Saudi Arabia (Middle East in Focus)


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AUDI
RABIA
Titles in ABC-CLIOs
AUDI
RABIA
Sherifa Zuhur
Middle East in Focus
Copyright 2011 by ABC-CLIO, LLC
Manufactured in the United States of America
About the Author, xi
Preface, xiii
Acknowledgments, xvii
1 G
EOGRAPHY
, 1
The Geology of Petroleum, 5
The Deserts, 7
Water, 9
Climate, 10
Fauna, 10
Flora, 11
Environment and Pollution, 12
Historic and Modern Divisions, 12
2 H
, 17
Timeline, 17
The Rise of Islam, 32
Muslim Dynasties, 35
Later Muslim Dynasties and the Arabian Region, 37
Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab and the First Saudi State, 39
The Second Saudi Realm (18241891), 41
Contents
Abd al-Aziz al-Saud (Ibn Saud) and the Forging of Saudi Arabia, 42
King Saud ibn Abd al-Aziz, 49
The Reign of Faysal ibn Abd al-Aziz, 53
The Reign of Khalid ibn Abd al-Aziz, 58
Saudi Arabia under King Fahd, 62
The Gulf War, 65
Reactions to the Gulf War, 66
The War on Terrorism and the Global War on Terror, 68
The Reign of King Abdullah, 69
3 G
OVERNMENT
, 79
The King, 81
The Crown Prince, 88
The Royal Diwan, 89
The Council of Ministers, 90
The Majlis al-Shura, 91
Judiciary and Legal System, 93
Civil Service Board and Independent Agencies, 94
Regional and Municipal Government, 95
The
Ulama,
95
Family and Tribal In
uences, 97
National (Meeting for Intellectual) Dialogue, 100
Domestic Political Issues, 101
Foreign Policy, 103
Broader Saudi Arabian Foreign Policy, 125
4 E
CONOMY
, 137
Overview, 137
Economic Planning, 140
Industry, 144
The Private Sector and the State, 158
Labor, 160
Trade and Finance, 164
Taxation, 166
Investment, 167
Banking and Financial Systems, 168
Economic Outreach and Aid, 169
5 S
vii
Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, 186
The
Ulama,
189
Governmental Religious Departments, 190
Shia Muslims in Saudi Arabia, 193
Contents
viii
International Schools, 239
Education and Aramco, 239
Shia Higher Education and Activism, 240
Islamic Education, 240
Critiques of Islamic Education, 241
Learning by Other Means, 242
6 C
ULTURE
, 245
Language, 245
Language Features, 248
Numbers, 250
Features of Arabic, 251
Religious Music, 299
Songs of Pilgrimage, 301
Food, 305
Sports and Leisure, 317
Sports, 317
Leisure and Entertainment, 325
Popular Culture, 328
Amthal,
329
Jokes,
Nawadir
, and Short Tales, 330
Superstitions, 330
Games, 330
Tribal Law and Mediation, 331
Tribal and Traditional Medicine, 332
Popular Occasions, 334
Clothing and Historic Costume, 334
Architecture, 342
The Mosque, 343
Markets, 345
General Features of the Hijaz, 346
Asir and Abha, 349
Najd, 349
Eastern Province, 351
7 C
ONTEMPORARY
, 355
Defense, 355
Islamist Opposition and Terrorism, 361
Health, 368
Women and Social Transformation, 372
Media, Freedom of Speech, and Censorship, 374
Human Rights, 376
Capital Punishment, 377
Glossary, 385
Facts and Figures, 399
Major Saudi Arabian Holidays, 415
Country-Related Organizations, 419
Annotated Bibliography, 445
Thematic Index, 495
Index, 519
Sherifa Zuhur
is a professor of Islamic and Middle Eastern studies, history, and
airs, formerly of the Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War
Political Reform and the Global War on Terror
, and
. She was a member of a NATO
, and she holds a BA in political science and Arabic and Arabic literature, an MA
All books are written at particular historical moments. Especially in non
ction
writing, special concerns that color media, governmental, or scholarly publications
ected, if not in the authors intent, in the questions formulated by editors and
,
orts to organize protests
My second prefatory note is a general one; one
nds far too schizophrenic a treat-
xiv
Preface
Just as great antipathy for Saudi Arabia and all things Saudi is expressed in some
er apologia without much use-
cult for a reader to acquire basic familiarity with the countrys features.
able suspi-
at
rst by her editor at a Saudi Arabian newspaper
, January 26, 2011). Now, if Saudi Arabian intellectuals cannot speak or write
mushkila!
(No problem! A typical Saudi response and subtle recommenda-
uences on it, and vice versa, can
The fourth chapter, Economy, provides an introduction to the countrys
resources, oil and other industries, agriculture, labor situation, and
nancial struc-
Preface
xvi
A number of acknowledgments are in order, as I have acquired various intellectual
I could never have undertaken this book without the generosity of many individu-
cials who live in Saudi Arabia or are connected to the Saudi
Acknowledgments
xviii
ort, supported by Lt.
Gen. David Huntoon and certain War College faculty, to bring Amb. H. R. H. Prince
HAPTER
1
Geography
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is located on the Arabian Peninsula in southwestern
Chapter 1 Geography
Much of Saudi Arabia is desert or semiarid, and only 2 percent of the land is ar-
(bedouin or nomadic) population lives in the desert areas.
The Saudi Arabian Flag. (Dreamstime.com)
erent cultural traditions and
cation of the peninsula extremely di
cult, with two
The peninsula experienced deserti
cation after the end of the last Ice Age some
erent types of desert
Chapter 1 Geography
Provinces of Saudi Arabia. (ABC-CLIO): The transliteration of places and names in this
map and other illustrations di
ers from the system used in this book.

5
More than oil
ows under
the Arabian Peninsula. Here,
volcanic lava beds (harrat
in Arabic) in western Saudi
Chapter 1 Geography
called
. That turned the material into kerogen or, when even greater heat
Map of Oil and Gas Fields in Saudi Arabia (2005). (Saudi Aramco World/SAWDIA)
eld, which contains about 12 billion barrels. The other major Saudi Arabian oil
elds are the Safniyya-Kha
ji, Qatif, Shayba, and Zuluf
elds (Greg Croft, n.d.; U.S.
THE DESERTS
To the south of the Eastern Province is the sandy al-Jafurah Desert, which extends
Aerial view of sand dunes in the al-Nafud Desert, Saudi Arabia. (Dreamstime.com)
Chapter 1 Geography
Herd of camels outside the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. (Dreamstime.com)

9
Chapter 1 Geography
CLIMATE
The highest temperature recorded was at 124F (51.1C) in Dhahran in 1956. The

Chapter 1 Geography
Traditional medicine in Saudi Arabia relies on many herbs, spices, and other
erent parts of the country, including

(nigella sativa,
The high mountain ranges from Taif to Yemen actually possess temperate spe-
nd in other areas of the world, including the white iris, the
Haloxylon salicornicum
Mesembryanthemum forskahlei
shary
region; the al-Arudh region, which included al-Yamamah and Bahrayn; Najd, al-
Yaman ; the Rub al-Khali; and Oman. These were the names used by the historian
erentiate only the Hijaz and
Contemporary Saudi Arabia is divided into 13
(administrative
, or governates.
, which include the regional capitals considered municipali-
are Riyadh (159,074
Shamaliyyah), Sakaka (al-Jawf), Jizan (Jizan), Abha (Asir), Najran (Najran) , and
Each region is known for its particular geographic features, natural resources,
c history and cultural traditions. In the past, travel through the Arabian
. Jeddahs port and airport are the gateways of the pilgrimage,
Chapter 1 Geography
In al-Jawf in the north, the city of al-Jawf is famous for date and olive production.
al-Jandal are also located in al-Jawf. The Northern Border (al-Hudud al-Shamali-
yyah ) region produces phosphates, and its residents raise and breed livestock. The
Qasim region includes Buraydah , Unayzah, Bakariyah, and Darya. Buraydah and
Pint, John. Saudi Arabias Desert Caves.
51, no. 2 (March/April 2000),
Silsby, Jill.
. London: Immel, 1980.
U.S. Energy Information Administration. Independent Statistics and Analysis. Saudi Ara-
HAPTER
2
History
TIMELINE
32001600 BCEDilmun civilization in modern-day Bahrain and nearby coastal
900 BCE542 CESabaean civilization in southern Arabia.
420 BCE105 CENabataean kingdom in northern Arabia.
Chapter 2 History
7501258 Abbasid Caliphate; capital in Baghdad.
930 Qarmatians attack Mecca and steal the Black Stone.
ca. 967
(
s ) gain control over Mecca.
11071291The Crusades.
1170 Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi sends his brother to Mecca.
1182Reynald de Chtillon, lord of Oultrejourdan, leads his knights on a raid in
1425 Mamluks have authority over Mecca.
1446 Al-Saud ancestors establish Dirriyah, the capital of the
rst Saudi state.
1840 Egyptians withdraw from Najd.
1901A British
rm obtains a concession to explore southwestern Persia for oil
1902Abd al-Aziz (Ibn Saud) conquers Riyadh and brings the Saudi family back
1906 Ibn Saud conquers Qasim.
1908 First major oil strike in Persia.
1912The Ikhwan (Brotherhood) forms and Ibn Saud establishes their
rst
1924 Ibn Saud conquers Mecca.
1927Ikhwan raids into Iraqi territory.
Chapter 2 History
March 29, 1929 Ibn Saud defeats the Ikhwan in the Battle of Sibillah. Ajman
1930 Faysal al-Duwaysh , Ikhwan leader, gives himself up to the British in Kuwait,
1932Uni
cation of Najd and the Hijaz; creation of the modern nation of
1933Kingdom grants oil concession in al-Ahsa to California Arabian Standard Oil
1934 Border war with Yemen; treaty of Taif ends that war.
May 1935 Assassination attempt on Ibn Saud by three Yemeni former soldiers
in Mecca.
1936 Palestinians protest British support of the Zionist movement in Palestine with
1938 Large-scale oil strike at Well Number Seven at Dammam Dome; commercial
1944 CASOC is renamed the Arabian American Oil Company (Aramco).
1945 Saudi Arabia becomes a member of the League of Nations.
1946 The Ministry of Defense is founded in Saudi Arabia.
1947A British military mission is sent to Taif.
1948 State of Israel is declared;
rst Arab-Israeli War fought.
1949 Creation of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.
1950 Jordan annexes the West Bank.
1952Free O
cers revolt in Egypt ends Egyptian monarchy. Gamal abd al-Nasser
1953Death of Ibn Saud. His son Saud succeeds him and rebuilds Nasiriyah Pal-
1954 King Saud signs treaty with Nasser of Egypt.
1955 Egyptian military mission arrives to train the Saudi Arabian army. The U.S.
1956 Suez (also known as the Tripartite) War; Israel, France, and Great Britain
1957Riyadh University established; later named King Saud University.
1958 Saudi plot against Nasser is made public. Prince Faysal takes over
nances
Chapter 2 History
November 21, 1973Kissinger threatens countermeasures to a continuing embargo,
1974 Construction of King Khalid Military City begins.
1975 King Faysal assassinated by Faysal ibn Musaid; Khalid becomes king.
1976 Saudi Arabia seeks to purchase U.S.-made F-15
ghter aircraft.
1978 U.S. Congress approves the sale of the F-15 aircraft to Saudi Arabia.
1979 Followers of Juhayman al-Utaybi seize the Grand Mosque. Umm al-Qura

