23) The compound sentence. Coordination. Types of coordinating connectors


The compound sentence. Coordination. Types of coordinating connectors.When two sentences are combined in a way that shows they are of equal importance, the result is a compound sentence. Such a sentence contains two complete subject-predicate constructs. Each of the subject-predicate constructs could be an independent sentence. When they are connected, we can call them independent clauses. To connect the independent clauses, we use one of the following:
1. A coordinate conjunction (and, but, or, nor, so, yet, for)
2. A conjunctive adverb (however, therefore)
3. A semicolon (;) or colon (:)
According to Ilyish`s point of view the joining word in composite sentences may be a conjunction, a pronoun or an adverb. If it is a conjunction, it has no other function in the sentence but that of joining the clauses together. If it is a pronoun or an adverb, its function is twofold:
1. On the one hand it is a part of one of the two clauses.
2. And on the other hand it joins the two sentence together (connecting function)
Now, we should say that the composite sentences are divided into compound and complex sentences. The basic difference between the two types is clear enough:
1) The clauses of the compound sentence have equal rights, i.e. none of them is below the other rank. They are coordinated.
2) In complex sentences the clauses are not equal. In such sentence one of the clauses is the main clause, and the other is subordinate.
Then, it needs to say about the problems of communication types. With compound sentences this problem requires (требует) special treatment.
1. If both clauses of a compound sentence belong to the same communication type (communication type may be: declarative, interrogative, imperative and exclamatory) therefore the compound sentence belongs to this type.
2. But if the clauses belong to different ones, in that case it is impossible to state to what type the compound sentence as a whole belongs.
Compound sentences consist of clauses joined together by coordinating conjunctions. These are very few:
And, but, or, for, yet, so.
But whether they are conjunctions? Thus, “yet” may also be supposed to be an adverb. The meanings of the conjunctions are the problem of lexicology. The problem of theoretical grammar is the type of connection between the clauses in a compound sentence.
If we say about the degree of independence of the clauses in a compound sentence,
1) the older view-point was that they were completely independent of each other. It was considered as the independent sentences with co-ordinating conjunction between them.
2) Later, it was considered that the second clause independence is not complete and the structure of the second and the following clauses is predetermined by the first.
The semantic relations between the clauses of the compound sentence depend partly on the lexical meaning of the conjunction uniting them. It should be noted that the co-ordinating conjunctions differ from each other in meaning.
F.ex. “but” has an adversative (противительное) meaning. “and” – ameaning of addition.
The meaning of conjunction partly influences on the meanings of the other words in the sentence.

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