although / Despite (1) the female lead isn’t a
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disaster and the show has a
little style, it is still a
pretty bad and unin
The first episode was OK, even though / though (2) the remaining
episodes were dreadful. Although / In spite of (3) the fact that the idea
Then there is the character of Nikita. Peta Wilson is beautiful and
does a
good job, although / even though (4) the rest of the cast is awful!
If you are not afraid of a
show that will bore you, go watch it.
would prefer to devote my time to something worthwhile, although /
TV Guardian is a
device that filters out offensive language from
Read this letter from a
TV viewer who bought a
TV Guardian. It is
Correct the underlined words according to the norms of American
I just wanted to take a
minute to thank you for a
great product!
ful to be able to sit down in front of the (1) telly with your family, in
vite the (2) neighbours and watch your (3) favourite (4) film without
being bombarded with that (5) rubbish. There is a
number of good (6)
films out there that we’ve not watched because of the language. Now,
that’s not a
big problem! My wife runs a
childcare (7) centre in our
home and the TV Guardian helps in that situation as well. There are
many (8) programmes that are fun to watch, but also contain language
that is inappropriate. We hope to order a
second unit when funds are
Again, thanks for a
wonderful product. We will, as soon as we can
afford it, (9) realise our dream about the second TV / VCR in the (10)
A debate is a
formal discussion in a
public place, in which two or
more groups take it in turns to state their opinions on a
subject and
Second semester. Topic: Science and Society
Divide into three groups and read the task for your group.
Make a
list of the arguments the opposing team might use and
Choose the team leader. He / She will be first and last to speak in
Distribute the tasks between team members: to give arguments
Choose a
secretary who will take notes of the arguments of the op
The Chair is responsible for the smooth running and timing of the
debate. The Chair gives the floor to every speaker! The Chair is
also responsible for making quick decisions about any problem
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poor 1
5 Excellent
All together go over the debate procedure described in the section
The Chair announces the debate, introduces the teams to the audi
ence. Gives the floor to Team A. Tell the team they will have five
minutes to present their case. Team A
present their arguments
The Chair asks Team B
to present their view on the problem. They
The Chair asks Team A
to present their counter arguments. The
to present their countei arguments.
The audience ask both teams questions. The time limit is ten mi-
The Chair invites the audience to vote for the decision.
The members of the audience vote according to their Evaluation
cards. Each criterion should be rated from 1
(very poor) to 5
That’s true, but if you look at it from the point of view…
Second semester. Topic: Science and Society
Which team was stronger Why Refer to your Evaluation cards.
Home reading
Grammar revision
Knowing a
sentence’s design by purpose is helpful. Each of these
sentences is either a
declarative (DEC), an interrogative (INT), an
exclamatory (EXC), or an imperative (IMP) one. Write the appro
priate three
letter combination next to its corresponding type of
Have you read this newspaper article We are late for the meeting.
Remember to watch your step as you leave the room. Are the pack
There are five simple (S) and five compound (C) sentences in these
ten sentences. Write the appropriate letter on the line next to the
The exciting performer approached the microphone, and the crowd
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Walter signaled for the waiter, and the waiter walked over to the
Tom, the repairman, entered the office, and his helper brought in
Scratching his head, the musical conductor looked quite con
The experienced stuntman is capable of performing many difficult
Trey’s mother
law would also like to go to the dance recital, but
Our team’s catcher, Jillian, is very agile, and she is also a
Priscilla watched the sunset from her bay window across the se
Rob returned the library book as soon as he found it in his locker.
Isaac gazed at the computer screen while you were reading the
Change these simple sentences into complex sentences by adding
Each type of sentence (by design or structure) — the simple (S), the
compound (CPD), the complex (CPLX), and the compound
(CC)—is used at least once in this activity. On the line before the
Several workers placed their lunch orders, and their kind boss
Even though Marnie searched hard for the misplaced earring, she
Second semester. Topic: Science and Society
An idea that the director introduced to the group was well received,
The ship’s captain made a
wide turn, and the boat responded beau
Edith sat still while the dentist examined her teeth. Is this the ad
The dealer shuffled the cards, and the players anxiously awaited
few marathon runners who had trained hard for the event sped
These computer monitors that are several years old can be stored
Underline the correct verb in each sentence. Then indicate if the
The experienced judge fondly (recall, recalls) her early days on the
Underline the subject of each sentence, and then circle the verb
Outside the stores, several men (was, were) chatting.
This cryptic drawing, in addition to these others, (seem, seems) to
The residents of this farm community (select, selects) a
new may
Both of the monkeys in this large cage (is, are) very active.
The persons in this remote location (interest, interests) the scien
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These cans, as well as this bottle, (has, have) been on the ground
note sent to the senators (was, were) discussed at the private
Juan’s relative from the United States (live, lives) in Denver,
The antiques in this catalog (has, have) already been appraised.
The cartoon monster with the hairy arms (frighten, frightens) my
Several of the new toys (excite, excites) the children in the store.
The pair of earrings (belong, belongs) to my wealthy aunt.
These notes on the board (need, needs) to be copied and memo
In each sentence, underline the indefinite pronoun (the antece-
Anybody who is here should have (his or her, their) permission
Because none of the book is scary, you can read (it, them) late at
Some of these toys have lost (its, their) appeal with these child-
The producer said that any of these actresses can memorize (her,
Neither of those books lends (itself, themselves) to being read in
Everybody clapped when (his or her, their) favorite dance group
Several of the famous drivers have already finished (his or her,
We heard that one of the performers injured (his or her, their)
Is it true that someone in this classroom has had (his or her, their)
All of the sports jackets have new labels on (it, them).
Because most of the surgeons had concerns, the hospital adminis
few of the senators were hurrying to (his or her, their) offices.
Any of these radio stations has (its, their) loyal listeners.
Many of the seagulls were hungry so (he or she, they) searched for
Second semester. Topic: Science and Society
Test practice.
Look at the pictures. In pairs, ask and answer the following ques
What are the main differences between the sports shown in the
Which is more important to you when playing games: winning or
team or to compete individually
You are going to read some statements which are all concerned
Read the statements as quickly as you can, and write on the line be
Tm not so keen on the field events such as the javelin and the high
‘I think there’s a
real feeling of achievement once you get to the
top. You know, it’s just man against nature, and you’ve actually done
‘And it’s a
goal! What a
match! So, that’s three two to Blackburn…
‘I tried it for the first time when we were on holiday last summer.
spent about fifteen minutes practising on the beach: standing on the
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board, holding the sail, trying to keep my balance. I
thought I’d got the
hang of it but as soon as I
actually got in the water I
couldn’t stay on at
‘It’s a
bit like tennis in that there’s a
net and you’re trying to get
the ball over the net. But you don’t have a
racket, and you hit the ball
with your hands or your wrists. Also, you’ve got to hit the ball before
The course at St Andrew’s is one of the most challenging courses
in the country. Even the most experienced professionals sometimes
‘They don’t have a
pool at school, so I
usually take the kids to the
local leisure centre every Saturday afternoon. They love it. Nicola usu
Find THREE words or phrases in each statement which helped
Look at the statements above again and circle the best answer to
Second semester. Topic: Science and Society
to emphasise the fact that they did take the board into the
to emphasise the difference between practising and doing the
Which word or phrase does the speaker use to compare this sport
to emphasise that the course is not just used by amateurs
to emphasise that everyone finds the course difficult
In pairs, discuss your answers. How did you decide which answer
Here are some more short statements about different sports.
You ought to take some waterproof clothes with you.
don’t think you lost because your opponent was better. I
You’re going so fast and just concentrating on winning that you
Injury is an occupational hazard for professional athletes.
You’ve got to be prepared to go out and train every day, whatever
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The referee said it was out, so there’s no point arguing.
Read these sentences and then use the words in italics to complete
clapped and cheered when Williams came onto the
includes events such as the 100
m, the pole vault and the
includes events such as the beam, and activities such
on horse races and boxing matches is a
There aren’t any finals today, so there won’t be many __ in the
The __ has to be completely impartial; he can’t favour either team,
Professional goalkeepers can kick the ball from one end of the __
There’s no point __ on him; he’s lost the last three fights!
We used to do __ at school in the summer term; I
was quite a
In tennis, the __ is wider for doubles matches than it is for sin
prefer the lottery.
Are __ in Olympic events allowed to be professional athletes
love watching __ ; it’s incredible how they keep their balance on
Second semester. Topic: Science and Society
UNDERLINE the words that give you the answer, and write the
number of the question next to them. This is so you can check your
DON’T read the whole text carefully before you look at the ques
tions. You won’t have enough time. Go to the questions first. For
each question, quickly SCAN the paragraphs (look for keywords)
You are going to read some information about some sports cen
For questions 1–15, choose from the sports centres (A–F). Some
of the centres may be chosen more than once. When more than one
answer is required, these may be given in any order. There is an
Which sports centre or sports centres: mainly provides activities
Manor House Sports Centre is committed to its policy of Sport for
All. To that end, you can be assured of a
warm welcome and a
relaxed atmosphere whatever your shape, size or age. You haven’t
taken part in any sporting activities for more years than you care to
remember Don’t let that put you off. Here at Manor House we believe
it’s never too late to start. Whether you’re interested in joining a
getting fit, professional training or just having a
relaxing swim in the
pool, Manor House is the place for you. No membership fee. Reason-
able entrance fees. Discounts for OAPs, students, the disabled and the
Stanton Bridge is a
built luxury sports complex in the
heart of the Hertfordshire countryside. Opened in 1999, we now boast
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fee covers the use of all our facilities for you and your family, when
ever you wish. A
hole golf course, heated Olympic swimming pool,
fitness centre, indoor badminton, squash and tennis courts, 5
football and all
weather hockey pitch are just some of the many facili
ties we offer. There’s also a
star restaurant, cafe and bar. Member
Organising a
school outdoor sports holiday for your pupils Bay
Hill has the solution you’re looking for. Situated in the unspoilt beau
ty of the Lake District, Bay Hill specialises in providing action
outdoor adventure holidays for teenagers. We offer it all: full accom
modation and catering, horse riding, canoeing, sailing, rock climbing
and hill walking, plus team games and swimming in our fully
leisure centre. Our highly trained and experienced instructors ensure
absolute safety. Free meals and accommodation for teachers when
Mondays, Wednesdays, Fridays: The Millennium Centre is the
number one sports and activities provider in the South East for the
Coach parties welcome (discounts for parties booking more than
Dalton Sport is a
run sports and social club in Plymouth.
Regular events and get
togethers, plus fishing trips on our own fish
ing boat, Dalton Sport II. Tennis Lessons available. We’re currently
raising funds to build our own heated swimming pool. Come along and
Recharge your batteries at Evergreen. 1
and 2
week activity holi
days at our countryside sports club and hotel. Whether you want to
relax in the sauna, take up a
martial art or go pony trekking through
the Brecon Beacons, Evergreen can accommodate. Vegetarians and ve
gans catered for. Colour brochure and price list on request. Sorry, no
In pairs, discuss the words you underlined that gave you the an
Second semester. Topic: Science and Society
Organising a
school outdoor sports holiday for your pupils = Are
What’s in the future
The books replaced other means of storing information. What do
you think will replace books Will it be done in the same way books
There is no __ about the advantage of books __ . They are going to
__ printed books in future. Printed books will __ only in scientific lib-
raries, and only specialists will have an __ to them. But even they will
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prefer computers to books to __ most __ information. It is impossible
to __ everybody with books online but I’m just __ the future in the way
Divide into two groups. Discuss the advantages of books and com
Choose one of the following statements and provide your reasons
Read the article and answer the questions. Translate the under
Do you prefer to read a
book or use a
computer Do you think
book is too heavy to carry Are you a
person from the Internet era
Many years ago, Marshall McLuhan who was a
communication tech
nician predicted that in the future humans will prefer computers to
printed books. He defined computers as
Extensions of the human nerv
ous system,
and he thought that they will allow people to reach every
part of the world in only a
few minutes or seconds. He was right, but he
After thinking and re
thinking, I
understood the real importance
of the electronic era. However, I
started to think about the new role of
Second semester. Topic: Science and Society
printed books. I
am sure that in the future they will not disappear.