Chapter 2 History
October 6, 2001A suicide bomber in al-Khobar kills two foreigners, including an
October 11, 2001A Molotov cocktail is thrown at a car carrying two Germans in
February 2004 244 pilgrims die in a stampede during the
.
April 21, 2004Car bombing in Riyadh kills 5 and wounds 148. Council of Ministers
May 1, 2004 Four gunmen attack the o
ces of ABB-Lummus (a contractor for
May 22, 2004 Gunmen kill a German national in Riyadh.
May 30, 2004 Militants attack two housing compounds in Khobar (22 killed, 25
June 2004Third National Dialogue convenes and concerns Saudi Arabian wom-
June 6, 2004 Gunman kills a BBC journalist and wounds another.
June 8, 2004 Gunmen kill U.S. contractor for Vinnell Corporation in Riyadh.
June 12, 2004 Three militants kill a U.S. employee of Advanced Electronic Com-
August 3, 2004 Militants kill an Irish civil engineer in his o
ce in Riyadh.
September 15, 2004 Two gunmen kill a British employee of Marconi Communica-
September 26, 2004 Gunmen kill a French defense electronics worker in Jeddah.
Chapter 2 History
ers from torture and exposure until arrangements
Chapter 2 History
to help the government suppress protests. On March 18, King Abdullah
May 1, 2011U.S. Special Forces kill Osama bin Laden at a compound near Abot-
May 15, 2011Pakistani Taliban take credit for shooting Hassan Khatani of the
as Saba existed somewhat later in history. Saba was at its height from 900 BCE to 542
CE ; it possessed a strong army and produced frankincense and myrrh. The Sabaeans
Archaeologists believe the civilization of Dilmun was located on the islands of
Ruins of the ancient civilization of Dilmun in contemporary Bahrain. (Arthur Thvenart/
Chapter 2 History
ered. Eventually, the Himyarites convinced the
The Lebanese scholar Kamal Salibi has postulated that the biblical Judaic king-
cally in the Asir region, as evi-
cally in Yemen, generally thought
Mecca had become a religious and trading center prior to the rise of Islam. Its
cance in Islam is traced back to Ibrahim (Abraham), who, according
Chapter 2 History
traversed the Arabian Peninsula, connecting it to Syria in the north and Mesopo-
concluded treaties to prevent the
in produce. The Arab tribes in the Hijaz, Saudi Arabias west-
ed by the word
, who
THE RISE OF ISLAM
The Quran, the holy text of Islam, was revealed to Muhammad ibn Abdullah, the
Initially, Muhammad hoped the Jews of Medina would welcome his message.
Depiction of a scene in the Battle of Badr (624 CE) as rendered by a Persian painter.
(Bilkent University)
Chapter 2 History
After the Meccans broke the truce of Hudaybiyya they had previously signed
Chapter 2 History
regionally and religiously motivated movements arose in Arabia. The Khawarij
authority over the pilgrimage to and local rulers of Mecca. This was true of the
uenced, or controlled, the Hijaz in
western Arabia until its demise.
LATER MUSLIM DYNASTIES AND
THE ARABIAN REGION
During the Crusades, a period when European leaders battled to establish and hold
the governor of Mecca with his brother. However, Reynald de Chtillon , the lord of
ense to
Salah al-Din and his descendants, the Ayyubids, reigned over the Holy Cities from
(prince, or leader) was making the
(the lesser pilgrimage; it is briefer than
and may be performed at other times of the year). He and his
rst acquiescing to the rulers of Cairo and later the
,
ted from the trade and cultural diversity of the pilgrim tra
c.
The Ottoman Turks fought against and defeated the Mamluk armies in Egypt
(
Chapter 2 History
In the 15th and 16th centuries, the Portuguese attacked the Arabian coastline,
uenced by the phi-
MUHAMMAD IBN ABD AL-WAHHAB
AND THE FIRST SAUDI STATE
Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (17021792), who was born in Uyaynah in 1702
Chapter 2 History
The Second Saudi Realm (1824 1891)
although not Jeddah, which withstood a siege (de Corancez 1995, 29 30). Sharif
Muhammad Ali Pasha sent a force to the peninsula under his son Tusun in 1816,
Chapter 2 History
Khalid was edged out by Abdullah ibn Thunayyan from the family of Muham-
In Abd al-Azizs youth, Arabia was not united. The Hashemite (Hashimite)
al-Rahman Faysal al-Saud
in 1949. Founder and
rst
king of Saudi Arabia from
19321953, he was also
known as Ibn Saud.
(Library of Congress)
Chapter 2 History
CAPTAIN SHAKESPEAR AND IBN SA
S ARABIA
Captain William
(18781915),
a British political
rst
Portrait of William Henry Irvine Shakespear. (Royal
Chapter 2 History
Ibn Saud faced serious challenges from his own supporters, the Ikhwan warriors,
was observed in 1926, when their at-
KINGS OF SAUDI ARABIA
Abd al-Rahman ibn Faysal ibn Turki al-Sa
Born: January 15, 1876 (other sources list 1880)
Born: January 12, 1902
Died: February 23, 1969
Reigned from 1953 to November 1964, when he was deposed (his brother governed
Born: 1903
Born: 1912
Born: March 16, 1921 (other sources give the year of birth as 1922 or 1923)
Born: August 1, 1924
Chapter 2 History
During World War II, King Abd al-Aziz joined the Allied cause, as he had been
KING SAUD IBN ABD AL-AZIZ
The reign of King Saud was a troubled one. Problems emanated not only from the
Chapter 2 History
Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal in 1956 and
ew to consult with King Saud
eld and pitching his Eisenhower Doctrinethat the king would
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had a long way to go in terms of human develop-
Chapter 2 History
nances was given over to Prince

Chapter 2 History
ts to Saudi Arabian citizens, including free medical care and education
Faysal began a program to modernize the army and establish a more extensive air
and equally conservative elements of the popula-
is not a su
ciently evocative term to convey the mix of former
uences,
sts
King Faysal ibn Abd al-
Aziz, who reigned from
1964 to 1975. King Faysal
made many improvements in
the Saudi Arabian govern-
ment, infrastructure, and
Archives and Records
Administration)

Chapter 2 History
the Buraymi Oasis meant that Saudi Arabia did not recognize the formation of the
United Arab Emirates in 1971. That particular dispute was solved after Faysals
death in 1975.
Saudi Arabia supported the Arab states in the Six-Day, or June War of 1967, and
s Tanura and Dhahran. The Saudi Arabians arrested many protest-

Chapter 2 History
cantly reduce the
nalize the agreement), although
ghting
Saudi Arabia remained supportive of the Palestinian cause and was a funder of the
cantly, the Saudi Arabian govern-
Chapter 2 History
u-
mov 2007). Juhayman had been in
uenced by the
movement, al-Jama al-Sala
lm about an al-
Chapter 2 History
In September 1980, Iraq attacked Iran in the opening salvos of the Iran-Iraq
ict shifted to the Gulf by 1986, and Iranian attacks impacted
Saudi Arabian shipping from 1984 to 1987. Saudi Arabia remained neutral in the
ict but provided
nancial support to Iraq in loans and grants worth several
nancial backing of Iraq
as a basis for hostility. The Iranians also decried the system of monarchy in Saudi

King Fahd ibn Abd al-Aziz
al-Saud photographed
January 1987. King Fahd
reigned from 1982 to 2005.
Chapter 2 History
THE GULF WAR
The Iraqi Republican Guard Forces Command invaded Kuwait on August 2, 1990,
red SCUDS
red tactical missiles) at Saudi Arabia. After a concentrated air assault, a
Troops from the United Kingdom and other Coalition forces gather for review by King Fahd
of Saudi Arabia during the First Gulf War. (Department of Defense)
Chapter 2 History
REACTIONS TO THE GULF WAR
Saudi Arabia was displeased by Yemens declared neutrality in the Gulf War and
At least partly in response, King Fahd proclaimed the Basic System of Govern-
Chapter 2 History
THE WAR ON TERRORISM AND THE
GLOBAL WAR ON TERROR
On August 7, 1998, bombs hit the American embassies in Tanzania and Kenya, which

Chapter 2 History
King Abdullah led the campaign against the ongoing internal terrorist threat. Soon
ve gunmen were killed. In February 2006, militants
ities stopped them. Further shoot-outs took place, including one in June 2006. After
months of surveillance, a large-scale plot involving 172 members of seven terror cells
cials said these operatives
neries and that some of those arrested had
ed troubled country (Associated Press, April
(pilgrimage)
season in December was also foiled, with arrests made in various Saudi Arabian cities
, December 21, 2007;
, December 23, 2007; Zuhur 2010).
By 2008, Saudi Arabian o
cials estimated that as many as 4,000 persons had been
cial working for the Saudi Arabian embassy in Karachi. On May 5, Khalid
Despite the continuing concerns about terrorism, Abdullah has initiated impor-
le cases, such as that of the rape victim known
an eight-year-old child whom
Chapter 2 History
le in Iraq, and many Saudi Arabians (not necessarily the government)
Saudi Arabia has upheld goals for Saudization of the workforce throughout its
, and also
red
(Islamically
Chapter 2 History
Armstrong, H. C.
. London: Arthur Barker, 1934.
al-Askar, Abdullah.
. Reading, UK: Ithaca Press, in
association with the King Abdul Aziz Foundation for Research and Archives, KSA,
2002.
Ayoub, Mahmoud.
Chevron. Chevron and Saudi Arabia/Chevron wa al-Mamlakah al-Arabiyyah al-
Ciorciari, John D. Saudi-U.S. Alignment after the Six Day War.
airs
9, no. 2 (June 2005). http://meria.idc.ac.il/journal/2005/issue2/jv9no2a1.
Clarke, Richard. Interview with Richard Clarke. The Man Who Knew. Produced and
. Public Broadcasting Service, March 20, 2002. http://
Commins, David Dean.
. London: I. B. Tauris, 2006.
Cordesman, Anthony H., and Nawaf Obaid.
. Full Report. Washington, DC: Center for Strate-
Cordesman, Anthony H.
. London: Center for Strategic and International
de Corancez, Louis Alexandre Olivier.
. Madrid Inter-Faith Summit Highlights Global Problems and Possibilities. July 17,
2008.
Facey, William.
. London: Stacey International, 1997.
Fandy, Mamoun. Strategic Dimensions of the Interfaith Dialogue.
,
July 22, 2008. http://www.aawsat.com/english/news.asp?section=2&id=13477
Fandy, Mamoun.
. New York: Palgrave, 1991.
Farsy, Fouad.
. New York:
Fraser, T. G.
The Middle East 1914 1979
. London: Edward Arnold, 1980. Contains a reprint-
Freedman, Lawrence, and Efraim Karsh.
ict, 19901991: Diplomacy and War
Chapter 2 History
Ibn Ishaq.
. Translated by Edward Rahatsek.
Powell, William.
. Secaucus, NJ: Lyle Stuart, 1982.
Public Broadcasting Service. 2005 Update: Death of a Princess: Interview with Ali al-Ahmed
, April 19, 2005. http://
Ramadan, Tariq.
Chapter 2 History
, edited by Thomas M. Pick, Anne Speckhard, and
Beatrice Jacuch. Amsterdam: IOS, with NATO Public Diplomacy Division, 2010, 74 98.
Zuhur, Sherifa. Personal interviews conducted in Riyadh, Diriyyah , Jeddah, London, and
Zuhur, Sherifa.
.
Zuhur, Sherifa. Arabs and Arab Culture. In
HAPTER
3
Government and Politics
The Saudi Arabian government is a dynastic and hereditary monarchy headed by the
rst three kings since the modern nations founda-

, composed
Chapter 3 Government and Politics
Prominent advisers to the king have o
ces in the Royal Diwan (the Kings Court),
(08 27, 1412 h .) The Majlis al-Shura was expanded under King Abdullah ibn Abd
Saudi Arabia proclaims it is governed by the Quran and the sunna , or tradition
Article 30:
The State shall provide public education and shall commit itself to the eradication
Article 31:
The State shall be solicitous for promoting public health and shall provide medical
Article 36:
The State shall ensure the security of all its citizens and expatriates living within
Chapter 3 Government and Politics
ce appointed by the government, a mufti is a religious scholar
, or legal responsesplural of
) of Saudi Arabia have de-
uential religious scholar.
Tim Niblock has described a model for political power in Saudi Arabia in which
ering possible types of legitimacy (Niblock 2006, 9). Besides the historical
t his citizens
ts what Niblock terms eudaenomic legitimacy, that
Direct power has been held by the sons of Abd al-Aziz, but his nine brothers were
Chapter 3 Government and Politics
LINE OF SUCCESSION IN SAUDI ARABIA
liations, support from the most

