Nature of Social Work
Social work is a profession for those with a strong desire to help improve people's lives. Social workers assist people by helping them cope with and solve issues in their everyday lives, such as family and personal problems and dealing with relationships. Some social workers help clients who face a disability, life-threatening disease, social problem, such as inadequate housing, unemployment, or substance abuse. Social workers also assist families that have serious domestic conflicts, sometimes involving child or spousal abuse. Additionally, they may conduct research, advocate for improved services, or become involved in planning or policy development. Many social workers specialize in serving a particular population or working in a specific setting (сфера). In all settings, these workers may also be called licensed clinical social workers, if they hold the appropriate State mandated license. Child, family, and school social workers provide social services and assistance to improve the social and psychological functioning of children and their families. Workers in this field assess their client’s needs and offer assistance to improve their situation. This often includes coordinating available services to assist a child or family. They may assist single parents in finding day care, arrange adoptions, or help find foster homes for neglected, abandoned, or abused children. These workers may specialize in working with a particular problem, population or setting, such as child protective services, adoption, homelessness, domestic violence, or foster care.
The Essence of Social Work
The social work profession is committed to reducing human suffering, enhancing the quality of life, and confronting the causes of social injustices that occur throughout the world around us. This commitment inspires social workers to develop skills that promote change on all various levels. Whether it is dealing with an ill person, a homeless person, or a person who has undergone domestic violence. The social workers are trained specifically to provide direct services to individuals, such as: families, groups and communities. They learn to confront and change the problems that are causing the injustices, the discriminations, and the oppressions. For the essence of their work is all about the help that they are able to supply to those whom are going through such difficult times with in their lives. One of the hardest things for a social worker to have to deal with is leaving their work at work, and not bringing it home with them. For each and every single social worker that is out there and trying to help improve upon peoples lives, no matter who they are, they are going to have to deal with some traumatic cases. In all different areas within the field of social work, the cases almost always have an impact, and in all honesty no matter how traumatic the case is, it is always going to leave the imprint on the social worker and on their career. A social worker forms a bond with the person of whom they are trying to help, and no matter who you are in life once a bond has been formed you are never going to forget that person you have made that connection with.
Social Work Methods and Approaches
Methods of working in social work have evolved over a long period, rooted in common core principles but reflecting changing legal and policy frameworks, social attitudes and expectations, and relationships between professionals and the public. Key features include: - professional relationships based on warmth, trust and rapport with people using services; - social models of assessing people’s situations and working with them to overcome barriers to participation and independence; - practice that seeks to put power in the hands of people to manage their own situations, with the social worker as facilitator; - work that integrates individual, family and community dimensions in a creative balance; - distinctive approaches to understanding and working with risk, recognizing the need to safeguard those who are vulnerable whilst enabling people to take the risks that go with ordinary everyday living; - modern approaches to established casework skills and methodologies, working systematically and in an integrated way to keep a focus on people’s practical, social and psychological wellbeing; - applying and extending principles of personalization, which have always been at the heart of social work at its best, to help people find individual solutions to their situations and achieve satisfactory outcomes; - effective joint working with other disciplines, other social care staff, volunteers, foster parents and advocates.
Education in Kazakhstan
The educational system in Kazakhstan is conducted in two languages - Kazakh and Russian and consists of several levels of state and private educational establishments: infant schools, elementary (or primary) schools, comprehensive schools, colleges and academies. The constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan fixes the right of citizens of the republic on free-of-charge secondary education which is obligatory. The constitution prohibits any discrimination on the basis of language or ethnicity and guarantees equal rights in education regardless of nationality. Children start school at the age of 7 and finish at 17. As a rule a child attends the school, located in the neighborhood. However, in big cities there are so-called special schools, offering more in depth studies of the major European languages (English, French, German) or the advanced courses in physics and mathematics and children, attending one of this may have to commute from home.
The first stage of education in Kazakhstan is elementary (or primary) school for grades one through four. The second is secondary school for middle grades from five through nine. Upon graduation from secondary school students are given the choice of either continuing to attend the same school (high school -senior grades 10-11) or entering a vocational or technical school. Both of these schools are meant to provide one, along with the certificate of secondary education with a number of useful skills (e.g. those of an electrician, technical or computer operators.) Having completed one's secondary education, one can either become a part of work force or go on college (institution of higher learning-Institute).
To be admitted to the institute one has to pass a series of oral or written tests. Students may get free-of-charge higher education in the higher educational institution and the limited number of the state grants is given each academic year on a competitive basis. Some college departments (law, journalism, foreign language-especially English) have dozens of applicants for one prospective student's position. The system of higher education prepares highly - skilled experts on economy, transport, agriculture, medicine, languages and others. Today the young people of Kazakhstan have the opportunity to choose and acquire various types of education and build their lives according to their ambitions.
Studying of foreign languages and development of computer skills of pupils is of a special importance. More opportunities appear for the interested persons to be trained abroad on the basis of local and state grants, scholarships
Educational system in Britain has strict quality standards. It is compulsory for all children aged 5 to 16 to study. British education is divided into two segments: state schools, which are free of charge, and private schools, which are paid for. Over 90% of children attend state public schools. Also Great Britain has two different systems of education: one is used in England, Wales and Northern Ireland and the other is used in Scotland. The most popular schools in Britain are Boarding Schools. These are institutions where kids not only study, but live. In Britain, as in many other countries, there is a pre-school education, i.e. there are nursery schools for children from 2 to 7. After the nursery school, kids attend Junior Schools till they are 13. During these years children have to pass an obligatory exam. If they pass it successfully, they can easily transfer to the Senior School. This school is for children aged 13 to 18. It prepares its pupils for the special exam called GCSE The main subjects at British schools are English, Mathematics, Geography, Art, Science, History, Physical Education, Information Technology, Music, Religious education and others. Образовательная система в Британии имеет строгие стандарты качества. Всем детям от 5 до 16 лет обязательно нужно учиться. Британское образование подразделяется на два сегмента: государственные школы, которые бесплатны, и частные школы, которые платны. Более 90% детей посещают государственные общеобразовательные школы. Также в Великобритании есть две различные системы образования: одна применима в Англии, Уэльсе и Северной Ирландии, а другая применима в Шотландии. Самыми популярными в Британии являются школы-пансионы. Это учебные заведения, в которых дети не только учатся, но и живут. В Британии, как и во многих других странах, есть дошкольное образование, т.е. есть детские сады для детей от 2 до 7 лет. После детского сада, дети ходят в младшую школу до 13 лет. За эти годы дети должны пройти обязательный экзамен, под названием SAT (Стандартный Оценочный Тест) дважды. В случае, если они сдадут его успешно, они могут легко перейти на следующую ступень, которая называется старшей школой. Эта школа для детей от 13 до 18 лет, и она готовит своих студентов к специальному экзамену GCSE (Общий Сертификат о Среднем Образовании). Это также время для выбора будущей профессии. Основными предметами в Британских школах являются: английский язык, математика, география, искусство, наука, история, физкультура, информатика, музыка, религиозное образование и другие.