Their new mission might be to rest on the shelves of our personal lib-
raries or offices waiting until someone looks at them and decides to
Currently, many books appear on the Internet, and you can see the
very first editions of some of them. I
saw the first edition of “Don
Quixote de la Mancha” written by a
Spanish author Miguel de Cervan
tes. When I
was a
child my grandfather read me this book. It tells the
story of an old man who used to read a
lot of books, he became crazy,
and he decided to be an errant knight. When I
think of this story, I
remember my hands touching the book’s pages, my eyes seeing its
original illustrations, my ears listening to my grandfather’s voice,
However, now I
am in front of a
computer, reading some parts of
the book and informing myself about new and different sites that help
me know more about the author and the structure of this masterpiece.
The electronic era has changed my relationship with books. If Cer
vantes was alive, he might write a
different novel using the idea of
books online. Can you imagine Don Quixote reading his books online
cannot help thinking about the enormous difference that the story
New technologies are capable of introducing changes in our daily
lives, but books online can never compete with humans’ personal rela
tionship with printed books. Have you already forgotten your child
hood when mom or dad sat beside your bed and read you a
What do you think is more likely to happen with books in the fu
Can you explain the difference between a
printed book and a
The summary below contains four factual mistakes. Find and cor
The author raises the problem of the future of books. She agrees
with Marshall McLuhan’s opinion that computers will conquer the
world. She says that printed books have no future. The author has
some sentimental memories about how she read “Don Quixote de la
Mancha”. But the electronic era has changed her relationship with
books, and now she thinks that books online are entirely replacing
Which opinion do you think is right: Marshall McLuhan’s or the
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Recall the names of the parts of a
computer by explaining what
Compare the sentences. Which verb form expresses the strongest
Computers are going to replace books in the future. (There’s much
Computers will replace books in the future. (I’m quite sure.)
Computers may replace books in the future. (It’s quite possible.)
Computers might replace books in the future. (It’s possible.)
Computers could replace books in the future. (It’s possible.)
Compare the negative sentences. Which of them expresses a
Computers won’t replace books in the future. (I’m sure.)
Computers may / might not replace books in the future. (It’s quite
Which one (
) is closest in meaning to the sentence on the
Second semester. Topic: Science and Society
Think what will happen to books and computers in 10
piece of paper and keep it in a
Access, crash, database, e
mail, floppy disk, hardware, laptop,
multimedia, hard disk, software, the Internet, virtual reality (VR), vi
What computer system makes it possible to send and receive let
What system allows computer users around the world to send and
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What is the name of a
created “world” which seems al
What is a
special term, which means “to obtain stored informa
disk for storing large amounts of information
What is the general term for the electrical or electronic compo
What do we call a
large collection of data that is stored in a
What is the term for a
set of instructions secretly put into a
puter to destroy the information and stop it from working nor
Where on the Internet can you look for information about pro-
What do we call a
set of computer programmes to control the ope-
I use it mainly for word processing (but not writing, which I
do with a
pen) __ , __ from the Internet, for writing purposes or
I used to think the PC’s main purpose in our lives was to __ it took
to get things done so that people could enjoy other hobbies
— ski
The PC is becoming __ of our private and personal lives I
And that was what got me really interested because the Macintosh
Second semester. Topic: Science and Society
Read the story and put the given connecting words where appro
Who, when, where (background) — What happened (events) — What
__ I
was walking around. It was cols, and it started to rain. I
looking for a
restaurant or a
where I
could sit and have something
to drink, when I
saw one, I
crossed the street and I
was there. I
sat at
While I
was waiting for my drink, I
realized that there were other
people in the place sitting in front of computers. __ I
stood up and
“I’m Steve”, he answered after I
asked him a
couple of times what his
name was. “I can’t talk with you, I’m busy”, he said. I
thought he was
working, and I
apologized. But he was not working. He was chatting
online with somebody — probably someone he didn’t know — and, at
the same time, he was playing a
computer game — a
war game. I
__ I
tried to communicate with another computer geek, but not
word came out of his mouth. I
touched his shoulder, but there was no
reaction. I
was getting upset. I
put my hand in front of the monitor,
__ I
realized the people in that place were having a
cup of coffee
and a
nice conversation with their machines. All of them were more
interested in having a
relationship with the computer. I
felt lonely,
saw their bodies, but I
couldn’t feel their souls. That was because
__ I
wouldn’t want to imagine the future of human beings if they
preferred sharing their lives with machines instead of with people.
had never thought that people could be so absorbed with computers.
was worried. I
didn’t even realize that the coffee was bad, just as Ste
Which sentences in the first paragraph describe facts and which
What events in the last paragraph were earlier in time How do
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Make up a
story beginning with “One day a
young man came into
Write it from the point of view of a) the young man; b) the
In what school subjects can computers be especially important
In what areas of your studies can you easily do without compu-
mail is much more (1)
than buying a
stamp and an
The way we find the (2)
for our problems is be
Computers (4)
students out of (5)
When I
use the computer, I
don’t feel like I
am (6)
I am sure that (8)
like reading and math (9) rank
Computers may be soon (10)
and new technology will
Read this essay about computerised education. Which of the state
Computer skills are important but they cannot replace general
Second semester. Topic: Science and Society
I find it humorous that in order to send you my opinion about the
use of computers in my education, I
used the Internet. This does not
mean that my opinion of the extensive use of computers in today’s so
ciety is completely optimistic. Yet, it’s true that when I
finish this let
ter, clicking the mouse will be much more convenient than buying
stamp and an en
velope and finding time to make a
trip to the post of
At the start of a
new millennium, technological and educational
advances are reaching extremes: As everything becomes more com
plex, the way we work out problems and find the solutions is becoming
easier. For example, in my math class everything has been done on the
When I
am assigned a
paper, the first place I
look for is the Inter
net. Then I
look in a
computer encyclopaedia. Then I
may stop by the
These methods of research and communication are very conve-
nient. But I
often feel it is taken too far. Recently, I
visited a
where com
puters are a
main part of everyday education. In the seventh
grade litera
ture class, the students were reading Romeo and Juliet off
I am sure that fundamentals like reading and math rank higher.
The United States has more Internet users than any other country. If
the Inter
net’s information is so easily accessed, then why aren’t Ame-
I don’t believe computers are the only reason why America’s
tional standards are so low today. Many factors contribute to it.
However students who rely on computers to do all their work are being
cheated out of mind
expanding experience. When I
use the computer,
don’t feel like I
am challenging myself or jogging my brain. I’m simp-
There is no doubt that there are few if any businesses that don’t
use computers. Today’s youth must become comfortable on computers
for college and future careers. But along with computers, students
must be taught not to totally rely on them. Students still need to be
In all, computers balance themselves out fairly well as far as nega
tive and positive aspects go. Besides, in future, who knows if compu-
ters will be outdated and a
new form of technology will take us to
Why is he / she going to use the Internet for sending the essay
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What do students lose if they rely only on computers in their edu
Look through the text again and answer the following questions.
In Paragraph 1, which of the expressions introduce:
What idea developed in Paragraph 3
is opposed to the idea of Pa-
Second semester. Topic: Science and Society
Electronic encyclopaedia is very (1) __ . You can find a
lot of
Travelling is (4) as you can learn many new things about people’s
Although my grandpa is eighty he likes to do maths problems
They (6) __ the old woman … her money by making her sign a
I (7) __ you to race me across the lake. I’m sure I’ll win!
This model is too (8) __ . Nobody will use it any more.
Maths, reading and Russian are (9) __ in Russian schools,
find it humorous that any Internet user has access to
the best libraries of the world. Yet it’s true that not every computer
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Home reading
Grammar review
Underline the subject in each sentence, and then circle the correct
verb. On the line before each sentence, write S
if the subject and
(Has, Have) someone forgotten to sign the register this after
More of this speech (is, are) getting better each time you practice
Laverne and Shirley (was, were) one of my grandmother’s favorite
Second semester. Topic: Science and Society
Both the eggs and the cream (has, have) been ordered by our food
The bat and the catcher’s mask (is, are) in the dugout.
Neither the stars nor the sun (was, were) discussed at length.
Either she or they (is, are) prepared to address the press corps
Neither the muscles nor the joint (has, have) yet to be covered in
These cards and that board game (occupies, occupy) my grandfa
(Has, Have) these books or that magazine article captured your
Either the trombone or the clarinet (is, are) the instrument that
Either the plate or the utensils (is, are) ready to be placed on the
Both the writers and their publishers (was, were) on attendance.
Neither the sailboat nor these kayaks (is, are) on sale until next
The book’s author and illustrator (are, is) Patricia Polacco.
Each of these fifteen sentences includes an incorrect subject
agreement. Without changing the subject, make the necessary
One of my friends are here in this room with the rest of us.
few of the painters at that table has finished their work.
Before she started her workout, Lupita were listening to the
Proponents favors this new methodology of training doctors how
Then the physician insert the fluid into the other vial.
Concert attendees admires that singer who really knows how to
The people in our neighborhood in Queens is very friendly.
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Some soldiers is on our train heading for Portland, Oregon.
These cards that (is, are) missing from the deck should be around
newborn’s home.
Tuesdays with Morrie (make, makes) me think, cry, and appre-
The club’s officers (meet, meets) today at noon in the cafe.
The cat that (has, have) been adopted is very playful.
unified team.
Ken’s family (exchange, exchanges) gifts with one another each
Maureen, along with her three friends, (attend, attends) con
The Fifties (is, are) the decade that some refer to as “Happy
The exercises which (has, have) been recommended to you will in
Friends who (help, helps) you are good friends indeed.
This is the Web site that (provide, provides) much useful infor
All who (attend, attends) this meeting will receive a
free ticket to
topic that James will soon study.
How well do you know your subject
verb agreement rules Here
are twenty sentences that will test your knowledge of these rules.
tenth of the test papers (has, have) been collected.
Mathematics (is, are) Harold’s most challenging subjects.
Only one
fourth of your time in the library (was, were) spent pro
Second semester. Topic: Science and Society
Lyle (doesn’t, don’t) want to order the food just yet.
Fifteen dollars (was, were) my change from the purchase.
Twelve days (is, are) left for you to register for the new semester.
All of the senators at today’s session (wasn’t, weren’t) happy with
Twenty percent of the order (has, have) been delivered.
There (is, are) at least three reasons why you should join the or
fourths of the process (has, have) been completed.
Test practice.
You are going to read a
magazine article about an orchestra.
Choose the most suitable heading from the list A–I for each part
(1–7) of the article. There is one extra heading which you do not
Yon don’t need to be able to read a
note of music to play in this
The East London Late Starters Orchestra (ELLSO) is not the most
professional orchestra in Britain, but it is seriously fun. What is more,
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all are welcome to join in. After each of its concerts, anyone from the
audience can choose an instrument and have a
go. Then the whole or
chestra launch into another piece of music and the new recruits are
The orchestra, now in its sixteenth year, grew out of a
scheme run by one of the local councils in east London to give children
in the area the opportunity to make music. “I shall never forget the
day my daughter Kate came home from school with a
cello,’ ELLSQs
founder Chris Surety told me. They’d had a
couple of teachers come in
and play instruments. Then they said. “Who wants one ” Everyone
put up their hands, and they were each given one to take home. Music
making was seen as central to the children’s education, and as a
Since that time, dozens, if not hundreds, of adults have felt the
same thrill at handling these beautiful instruments, a
lot of them for
the first lime in their lives. And for most, it comes as a
revelation that
they too can learn lo play, its never too late, and there is nothing, apart
The idea of starting the ELLSO came about when the council in
vited parents to drop in for a
hour sample lesson. ‘This was not
with a
view to getting something going among adults”, says Chris.