Chapter 3 Government and Politics
came known as the Sudayri Seven (the sons of Ibn Saud and Hussah al-Sudayri, a
Prince Nayif (b. 1933); Prince Turki ibn Abd al-Aziz (b. 1934); Prince Salman ibn
uence, as do the full
A royal decree announced in October 2006 formally established a committee of
Members of the Saudi Arabian royal family at a press conference in New York, May 10,
1945. From left to right (seated): Prince Fahd ibn Abd al-
Aziz, Prince Faysal ibn
Abd al-Aziz. Standing (left to right) are Prince
al-Faysal (son of Prince Faysal) and Prince Nawwaf ibn
KING
ABDULLAH
Aziz was born on August 1, 1924, the son
ce, or he may ask the commission to appoint a crown prince (al-Badi, February
dential report on the health of the ruler. If, for some
cation of
Chapter 3 Government and Politics
THE CROWN PRINCE
Crown Prince Sultan ibn Abd al-Aziz al-Saud (b. 1926) is the minister of defense
minister. He is the son of King Abd al-Aziz and Princess Hussah bint Ahmad ibn
cial. Like his brothers he was educated at the Princes School at the royal court.
KING
ABDULLAHS SONS IN OFFICIAL POSITIONS
Abdullah, a businessman, formerly western commander for the Saudi Ara-
Abdullah, commander of SANG (since November 17, 2010), formerly
SANG vice commander, and president of King Khaled Military Academy
Abdullah, adviser to the king (formerly to the court of the crown
Abdullah, governor of Najran (since 2009), formerly minister plenipoten-
tiary in the foreign ministry


Chapter 3 Government and Politics
ce of Bedouin A
airs; the Committees for the Promotion of
Virtue and Prevention of Vice , known as the HAIA (Hayat al-Maruf wa al-Nahaya

); the Department of Religious
uential
of the country are represented here. The king conducts many routine matters
ce, such as the drafting and promulgation of royal decrees. He convenes
here. (A
Minister of Education
Minister of Finance
Minister of Foreign A
airs
Minister of Hajj
Minister of Health
Minister of Higher Education
Minister of Interior
Minister for Islamic A
airs, Endowment, Dawah and Guidance
Minister of Justice
Minister of Labor
Minister of Municipal and Rural A
airs
Chapter 3 Government and Politics
Shaykh Muhammad ibn Jubayr in the grand reception hall of the Majlis al-Shura, the
Consultative Council which he chaired, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in 1997. (AP/Wide World
Muhammad al-Shaykh. Although the media reported in October 2003, and again
Chapter 3 Government and Politics
, or family law), and all other matters.
nal level of appeal, the Supreme
icts of Jurisdiction exists. Also important is the 20-member Council of Senior
The Audit Bureau can monitor the accounts of various government o
ces. Other
Chapter 3 Government and Politics
The following are o
cial religious institutions that are part of the government:
The Board of Senior Ulama was established in 1971 and is composed of the most
and headed by the grand mufti. It issues
on key matters.
c Research and Legal Opinion carries out
orts of the Board of Senior Ulama, and issues private
(responses, or
speci
c religious opinions). The O
ce of the Grand
Mufti manages the grand muftis activities as he heads both the Board of Senior
c Research and Legal Opinion
(CRLO).
The Supreme Council of Islamic A
airs (al-Majlis al-Ala lil-Shuun al-Islamiyyah)
opinions and is in charge of domestic
questions involving principles which are referred to the Council. The
wa al-Irshad) is in
these institutions to control the mosques and bypass the [independent]

FAMILY AND TRIBAL INFLUENCES
Estimates of the size of the al-Saud family vary, from 25,000 (probably a low estimate
or more (4,000 in 1992). Succession to the position of king was limited to the sons of
Chapter 3 Government and Politics
PRINCE SA
UD AL-FAYSAL IBN
ABD AL-
AZIZ
eld marshal
PRINCE BANDAR IBN SULTAN

Chapter 3 Government and Politics
100
cies alienated certain Saudi princes. He was alluding to the fall of Ghazi al-Qusaibi
DOMESTIC POLITICAL ISSUES
Domestic political issues concern many topics taken up in the National Dialogue,
Chapter 3 Government and Politics
102
ces in the 2005 municipal elections. In
ed to Saudi Arabia), Muammar Qadhdha
, Ali Abdullah Saleh (also
103
FOREIGN POLICY
Saudi Arabias foreign policy evolved in the preoil production era and featured
culties following World War II and had relinquished some of its inter-
Chapter 3 Government and Politics
104
ed northward in 1971, Saudi Ara-
105
being traversed daily, according to Saudi Arabia, by scores of illegal Yemeni im-
A Saudi Arabian soldier stands on top of Mt. Dowd on January 27, 2010, a strategic posi-
tion that was recaptured from the Houthi rebels of Yemen the previous week. Mt. Dowd is
in Jizan province.
Chapter 3 Government and Politics
106
situa-
Osama bin Ladens Yemeni father made his fortune early in the construction boom
107
red Scud missiles at Riyadh and other Saudi Arabian cities. The war
, who issued a
that essentially permitted the presence of
Operation Desert Shield lasted from August until January 1991 and was followed
Chapter 3 Government and Politics
108
red
109
The two nations have approached oil policies di
erently; it is often argued that
Opening of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) consultative summit in Riyadh, Saudi
Arabia, May 11, 2010. Shown here are (from left to right) Bahraini King Hamad ibn
Isa al-Khalifa, UAE Vice-President and Prime Minister, Shaykh Muhammad ibn Rashid
al-Maktoum, Saudi Arabian King
Aziz, Kuwaiti Emir Sabah al-
Ahmad al-Sabah, Qatari Emir Shaykh Hamad ibn Khalifa al-Thani, and Omani Deputy
Prime Minister Fahd ibn Mahmoud al-Saeed. (AP/Wide World Photos)
Chapter 3 Government and Politics
110