was just to give us a
better understanding of what me children were
doing. But we went there and for me that was it. I
had a
Lesson on the cello, and t
thought. “I could learn to play these instru
ELLSO is all about removing barriers and providing access to mu
sic in a
friendly, non
competitive environment, for people of mixed
abilities and of all ages and social backgrounds. Fees are based on in
come. The absolute beginner, on turning up, will be handed an instru
ment and given a
brief tutorial, before being invited to play with the
“Everyone”, says Chris, “has the ability lo make music”. But, of
course, they have to practise, and the 60
plus members do so every Sa-
turday morning without fail, some travelling a
tong way. Many of
them are so eager that they also get together in the week for group
Second semester. Topic: Science and Society
practice, or have private tuition. It’s something they do for personal
satisfaction and for the confidence that flows from it. It is a
very im
Helen Couch is 76
and hadn’t played an instrument until she
joined the ELLSO at the age of 67. I
thought it must be a
joke, the idea
that you could play with an orchestra after a
couple of hours
thought it was the funniest thing I’d ever heard’. she admits. ‘I al
ways assumed I
was musically illiterate. Well, I
still am, but I
love it,
although it’s hard work. I’m ashamed that I’m not better, but you can
hide in the orchestra, and knowing that gives you confidence. We’re
improving as a
group. Nine times out of ten we finish together now,
“It’s changed my life”, says Chris Surety. “And that’s what
has done for lots of other people. Not all will want to carry on learning
an instrument, but if they’ve had a
positive experience and are begin
ning to find out what they really do want to learn in life, it gives them
confidence to move on to other things. There are a
lot of people who
started with ELLSO who’ve gone on to study for degrees and emerged
You are going to read an extract from a
novel. For questions 8–15,
choose the answer (A, B, C
or D) which you think fits best accord
There was a
small breeze when Christine came out for her lunch as
she usually did, even when it was raining, instead of going up to the
store canteen. You could never get a
table to yourself there, and who
ever sat with you always wanted to complain about the shop, the cus
tomers, the management or the canteen food. Everyone at Goldwyn’s
seemed to have a
complaint of some kind, although it was one of the
best London stores to work for, and many of the staff had been there
for years
— some of them were long past retiring age. This was because
the management let them stay on even when they were really past it,
like poor old Martha, who was always trying to sell people dresses that
Christine herself had been in the book departmentfor more than
four years. She had started as a
junior, knocking over piles of books
and breaking the till once a
week in her efforts to serve customers
quickly. Now she was Head Salesperson and moved calmly around the
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departmentbetween the bright new paperbacks, knowing that book
customers liked to take their time, unlike the people who stampeded
She knew every book in the place, and all about the new ones be
fore they came out. She was said to be Mr. Parker’s right
hand per
— and heaven knows he needed one
and was sometimes asked into
The book department, partly due to Mr. Parker’s weak adminis
tration and partly because it was thought to be sophisticated, was the
only departmentin Goldwyn’s where you did not have to wear black.
This led to some confusion as to who was an assistant and who was
customer, not untypical of bookshops, and accounted for the dis
tressed look of people who picked up a
book they wanted but were afraid
of having their elbows grasped by the store detective before they could
Christine was wearing her grey suit today. She liked the grey suit.
She had liked it for a
long time, because she had accepted her aunt’s
advice that it was better to buy an expensive suit that would last than
to keep buying cheap suits that looked very smart for a
few weeks, until
they began to wrinkle at the elbows and sag at the seat. The grey suit
had been what the shop had called a
‘classic’, which meant that nobody
would ever turn round in the street to look at it, but it would stand hav
Christine liked her work, as much as one can like any job that im
prisons one from nine till five
thirty. She liked Goldwyn’s, but she was
always glad to get away from it at lunchtime, even though it meant
queuing for a
table at one of the restaurants and teashops that fed the
local shop
workers. Here people tended to eat with one eye on their
watches and had a
taste for things like pasta and puddings which were
the most filling at the least cost. But Christine, once seated, enjoyed
Alice, who was her junior, was always meeting people at lunch
time. Even if it was only a
man who had picked up her handkerchief in
the cafeteria, she made it sound exciting, like an adventure. Alice and
the other junior, Helen, were always giggling in the classics section
where the customers did not go much. If Christine came along, they
would suddenly look serious and pretend to be straightening books.
Christine thought this should have made her feel very old, but it didn’t.
She was so much happier than she had been at the giggling age. She
liked her authority in the book department. Sometimes, outside, she
insecurely wondered how she stood in relation to the rest of the world.
Second semester. Topic: Science and Society
Christine preferred not to have lunch at work because she wanted
Why did customers in the book department sometimes look un
What was the disadvantage for Christine of the places she went to
How did Christine regard the junior members of staff
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You are going to read a
newspaper article about a
chef who works
in the film and TV industries. Seven sentences have been removed
from the article. Choose from the sentences A–H the one which
fits each gap (16–21). There is one extra sentence which you do
Colin Capon works as a
‘props chef. He is responsible for prepar
ing all the food that appears on a
set during the making of a
TV drama
series or a
film. His job came about purely by chance. The BBC phoned
to ask if he knew anyone who could provide food for a
film being shot
on location in the east of England. Phone calls to friends and colleagues
proved fruitless. That’s when my wife, Auriel, suggested I
should have
go,’ says Colin. ‘(0) — (H) I spent many hours in the local library not
only learning all I
could about the type of food that was eaten then, but
Colin has since worked on many films and TV series. ‘Some films
require a
great deal of research,’ says Colin. ‘It’s important that the
food is as authentic as possible. A
hundred years ago you would never
His latest project, a
drama set in the 12th century, was more dif
ficult, as history rarely records what was eaten then. ‘I had to think
around it and consider how people lived. (17)
__ . In addition, they ate
lots of grains, vegetables and birds such as cranes, swans (we used
stuffed one on set once) and peacocks. These would be served with
As well as being historically correct, the food must also be able to
withstand hot studio lights. (18)
__ . I
certainly wouldn’t be popular
food which is going to be eaten can stay on set for only a
few hours,
after which it must be replaced by fresh. If it’s there merely for visual
effect, it can stay until it starts to smell, though actors get fed up with
Although concerned about realism, Colin sometimes finds it dif
ficult to find the right ingredients. ‘(19)
__ . For example, in medieval
times beetroot and parsnips were eaten with their tops growing. I
to buy parsnips, then bury them in sand until they are green! Dandeli
ons and other wild leaves are not found in the shops and the apples
Quantities and appearance can often be as big a
headache as ingre
dients. ‘I often have to prepare vast quantities so that plates can be
Second semester. Topic: Science and Society
Working on location means that I
get to visit some beautiful plac
es, which I
enjoy, but it also means having to rely on cooking in unfa
miliar kitchens, which can be a
bit of a
nightmare particularly if I’m
cooking difficult dishes (21)
— During filming I
have to work long
hours and it can sometimes be boring when you have long waits be
With a
wedding cake or something like that, if it is cut before the
Supermarkets stock most things all year round, but not always in
never really paid much attention to history Lessons at school and
Without the use of chemicals they probably looked a
bit marked
Few of them would have had an oven, so most meat would be
The work is obviously good fun, otherwise wouldn’t do it, but it’s
And, if it is actually going to be eaten hygiene must be consid
The film was set a
hundred years ago and my job was to prepare
You are going to read a
magazine article about public speaking.
For questions 22–35, choose from the sections of the article (A–F).
The sections may be chosen more than once. When more than one
answer is required, these may be given in any order. There is an
the fact that audiences tend to be supportive towards a
the need to avoid being dependent on written notes
the physical distance between a
speaker and an audience
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the personal benefit gained from repeated rehearsals
the need to be aware of the speed at which a
talk is delivered
good view (35) __ .
Most of us have to speak in front of a
crowd of people at some point
in our lives. Here are a
few guidelines that will help you address your
We have all sat through somebody mumbling a
series of discon
nected thoughts and wondered when it was going to end. It is impor
tant to remember how you felt for the person doing the talk. Most
probably, you sympathised with them and were relieved for them when
they had ‘got through it’. This is important because your audience will
also want the best for you. Visualise yourself delivering a
witty, clever
and informative presentation with the audience hanging on every
‘Nobody plans to fail, they simply fail to plan’. Nowhere is this
truer than in the arena of public speaking. The classic format for any
talk has a
beginning, a
middle and an end. Think about how long you
want the talk to last and plan the content of the talk to fit the right
amount of time. Also, think about your audience: make sure your ap
proach to the subject of your talk is neither too complex nor too simple
for them. If you are going to use prompts, small cards are quite good as
they can be discreet and relatively unnoticeable compared to large
Wherever possible, make sure you know the venue of your talk
and check that people can see you and any slides or diagrams you might
be using to support your points. When talking to a
large group, try to
keep very close to the front row as this creates a
feeling of together
ness. Some of the best comedians use this closeness to encourage a
ing of secrecy, telling you things as a
stage whisper in order to build
It is important that you stand comfortably with both feet rooted
to the floor but slightly apart . Without realising it, there will be a
dency to retreat’ from the audience or you may sway from side to side.
Therefore, think of ways to counteract this when rehearsing (e.g. im
Second semester. Topic: Science and Society
gine you are wearing heavy lead shoes on your feet which are keeping
your heels down). Try not to lean on tables or get your arms too close to
your body as you will restrict your lungs and impair your ability to
project your voice. Although it may help you feel more relaxed, try not
to walk about when delivering your speech as this will be distracting
As with any skill, practice is vital. The more you practise, the
more confident you will be. Try not to simply read out what you have
prepared, and picture yourself talking confidently and knowledgeably
about your subject. After you have been presenting to the mirror for
while, you will begin to see which gestures and facial movements
work and which ones look wrong. Remember that nobody wants you to
do badly and try to feel positive that you are going to deliver an inter
Despite the fact that we all feel shy or nervous about talking to
large group, the reality in a
lot of cases is that, once we get talking
and feeling confident, we all have the ability to ‘perform’. But remem
ber to talk in a
controlled manner, as we all have a
tendency to rush
once we are in front of a
big crowd. Also, if you are going to be using
microphone, then practise with it first. If not, make sure that your
voice can fill the room for the time you are speaking or reduce the time
that you are going to talk. Breathing exercises and voice projection
In pairs discuss this idea and write an essay, expressing your opi-
Parents and teachers concerned with the dramatic lowering of
educational standards call for a
limit on access to computers for school
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Read this research report and find the facts that prove that com
Maressa Orzak, a
Harvard University psychologist, runs a
clinic for computer addicts. She is researching computer addic
which she sees as a
growing problem. She experienced it herself when
she became hooked on playing solitaire on the computer instead of
teaching herself a
difficult new software programme, and since then
she has studied people whose lives have been taken over by computers.
One of them was a
divorcee who lost custody of her children when her
husband discovered she was neglecting them to spend ten or more
Orzak defines computer addiction as “a disorder suffered by peo
ple who find virtual reality more attractive than everyday reality”.
Symptoms include strange behaviour, spending large sums of money
on computers and software, and even mental health problems, but
One of the strategies Orzak uses to treat the condition, based on
her own experience of addiction, is to encourage her patients to limit
the amount of time they spend in front of a
computer. But until the
problem has been more widely recognised and better researched, cures
Which of the words means “people” and which “state”: ‘addict
addiction divorcee
— divorce, sufferer
— suffering How do you
Look through this list of signs and symptoms of computer addic
Second semester. Topic: Science and Society
spending increasing amounts of time and money on hardware, soft
having irregular meals, repetitive strain injuries, backache, dry eyes,
Some people become so dependent on computers that they don’t
Mike can feel comfort only when he gets access to the Internet.
The problem of computer addiction needs further serious study.
Computer addicts do not often admit being dependent on the Net.
After spending several hours in front of a
computer you may have
Work in pairs. Try to explain how these words are related to the
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Computer addicts work together or in smaller groups and discuss
Psychologists work separately and think of the best advice they
The aim of each computer addict is to visit as many psychologists
Each computer addict joins a
psychologist. Computer addicts des-
cribe their symptoms. Psychologists give advice. Computer addicts
Computer addicts report to the class the best adv ice they have got
and the class chooses the best psychologist(s) and makes a
list of advice
Second semester. Topic: Science and Society
Learn some of the Net Slang, which is developing over the Internet.
Pretend that you are chatting on the computer using the chat lan
Don’t speak aloud, just exchange written messages! Use of as
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Haiku is type of Japanese poem with three lines consisting of 5,
Read the proverbs and interpret them. Think of their Ukrainian
Give a
man a
fish and you feed him for a
day; teach him to use
Compare these computer age proverbs with the ones above. What
Give a
man a
fish and you feed him for a
day; teach him to use the
Second semester. Topic: Science and Society
If you have to find a
new job, which of these below would you do in
Look again at the list of things you could do. Which of them would
I’d probably talk to a
car salesperson if I
were buying
new car. I
wouldn’t talk to my grandparents, my cat or use my com
puter or go the library. I
might ask my parents and I’d definitely look
in a
newspaper. Usually, I’d go to different car salesyards and see what
Read the article very quickly and answer this question. Which
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Nearly half of U.S. users of the Internet went online for help with
major life decisions such as finding a
college for their child or looking
The results show that the Internet is becoming increasingly im
portant to users in their everyday lives, according to the Pew Internet
and American Life Project, a
nonprofit group which conducted the
Some 45
percent of Internet users, or an estimated 60
Americans, said the Internet helped them make big decisions or face
major moment in their life during the previous two years, the survey
found. That was up from 40
percent of Internet users who answered
An estimated 21
million Americans turned to the Internet when
seeking more training for a
career, while 17
million used it to choose
school for a
family member or to help another person with a
Some 16
million Americans used the Internet when buying a
or making a
major investment or financial decision, it said. An esti
mated 10
million Americans used the Internet when looking for a
place to live, 8
million when changing jobs and 7
million when deal
ing with their own major illness or health condition, the survey
“It seems likely that the convenience of broadband draws more
users to the Internet to deal with some decision”, the Pew Internet
group said. However, better online content and more widely advertised
web sites may also contribute to the rising use of the Internet with
Specifically, the survey asked 2,201
adults The survey results
were posted on the Internet last month if the Internet played a
. or important role in making at least one of
Here is a
summary of the survey’s findings, produced in a
Second semester. Topic: Science and Society
Internet users who said it was very helpful when thinking about something
Internet users who said it was very helpful when thinking about… % some
Estimated numbers of Americans who used the Internet for making these
The Internet is now an important way to find information about
Over 50% of American Internet users now go to the Internet when
Almost half of Americans now use the Internet to find informa
Decide if these statements are true (T), false (F) or there is no in
More people used the Internet to find out about a
friend’s illness
The survey results showed that people went to the Internet for
The organizers of the survey think higher quality of information
on the Internet could be one of the reasons for its increasing popu
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Read this part of the article again. In each line find the word that
is in the incorrect form and correct it. If you think a
line is cor
rect, write ‘Correct’. (Do not look at the article again until you
An estimating 21
million Americans turned to the Internet when
million used it to chose
family member or to help another person
An estimated 10
million Americans used the Internet when
What Do You Think Write a
short essay saying whether you
Over the next twenty years the Internet will slowly replace libra-
ries, newspaper employment pages and phone information lines as the
When you have finished your essay from Post
Reading Activity,
Your ideas and arguments
— Have you said your ideas clearly
Have you explained them and used supporting evidence or argu
— Is the essay clearly organized
Second semester. Topic: Science and Society
Happening or existing now but not expected to last for a
set of programs that you put in computer when you want it to do
Using a
mixture of sound, pictures, film, and writing to give in
square piece of plastic to store on information for computer
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Helpful, because it saves you time or does not spoil your plans
The ability or power to make someone or something do what you
Second semester. Topic: Science and Society
Scientists often talk about inventing household machines that
will do a
variety of tasks. Imagine that you are about to buy the
Here is a
list of features that a
fridge might have in the future.
Which features in the list would you like (Tick the column next
to these.) Which do you think are less important Give reasons for
Now compare your answers with a
partner. Use your notes to help
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Where in your house do you have a
television (If you don’t have
television in your house, tell your partner your reasons for not
Read Article 1
and decide whether the statements are true (T) or
More than three
quarters of televisions sold around the world are
There is still room for growth in the flat screen television mar
players are popular with shoppers.
Intermediate High Definition television sets were introduced in
Most shoppers will be interested in buying one of the new High
Although over 100
million households in Europe and the United
States have moved to digital television, that is still less than half of
the homes in all countries except the United Kingdom, according to
Flat TVs…make up less than three out of every 10
televisions cur
rently sold worldwide, said research group DisplaySearch, meaning
that growth can continue unabated for many years. A supply analyst
Chris Crotty says: “Consumers are more likely to buy a
second televi
Nevertheless, LCD and plasma TV unit sales increased 135
cent to 9.4
million units and 95
percent to 2.2
million units respec
Sharp and others now plan to introduce new flat televisions, many
of which will now be full High Definition (HD), as opposed to the inter
mediate HD television sets launched last year. But these sets will cost
many thousands of euros, which will be too much for most consumers
However, an extra boost that was expected for liquid crystal dis
play (LCD) television sales from the football World Cup in Germany in
Second semester. Topic: Science and Society
“I’m happy with my normal TV. Flat screens are just money down
Read the questions below and then look quickly through Part One
of Article 2
for the answers. (Take about 20
seconds and do NOT
Last month South Korea’s LG Electronics launched the 26
foot fridge, featuring a
inch flat touch screen display, in the United
Using the fridge’s screen and an Internet connection, customers
can view e
mail, download digital music, watch television, leave video
messages for family members and keep track of dates and appoint
As expected, there are food
related features as well — it can keep
an inventory of groceries on its shelves, store nutritional information
or download recipes. The owner has to enter most of this information
Unfortunately, the machine cannot tell if the milk is sour or al
Still, future versions of the appliance due out late next year are
expected to be able to scan bar codes on packaged foods as they enter
the unit, or are tossed away, simplifying the chore of making up a
The fridge could one day become the central hub of a
home net
work, connecting to Internet microwave ovens and Internet washing
machines, said LG Director of Marketing Communications Daniel
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Look through the article again to find which features the article says
the LG Electronics fridge has. When you find a
feature which matches
list of the groceries it contains which the owner types in
Sends a
shopping list to a
supermarket saying exactly what food
Shows when food is going bad and needs to be thrown out
Has an alarm that rings if someone on a
diet tries to take fattening
Downloads recipes from the Internet and stores information about
Records video messages for other members of the family
Compare your answers with a
partner. If there are any differences
between you, show your partner the part of the article that helped
Use Part Two of Article 2
to complete the table with information
Name of Refrigerator: Name of Manufacturer: Size of display
Samsung began selling its own Internet refrigerator, called _
Samsung’s HomePAD is similar to LG’s product, except that the
inch display pad is
and able to communicate wirelessly
With the built
in videocam, a
family could e
mail dinner
Second semester. Topic: Science and Society
Samsung is planning special offers such as recipe services and
Samsung’s target customer is a
family of four or more with an an
nual income of more than $100,000. Typically, “The HomePAD offers
many possibilities. Parents leaving home early in the morning for
work can leave a
loving message for their children”, Samsung’s Senior
Marketing Manager Benjamin An said. they will already have high
speed Internet access and use Internet banking, which is why the Sam
Tell your partner which of the two fridges you would prefer to
Read this information about different verb tenses used in today’s
Present Simple tense
is sometimes used to talk about some
thing that is true in general. The articles have factual information
…it can keep an inventory of groceries on its shelves, store
Consumers are more likely to buy a
second television or DVD
Past Simple tense
is used to talk about finished actions in the
Last month South Korea’s LG Electronics launched the 26
LCD and plasma TV unit sales increased 135
percent to 9.4
Present Perfect Simple
is used to give new information and
Although over 100
million households in Europe and the United
My parents (1)
bought / have bought / buy
new fridge last Octo
ber. They (2)
were / have been / are
very excited about it when they
ought / have bought / buy
it. The new fridge (4)
had / has had / has
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touch screen display so they (5)
could download / can download
Unfortunately we (6)
had / have had
lots of arguments about it.
Yesterday, for example, my brother (7)
wanted / has wanted / wants
to download some music but I
wanted / has wanted / wants
to check
Now we (9)
had / have
new rule. We can only use it if we help
prepare the meal or clean the kitchen afterwards. I
decided / have
decided / decide
that this is a
good rule. My brother (11)
decided / has
decided / decides
that he will use the computer in his bedroom more.
He (12)
hated / has hated
doing any kind of housework so he
didn’t want / doesn’t want
to use the Internet fridge now. The
Divide into two groups, Group One are refrigerator manufac
OR flat screen television manufacturers and Group Two are poten
Group One — Refrigerator Manufacturers OR flat screen televi
sion manufacturers:
Work in groups of two or three. You are a
facturer making high
quality, futuristic refrigerators or flat screen
televisions. In your group decide what features your product has. Use
After you have finished deciding these things, get ready to sell
your product. You are attending an ‘Expo’ where different companies
are promoting their products. Set up your ‘stand’ (a place where you
promote your product) and get ready to talk to potential customers
who will visit your stand. Try to persuade them to buy your product.
Group Two
— Potential Customers:
Work in pairs. You are mem
bers of a
family (e.g. husband and wife, mother and daughter, father
and daughter etc.) who want to buy a
new refrigerator OR a
flat screen
Second semester. Topic: Science and Society
television. You are going to attend an ‘Expo’ where different compa
nies are promoting their products. They will try to persuade you to buy
With your partner decide what you want to buy. Use today’s arti
When you are ready, attend the Expo and visit all the stands. Ask
the manufacturers lots of questions and then decide what you will buy.
Choose a
machine of some kind (from your home or your class
room) and write an advertisement for it. Your advertisement
should include a
description of the machine, including its name,
size, country of manufacture and features. When you have fi-
nished, work in small groups. Present your advertisement to each
Write a
short description of a
machine or device you are familiar
with but do NOT include its name. After you have finished, work
in small groups and read your piece of writing to each other. Get
Write an advertisement for one of the fridges described in today’s
article. Your advertisement should include a
description of the
fridge, including its name, size, country of manufacture and fea
Home reading
Grammar revision
Practice using correct agreement by writing sentences that satis
Write a
sentence using
to join a
singular and a
plural pro
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Write a
sentence in which the plural pronoun them refers back to
Write a
sentence using the pair of correlative conjunctions, both
Write a
sentence using a
male pronoun that refers back to the sub
Write a
sentence using a
single subject joined with a
plural sub
Test your knowledge of agreement by underlining the correct
Each of the female contestants took (her, their) place on stage.
Everybody, including the pilots in the other section of the plane,
Neither the president nor her closest confidantes (is, are) pre
Most of the photographs have no dark spots on (it, them).
These lifeguards (doesn’t, don’t) become distracted when they are
Anyone who purchased a
defective radio should bring (his or her,
Here (is, are) the directions on how to make the dinner.
His favorite sandwich (is, are) bacon, lettuce, and tomato.
All of this carpet (has, have) been intricately woven.
Fifteen percent of the quarter’s grade (is, are) class participa
The Outsiders (was, were) the last book that Rachel read this
The commercial was (air, aired) five times last night.
Have the forensics students (review, had reviewed, reviewed) the
Each of the carpenters has (help, helped, have helped) with this
Second semester. Topic: Science and Society
Were these models (suppose, supposed, had supposed) to be here
Many of these windows (needed, has needed, needs) a
We were (imagine, imagining, imagined) what you were doing at
Some of the newspapers (has been moved, have been moved) to the
Will our brother (invite, invited, shall invite) Mona to next
Hector and the other members of his rock band (had sanged, sang,
Have most of the light bulbs (replaced, been replaced, were re
The ducks that are in the pond behind my teacher’s house were
Our insurance representative (has been reviewing, review, re
(had fall, had fallen, will have fallen) on that slippery floor two
Carlotta (has been painting, have painted, will have painted) por
Underline the correct form of the irregular verbs that appear in
All of the most talented golfers (came, come) to the big tourna
Emma has (draw, drew, drawn) a
caricature of her uncle spending
Has James already (drink, drank, drunk) the entire bottle of wa
Ellie (held, holded) her breath as her brother attempted to start
These religious leaders (feeled, felt) the need to discuss the event
Three days ago the Umpies (goed, went) to visit the Shorties.
Jimmy Baldino (grow, grew, grown) tomatoes in his backyard last
You could have (get, got, gotten) better advice about the problem
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Have Moe and Kate (chose, choose, chosen) their favorite tunes
It had just (begin, began, begun) to rain when the horses were
Patsy (find, finded, found) an interesting way to repair this
(begin, begun) to see exactly how she solved the mystery.
Murphy (bring, brang, brung, brought) the scrap of food to his
Underline the correct form of the irregular verbs that appear in
(wear, wore, worn) these running shoes whenever I
Cousin Moe (write, wrote, written) a
beautiful piece about her
Could Ms. Short have (sing, sang, sung) any more beautifully than
The court officer (sent, sended) a
note about the jury to the
Remember that the police officers had already (speak, spoke, spo
The small group of musicians had (sat, sit) on this bench during
Please (take, taken, took) these plates over to the machine.