Chapter 3 Government and Politics
112
erences were exploited by Egypt following Abd al-Azizs de-
cials, and also many other incidents (see Chapter 2, History). Some
uenced by or at least receptive to the popularity of Arab nationalism, and they
113
Chapter 3 Government and Politics
114
cient military power to protect itself from
erent reasons. The smaller sheikhdoms were too small
elds; Saudi Arabia was too vast with too limited a population
rst Iran, and then
Saudi Arabias Relations with Qatar
Qatar hosts U.S. military forces and has become increasingly open to international
entities at a time when U.S. military forces have withdrawn from Saudi Arabia.
115
Saudi Arabias Relations with Kuwait
The Ottoman Empire established the outlines of the modern states bordering the
Kuwait has a large Shia population and considers itself vulnerable to Iran. As
, was banned from entering Kuwait due to pro-
Chapter 3 Government and Politics
116
eld at Dhahran and other facilities, including the King Khalid Military City (built
Chapter 3 Government and Politics
118
The United States followed through on its security commitment to the kingdom
uence of U.S. intent to forcibly contain Saddam Hussein and
The September 11, 2001 attacks on the twin towers of the World Trade Center,
ed by the at-
ended. Many had been educated in the
led against members of the royal family for complicity in the 9/11
c measures to control donations and
nancial links
Saudi Arabia disagreed with the U.S. attacks in Afghanistan and with the United
In 2003 terrorist attacks in Riyadh and subsequent attacks on the country (see
119
rst time in many decades, large numbers of workers attached to companies
Chapter 3 Government and Politics
120
cially the Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government
121
Saudi Arabias relations with Israel have remained hostile, both in the lack of
Chapter 3 Government and Politics
122
Saudi Arabia treated Jordan as an important means of creating a secure bu
er
grants and aid to Jordan. Jordan
123
Saudi Arabian leaders repeatedly attempted to mediate throughout the lengthy
Chapter 3 Government and Politics
124
In 2008, a Lebanese former television show host who traveled to the kingdom for
, the minor pilgrimage, was arrested by the religious police and charged
125
Protests broke out in Syria after the revolutions in Egypt and Tunisia, and with
BROADER SAUDI ARABIAN FOREIGN POLICY
A substantial and special feature of the Saudi Arabian government is its relations
through the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC),
Chapter 3 Government and Politics
126
criticisms of the kingdom, from neoconservative and left-liberal stances, increased and
were directed at the kingdoms lack of democracy, womens rights, and secularism, but
ected political changes in Europe, including anti-immigrant movements.
This did not damage economic relations, but the Saudi Arabian diplomatic response
127
CHRONOLOGY OF AID OR HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE
PROVIDED BY SAUDI ARABIA IN 2010
December 1, 2010
November 23, 2010
November 17, 2010 Sacri
cial meat is distributed in Pakistan
October 22, 2010
October 19, 2010
October 15, 2010
October 15, 2010
October 14, 2010
October 12, 2010
October 10, 2010
Chapter 3 Government and Politics
128
August 29, 2010
oods
August 28, 2010
ood
August 27, 2010
August 26, 2010
Saudi Arabian medical team arrives in
August 25, 2010
August 24, 2010
August 23, 2010
eld hospitals, rescue teams to
August 20, 2010
August 19, 2010
ood relief
August 17, 2010
August 17, 2010
ood victims raises SR 77 million
August 17, 2010
August 17, 2010
August 16, 2010
August 16, 2010
nancial
August 16, 2010
August 15, 2010
August 13, 2010
August 12, 2010
ood
August 11, 2010
August 9, 2010
August 7, 2010
ood victims
August 7, 2010
August 7, 2010
August 6, 2010
August 6, 2010
ooding
129
August 5, 2010
August 5, 2010
August 3, 2010
July 27, 2010
July 27, 2010
July 24, 2010
July 16, 2010
July 11, 2010
July 8, 2010
July 6, 2010
nancial aid to help rebuild
July 1, 2010
June 28, 2010
June 23, 2010
June 20, 2010
June 15, 2010
June 15, 2010
June 12, 2010
June 9, 2010
June 4, 2010
June 3, 2010
June 2, 2010
June 1, 2010
May 25, 2010
May 23, 2010
our aid heads to Gaza
Chapter 3 Government and Politics
130
May 22, 2010
nanced water project
May 18, 2010
May 12, 2010
our
May 12, 2010
ve humanitarian projects in Aceh,
May 5, 2010
April 30, 2010
April 29, 2010
April 29, 2010
April 27, 2010
April 15, 2010
our to Gaza
April 14, 2010
April 9, 2010
April 6, 2010
April 2, 2010
April 2, 2010
March 17, 2010
March 16, 2010
March 15, 2010
March 11, 2010
131
January 28, 2010
January 25, 2010
January 21, 2010
January 16, 2010
ciently. Saudi Arabias interests in its relations to China are
Chapter 3 Government and Politics
132
Anscombe, Frederick.
.
133
Cordesman, Anthony H.
. London: Center for Strategic and International
Cordesman, Anthony H., and Abraham R. Wagner.
Vol. 4,
. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1996.
Doran, Michael Scott. The Saudi Paradox.
airs
, January/February 2004,
Freedman, Lawrence, and Efraim Karsh.
ict, 19901991: Diplomacy and War
Chapter 3 Government and Politics
134
Kostiner, Joseph. Transforming Dualities: Tribes and State Formation in Saudi Arabia.
, edited by Philip S. Khoury and Joseph
Lacey, Robert.
. New York: Viking Penguin, 2009.
Lacey, Robert.
. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1981.
Lacroix, Stphane. Islamo-Liberal Politics in Saudi Arabia. In
,
Lacroix, Stphane. Saudi Islamists and the Potential for Protest.
, June 2,
Lawton, John. Arab Aid.
30, no. 6 (November/December 1979).
Lippmann, Thomas W.
.
Long, David. E.
. Boulder, CO: West-
Lour, Laurence.
Al-Rasheed, Madawi.
. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
Riedel, Bruce, and Bilal Y. Saab. Al Qaidas Third Front.
31, no. 2
Safran, Nadav.
. Cambridge, MA: Belknap
Chapter 3 Government and Politics
136
Zuhur, Sherifa. Personal Interviews with named and anonymous respondents. Jeddah, Ri-
HAPTER
4
Economy
OVERVIEW
ord such measures, whereas some countries arguably could not) and
Chapter 4 Economy
138
ned by national economic policies
Saudi Arabians view the Aramco Mobile Oil exhibit, a traveling educational exhibition
139
rels/day (U.S. Energy Information Administration). Actual crude output exceeded
Chapter 4 Economy
140
waitwith a population of 3.52 million, 2.36 million of whom are non-Kuwait
141
Chapter 4 Economy
142
, or usury. However, di
erent business practices allowed for certain substitute
dence that Islamic law is not being violated. Islamic banks
-compliant bonds (
) are
143
Islam forbids speculation, pro
ting on speculation, and gambling. In addition,
Chapter 4 Economy
144
ering economically in the period
Much has happened since then with the economys rapid growth, rises in prices,
Agriculture is estimated at 3.2 percent (
) of the modern
145
Farmer holding harvested
Chapter 4 Economy
146
Land Tenure
Undeveloped land is termed
and was used for grazing. Grazing areas
system, and no one
) if he could prove that the
(a land grant, as elsewhere in the formerly Ottoman lands). When
. Freehold land could become part of a
, or an endowment,
) working the land; and paying for seeds, fertilizer, and animals; and
Animal Husbandry and Trading
The bedouin raised animals that required grazing areas. However, many were agro-
however, such sales might be only occasional. Alternatively, pastoralists simply
SAMPHIRE AND SEAWATER IRRIGATION
147
acquired milk and meat from their herds. As in other parts of the Middle East and
erent seasons of the year. Each tribe, or animal owner, including
the members of the Saudi royal family, was identi
ed through special marks or de-
. Such markings were also replicated
, or caravaneer, have been relinquished in contemporary times. The
might typically have traveled to Damascus or Egypt to sell animals and would
Saudi Arabian farmer uses cattle to till soil. (Tor Eigeland/Saudi Aramco)
Chapter 4 Economy
148
149
c but was important in case of disruption in the Arabian (or Per-
ning oil. Ever since, the company has re
ned and dis-
KEY OFFICIALS IN SAUDI ARAMCO
Saudi Aramcos leading administrators were the following as of 2011:
laziz F. al-Khayal, Senior Vice President for Industrial Relations, David B. Kultgen,
Chapter 4 Economy
150
Selected and Recently Appointed Executives
ExxonMobil is the largest publicly traded corporation in the world and had earn-
been estimated as having a total worth of US$500 billion . The companys earnings
neries. Chevron has also been involved in technology transfer, the provision of
Saudi Arabian men converse in front of an advertisement at the 2007 OPEC summit in
Riyadh. (AP/Wide World Photos)
Chapter 4 Economy
152
icts in Arab countries not immediately
erently about the current
rst created, Aramco
edgling cartel, considering the companys role in pricing
153
ts without hindrance in places
erent obstacles have been
Chapter 4 Economy
154
Bahrain) was the true discoverer of oil, that fact has been obscured in accounts of the industry (even in Yergins 1991 work, he is a minor gure). One researcher located
ts, whereby American commercial development
Supertankers loading oil in Saudi Arabia. (Corel)
Chapter 4 Economy
156
prefer private sector growth with longtime observer Giacomo Luciani arguing that
uence
Workers inspect an oil
pipeline in Saudi Arabia.
(Saudi Aramco World/
SAWDIA)
157
Other Industries
The largest nonoil company is SABIC, founded in 1976. It produces fertilizers,
Chapter 4 Economy
158
ights are half empty on domestic routes (
, January 15, 2011). Far more
ights now arrive in Saudi Arabia than previously. Women are not
Saudi Arabias telecommunication business has also expanded very rapidly, as
). The largest national
159
tion on music).
Despite the gains of such giants of business, nearly 90 percent of private-sector
Crafts
Traditional and modern crafts in Saudi Arabia include animal husbandry for rac-
ing, falconry, bread baking (
), spice dealing (
, frequently seen in
groups. Mens and
y mens cotton
Chapter 4 Economy
160
Pilgrimage Income and Tourism
The political economy of the annual pilgrimage is a unique aspect of life in Saudi
, bringing income
.
LABOR
In addition to the labor functions coming from pastoral and agricultural-pastoral
The foreign workforce expanded throughout the 1960s with 60,000 foreign work-
ers were Arabs, some were Westerners, and others were from South Asia. During
the Third Development Plan, government planners hoped that foreign labor would
cording to Niblock and Malik Saudi Arabian productivity fell (Niblock and Malik
eign workforce and expanding the Saudi Arabian working population has remained
a goal ever since. From 2000 to 2007, the entire labor force expanded by 1 million,
mostly outside the oil industry, in services, construction, and electricity. More Saudi
Arabian citizens were employed, but the number of nonSaudi Arabians working
in the kingdom actually rose (Niblock and Malik 2007, 198199). Only about 19
ous economic and social issue. The current indigenous labor force is 6.922 million,
gure given in 2010 by the United
gures are provided in other sources.
One should note that a large proportion of the Saudi Arabian population is under
the age of 15 (38 percent, according to some statistics, and over 50 percent in other
sources). Restrictions on womens employment also impact the labor sector, and
tion, there is some casual, or informal, employment (unreported) and unpaid family
labor; however, it is the large amount of foreign labor that is of concern, and it tends
erent levels in di
erent sources. For 2009, American sources
reported that 80 percent of the labor force was made up of nonSaudi Arabian
). For several decades, Saudi Arabia has been
pines, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. NonSaudi Arabian Arabs also continue to work
in Saudi Arabia.
The labor force is employed primarily in services (71.9 percent), followed by in-
). Unemployment among the younger generation is readily
cations. Or they complain about the very
ered in certain jobs, which would not cover the expenses of a young
Asian and African immigrants live under a bridge in the city of Jeddah in 2009. Some have
overstayed their visas after arriving as pilgrims, others have escaped employers, still others
Chapter 4 Economy
162
163
Saudization is the name of the o
cial policy intended to result in the employment of
more Saudi Arabians in place of foreign workers. It has impacted the service industries
and is gradually being enacted in other sectors, for example, the health industry and
education, which are two areas important to womens employment. Saudization creates
Conservatives have attacked governmental initiatives to employ women in the
Chapter 4 Economy
164
cult for women to move into new areas of employment.
ces or places of work, a cost that
The government understands and respects the depth of cultural socialization,
culty of obtaining government permits and permissions, since
ces lacked windows (or desks) that served women (and where they may line
165
Chapter 4 Economy
166
ve gold mines, and has branched out into phosphate, aluminum, and other
ation was
). The debt has now been reduced
nancial information. The countrys
rst two
gures re
167
tax at 2.5 percent (again, based on
t of 15 percent of gross receipts). Joint-venture companies also
ve years by the Saudi Arabian government. SAGIA is the agency that promotes
INVESTMENT
In 1971 the Public Investment Fund (PIF) was established to provide
nancing to
Chapter 4 Economy
168
BANKING AND FINANCIAL SYSTEMS
169
Chapter 4 Economy
170
, August 30, 2010).
International Aid and Loans
Saudi Arabia is the largest donor of foreign aid after the United States. It is di
cult
cial announcements. In addition to governmentally granted aid,
c projects, for instance, in Indonesia and other countries. By October 2010,
ve convoys of humanitarian aid, including food and tents,
ood victims of 2010. In addition, $200 million was transferred to Pakistans Cen-
ood assistance, $200 million in credit
King Abdullah gave $20 million to the SDF to fund the rebuilding of Tintan City
ooding. The king also provided aid
re. The Saudi Popular Fund for the Relief of Lebanon gave $40,000
ve
In September 2010, Saudi Arabia provided $100 million to the Palestinian Author-
171
What will Saudi Arabias economy look like in the future? Certainly, the e
orts
Aarts, Paul, and Gerd Nonneman, eds.
Chapter 4 Economy
172
Cole, Donald P. Pastoral Nomads in a Rapidly Changing Economy: The Case of Saudi
, edited by Tim Niblock.
Cole, Donald P.
. Chi-
Colyer-Ross, Heather.
le
. Fribourg, Swit-
Congressional Research Service. Albert B. Prados (Author)
. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Foreign A
airs, De-
Cordesman, Anthony H., and Khalid R. Al-Rodhan.
. 2 vols. Westport, CT: Praeger Security International, 2006.
173
Ibrahim, Saad Eddin and Donald P. Cole.
. Cairo: American University in Cairo, 1978.
Chapter 4 Economy
174
National Committee on American Foreign Policy.
New York: National Com-
Niblock, Tim, with Monica Malik.
. London: Rout-
Obaid, Nawaf E.
HAPTER
5
Society
Religion and Law
The o
cial religion of Saudi Arabia is Islam. The majority of Muslims in the king-
fteen percent are Shia Muslims,
primarily of the Jafari legal tradition, while a smaller minority of somewhere be-
177
In certain circles religious antipathy to non-Muslims increased during the 1990s, and
tacks by al-Qaida on foreigners in Saudi Arabia (see Chapter 7, Contemporary Issues).
cation for such attacks was related to the insistence on
, a call to cleave to Muslims and stay far from non-Muslims. While this phrase
comes from the Quranic call to support the Muslim community, it became a favorite
An historic edition of the Qur'an, the holy book of Muslims. (Larry Sampas)
179
. Human beings must obey Allahs
The Quran also serves as a source of
(Islamic law is the usual translation
qh
;

183
rst erected by Adam or angels. Muhammad cleansed the Kaba of
gives Muslims a sense that their lives are related to their fate
Muslim pilgrims perform their
nal circumambulation around the Kaba at the Grand
Mosque, November 30, 2009. In the foreground a man raises his palms in supplication.
185
rm and cannot pray in the normal postures of bowing and
Unlike in Egypt or Jordan, where the governments have not generally permit-
ted Muslims to enforce practice on others, in Saudi Arabia, the followers of Abd
al-Wahhab believed it was the duty of the ruler (today, the state) to uphold the
that is, to command the good and forbid the evil. In the service of the
,
the HAIA (Hayat al-Maruf wa al-Nahaya an al-Munkar, the Committee for the
187
, or monotheism of names and characteristics, means Allahs
multiple names or attributes (such as the Generous or the Bene
cent) that
The greatest sins according to Ibn Abd al-Wahhab in
were
189
(as Delong-Bas [2004] basically shows); it was his ideas about doctrine, described
Ibn Abd al-Wahhab and his followers are said to have opposed Su
sm (mystical
orders (Delong-Bas 2004), but in
orders were mostly banned, though not entirely (Sedgwick 1997),
Ibn Abd al-Wahhab signi
cantly promoted