Could Kayla have (write, wrote, written) that essay as quickly as
The tall boy (swam, swimmed, swum) twenty laps in the pool this
This cloth has been (teared, tore, torn) up by the hungry dog.
With that amazing catch, the skilled receiver (win, winned, won)
If the underlined irregular verb is used correctly, do nothing. If
the underlined irregular verb is used incorrectly, cross it out and
My family had
at this restaurant several times before last
Second semester. Topic: Science and Society
The track star
not have
faster than she
at that
our way on those dimly
roads as we
to Uncle Ar
representative from the railroad
to the passengers about
The powerful dog
free from her leash and
quickly down
The proud grandparents
the night that their grand
Wendy and her friends
on that scary roller coaster ride
That rock star
in many different European cities during
Test practice. Writing
You have decided to do the same summer job that you did last
year. You want to persuade your English
speaking friend, Jan, to do
Read the advertisement for the job and also read your notes. Then,
Every summer we run an International
— Camp for 8
to 12
old children
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Write a
letter of between 120
and 180
words in an appropriate
Test practice. Writing
Write an answer to one of the questions 2–5
in this part . Write
The school where you learn English has decided to buy some vi-
deos in English. You have been asked to write a
report for the
Principal, suggesting what kinds of videos the school should buy.
In your report, you should also explain why students at the school
You have seen this advertisement in The Traveller magazine and
We are looking for eight people from different countries to spend
three months on a
sailing trip around the world, free of charge. no sail
Write and tell us why you are the person we are looking for and
You have had a
class discussion on food and eating habits. Your
teacher has now asked you to write a
composition giving your
Young people are eating a
less healthy diet nowadays than their
Answer one of the following two questions based on your read
ing of one of these set books. Write the letter (a) or (b) as well
as the number 5
in the question box, and the title of the book
next to the box. Your answer must be about one of the books
Second semester. Topic: Science and Society
Either (a) Your college magazine is looking for articles on the
qualities of good stories. Write an article, briefly describing the be
ginning of the book or one of the short stories you have read, and ex
plaining why this beginning made you want to read the rest of the
Or (b) In your opinion, which character changes most in the book
or one of the short stories you have read Write a
composition, ex
Topic summary
in Great Britain, United
minutes (four lessons: a
session of two Lessons with
Technical requirements:
one computer per student or a
group of
list of websites on education in Britain and the USA.
Check the websites (how informative they are, what is the level of
Prepare some exercises (crossword, vocabulary exercises) check
ing the students’ knowledge of some basic vocabulary connected
with education, schools, students, exams and give them to stu
Devote the first two Lessons to vocabulary work and searching the
Web and do the presentation session on the next Lesson available. Stu
dents should then go through their notes before the lesson. After pre
senting the English and American systems, ask your students to fill in
the third column of the chart about the Ukrainian system at home. The
Second semester. Topic: Education
Match the following types of educational organisations to the sort
Elicit from the students what they know about education in Eng
land or USA. Ask also to mention a
few famous schools or univer
sities in Great Britain and the States. You may want to ask ques
Is the British educational system similar to the Ukrainian one
What subjects do you think are taught in English and American
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Send the students to the sites http://elt.britcoun.org.pl (Great
Britain) and
(USA) to find answers to the questions on their Worksheets.
The system of education in Great Britain, United States and Ukraine
there Which are the most famous
Encourage everybody to share with others what they have found
about the two systems: first the group working on the British sys
Is the education system the same in the whole country
What are the levels of education Can you draw the diagram on
Is there any national curriculum What subjects are taught at
Second semester. Topic: Education
Which are the most famous ones What do they specialise in
How is a
school year organised (terms, holidays etc.) Clarify any
Set the homework: Find out about the Ukrainian system of educa
Lead the discussion comparing the three systems. You may want
What would you borrow from British and American systems
student in Why
As a
up, ask volunteer students to design and make a
showing the three systems of education to be put on the wall in
Home reading
In groups think of the most prestigious areas of professional ac
Classify the items in the list of job requirements according to the
Say which skills and abilities are needed to be successful in it.
Second semester. Topic: Work and Professions
I’d rather have flexible working hours than stay in the office from
Look at the titles of the four job profiles and write down which
skills and abilities from the list you’ve made are necessary for
involves above all effective communication. It starts with
dentifying potential buyers of a
product and their needs. The
salesperson then has to explain how the product will meet these
needs. While many sales representatives travel to find their cus
tomers, others spend the majority of their time selling by phone.
To succeed in sales you need to be confident, persistent, deter
mined, highly motivated and a
good team player. Many sales jobs
offer commission or bonuses for good performance and also perks
such as company cars. New recruits are usually trained on the
. Service industries are growing fast in most countries. Ho
tels, restaurants, pubs, clubs and fast
food outlets are growing in
number and all of them need staff, including chefs who are re
sponsible for preparing food. Most chefs are trained in colleges
before they enter the catering industry, where they can work their
way up to the position of head chef. A
head chef is responsible for
the whole kitchen, including supervision of staff and trainees and
Graduates in the Police Service
. Are you a
university graduate
answering the phone and making coffee If that’s the case, you
may want to consider joining the police force. The police offer ex
cellent opportunities for graduates and are keen to promote intel
ligent young people within the service. You’d start by serving
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minimum of two years as a
constable, mostly patrolling the
streets. You should be prepared for shift work which will play
havoc with your social life. But if you cope with all the challenges
you will be ready for promotion, first to sergeant and then to in
spector. This is a
position of leadership which involves evaluating
your colleagues’ performance, anticipating difficulties and mov
ing people and equipment to the right place at the right time.
Holiday Representatives and Tour Guides
. This is a
job which re
quires you to be tactful and to stay calm under pressure. You’ll have
to deal with the problems and needs of holidaymakers, but you’ll
also have to know the area you are working in and plan trips and
tours that will please everyone. The perks include free travel and
living abroad. However, you’ll have to go where your company sends
you, which may be anywhere from the peaceful Maldives to the noisy
club scene on ne Costa del Sol. You don’t need to be a
graduate to
work in the travel industry, but an extensive knowledge of the world
more important job.
gets or improves his / her professional qualifications
more important job or rank in an organisation.
What are the ranks graduates in the police service get as a
Second semester. Topic: Work and Professions
What do holiday representatives get as well as their salary
This position may affect the free time you have to spend with oth
Success in this career is very much determined by your personal
This profession combines working in an office and moving
The employer is very interested in the career development of these
The employee should be ready to work in various countries.
fixed period of initial training.
In three years she __ her way up to the position of senior mana-
The young army officer was __ to the rank of captain.
lot of people are not prepared for__ work
— it is difficult for
— it is one of the __ of the job.
People who stay more than two years in this job get a
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Oh, this new trainee is working hard.
— Yes, he’s certainly __ but
When should I
start this course
— Oh, we can be __ about your
I am sure Ann will cope with her responsibilities. Nobody doubts
really __ solution to the problem.
Complete the sentences below with the appropriate noun as in the
She is my trainee. She has been trained for two months. I
He is my doctor. He always comes when somebody in the family is
She is my hairdresser. She can arrange your hair in different
styles: from traditional to avant
garde. I
come to her once a
He is an interviewer. He is going to ask me some questions to write
newspaper report. I
am an __ . I
am ready to answer his ques
Think of the job you would like to choose and answer the ques
Would you like to choose any of the jobs Why / Why not
Second semester. Topic: Work and Professions
In groups exchange your ideas about the job you have chosen. Fill
Ask for your classmates’ advice about your choices.
You are going to write an essay for a
foreign recruitment company
working with young people from different countries. They want
to know what the most popular jobs among young people in
The title of your essay is “A job I’d choose. / A
job I’d never
Your ideas of what the job is like: duties and responsibilities
time jobs or any other job
Read the following job advertisement. Would you like to take the
Усі фсоли бодліксьлоА нови. 10 ллбс. Псофільоик сівеоь
We are looking for a
number of friendly young people to sell our
products in our new fast
food outlet near the city centre. Applicants
should be prepared to work in a
team and on a
time and possibly
If your letter is chosen we will invite you to an interview to dis
Send your letters of application with a
CV to The Manager, Happy
CV also curriculum vitae (BrE) or resume (AmE)
— a
short writ
ten account of a
person’s education and past employment, used espe
Read the following letter of application and say if the applicant
I am writing in reply to your advertisement in our local newspaper
At the moment, I
am a
year student at a
Teacher Training Col
lege studying English and Spanish. I
would like to work for you in order
to experience, at first hand, an organisation which has western roots but
has developed for the last decade very successfully in Ukraine. I
been a
customer in your restaurants several times and always been im
pressed by the service provided by your staff. I
am hoping that I
Apart from helping on the farms in my home village at harvest
time, I
have had no real work experience yet, but from my farm work
know how to work in a
team. However, I
hope that you will be kind
enough to give me an interview so that I
can explain myself better.
have also given my e
mail address above so that you can contact me
Complete the captions for the layout and organisation of a
Second semester. Topic: Work and Professions
The __ or the name of the person who you are writing to and the __
Paragraph 1
mentions where __ about the vacancy and names the
Paragraph 2
presents you to the employer, explains why __ for
Paragraph 3
mentions your previous work experience (if any), __
and __ that make you suitable for the job and suggests ways of
Work in pairs to find time expressions in the letter and write them
met them only recently. They are so nice. You know, it’s like
The subject of another vacancy came up __ in our talks.
The company will get an award for its contribution to business
have to look for another job.
She has sailed __ round the world and visited hundreds of coun
The company hasn’t__ made any announcements about when it
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time expression
Join the following pairs of sentences using to, in order to or so
I’ll give you my address and phone number. You can contact me if
We are setting up a
new branch with modern offices. We want to
He has switched off his mobile. Nobody can interrupt him during
We are organising a
small reception. We want to introduce new
Answer the questions about the CV, they will help you to under
Date of Birth: 29.03.1985
Do you need to include this informa
Jan 1997
to May 1997: Musical Cucumber, School Christmas Per
July 2000
to Sept 2000: Laboratory technician, Advanced Robo-
tics Inc. Invented a
robot capable of independent thought. —
Is this
Sept 1996
to June 1999: Comprehensive School Three A
levels in
Chemistry, Maths and Physics, nine GCSEs, Orchard Upper, Hope
Second semester. Topic: Work and Professions
Interests: Eating, drinking, talking —
Would you write the same
Skills, Additional Training and Experience: Pages 2–15
(see over
Work out three dos and three don’ts for writing a
CV and ex
Use the advertisement above or refer to some other job advertise
Home reading
Grammar revision
The Olympic swimmer spent much time training (in, into) the
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The students were yawning so I
figured that they were (disin-
celebrity’s (personal, personnel) life should be kept private.
Do you have more experience (than, then) the other candidates
Are you going to (set, sit) the table for tonight’s meal
Do you think that you could (have, of) saved more money over the
The criminals were quite (famous, notorious) in that part of the
(Unless, Without) they reach Minneapolis by dark, they might
have your permission to check the files
homeowner, you are (liable, likely) for the damage.
We sat right (beside, besides) the band members at the wedding.
nurse’s (aid, aide).
Fortunately, (fewer, less) problems plague the police department
How many families have (emigrated from, immigrated to) their
There seemed to be no parking (anywhere, anywheres).
The religious leader plans to perform the (right, rite, wright,
Write five sentences, each one using one of the words in the pa
Revise each sentence so that the misplaced and dangling modifi
ers work correctly. Add or delete words as needed. Write your re
Second semester. Topic: Work and Professions
Looking under the bed, my birthday gift was spotted.
Extending over three hundred miles, the car moved along the
Ten of these sentences include transitive verbs, and ten include
intransitive verbs. Write the letter T
(for transitive) or I
(for in
These flowers need more sunshine during the next few weeks.
Drivers noticed the many potholes on the roads last spring.
On the line next to each numbered sentence, write the correspond
ing letter of the correct word in each sentence. If your answers are
correct, you will spell a
letter word that will help this ac
They will need to (I) break (A) brake the window to get into
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Liam was dressed (E) formally (L) formerly for the big
You will need to be more (D) quite (R) quiet because your fa
Have they introduced the new school (I) principal (H) princi
(T) There (S) Their are many good reasons to attend that col
Place the appropriate periods, questions marks, and exclamation
marks as needed. All other punctuation marks have already been
Can you remember your previous four phone numbers, Kyle
“I wish that this test was already over”, John Smithers said
Sheryl asked, “Have any of those chickens crossed the road yet”
Great You can see that these are the winning lottery numbers
Should these plants be moved into the shed for the season
Let’s see what surprises the workers have in store for us
“Was John Lewis with you during the experiment” the professor
Tell all of them to get down here immediately—or else
The office manager asked his maintenance official, “When will
“Did William Shakespeare, the renowned playwright, really write
all of those plays, or did somebody else write some, or most, or all
Second semester. Topic: Work and Professions
Test practice. Use of English
For questions 1–15, read the text below and decide which answer
(A, B, C
or D) best fits each space. There is an example at the be

The elephant has some (0) __ relatives called mammoths, which
years ago people painted pictures of them on cave walls.
Then, astonishingly, in 1799, a
man walking along the banks of the
River Lena in Siberia (1) __ a startling discovery. Peering into a
of ice, he could (2) __ see the shape of a
massive, hairy mammoth, ap
parently (3) __ at him. He immediately ran (4) __ in terror, but several
days later he (5) __ the courage to return and cut the mammoth’s
— its two enormous teeth
— out of the ice to sell them. Mam
moth tusks are the biggest teeth of any known creature, some (6) __
length of five metres. These tusks were (7) __ to good use, protecting
To most of us, mammoths are probably the most (8) __ of the ele
phant’s extinct relatives, but thousands of years earlier, in the wood
lands of eastern North America, lived another of the elephant’s rela
tives called the mastodon. Like mammoths, mastodons may also have
had a
hairy coat, but (9) __ mammoths mainly ate grass on the plains,
We do not know why mastodons (11) __ extinct. However, compu
ter studies of the decrease in mammoth (12) __ suggest that it was
particular (13) __ of over
hunting by humans, and (14) __ in the cli
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For questions 16–30, read the text below and think of the word
which best fits each space. Use only one word in each space. There
People have been diving without mechanical aids (0) ancient
times. In those days, divers mainly went underwater to search (16) __
pearls or sponges. Various ways of supplying divers with air, and so
permitting them to stay underwater for long periods of time, have
been tried for well (17) __ two thousand years. Alexander the Great
(18) __ .said to have gone underwater in an early (19) __ of diving ma
chine, and Aristotle talked about apparatus (20) __ permitted divers
It was not (21) __ the beginning of the 18th century that more
In 1717, the first practical diving machine, or ‘diving bell’ (22) __
it was called, was invented. This was a
small wooden room with an open
bottom, glass windows at the top to (23) __ in light, and a
supply of air
coming through leather tubes. Something similar, made of steel, is
(24) __ use today for underwater work, (25) __ as building the founda
However, (26) __ divers want to move freely underwater, they re
quire a
suit. Early suits were made up (27) __ a leather jacket with
metal helmet over the head into which air was pumped down from the
surface through tubes. Divers gained even (28) __ freedom of move
ment when they could (29) __ rid of these tubes and carry (30) __ own
For questions 31–40, complete the second sentence so that it has
similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do
Second semester. Topic: Work and Professions
not change the word given. You must use between two and five
The space can be filled by the words ‘carry out the manager’s’, so
My daughter regrets spending all her savings on that car. she
It was a
mistake for the company to install the new computer sys
We mended the roof to prevent the birds from making nests in it. so
don’t have time to go shopping this morning, too
Matthew can’t be sure that Alex will help him if something goes
By the time we arrived at the theatre, nearly all the seats had been
I’d rather you made less noise
— I’m trying to get some work done,
shouldn’t bother to clean the windows today because it’s going to
For questions 41–55, read the text below and look carefully at
each line. Some of the lines are correct, and some have a
If a
line is correct, put a
tick (/) by the number on the separate
answer sheet. If a
line has a
word which should not be there, write the
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word on the separate answer sheet. There are two examples at the be
00 New Zealand. I
was been taken there by my parents when I
was fourteen years. I
of that period as the happiest time of my life. My life was much
very run
doctor, and people would pay to him
in sheep, pigs, hens and, occasionally, the pieces of gold. He
have preferred paying money, of course, but they simply didn’t
any. My sister and I
had no many cares at all. We went to the vil
school, which together was attended by just twenty children of all
Out of school hours, we looked after lots animals on the farms
clue how
large and busy tourist resort now,
like doing nothing better than to go back to relive my memories.
For questions 56–65, read the text below. Use the word given in
capitals at the end of each line to foi a
word that fits in the space
There is an example at the beginning (0). Write your answers on
I’m a
great (0) of __ of bread. Whenever I
smell freshly baked
bread, it reminds me of my early (56) __ .when I
used to visit
Second semester. Topic: Work and Professions
And, of course, there are (57) __ .good medical reasons why we
should not forget the (58) __ .of eating plenty of bread. IMPOR
Bread contains nearly all the protein needed for children’s (59) __
and for adults to stay fit and well. We can get a
(60) __ of __ .
Bread, (62) __ some popular foods which are not particularly good
for you, gives (63) __ to bones and teeth when they are developing
and keeps them healthy as we get older. (64) __ bread helps us
to feel (65) __ as it contains iron as well as several essential vita
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Have you any previous work experience of any sort
Can you give me the name of someone we can contact for a
The student who plays the role of employer should evaluate the
answers and decide whether to employ the other student or not
didn’t you like about that work ” and say what makes candidate
“…But it wasn’t very well paid and lasted only a
andidate B.
“…But I’m a
fairly sociable person and I
would much
Read the question and rank the answers from the most positive to
I am so interested in the job itself that I
am prepared to do any
Change the answers to the questions below so that they sound
Why did you decide to change your job My previous job wasn’t
can’t stand doing monotonous jobs.
Give me two reasons why I
should not hire you. Because I
am not
In pairs put the questions into three groups: the ones which you
find easy to answer, which you find OK and which you find diffi
Second semester. Topic: Work and Professions
What do you expect to be doing ten years from today
In pairs choose five questions, starting with the most challenging
Use the Language Support phrases to gain a
little more time to
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This time choose questions to answer at random from the whole
Allow yourself some time for thinking when answering awkward
Consider all the information from and make a
list of tips on how to
Make sure you have two or three questions to ask the
What you might need to do / find out before the interview (get
references from people who can recommend you, look at the com
What to do and not to do on the day of the interview.
Read what several people say about their professions. Find who’s
Second semester. Topic: Work and Professions
I look after all aspects of our company’s campaign find new cus
tomers. I’m not directly involved in selling, but I
have a
team of
dozen representatives .vho deal with our customers. I
need to be
I suppose I
am lucky. I
travel a
lot in my job: all over Europe in
fact. I
deliver goods to customers and sleep in my lorry wherever
stop. The hours are very irregular and I
have to be flexible. Some
My work is pretty boring. I
work for an office cleaning company
in London, which means night shifts five times a
week. Each of
fice has to be clean and bright by 9
o’clock in the morning, so
I joined the police force when I
left school and after a
time in uni
form, I
moved into crime detection. It’s an interesting job which
is never the same from one day to the next. You need to think
I’ve always enjoyed working with children, though :hey can some
times drive you crazy. They don’t always learn as much as they
should and I
have to be inventive to find new ways of motivating
I’m good at communicating and quite creative so I
always wanted
job in which I
could use my language skills. I
have to work quick
ly to meet deadlines
— tomorrow’s newspaper won’t wait! What
Holidaymakers are demanding people. Perhaps that’s not surpris
ing since an annual holiday is expensive and they expect a
lot. But
know a
lot about the part of Greece where I
work and I’m helpful
and patient by nature, so I
get on very well with most of my
Caring for sick people takes a
lot of patience and compassion. It’s
not well
paid but it is rewarding. The most satisfying part of my
job is seeing a
patient get well and leave the hospital. We work in
teams on shifts, so I
have to be flexible and co
operative in my
Dealing with customers is fascinating. I
didn’t pick up many quali-
fications at school but I
have a
good head for figures and I’m natu
rally open and sociable, so working in a
big supermarket suits me.
Maths was my best subject at school so I
suppose it was inevitable
that I
would get a
job involving figures or money. I
had to pass
series of exams to qualify, but now I
have a
pretty good salary
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I am a
good listener and I
can keep a
clear head in a
difficult situ
ation. I
often need those qualities as I
spend most of my time work
ing with families who are going through a
crisis. I
also have to be
able to analyse a
situation objectively, without taking sides, and
Fill in the gaps in this letter of application, using the verbs in
I (1) __ (to write) to apply for the job of part
time salesperson that
__ (to be advertised) in last Saturday’s edition of our local news-
At the moment, I
(3) __ (to be) a
year student at the College
of Design and I
(4) __ (to study) Fabrics and Dress Design. I
(5) __ (to
want) to produce and sell clothes of my own design, but first of all
would like to gain first
hand experience of selling clothes. I
(6) __ (to
believe) that by doing that I
(7) __ (to understand) more completely
what it {&) __ {to be) that women (9) __ (to look for) when they (10) __
(to buy) clothes. In this way I
(11) __ (to be able) to understand custo-
I often (13) __ (to pass) your shop and (14) __ (to admire) the
clothes on display, so it would be a
wonderful experience to be able to
I (15) __ (to have) some experience of selling in a
shop near my
parent’s home and I
would be very grateful for the opportunity of an
Join the pairs of sentences to make a
statement of purpose with
I’ll give you my e
mail and a
contact phone number. You’ll be able
The management team called a
meeting. They wanted to discuss
He asked me to contact him confidentially. Then nobody apart
time employee.
She always sits at the back of the conference room. Because of that
The company offers some senior staff members a
study tour to
Britain. This will enable them to compare personnel management
Second semester. Topic: Work and Professions
We need a
Human Resource Department. It will deal with recruit
will not be __ for interview on Saturday.
__ accountants often do the detailed but tedious aspects of audit
When he was __ to be the company’s Sales Director he found that
Many managers find that allowing their subordinates to take re
work is a
feature of many jobs such as airline pilots and post
Many famous business people have worked their __ up from tea
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The __ of repetitive tasks is important so that the workers pay at
If sales are greater than last year we should get a__ .
__ work for a
big company to get wider experience to help me in
__ to work with a
small team inside the company because I
like the
We are __ prepared to accept the difficulties of working away
__ I
am involved in a
very exciting nature conservation project in
__ I
am leaving for Moscow for the seminar on human resources
The company hasn’t completed orders for Christmas __ .We have
I’ve tried all his phone numbers __
— his mobile is dead and so are
both his work and home phones. Has anything happened, do you
Second semester. Topic: Work and Professions
Decide who will be the applicant and who will be the interviewing
Read your role card and get ready for the interview.
International law firm has an opening for a
receptionist in its lo
cal office. It is based in the US and has 25
offices worldwide. The local
office works closely with the Moscow, Washington and New York of
participating in various legal projects (working with legal docu
You manage the local office of the international law firm. You are
looking for a
receptionist who will become a
member of the team.
competitive salary is offered (up to $500) plus a
number of perks
(flexible working hours
— convenient for students, free medical care
Decide what you should ask the applicant about, what kind of per
son you are interested in, what qualities the applicant should
This will be your first job and you feel enthusiastic. You have pre
pared well for the interview and have sent a
letter of application and
CV. You feel this position is interesting for you, you will get some
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Use the phrases from the Language Support to gain more time for
The students who have gone through the interview become obser
Take notes about other participants using the criteria from the
Think about your participation in the interview and give yourself
Home reading
Second semester. Topic: Work and Professions
Grammar revision
Each spelling word is missing one or more letters. Use the spaces
Here are ten questions about grammar and mechanics in this one
sentence passage from Lewis Carroll’s book, Alice in Wonderland.