, or missionary activity that
promoting his beliefs. After their defeat by the Egyp-
had, in some cases, to
ee and survive; they then
(Commins in Ayoob and
Kosebalaban, eds., 2009, 50). Second , the
implies constant and international
Wahhabism became a synonym for
yya
(a reform movement) over the 20th
ed with vio-
uence the Muslim world;

stic polytheists, and the Indian Wahhabi movement grew even
rst Saudi state (Ahmad 1994, 1415). With the rise
trends that may rely on in
uence from Saudi Arabia, although Osama bin
Laden has incessantly opposed the Saudi regime. In caution, historian John Voll
erent beliefs about the link-
cial
government of Saudi Arabia as of 2009.
Saleh ibn Muhammad al-Lahaidan
Saleh ibn Humaid
Saleh ibn Fouzan al-Fouzan
Ahmad Sirr Mubaraki
Yaqub ibn
Abdul Karim ibn
Muhammad al-Khanayn
Muhammad al-Mukhtar Muhammad
Qays al-Ashaikh Mubarak
191
. The minister of Islamic a
airs, endowments,
, and guidance as of
since 2005. The Ministry of Justice
and all legal and judicial matters for Saudi Arabian citizens. As
decrees to restructure the Supreme Court and the Council of Senior Ulama .
The Committee for the Promotion of Virtue and the Prevention of Vice (CPVPV)

and o
cially termed the HAIA. This governmental
cers and thousands of volunteers who
, the command to order the good and forbid the evil. Until
HAJJ
2010
is the largest annual pilgrimage in the world. How many attended the
cially
ve years, and other countries have quotas
period; others said 2.8 million came, and some
ocked to the pilgrimage as well, since they could move
clothing and
Members of the HAIA (Committee for the Promotion of Virtue and Prevention of Vice,
also known as religious police) while attending a training course in Riyadh on April 29,
2009. (Fahad Shadeed/Reuters/Corbis)
193
, and supports socially conservative stances, arguing that Saudi Arabian girls
Council of Senior Ulama (Scholars)
The most prominent religious scholars serve on a Council of Senior Ulama established
by King Faysal in 1971. The group has usually had 30 to 40 members. King Faysal and
195
Su
sm has existed in Saudi Arabia; however, its rites have been forbidden since the
, which is found throughout Egypt, eastern Africa, and the Arabian
Modern political trends of thought like Nasirism, Baathism, Marxism, and subsid-
Nevertheless, some aspects of Arab left philosophy, or antiroyalism, impacted the
ight crews defecting to Egypt in
197
Delong-Bas, Natana. Wahhabism and the Question of Religious Tolerance. In
, edited by Mohammed Ayoob and
Delong-Bas, Natana.
. Oxford, UK:
Edwards, Richard, and Sherifa Zuhur. Sunni Islam. In
, edited by Spencer Tucker. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2010, 11761181.
Ende, W. The Nakhawila: A Shiite Community in Medina, Past and Present.
37, no. 3 (1997), 264348.
Esposito, John L.
. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.
Fandy, Mamoun.
. New York: St. Martins, 1999.
Gibb, H.A.R.
. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press,
Goitein, S. D. Ramadan, the Muslim Month of Fasting. In
, edited by Lawrence I. Conrad. Vol. 26,
,
Goldziher, Ignacz.
199
203
TRIBAL VALUES
Tribal descent unites individuals and is the basis of social loyalty. If a member of the
205
that owners had to register their slaves, and that Saudi Arabians could not be enslaved
(Lewis 1990, 167169). Other forms of slavery (called elite slavery) have altered the
207
Because women must protect their sexual honor, segregation of women has been
Males exceed females in each age category. Two reasons exist for this situation; one is the
presence of foreign workers, who include more men than women. Also there is a preference
for male children. It is possible that modern sex-selection techniques have had some impact,
, domesticity for women, and segregation, and she opposed sexual permis-
MODERNIZATION AND SOCIETY
From the 1970s through the 1990s, a major theme in sociological or anthropo-
URBAN ANNUAL GROWTH RATE IN SAUDI ARABIA
Year Urban Annual Growth Rate (%)
20152020 2.10 (estimated)
211
Today, the al-Saud family is so large that it can be seen as a social class of its own.
Cole, Donald P. Al Murrah Bedouins: The Pure Ones Roam Arabias Sands.
217
Rugh, William. Emergence of a New Middle Class in Saudi Arabia.
al-Saud, Norah bint Muhammad, al-Jawhara Muhammad al-Anqari, and Madeha Mu-
. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: By the editors, 1989.
Shehata, Talaat. Abolition in Asia. In
, edited by
219
GENDER EQUITY IN SAUDI ARABIA
rst in this area.
221
female sympathizers.
WOMEN AND EDUCATION
Schools for women and girls outside their homes were at
rst controversial and were
on the grounds that this would lead to Westerniza-
at, King Faysal, other moderates in the
at, who had
rst established a model school to educate her
at opened
King Abdullah ibn Abd al-Aziz al-Saud (center) laws the cornerstone for the Princess
Norah bint Abdulrahman University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in 2008. This will be the larg-
est women's university in the world, able to accomodate 40,000 students. (AP/Wide World
needed for women, as marriage is preferable (see these opinions in Abou El Fadl
2001, 272297).
New rules to prevent women from traveling abroad or conducting business with-
223
EXPANSION
Following the cessation of Saudi Arabian student travel to the United States fol-
engineering, and King Faisal University and King Abd al-Aziz University admit-
er religious education also enroll women, such as
cial objected to this, he was removed from of-
ce. In 2011, the largest women-only university, Princess Norah bint Abdulrahman
ers courses of study in more traditionally male-dominated
elds, it will
t women. For example, other Arab and Middle Eastern women have
(bride price)
ects: It encourages strict control over the sexual
225
cant di
erence in age and power. If a woman were known or
. Women would object to their sons mar-
The custom of female circumcision, usually called female genital mutilation
cials deny that it is practiced or claim that only im-
, is considered to be purifying and
bulation, was described by St. John Philbys interlocutor
circumcision. A Saudi Arabian pediatric surgeon dif-
, November 13, 2008).
GUARDIANSHIP
Womens social reputations are the concern of their guardians,
rst their father or
pilgrimage without a
ce an additional ani-
cation card. The lack of these cards was
GUARDIANSHIP AND MARRIAGE
Saudi Arabian women expect to marry, and because of the prevalence of polygamy,
, January 17, 2009). More recently, the
227
(bride
nal. Thereafter, she is not entitled to any money from him, and he is likely to obtain
229
ABUSE
Physical abuse of women by men in Saudi Arabia is an enormous problem. The sub-
, October 16, 2005) and documented her ex-
cult for women to obtain, it
nd a solution. The government responded to the al-
erent man. He said he would
the governor of the Eastern Province. King Abdullah pardoned the girl and the man
with her who had also been raped, and her lawyer was given back his license. Sadly,
the scandal was too much for the young man to whom she was engaged, whose family
pressured him to leave the girl, although he stood by her during the trial (Lacey 2009,
305315). A similar case involved a woman in Jeddah, who was impregnated during
, although the sentence was postponed until
she gave birth. Then, she was to receive 100 lashes and spend a year in prison. She too
231
Altorki, Soraya. Sisterhood and Stewardship in Sister-Brother Relations in Saudi Arabia.
24, nos. 12 (2003), 180200.
Altorki, Soraya.
. New York:
Altorki, Soraya, and Donald P. Cole.
.
American Bedu (Web-blog). Saudi Arabia: You Asked. American Bedu Answers. February 9,
2009. http://americanbedu.com/2009/02/08/saudi-arabia-you-asked-american-bedu-answers/
Arebi, Saddeka.
. New
Al-Baadi, Hamad Muhammad. Social Change, Education, and the Roles of Women in Ara-
al-Badair, Nadine. Ana wa Azawaja Arbaah [Me and My Four Husbands].
,
Bagader, Abu Bakr, Ava M. Heinrichsdor
, and Deborah S. Akers, eds. and trans.
. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner,
al-Baz, Rania.
gured: A Saudi Womans Story of Triumph over Violence
. Translated by
Burckhardt, John Lewis.
. London: Henry Coburn and
Campbell, Kay Hardy. Folk Music and Dance in the Arabian Gulf and Saudi Arabia. In
Cairo and New
233
235
enrollment in primary school. Only 11.1 percent of boys (51,364) and 10.4 percent
Year Educational Plan developed by the Ministry of Education, the education of
young children (ages 4 to 6) is to be treated as an independent stage of learning
with its own syllabi, which suggests that it is recognized as an important period
for the development of learning skills and socialization. Many nursery schools and
rst
The 10-year strategic plan of the Ministry of Education (20042014) is geared to
237
King Abdullah University for Science and Technology was founded in 2009 at
elds new to the nation. It is coeducational, and a Museum
Saudi Arabians have traveled abroad for educational studies for decades. Students
Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, student visas (as well as
239
241
for graduates of middle school, high school, and college with knowledge
ers courses for
A much larger proportion of students in Saudi Arabia specialize in Islamic stud-
243
cers have this
during 2010. The college has been encouraged to add a specialized
al-Attas, Syed Naguib.
[Findings of the First World
Al-Baadi, Hamad Muhammad. Social Change, Education, and the Roles of Women in Ara-
Bird, Jerine. Revolution for Children in Saudi Arabia. In
HAPTER
6
Culture
Language
Arabic is the national language of Saudi Arabia. Arabic is also the dominant lan-
cial and media information. The
Chapter 6 Culture
247
Chapter 6 Culture
ﺭﺫﺩﺥﺡﺝﺙﺕﺏﺍ
ȽȽ
rdhdh
ﻑﻍﻉﻅﻁﺽﺹﺵﺱﺯ
aynkh
dshins
fgh
ht
/shsz
˯ﻱﻭﻩﻥﻡﻝﻙﻕ
hamza
ywhnmlkq
bbubbibbabbbb
bubiba
249
erent Positions
FinalMedialInitialIsolatedFinalMedialInitialIsolatedFinalMedialInitialIsolated
ﻖﻘﻗﻕﺰ
ﻚﻜﻛﻙﺲﺴﺳﺱﺐﺒﺑﺏ
ﻞﻠﻟﻝﺶﺸﺷﺵﺖﺘﺗﺕ
ﻢﻤﻣﻡﺺﺼﺻﺹﺚﺜﺛﺙ
ﻦﻨﻧﻥﺾﻀﺿﺽﺞﺠﺟﺝ
ﻪﻬﻫﻩﻂﻄﻃﻁﺢﺤﺣﺡ
ﻭﻆﻈﻇﻅﺦﺨﺧﺥ
ﻲﻴﻳﻱﻊﻌﻋﻉﺪ
___
ﻎﻐﻏﻍﺬ

ﻒﻔﻓﻑﺮ
Source:
Adapted from Ager (
Omniglot
Chapter 6 Culture
250
, a hard
in the back of the throat.
251
FEATURES OF ARABIC
Arabic words are divided into syllables. Syllables always begin with a consonant;
(like
), this is considered a consonant. Arabic
(author), in which the long vowel occurs because
following the
. Stress normally falls, if there is no syllable with a long
(I understood) and in
(the
Chapter 6 Culture
252
(zain, lam, zain, lam), to quake, as in an earthquake,
and
(he whispers and he whispered).
makes the phrase inde
nite, but adding
makes it de
nite without implying is.
means the book
kitabu jamilu
the beautiful book. When the de
nite article
(
) is used, the vowel
; it is never
but
. The accusative case is indicated with a
,
. It is used for the object of a verb, as in
(he
, an
sound, is used for
(from the car). It is also
construction, which shows possession or ownership, as in
(house of the prince).
The de
nite article
is a
ected by the next consonant. The Arabic consonants are
253
Arabic nouns have a di
erent form for the plural and singular (unlike English, which
to most words) and also a dual noun and verbal form. The dual (like
) is indicated by adding the ending
to a singular noun, as in
(the two houses), and all of these change with the case. Usually, the plural
form is a broken plural, or an irregular form, which can be predicted based on the verb.
for males and
for females. The male plural ending
(pronounced
), as in
Many special grammatical features occur in both classical and colloquial Arabic.
Chapter 6 Culture
254
Arabic calligraphy is still practiced; the skilled calligrapher can form designs, ob-
jects, or even animal shapes from words. Various scripts have been used historically, for
ordinary communication or design as calligraphy. To be literate, individuals must learn
a cursive script and the forms of printed Arabic used in books and newspapers, which
can vary greatly in painted or graphic signs and titles. A nonnative speaker must usually
study for three to four years before gaining some mastery of the classical language or
modern standard Arabic, but colloquial forms may be absorbed more quickly.
The transliteration of Arabic varies widely, as the French and British/Indian sys-
s (
) to transliterate the long
(precisely, ex-
ller words, and in Saudi Arabia, one is
, which
255
Chapter 6 Culture
collection of folktales told in di
ering versions and written in Jeddahs unique dialect
(Baker 2007).
Ager, Simon. Arabic. Omniglot.com. http://www.omniglot.com/writing/arabic.htm
Badeau, John Stotho
. The Arab Role in Islamic Culture. In
, edited by John Hayes. New York: New York University Press,
Baker, Razan. Tales of Old Jeddah.
, January 25, 2007.
Holes, Clive.
257
ict.
Chapter 6 Culture
258
Respect and care for the family have an enormous impact on many aspects of
Respect for the family and concern for daughters who do not obtain alimony
) visas if they are Muslims. Others
259
, followed by polite inquiries. One should not discuss unpleas-
Chapter 6 Culture
260
261
Chapter 6 Culture
262
ered with the co
ee, and tea, or herbal teas, follows it. Then co
ee
ered again after the tea. Then, Saudi Arabians may burn incense,
,
, in a censer called a
, fanning the smoke to
GESTURES
263
(a braided cord) to hold the
or
in place. Very religious
yya
and the

, may wear a headcloth without the
and
A Saudi Arabian woman wearing an
embroidered
abaya in the old city of
Jiddah, Saudi Arabia, 2007.
Abayas
are routinely black, but some women
wear versions decorated with crystals,
sequins, gold ribbon, or even some areas
of color. (AP/Wide World Photos)
Chapter 6 Culture
264
, a separate headscarf, under the
.
, which exposes the eyes. On some occasions, as when one
265
Women are not supposed to travel alone but rather in the company of their
, or close male relative or guardian. In order to participate in the pilgrimage,
cials
BUSINESS
Chapter 6 Culture
266
Government o
cials may do business in the evening at their homes as well as in
ces. All businesses and o
ces observe the required prayers, as
267
PHOTOGRAPHS
One should not take photographs of women or children, or indeed of anyone, with-
rst gesturing intent, and even then one should proceed cautiously. In rural
Chapter 6 Culture
Burials should be held as soon as possible after a death. After the burial, a mourn-
begins, which technically lasts for three days; in fact, the
. Women used to receive condolences in the mornings until noon on Sundays,
269
Chapter 6 Culture
270
Chapter 6 Culture
272
Chapter 6 Culture
274
with the cheating,
But in the past you were not like this,
admiring false things.
(
, August 24, 2010)
Al-Ghosaybi called for modernization. Speci
cally, later in his life, he lobbied for
elds of employment for women and
, his writings
, August 24, 2010).
Modern Novels
Novels and short stories are a new literary form in the Arab world. Novelists and
Chapter 6 Culture
276
Folklore is invoked by Umaima al-Khamees in Salma the Omani: If a beau-
y o
(al-Hazimi 2006, 202). Dark tales were told about a monster-like
young girls. Salma lives happily with
at night in a combination of these
The role of the storyteller, a wise/mad fool
277
Chapter 6 Culture
278
LATER NOVELS
Raja al-Alim also wrote a novel,
, which moves back and forth through
279
Also attracting attention outside of Saudi Arabia was Turki al-Hamad, who was
born in 1953 in Jordan to a family from al-Buraydah . This novelist, journalist, and
,
, and
), which takes place in the 1960s and 1970s (all were
, which concerns the events
THEATER IN PRIVATE SPACES
Yamamah College in Riyadh mounted a production of

,
red a weapon, and state security forces
lmed on camera phones and then broadcast
. Later,

websites called for the resignation of the president
Chapter 6 Culture
Baker, Razan. Tales of Old Jeddah.
, January 25, 2007.
. London: Bloomsbury, 2010.
Bogary, Hamza.
. Translated by Olive
281
Kurpershoek, P. Marcel.
. London: Al Saqi, 2001.
Kurpershoek, P. Marcel.
Chapter 6 Culture
282
283
Mohammed Farea, born in 1968 in Saudi Arabia, has professional art training
Chapter 6 Culture
285
lms to
, they could be allowed. Perhaps Saudi Arabia will allow the develop-
Saudi Arabian man watches,
lm at a
screening in Riyadh, June 6,
2009. Women were not
screening at a government-
run cultural center was
considered a daring step.
(AP/Wide World Photos)
Chapter 6 Culture
286
287
Ali, Wijdan. Modern Painting in the Mashriq. In
, edited by Sherifa Zuhur. Cairo: American Uni-
Ali, Wijdan.
. Gainesville: University Press
Ali, Wijdan. Modern Arab Art: An Overview. In
. Exhibition director and contributing co-author Salwa Mikdadi Nashashibi, Laura
Chapter 6 Culture
288
Nashashibi, Salwa Mikdadi. Gender and Politics in Contemporary Art: Arab Women
Images of Enchantment: Visual and Performing Arts of the
, edited by Sherifa Zuhur. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press, 1998,
165182.
Nawwab, Nimat. Painting Cultural History.
, January/February 2001,
Nawwab, Nimat. The Childrens Kingdom.
, November/December 1995,
Al-Osaimi, Najah. Haifa Film Creates a Stir.
, April 21, 2005.
289
st rejection of entertainment, popu-
Chapter 6 Culture
290
(a bowed upright
ddle) in the bedouin tradition (Campbell in Zuhur,
Womens music, which is enjoyed at schools, universities, and private parties, is
TransliterationEnglish Translation
ag
ag and the
291
(an
dance.
Saudi Arabian music in its art (
forms, like other
Chapter 6 Culture
These events may be recorded and videotaped, and the recordings might be dis-
293
Chapter 6 Culture
294
al-Samri
The
, or
, are a song cycle performed at night (hence the name, which
genre about love or beauty (Urkevich 2001,
have variants called the
,
, and
(Abd al-Hakim 1980, 74). According to Urkevich (2001, 326), the
were
s nocturnal performance is also explained by other tales from folk
As with many of the performed musical and dance traditions, the
is orga-
(a larger double-skinned drum) and
(clappers) accompany a main
and
players are often professionals who display the name of their group on
295
Chapter 6 Culture
296
nal short poem (
) in a precomposed melody usually
Rast (Lambert 2002, 652; also see Rvsing Olsen and Wegner 2001, 795).
is called the
; in it, dancers may suddenly
LARGE-ENSEMBLE MUSIC
The majority of early recordings of
music were of the
form. Beginning in
ists, and were not limited to the local traditional instruments and percus-
rst Saudi Arabian singers to present this new style, typical of the
(song) form, were Talal al-Maddah (19392000) and Muhammad Abduh
rst came to the publics attention with his
rst sang on the radio
When Egypt fell from Arab favor after signing the Camp David peace treaty, tour-
there for some years, and the pro
table club scene in
Rabih Saqr is in the next generation of singers and is known for a more modern,
. Unfortunately, the Saudi
condemned the Star Academy, calling it a crime against Islam, and
is another well-known female singer. Tuha, who composed
. Sara Othman is another singer of this genre. Waed (her
STYLES OF HIJAZ AND ASIR
Urban Music
The urban music of the Hijaz was recorded by the Dutch orientalist Snouck Hur-
, and was accompanied by a
and a deeper drum. The
, or southern
over the course of the 20th century. Typically,
Chapter 6 Culture
). The name of the dance refers to
, a double-reeded pipe that is also played in Said and is important to
, and they are accompanied by about six
(
is the singular).
Sahba
were performed by the
299
Chapter 6 Culture
300
where Muslim practices were developed, the decision to deliver the call to prayer
erentiated Muslim prayers from Jewish, Christian, or
rst
, Bilal, was chosen for his
ne voice.
was respected, large mosques employed multiple
callers, and the callers had their own guild under the Ottoman Empire (Neubauer
301
Inshad and Madaih
(or
, the plural of
) are religious songs and verse, and
All
hu akbar, All
hu akbar, All
hu akbar
il
ha ill
All
h
hu akbar, All
hu akbar
h il-h
.
amd
Chapter 6 Culture
302
Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest. There is no God
Abd al-Hakim. Tariq.
[The most famous forms of folkore].
Abd al-Hakim, Tariq.
[Famous Arab musicians]. n.d. [ca.
1966].
Abduh Ghanim, Nizar. Al-Judhur al-Yamaniyya li-fann al-sawt al-khalij [The Yemeni
roots of the Sawt in the Gulf ].
4 (1986), 928.
Adra, Najwa. Dance in the Arabian Peninsula. In
,
Adra, Najwa. Dance: A Visual Marker of Qabili Identity in Highland Yemen. In
, edited by Sherifa
Adra, Najwa. Qabyala: The Tribal Concept in the Central Highlands of the Yemen Arab
Akeel, Maha. Old Songs in Old Nights.
, December 25, 2004. http://www.arab-
Awhan, Faruq. Raqsat al- ayyala
-l- Imara al-Arabiyya al-Mutahidda [The Ayyala

9 (1988).
Ba Gha
ar, Hind.

-l-Mamlakah al-


[Folk
Campbell, Kay Hardy. Saudi Folk Music: Alive and Well.
,
Campbell, Kay Hardy. Music in Performance: A Saudi Womens Wedding Party. In
, edited by Virginia Danielson, Scott Marcus, and Dwight
New York: Garland Press, 2002, 696698.
Campbell, Kay Hardy. Days of Song and Dance.
50, no. 1 (1999), 7887.
Campbell, Kay Hardy. Folk Music and Dance in the Arabian Gulf and Saudi Arabia. In
, edited by Sherifa Zuhur. Cairo: American University in Cairo
Campbell, Kay Hardy. Recent Recordings of Traditional Music from the Arabian Gulf and
303
Hansen, Eric. The Hidden History of a Scented Wood.
, 51, no. 6
Hanzal, Falih.
wa-l-alhan
-l-khalij al-

[Dictionary of rhymes and mel-
odies in the Arabian Gulf ]. Al-Sharja: Ittihad Kuttab wa-Udaba al-Imarat al-Arabiyyah
Chapter 6 Culture
304
al-Saud, Norah bint Muhammad, al-Jawhara Muhammad al-Anqari, and Madeha Mu-
. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: By the editors, 1989.
Sedgwick, Mark. Saudi Su
s: Compromise in the Hijaz 19251940.
37,
Sells, Michael. Sound, Spirit and Gender in Surat al-Qadr.
305
. Performed by M. Abduh. Sawt El Jezira (same
. Coll. A. J. Racy (accompanies volume). Arab Gulf States Folk-
. Comp. by Siraj Omar, lyrics by Prince Khalid al-Faisal. A modern musical epic
Chapter 6 Culture
306
sponsored programs to subsidize farmers, particularly those growing wheat, were
sive amounts of water needed were too costly. On the other hand, those countries
307
erent
nished
product.
The rules of hospitality also impact food and its preparation, serving, and recep-
rst and to treat a guest from far
Chapter 6 Culture
Whereas the Bedouin had plentiful milk, they could hunger for other food, as they
ord to kill their animals except for special occasions such as a circumci-
ected certain health conditions; obesity and heart disease are on the rise,
erent parts of the country and the presence of excellent restaurants; it is no longer
er grilled and Lebanese or continental
A specialty of Najd and the Hasa oasis is the use of wheat in the cuisine (in ad-
later on. This is Saudi Arabias answer
of Syria or Egypt and to North Africas couscous. Wheat agriculture
QOUZY
KHARUF MAHSHI (
WHOLE STUFFED KID OR LAMB
) was served
ng), 15 to 18 lb
1 tbsp turmeric
Stuffing
1 tbsp turmeric
nely chopped
Mix of c tamarind juice, c rose water, c water, and 2 tbsp
(mixed
ng by boiling the rice (and chickpeas) in water with
Chapter 6 Culture
310
re (depends on the size of the lamb), basting it with its
if desired. If roasting in the oven, preheat to
ng. Serve on a large platter surrounded with the stuf
ng. May
ng), or smaller dishes of tomatoes, cooked pumpkin, sliced melon,
BAHARAT
1
c ground coriander
c curry powder
bought in larger-size jars)
HAWAIJ
2 tbsp black peppercorns
1 tsp turmeric
Hawaij
:
311
KABSA (
PREPARED WITH CHICKEN
1 c corn oil (canola oil may be used)
1 frying chicken, cut in pieces
5 cloves garlic, mashed to a pulp in a mortar
ve minutes over low
MUFALLAQ
(crushed wheat, a favorite of Najd and the Hasa oasis and a substitute for
Chapter 6 Culture
312
JARISH BI-LABAN (
CRACKED WHEAT WITH YOGURT
4 c yogurt
3 tbsp butter, melted
313
AISH BIL-LAHM OR
AISH ABU LAHM
(black caraway
Dough
our
nely chopped
3 tbsp corn oil
2 black peppercorns
Chapter 6 Culture
BASAL MAHSHI (STUFFED ONIONS)
Filling
SHARAB AL-NA
(HOT MINT DRINK)
ee. Tea, soft drinks, fruit juices, and
, or fruit
315
TUMR BI-L-SIMSIM
c corn oil (some prefer canola oil)
Chapter 6 Culture
Food and cooking have become even more popular due to the professionalization
317
Ramkumar, K. S. Top Chef, Art de Table Contests Major Draw at Food Expo.
, September 18, 2010.
Riolo, Amy.
. Herndon, VA: Capitol Books, 2008.
Roden, Claudia.
. New York: Vintage Books, 1974.
Tastes of Jubail. http://www.aaljumah.com. (and other websites)
Weiss-Armush, Anne Marie.
. Los Angeles and Chicago: Lowell House, 1994.
Weiss-Armush, Anne Marie.
. Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Nafaes, 1993.
Yamani, Mai. You Are What You Cook: Cuisine and Class in Mecca. In
, edited by Sami Zubaida and Richard Tapper. Lon-
Sports and Leisure
SPORTS
Modern and traditional forms of sport, hobbies, and leisure pastimes coexist in Saudi
Chapter 6 Culture
318
ered exercise classes, physi-
Soccer (Football)
Soccer, known as football in Saudi Arabia, is probably the most popular sport, as is
ed to play in the Fdration Internationale de Football
rst entered in 1994 (however, they did
A 12-team national league, the Saudi Professional League, plays regularly. The
In 2008 the Under 17 Gulf Cup of Nations was held in Saudi Arabia, and teenag-
319
Chapter 6 Culture
320
Cricket and Baseball
321
The Equestrian Federation is located in Riyadh, and clubs are found around the
Khaled al-Eid, Saudi Arabian equestrian champion on Presley Boy, World Equestrian
Games, Lexington, Kentucky, 2010. (AP/Wide World Photos)
Chapter 6 Culture
322
On July 31, 2010,
airs, a critic of the
323
Tourism, Camping, Hiking, and Outdoor Recreation
Saudi Arabia maintains many parks and wildlife and game reserves and has plans
and secondarily for business; touristic
c permission. Saudi Arabians travel within
or
, and visits to family members.
rst Saudi state and other locations.
The Saudi Commission for Tourism and Antiquities was created in 2000. As of
rst Arab and Muslim to participate in a space
Among many nature-touristic sites the government established was the al-Hada
Chapter 6 Culture
324
Pint also writes about access to the desert caves at the Summan Plateau, not far
325
conquest of the area. Some princes of the royal family used to transport their falcons
LEISURE AND ENTERTAINMENT
The most pervasive leisure activity in the kingdom is social interaction, mainly par-
Chapter 6 Culture
326
327
lter out content or in
uences that are not approved.
Telephone- and computer-based contacts occupy leisure time for many, especially
cult to monitor; cell phone texting re-
Chapter 6 Culture
328
Franklin, Jo., dir.
[documentary
lm]. SeaCastle,
329
AMTHAL
A
(singular form) is a brief proverb or statement re
ecting popular belief and
in conversation,
explanation, and analysis of social situations. Some date back far into the past. As with
cult to con
ne the form to the Arabian Peninsula. Early collections