Answer the questions on the lines provided. The four sections of
Alice was beginning to get very tired of sitting by her sister on the
bank, and (1) of having nothing to do: once or twice she had peeped
into the book her sister (2) was reading, but it had no pictures or con-
versations in it, “and what is the use (3) of a
book”, thought Alice,
Is the prepositional phrase, by her sister, in the first section, an
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Once and twice, found in the second section of text, are both what
Why is the question mark inside the quotation marks in the last
Using this selection from O. Henry’s short story, “One Thousand
Dollars”, answer each question. The passage has been broken up
(Section A) “One thousand dollars”, repeated Lawyer Tolman sol
(Section B) Young Gillan gave a
decidedly amused laugh as he fin
(Section C) “It’s such a
confoundedly awkward amount”, he ex
plained, genially, to the lawyer. “If it had been ten thousand a
might wind up with a
lot of fireworks and do himself credit. Even fifty
The word repeated in the first section is written in what tense
In Section A, solemnly and severely are both what part of speech
Is the sentence in Section B, a
simple, compound, or complex sen
Section C’s sentence, “It’s such a
confoundedly awkward amount”,
Section C’s sentence that begins with If and ends with credit,isa
compound, complex, or compound
complex sentence (Circle
Name the verb phrase in the last sentence of Section C.
Each sentence has one mistake. On the line before the sentence,
write the corresponding letter of the underlined portion (A, B, or
None of these folders has (A) your signature or (B) your address,
“This mornings’ (A) newspaper was delivered (B) at seven o’clock”,
Second semester. Topic: Work and Professions
“Some (A) of those grass clippings were taking (B) to the dump by
The gift, a
shell from the Atlantic Ocean, (A) was given to she and
book that (B) she had already (C) read.
Many of us had rode (A) down that path that you and I
(B) scouted
Our local departmentstore’s (A) childrens’ (B) section is staffed
Me and Terry (A) gave (B) them over two hundred dollars’ worth
Someone (A) said that Leroy’s uniform (B) shrinked (C) after Mom
“I think”, (A) Justin remarked to Jonah, (B) “that they will stay
The maintenance worker, and her supervisor attended the
The man washed his car that was in the driveway, and his
Are you going to the show with the rest of the class mem
If you can pick the correct number, you will win a
trip to Eu
Is the
verb agreement correct in this sentence Most of
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Circle the correct answers in five minutes. A
question can have
Because the weather is nasty, the young students must stay
In my opinion, this method has more benefits than the other
Which answers illustrate the correct use of the apostrophe
the children’s book — for the book that is designed for child-
Sue and Charley’s house — for the house that is co
owned by
the senator’s proposal — for the proposal that the senators
Answer all of these questions within five minutes. Circle the answers.
Second semester. Topic: Work and Professions
The underlined words in the sentence, “To win the art contest was
When the singer entertains her audiences, the crowds ap
Most of these riddles can be solved if you really think abo-
Without his trusty friend by his side, Pete seemed lost.
wise decision in an instant.
Walking into the crowded train station, the passenger
Test practice. Listening
When I
was in my last year of secondary school, in came Miss
Gray, our new literature teacher, she really made us love the subject.
Shed been a
teacher in Africa and in India, and she’d tell us about her
classes there; fascinating. i
was thinking at the time of joining the
school theatre group, but needed someone to say, come on, you’ll be
She knew I
loved reading plays, unlike some of my classmates, and
didn’t need to be persuaded to read more! But she also knew that I
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You are the manager, aren’t you …Well, all right, if he’s out.
…Look, your repair departmenttook my computer away for repair yes
terday… No, I
don’t know, but it was serious and the point is I
like a
temporary replacement. …[annoyed] But it distinctly says here,
in your brochure, in writing, that you lend one to customers if you
have to take theirs away [frustrated and annoyed] No, well I
can’t do without it for more than a
couple of days. …[slightly sarcastic
and unbelieving] Your workshop said it would be repaired next
Wednesday, though I
begin to wonder …[firm and stern] Well, in that
David. Long time, no see. What are you doing in this part of
Melanie! Great ! Yeah… of course, you live round here, don’t
you i’ve just been to the new sports centre, down the road. I’ve star-
Well, you can get a
year’s membership, and that only works
out at about Ј5
— and you can go as often as you want. They
have lots of sports and a
fantastic gym, and the staff are really friend
So then I’ve got to get to Exeter by four in the afternoon. Is the
Well, you could. It’s a
through train, you wouldn’t have to
change. But there are other possibilities if you were prepared to
You mean change at Swindon I
got held up there last time.
Then the ten o’clock is your best bet. You’d have plenty of time
It’s often said that pre
historic humans mastered language long
before they invented music. But scientists now believe that even our
most distant ancestors may have been able to sing. Indeed, it could be
that singing came before language rather than the other way round.
The earliest form of human sound, they suggest, could have been a
of singing, intended to express people’s emotions rather than to pass
on information. My research goes one step further, however, because
Second semester. Topic: Work and Professions
suspect that some of the earliest stone tools and weapons that have
been discovered could actually have been primitive musical instru
ments, although this is something which I’ve found very difficult to
I thought it was a
great success. He hadn’t done it in front of peo
ple before except to his students so it was important it went well. Some
people complained afterwards because they said they couldn’t hear
what he said between each piece but others said that didn’t matter.
They were really impressed by the fact they were all his own composi
tions and the quality of the sound was superb especially on the high
notes. And they did get a
chance to go up and ask him questions at the
It’s hard to believe how people can change as they get older.
Look at you! You’re a
business executive now, responsible for a
Yes. Remember what I
was like at school Always in trouble for
You weren’t really lazy. You just didn’t work more than abso
lutely necessary. But you were messy. You drove everyone mad leaving
stuff all over the place. And you seemed to be in a
dream half the time,
Well, I
got to the gate at the back of the sports centre in Percy
Street. It was locked, but I
managed to get my bike over the fence. And
that’s when it must have happened
— stupid really when you think
about it, but i
couldn’t be bothered to cycle round to the main entrance.
Anyway. I
got changed and Jim was waiting on the court. I
did my usu
al bit of warming up
— stretching the leg muscles and so on, but the
first ball I
— well that was it. I
felt this shooting pain right down
Jeremy, I
know you’ve just come back from Finland. And you
had some interesting experiences with transport while you were there,
Yes, I
did. I
spent a
week 250
kilometres north of the Arc
tic Circle, where there were only a
few hours of sunlight every day and
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the temperature was minus 30
degrees Celsius. But it was a
What made it really exciting for me was the dogs. I
went on a
across the snow on a
sled pulled by four dogs, or huskies as they’re
called. They’re amazing animals and I
loved getting them to obey my
commands. You can shout ‘left’ or ‘right’ to them and they’ll obey im
mediately. But what I
found myself shouting more than anything was
the word ‘stop’
— just to make sure they knew who was in control! And
what was extraordinary about my huskies was that they obey these
commands in more than one language. Obviously, they understand
Finnish, but my guide told me they’ll respond to German too. If I’d
been there longer, I’d have taught them some French
— just for the
Anyway, my guide and I
set off on two dog sleds into the frozen
Finnish countryside. To begin with, I
was too preoccupied with con
trolling the dogs to admire the wonderful scenery. Those huskies cer
tainly love to run! Their tongues hang out, their noses strain forward
and their tails stream behind them. I
didn’t take my eyes off the lead
dog. It had white ears and if I
looked at them, it helped me concentrate
My lead dog was an exceptionally intelligent animal, though they
always have to be smart. Apparently, they are also usually female.
There are male dogs in the team, too, but they don’t take the lead posi
As I
said, my sled had four dogs, but you need eight or ten to pull
sled going with a
full load of 200
kilos. Each individual dog is capable
At first, we were dashing along in the open countryside, but after
about an hour we turned into the forest. We disturbed a
few birds, and
snow would come falling down out of the trees. But branches were the
things I
really had to look out for. I
certainly didn’t want to get one in
Eventually, we got to a
cabin where we were going to have lunch.
My guide started a
fire and set about preparing a
meal of reindeer
meat, washed down with juice made from berries that grow in the fo-
rest. He sent me off with a
bucket to fetch some water. This involved
making a
hole in the ice on a
nearby lake. I
must say I
was quite nerv
That dog sled ride was the best part of my trip, but there were
other exciting ways to get around on the ice and snow. Another way
tried was riding a
skidoo. It’s a
great favourite with those of us who
love racing about without much purpose and some people compare
Second semester. Topic: Work and Professions
skidoo to a
motorbike; but to my mind it feels much more like travel
But, for me, its big disadvantage is that it’s very noisy. The sound
of the engine destroys the peace of the countryside. But, thanks to my
skidoo, I
was able to travel deep into the wilderness to spend the night
in a
cabin by a
frozen lake. I’ll never forget the incredibly beautiful
night sky I
saw there. The advantage of skidoo
riding is that you never
have icy hands, however low the temperature falls. This is thanks to
the vehicle’s heated handlebars. I
wish there was something similar
It sounds like an interesting trip. Would you go back to Fin
Speaker 1.
I don’t really do a
lot of shopping
— I’ve got more im
portant things to do
— and that’s why I
tend to go to a
small boutique
in the city centre They sell the type of thing which suits me. I
go if I
want an outfit for a
special occasion
— and then I’ll leave it until
the last moment! I
don’t even try things on
— the trousers, for exam
ple, I
know will fit me perfectly. The price may be a
bit of a
shock, but
it’s not as if I
do it every month, so I
can afford it. I
don’t remember
Speaker 2.
As I
work in the fashion industry, you might think I’d
have a
wardrobe full of clothes. In fact, I’m very choosy. I’m surround
ed by images of clothes all day long, so I’m able to decide what’s just
right for me, and we’re always creating designs for the next season. So
can buy exactly what I
— I
like to think i
have the right thing for
when the weather changes
— rather than dashing into the shops at the
last minute. I
do spend a
lot on my clothes, but I
think it’s worth in
Speaker 3.
Shopping is almost like a
hobby for me, though my sis
ter’s always telling me I
could be doing something more useful. I
it when winter’s over and I
can start buying summer clothes. I
try to
concentrate on the essentials, but then, like the other day, I
sight of a
dress in a
shop window when I
was on the bus. I
jumped off
and walked back to get it, and it looked great when l
tried it on
— but
I’ve never actually worn it
— like a
lot of things in my wardrobe. My
Speaker 4.
I’ve lived in jeans and t
shirts for years because it’s
easy, but when I
got this new job I
realised I’d have to face up to wear
ing a
boring shirt, collar and tie to work. I
was dreading it. I
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I’m going to have to spend all my salary increase on two new jackets
they cost a
fortune! But when I
got into town, a
lot of the clothes shops
had big reductions on everything I
never like to buy the first thing
see though
— I
must have tried on about twenty jackets. i
find it im
possible to decide what looks best on me
— so i
usually rely on my girl
Speaker 5.
I love looking through magazines to see all the latest
fashions, but of course, the models in there are tall and slim, and with
my figure I
have to be very careful about what I
buy. That’s why, if
find a
style that suits me, I
sometimes buy it in several colours. My
parents accuse me of being extravagant with clothes, but that’s rub
bish. When I
get fed up with something, it’s pointless keeping it;
don’t like clothes that go on for years. I
don’t waste any time think
ing about it I
sell them to a
hand shop, which means I’ve got
My guest today is the actor and film director, Charles Martin.
Welcome, Charles Now let’s start at the beginning. You played a
That’s right. I
never dreamed I’d work steadily for six
— and in the same part — that’s unusual in the acting profes
sion. I
managed to save a
little money during that time, figuring I’d,
maybe, get to a
low period without work; but as it happened something
It certainly did
— you were discovered by the film
Mario Urresti and starred in some very popular films What attracted
Well, Mario came up with this idea of reinterpreting an
ancient legend and setting it in nineteenth
century Mexico, which was
quite adventurous in itself, and then, because of Mario’s contacts, it
was easier to make the movie in Spain. My part wasn’t so different
from my TV work, but the film had a
definite Spanish flavour, with all
the local actors as well as guys from Italy
— very exotic for a
Now, your style of acting was very quiet, almost silent. Did
think the producers were concerned initially. I
had this
image of how my character, Miguel, should be and I
persuaded them to
cut a
lot of dialogue from the original screenplay. In movies today,
there are so many close
ups that you can do a
lot without having to say
much, if you know what I
mean, unlike the old silent movies, where
Second semester. Topic: Work and Professions
actors felt obliged to overplay everything. Perhaps they figured
ces wouldn’t understand unless they used exaggerated gestures
In your next big film The Good Cop you played a
very angry
People suggested all sorts of reasons for my anger which
found rather surprising i
certainly have an ability to express anger
that’s part of my job. It was an exciting detective story which was
making some relevant points, and it was a
welcome change from what
Later you turned to directing. Was that something you’d
Yeah, but I
had to wait for the right opportunity with the
You got your friend John Dawson, who’d directed you in se-
veral films, to act in Just for a
Laugh. Was it because you were nerv
That was what everyone said. What I
felt, though, was
that he’d become a
better director if he had to be an actor for a
just as I
became a
better actor by getting behind the camera. I
used to
joke with John that, if I
got stuck when I
was telling the actors what to
You’re said to be a
very dynamic and lively director. Where
do what’s necessary. If it’s quick, that’s fine. If there
are problems, then I’ll stay until I
get what I
want. Great actors will
come loaded with ideas. Part of the joy of shooting a
movie is seeing
how they do it. It’s like conducting an orchestra. The first time you
hear the music that you’ve just seen as notes on a
page, some sections
Everyone’s surprised that your movies are completed on time
I’ve been around a
lot of movie sets as an actor where so
much time was wasted from having to repeat scenes so many times. My
way is everybody comes prepared, with their lines learned, and they
know there’ll only be one or two takes of a
scene, not fifteen or twenty.