(Cairo, 1310), containing 4,766 proverbs compiled by
Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Maidani. He referred to 50 sources in it that had contained
Amthal al-

(The sought-after Arabic proverbs) in 1107.
Proverbs may liken humans to animals. This tradition appears in classical Arabic
. Some of the proverbs are:
Others derive from the Quran: Whatever good you possess is all from God.
: Feed the hungry, visit the
Arabian proverbs may be very close to Western ones: Love is blind, Speak
Chapter 6 Culture
330
ort). A regionwide proverb is the ship led by two captains will sink (too many
JOKES,
NAWADIR
, AND SHORT TALES
331
lled with some pebbles or
erent from the others, up into the air
Chapter 6 Culture
332
was not
), which
) tea, which calms the stomach and
(
,
Quranic medicine refers to healers practice of chanting Quranic verses or writ-
(the water) to treat illness, bad dreams, or
might recite Surah Ya Sin of the Quran (Bog-
(Doumato 2000 , 178).
Chapter 6 Culture
334
POPULAR OCCASIONS
the rack or tailored) is replacing it, but at folk festivals,
A beautiful example of a Hijazi urban upper-class female dress that has been pre-
, made of organdy (a very sheer
(pantaloons) in a cream color; a
(a
tted, buttoned
(robe). Instead of a black scarf, this costume had a
(light-colored headscarf that was highly embroidered and topped with
a diamond brooch). An everyday type of headscarf could be of light- colored voile,
Bride's costume from Medina.
(Palms and Pomegranates: Tradi-
tional Dress of Saudi Arabia. U.S.
Committee for Saudi Arabian
Cultural Heritage, c. 1987-1989)
Chapter 6 Culture
336
wore black dresses embroidered in colorful silk thread on
wedding dresses
337
made of tulle or
ne lace is worn for special occasions, decorated with
Henna
Banu Tamim thawb. (Palms and
Pomegranates: Traditional Dress of Saudi
Arabia. U.S. Committee for Saudi Arabian
Cultural Heritage, c. 1987-1989)
Chapter 6 Culture
338
339
Chapter 6 Culture
340
al-Awamy, Dr. Baker H., Dr. Fakhry , and Department of Pediatrics, al-Muhawis Hospital,
12, no. 22 (December 2001), 10651068.
Baeshen, Lamia.
341
Ghazanfar, Shahina.
. London: CRC Press, 1994.
al-Hadhdhal, A. I.


. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Matabi
Hardy, M.J.L.
. Leiden, the
Chapter 6 Culture
342
Palms and Pomegranates: Traditional Dress of Saudi Arabia. Exhibit 19871989 that
. Exhibition catalog. Washington,
Qureshi, Naseem Akhtar, Aladin Hadi al-Amri, Muzamil Hasan Abdelgadir, and Ahmed El-
35, no. 1 (March 1998).
Rayyes, Fuad. The Cream of Wisdom.
20, no. 1 (January/February
Al-Said, Mansour Solyman. Medicine in Islam. In
, edited by Helaine Selin. Dordrecht,
343
Premodern Saudi Arabia re
ected the needs of the tribes, communities, and their
apped up for visits. Each tribe
(pattern of travel) and its own grazing areas (see Chapter 4, Econ-
Chapter 6 Culture
344
Ruins of the city of Diriyyah, Saudi Arabia, site of the First Saudi Arabian state. (Saudi
Aramco World/SAWDIA)
Riyadh Mosque, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. (Saudi Aramco World/SAWDIA)
Chapter 6 Culture
347
Chapter 6 Culture
gures; however, the
349
Chapter 6 Culture
350
The Kenyan Embassy
in Riyadh shows the
351
rst-level walls, but an elevation at the front of the house has three
oor and surrounds a courtyard. A loggia, held up with pillars, surrounds
oor
rst
oor (al-Jeraisy 1999, 134135).
Chapter 6 Culture
352
at
. At one time, huts were built of palm fronds
.
The Eastern Province is Saudi Aramcos base, and the originally American com-
uenced the built environment. The housing of Arab workers
Facey, William.
. London: Stacey Interna-
Facey, William.
. London: Immel, 1992.
Grabar, Oleg. Art and Architecture. In
, edited by John Hayes. New York: New York University Press, 1992, 107130.
al-Harbi, Abdullah. The Impact of New Towns in Saudi Arabia: A Case Study of Yanbu.
al-Hathloul, Saleh Ali, and Narayanan Edadan.
. Riyadh,
Chapter 6 Culture
354
Nawwab, Nimah Ismail. The Suqs of Asir.
49, no. 4 (1998), 29.
Nomachi, Ali Kazuyoshi, and Sayed Hossein Nasr.
. New York: Aperture, 1997.
Pampanini, Andrea H.
. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1997.
Pesce, Angelo.
. Cambridge, UK: Falcon, 1976.
Pesce, Angelo, and Khalid Khidr.
. Jeddah, Saudi
HAPTER
7
Contemporary Issues
Many contemporary issues concern Saudi Arabias ability to provide security and
y re
Chapter 7 Contemporary Issues
356
airs. Other al-
U.S. military advisory and training missions established a program in 1952 that
ve regiments over three years, but that
rst away from cooperation with
ghter aircraft.
The Royal Saudi Land Forces, or Army, commanded 100,000 troops as of 2003
gure of 75,000. (For comparative purposes, Irans Army was then estimated at
.) The Saudi Arabian Army has 4 ar-
e brigades,
Members of the Saudi Arabian National Guard (SANG) in 1980. (AP/Wide World Photos)
357
It possesses 1,055 main battle tanks (315 M-1A2s, 450 M-60A-3s, and 290 AMX-
ord multioperationality. The RSLF is complemented by the SANG; and
ArabianAmerican alliance is strong, but it has engendered strong critiques from
SANG is a regular, professional force of more than 125,000 troops. The SANG
re-
THE SAUDI ARABIAN NATIONAL GUARD (SANG)
Chapter 7 Contemporary Issues
358
ties to the al-Saud have been important. King Abdullah served as the commander
of the SANG to his son is thought to be
The Saudi Royal Air Force has 11 wings stationed in di
erent parts of the country,
ghter Typhoons under an agreement with
Royal Saudi Air Force troops pose in front of a Mirage F1 during Operation Desert Shield
in 1990. (Department of Defense)
359
The Israeli Defense Forces are the most skilled and largest threat in the region and
The Saudi Navy consists of 15,500 men with 3,000 Marines. There is also a 7,500-
Chapter 7 Contemporary Issues
360
361
Other matters that appeared in the leaked documents were Israeli o
cials oppo-
Chapter 7 Contemporary Issues
362
Saudi Arabians who fought or were active in Iraq in militant Islamist groups
ghting the Coalition forces, the new Iraqi army, and Shia organizations and
363
The
movement in Afghanistan attracted young Muslims from through-
Chapter 7 Contemporary Issues
364
During the late 1990s and early 2000s, the opposition movement (not in direct
ict, the Western an-
. Many unex-
ve
of varying statures became more vis-
, and supported extreme positions (Hamid
In late 2002, Saudi Arabian police arrested about 100 people with alleged links to
rst gun
ghts broke out with police. The United States was pressing
Saudi Arabian police and seized weapons and ammunition captured at al-Rass on April 6,
365
), and his recruits, who were mainly responsible for the growth of al-Qaida on
ghters. The militants tried, through
Chapter 7 Contemporary Issues
366
367
cials,
security forces, and media employees; that they had been part of 19 di
erent cells;
, November
Chapter 7 Contemporary Issues
368
ed its core puritanism, and that the government must con-
HEALTH
Public health in Saudi Arabia has improved vastly since the
rst half of the 20th
Medical technician adjusts a patients position in an MRI scanner at the King Faisal Spe-
cialist Hospital in Riyadh. (Saudi Aramco World/SAWDIA)