That way they remember how they acted
— so that leads on smoothly
to the next section. That gives everyone in front of, and behind, the
cameras more belief in the project. They work hard but they have more
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You will hear people talking in eight different situations. For
You hear a
man talking about a
teacher. What did the teacher en
You overhear a
woman talking on the phone about her computer.
You hear two friends talking about a
new sports centre. What is
You overhear a
woman and a
man talking at a
railway station.
You overhear a
woman telling a
friend about something she at
You overhear a
man and a
woman who used to study at the same
You hear a
tennis player talking about how he hurt himself. What
Second semester. Topic: Work and Professions
You will hear a
man called Jeremy Baker talking about different
ways of travelling in northern Finland. For questions 9–18, com
On his dog sled, the command Jeremy used most often with the
Jeremy’s dogs could understand commands in Finnish and (10).
When travelling by sled, Jeremy tried to focus on the (11)
of the
The good thing about riding a
skidoo is that your (18)
don’t get
You will hear five different people talking about shopping for
clothes. For questions 19–23
choose from the list (A–F) what each
speaker says. Use the letters only once. There is one extra letter
You will hear part of an interview with the actor and film director
Charles Martin. For questions 24–30, choose the best answer
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How did Charles feel about acting in the TV series called Cow
What does Charles say about the first film he acted in
The part involved travelling to a
number of different count-
The role was quite similar to another he had played.
very simple way
He had no choice because there was not much dialogue.
When Charles played the detective in the film The Good Cop, he
showed that he could represent strong emotion in his acting.
In the first film he directed, Charles offered a
part to John Daw
For Charles, working with actors is like conducting an orchestra
there needs to be a
lot of time for actors to practise their
group of actors to work together well.
Why does Charles like to film just one or two versions of each
Test on listening
Test on reading
Second semester. Topic: Work and Professions
Test on translation
Test on writing
Home reading
Test on speaking
Test practice.
You are going to read an extract from a
novel about a
little girl
called Pixie. For questions 1–8, choose the answer (A, B, C
or D) which
Her father had been a
big handsome man with a
fine head of hair,
paintbrush in his hand, paint threading along the canvas making
bird look like an angel. He was the famous James Harley Savage, son
of Harley Talbot Savage, brother of Norman Backhouse Savage. It was
From when she was old enough to hold a
pencil, the little girl Pi
Harley Savage had been taught about vanishing points in pictures, and
was made to work out at the start where the horizon was going to be,
and how to make things at the front bigger than things at the back. No
matter how young, she had never been allowed to scribble with a
or crayon. Nor had she been allowed to do stick people like every other
child, or square houses with symmetrical windows and a
curving path to the front door with a
round tree on one side. It was
Her father’s hands skimmed across the paper and out of the end of
his pencil came a
bird, a
twig for it to perch on, behind it a
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It was a
gifted family, but it seemed that the gift had passed Pixie
by. Even after so many patient lessons, from the end of her pencil came
She was ashamed of her own big muscly legs and her round face.
But the shame of showing this ugly bird to her father and the rest of
She heard the silence and saw the ring of shocked faces among her
‘Oh, but you are very artistic and terribly creative,’ her mother
There was a
moment’s silence. ‘In your own way, of course’. Some
At school they had known she was a
Savage, and hoped for won
ders. Her teacher, Miss McGovern, was even willing to see them when
there were none. It had taken a
long time, but finally she had come to
‘Use your imaginations, girls,’ Miss McGovern would say, but
what Pixie drew was never what she meant by imagination. Pixie was
interested in the veins of the leaf, how photosynthesis worked and why
Pixie’s sister, Celeste, had always been a
proper Savage. Celeste
had known about things at the back of a
picture being smaller than
things at the front without ever having to be told. She had a
way of be
ing dreamy, slightly untidy but lovely, even in her old pink pyjamas,
thinking interesting thoughts behind her lovely green eyes. Celeste’s
birds made Father laugh with surprise and pleasure in a
way Pixie’s
never did. Celeste had a
knack for other things, too; she was always
catching Pixie in moments when she would rather have been alone. Ce
leste’s reflection would join Pixie’s frowning into the mirror. ‘That
lipstick, Pix,’ she would say in her sophisticated way, ‘it makes you
look like a
clown’. She was not the older sister, but acted as though she
was, not showing Pixie the respect she might have received from a
‘Why did you call me Pixie ’ she asked her mother once, when
puberty was making her look into mirrors. ‘You were such a
baby,’ her mother said, and smiled into the air at the memory of that
Pixie decided she looked interesting. But later she realised she
was simply ordinary: ordinary brown eyes, ordinary brown hair. An
ordinary small nose, an ordinary mouth. No one would ever find her
Second semester. Topic: Work and Professions
fascinating across a
crowded room. ‘So like your grandmother’, her
As a
child, she could not do much, but she could refuse to answer
to the name of the beautiful baby who had turned into herself. ‘Har
good artist one day.
They didn’t agree on whether she was artistic or not.
They were sorry she wouldn’t listen to their opinions.
She was pleased Pixie was showing an interest in science.
She continued to hope that Pixie would display her family’s
She realised that Pixie was using her imagination in a
She tried at first to convince herself that Pixie was typical of
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You are going to read an article about two brothers who have be
come successful businessmen in the UK. Seven sentences have
been removed from the article. Choose from the sentences A–H
the one which fits each gap (9–15). There is one extra sentence
He came to Britain as a
old with a
handful of qualifica
in his pocket and a
burning ambition to leave his childhood in
Kenya behind him. Vijay Patel was brought up in one room with his
brother, Bhikhu, as his schoolteacher mother struggled to raise her
family after her husband died. Thirty
five years later, Vijay, 51, and
his brother own a
pharmaceutical company which employs more than
people and does
million worth of business each year. Togeth
er they are worth
— and now they have been jointly named
It is an inspirational tale. (9) __ . He says: ‘We are very pleased
and very surprised to have been given this kind of recognition. It has
really been about a
will to succeed and a
determination to distance our
selves from the difficulties of our early life’. He also praises his moth
er. ‘She is an incredible lady. She taught us hard work, honesty and
Vijay’s father was a
timber merchant who lived with his wife in
the village of Eidoret, 200
miles north of Nairobi, and died when Vijay
was six. At the age of 16, Vijay and his brother, who was two years
older, kissed their mother goodbye and promised to bring her to Bri-
tain when they made their fortunes. ‘It was 1967
and I
had little more
than my qualifications and a
few pounds in my pocket,’ says Vijay.
Typically, Vijay looks on the bright side. ‘When you start from
zero, things can’t get any worse’ (11)
__ . The pair of them certainly
had that. ‘My brother and I
were determined to better ourselves and
Vijay enrolled at a
college in north London, and did courses in
physics, chemistry and biology, washing dishe
s in a
restaurant at night
to earn his keep. He gained a
degree at the College of Pharmacy in
Second semester. Topic: Work and Professions
Leicester. After graduating, he opened a
chemist’s shop in 1975
— he
was 24. He made it his business to know all his customers’ names, their
By 1982, he owned six shops and sales had doubled. From there it
was a
short step from buying medicines for his own shops (he now has
21) to supplying other pharmacies, then hospitals and wholesalers.
Brother Bhikhu, an architect by training, joined Vijay in 1982
add some ‘financial discipline’ to the company. Vijay says: ‘My bro-
ther and I
have built this business together. I
simply couldn’t have
Vijay is keen to continue putting something back into the country
he has made his own. ‘We hope we are model citizens and would like to
remain so,’ he says. ‘My brother and I
have enormous ambition and
drive, but we were also lucky enough to live in a
country that never
stood in our way,’ he says. (15) __ .
His message for young people is to
do the same: ‘Identify your aim, and do not let anything deter you from
‘But to go with those, I
had a
tremendous ambition to make some
As he puts it, ‘If you cannot trust your family, then who can you
Instead, he hopes that his sons will take over the business after
According to him, in those circumstances, ‘You have only one way
to go, and that’s up — if there is a
hunger in your belly for suc
Yet despite his wealth and this award, Vijay remains modest about
‘The idea was that when people had something wrong with them,
You are going to read a
newspaper article about four people who
have written travel books. For questions 16–30, choose from the
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She travels with the intention of putting her experiences into
Which writer says she took no notice of other people’s opinions
Young has written a
book about a
journey which took seven
months. Beginning in Beijing, she headed west out of China and then
south to Kashmir. The twenty years of her life until then had been va-
— she had been a
correspondent for a
French weekly, she had
sailed in the Olympics and skied internationally, but her main love was
travelling. She had made a
similar journey in Central Asia and had
minor success with the resulting book. When she writes she thinks of
her audience as one family member or one good friend. She writes what
was seen and felt, the way it turned up on the road
— her descriptions
of the camel journey are mixed with discussions about politicians and
When Dalton visited the bottom tip of Chile and saw the edge of
the ice
field, she decided to cross Antarctica. She tried not to be dis
couraged by others who had done it. ‘The men who had skied across
alone didn’t know how to deal with the idea of someone happy to take
plane some of the way, but I
wanted to do the trip my own way’. She
spent seven months crossing the continent, pitching tents on the sea
ice. Dalton says that as a
woman, her reasons for exploration are dif
ferent from those of men. ‘Men have done it to show they can win.
may go to see what the environment can teach me, or to feel the air
and see what it looks like. Or just sit around and appreciate the scen
ery’. She is a
writer who explores the world in order to write. She says,
‘It also suits me to get away. I
love to free myself from the bills and the
bank manager. Antarctica is perfect for that’. It was, however, the
Second semester. Topic: Work and Professions
most testing environment she has ever experienced
— it could be
On her first trip, aged 24, Moore hitch
hiked through Nigeria,
canoed down the Congo and rode horseback across Cameroon. What
started as a
long trip turned into a
year journey.
‘The emptiness that lay ahead was wonderful
days waiting to be filled’.
She was raised in the African bush and her mother and grandmother
had grown up in China. ‘I don’t know where I
belong. My family
thought it was totally normal that I
had a
larger view of the world’.
She dismisses fear. ‘Wild animals will look for an escape route rather
than attack,’ she says. Amongst other things, Moore has devised her
own cure for homesickness. ‘You can always improvise something.
felt homesick for eggs for breakfast while floating down the river, so
had eggs
— crocodile eggs
— and felt much better’. Moore does be
lieve that a
woman’s approach is different. She rarely undertakes jour
neys with an ultimate aim, goal or destination
— she decides as she
Wade is probably more of an ex
her last journey has put
her off. Wade was born in Queensland, Australia. She was sent to board
ing school, then just wandered about
— studying music, biology and
later Japanese. At 25, Wade bought a
couple of camels and rode them
over 2,000
kilometres across the Australian outback. Her account be
came a
bestseller. “I never intended to write about it
— it was a
thing. I
wanted to get to know aboriginal culture and the desert. It was
glorious trip. I
went by camel because I
was broke and couldn’t afford
vehicle”. Then in 1992
she joined a
group of Rabari in India. Wade’s
account of that Indian journey with them tells of failure. ‘The two trips
were not comparable’. She tried to live a
Rabari existence
— except

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