NURSING IN SAUDI ARABIA
ve-year bachelor of science in nursing. The
rst class of 12 nurses with
Miller-Rosser, Kolleen, Chapman, Ysanne and Francis, Karen.
uences on the Status of Women in Nursing in Saudi
11, no. 3 (2006); El-Sanabary, Najat.
Chapter 7 Contemporary Issues
370
371
u, which hit many of the pilgrims in 2009.
Some health threats exist due to cultural factors. For instance, breast cancer, as in
icted by it. According to her, 10,513 cases
HEALTH INDICATORS
Healthcare Provision Statistics, Ministry of Health, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia,
ProvisionNumber
Hospitals386
Beds54,724
Doctors40,183
Dentists5,406
Pharmacists8,546
Nurses83,868
Assistant health personnel49,139
Chapter 7 Contemporary Issues
WOMEN AND SOCIAL TRANSFORMATION
Women and the degree to which their lives should change, particularly with regard
Some Saudi Arabian women are more outspoken than others in calling for change.
uence
Saudi Arabian women visit an art exhibition of seven Saudi Arabian women artists at the
French Embassy in Riyadh in 2008. (AP/Wide World Photos)
Chapter 7 Contemporary Issues
374
375
), Western movies, and talk show formatsthroughout the Arab world. These
Producers and technicians oversee the broadcast of
Good Morning Saudi Arabia,
a televi-
sion show hosted by Waf Younis at Riyadh Television. (Saudi Aramco World/SAWDIA)
Chapter 7 Contemporary Issues
376
ltering was accom-
377
rms a 2002 International Labor Organization report that many children who
, April 9, 2007).
CAPITAL PUNISHMENT
In Saudi Arabia, 69 persons were put to death in 2009 (
, March 30, 2010).
Chapter 7 Contemporary Issues
(blood price) com-
Offenses
Offenses
Executions
Rates of Executions for Murders and Non-murder Offenses
in Saudi Arabia 1990 to May 2008 (Excluding 2001)
Distribution of Executions in Saudi Arabia by Offense
1990 to May 2008 (Excluding 2001)
Drugs
Non-murder
379
[London: Amnesty
Sad al-Faqih, leader of Saudi Arabian opposition group, MIRA in 2011. (Courtesy of
Not only are some terrorism suspects dealt with harshly, as in the beatings and
Chapter 7 Contemporary Issues
380
ogging for being alone
The same international human rights organizations oppose
punishments
for capital crimes because these involve torture and death (see sidebar on capital
punishment). And they believe that not enough has been done in the last few years
tioned in Chapter 4, Economy). The process of raising objections on these issues
ted from the fact that the
overall political climate tended to favor reform and demonstrate action following
sible that without Human Rights Watch, intervention and commentaries suggesting
onstrators and activists, the Saudi Arabian human rights response organizations
would not have been established. However, these organizations may raise concerns
but not necessarily address them, and as already seen, the counterterrorist response
continues to involve legal processes that ignore general standards of justice for
prisoners.
ts for Saudi Arabians in an e
ort to stave o
political discon-
al-Abdulkareem, A. A., and S. G. Ballal. Consanguineous Marriages in an Urban Area of
ects on the O
spring.
23 (1998), 7583.
Ahmad, Qanta.
. Naperville, IL: Sourcebooks, 2008.
381
Ayoob, Mohammed, and Hasan Kosebalaban, eds.
. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2009.
BBC Two. The Child Slaves of Saudi Arabia. This World. Directed by Rageh Omaar
.
Boucek, Christopher. Extremist Reeducation and Rehabilitation. In
, edited by Tore Bjrgo and John Horgan.
Bronson, Rachel.
. New
Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS). The Middle East Military Balance.
Congressional Research Service (CRS) and Library of Congress. Saudi Arabia: Cur-
Alfred B. Prados. Washington,
DC: Congressional Research Service and Library of Congress. Updated February
24, 2006.
Cordesman, Anthony H.
. London: Center for Strategic and International
Cordesman, Anthony H.
Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2003b.
Cordesman, Anthony H., and Nawaf Obaid.
Washington, DC: Center
Cordesman, Anthony H., and Nawaf Obaid.
. Full Report. Washington, DC: Center for Strate-
Craze, Joshua, and Mark Huband, eds.
. New York: Columbia University Press, 2009.
Delong-Bas, Natana.
. New York:
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, edited by Mahnaz
Afkhami. New York: I. B. Tauris, 1995, 135160.
Fandy, Mamoun.
. New York: St. Martins, 1999.
Hammond, Andrew. Saudi Arabias Media Empire: Keeping the Masses at Home.
Chapter 7 Contemporary Issues
382
El-Hazmi, M. A., A. R. al-Swailem, A. S. Warsy, A.M. al-Swailem, R. Sulaimani, and A.A.
383
Rougier, Bernard, ed.
sme?
Paris: Presses Universitaires de France,
Rugh, William.
. West-
Praeger, 2004.
al-Sahaymi, Abd al-Salam.
. Cairo: Dar al-Minhaj, 2006.
el-Sanabary, Najat. Women and the Nursing Profession in Saudi Arabia. In
Wardak, Ali. Crime and Social Control in Saudi Arabia. In
Transnational and Comparative
, edited by James Sheptycki and Ali Wardak. London: Glasshouse, 2005, 91116.
Wehry, Frederick, Theodore W. Karasik, Alireza Nader, Jeremy Ghez, Lydia Hansell, and
ey.
. Washington, DC: Rand Corporation (National Security
Willbanks, James H. Saudi Arabian, Armed Forces. In
icts
, edited by
Yamani, Mai. Muslim Women and Human Rights in Saudi Arabia: Aspirations of a New
, edited by Eugene Cotran and Mai Yamani. London: Tauris and
Chapter 7 Contemporary Issues
384
Yamani, Mai. The New Generation in Saudi Arabia: Cultural Change, Political Identity
, edited by Lawrence G. Potter and Gary G. Sick. New York: Palgrave, 2001,
Yamani, Mai. The Challenge of Globalization in Saudi Arabia. In
, edited by Fereshteh Norahie-Simone. New York: Femi-
Zuhur, Sherifa.
Carlisle, PA, and Cairo: Institute of Middle Eastern, Islamic, and Strategic Studies,
Zuhur, Sherifa. Saud, Khalid ibn Sultan ibn Abd al-Aziz al-. In
, edited by Spencer Tucker. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2010b,
Zuhur, Sherifa. Decreasing Violence in Saudi Arabia and Beyond. In
:
, edited by Thomas M. Pick, Anne Speckhard, and Beatrice
Zuhur, Sherifa. Personal interviews, Riyadh, Jeddah, London, Washington D.C. 2005-2008.
Zuhur, Sherifa. Military Perspectives on the U.S.-Saudi Arabian Relationship and Future
Studies, Ministry of Foreign A airs, 2005a.
Zuhur, Sherifa.
. Car-
Abaya
(Aba)
A black cloak worn by women in Saudi Arabia that covers the entire
Abu Bakr
The
Glossary
Arafat
The wide plain approximately 12 miles east of Mecca, where all pilgrims
Ardhah
Ceremonial dance performed by men with swords. Also known as
or
in Saudi Arabia and by other names in other countries, such as
Ardh baydah
Uncultivated land.
Arham
A
nal relatives married into ones family or ones spouses family.
Asayib
387
Committee for the Defense of Legitimate Rights (CDLR)
Group founded in Riyadh
Glossary
Fouta
A length of fabric wrapped around as a skirt and worn by men.
Free Men of al-Qatif (Ahrar al-Qatif )
A Shia militant group that issued a state-
tifadha of 1430. It released a statement harshly condemning the religious po-
ghting people in
Fusha
(Pronounced
.) The classical Arabic language.
Ghadab
Anger.
Ghazal
The wild gazelle.
Ghazl
Hijaz
The western province of Saudi Arabia. The holy cities of Mecca and Medina
Hijrah
Glossary
390
Ihram
The state of ritual purity that pilgrims must enter and maintain during the
. It also pertains to the clothing worn by the pilgrims: for men, two white seam-
tting garments.
Ihya
Legal acquisition of land through cultivation of barren
elds.
Ijma
Consensus, a principle of Islamic jurisprudence.
Ijtihad
391
Kabah
A cube-shaped building in the center of the Grand Mosque in Mecca, con-
Kabsa
A dish cooked with chicken (or lamb) and rice.
Ka
r
A polytheist or in
del. Some sources, both Muslim and non-Muslim, use
to mean any non-Muslim, but its earliest application was to Meccans and
Khalas (Deliverance) Movement
A Shia political opposition movement launched
Khaliji
Of the Arabian Gulf; from Saudi Arabia or the other nations along the Gulf.
Khamr
Wine or any form of alcohol. Forbidden to Muslims and in Saudi Arabia
Khariji (plural, Khawarij)
A movement of devout Muslims who seceded from the
Kharuf
Lamb, sheep.
Khatib
Preacher, tribal orator, or spokesman.
Khayma (khaymah)
Tent; also called
by the bedouin.
Khutbah
Sermon.
Kiswa h
is presented, and the previous
Ku
ya
Mens or boys skullcap, also known as a taqiyyah. In Mecca the white
ya baladi
Kuttab
School for teaching the Quran.
Laylat al-hinna
A nighttime prewedding celebration when the brides friends gather
Glossary
392
Mahr
A payment made by the groom to his bride upon their marriage.
Mahram (plural, maharim)
A male relative whom a woman cannot marry as she is
, is from her
.
Majlis
Muadhdhan
The person who issues the call to prayer (
) in a strong, pleasing
Mudandash
A dress.
Mufti
Issuer of legal opinions (
).
Muhammad ibn Abdullah
Musalla
A smaller mosque or prayer room. Literally, place of prayer.
Mutawain
Also known in Saudi Arabia as the Organization or Committee for
the Promotion of Virtue and Prevention of Vice, as the HAIA, or as the religious
Glossary
394
ed to Yemen, where three di
erent organizations reassembled under
Qahwah
Co
ee.
Qasidah
Sala
An adherent of the
yya
movement. This refers to historic and modern
cation of Islamic practice by followers of Muhammad ibn
(not the
movement for Islamic
Salat
Prayer in Islam.
Saluki
A hunting dog favored by the bedouin.
Samnah
Clari
ed butter used in cooking.
Saqr
A type of falcon
Al-Saud, King Abd al-Aziz al-Rahman
The founder of the modern state of Saudi
rst king. He was also known as Ibn Saud.
Al-Saud, King Abdullah ibn Abd al-Aziz
King of Saudi Arabia since 2007.
Al-Saud, King Fahd ibn Abd al-Aziz
King Fahd was debilitated by a stroke; many
Al-Saud, King Faysal ibn Abd al-Aziz
A modernizing king who was assassinated
Al-Saud, Prince Bandar ibn Sultan ibn Abd al-Aziz
Former ambassador of Saudi
Al-Saud, Prince Nayif ibn Abd al-Aziz
Minister of the interior and second deputy
Al-Saud, Prince Sultan ibn Abd al-Aziz
Crown prince,
rst deputy prime minister,
Al-Saud, Prince Turki al-Faysal
Previously headed the General Intelligence Direc-
Sawalif
Glossary
396
Shuhadah
Martyrdom. Those who participate in jihad and are not seeking self-
Shura
Consultation with the rulers, a principle of Islamic governance. The Saudi
es
397
Thawb nashal
Glossary
398
Wasta
The following tables present facts and
gures about contemporary Saudi Arabia.
Country Info
bounded by Jordan, Iraq, and Kuwait to the north; the Persian
Gulf, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, and Oman to the east
cial Nameal-Mamlakah al-
Local Nameal-Arabiyyah al-Saudiyyah
GovernmentMonarchy
CapitalRiyadh
Facts and Figures
400
DEMOGRAPHICS
The following table features information about the people of Saudi Arabia, including
Country Info
Time Zone8 hours ahead of U.S. Eastern Standard
CurrencySaudi riyal
Head of StateKing Abdullah ibn Abd al-Aziz al-Saud
Head of GovernmentKing Abdullah ibn Abd al-Aziz al-Saud
LegislatureMajlis al-Shura (Consultative Council), appointed by the
Major Political PartiesNone
Sources:
ABC-CLIO World Geography database; CIA World Factbook (https://www.cia.
gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook)
Demographics
Population:29,207,277 (2010 est.)
Population by age(2010 est.)
01438%
156459.50%
65+ 2.50%
Median Age(2010 est.)
Total24.9 years
Males26 years
Females23.4 years
Population Growth Rate1.548% (2010 est.)
Population Density34 people per sq. mile (2010 est.)
Infant Mortality Rate16.7 deaths per 1,000 live births (2010 est.)
401
GEOGRAPHY
The following table provides general facts and
gures on the geography of Saudi
Geography
Land Area864,869 sq. miles
Arable Land2%
Irrigated Land6,255 sq.miles (2003)
Coastline1,640 miles
Natural Hazardssand and dust storms
Environmental ProblemsDeserti
cation, water scarcity, coastal pollution from
Economy
GDP$434.4 billion (2009 est.)
GDP per capita$14,873 (2007 est.)
GDP by sectorAgriculture, 2.7%; industry, 61.9%; services, 35.4%
Exchange rate3.75 riyals = US $
Labor forceAgriculture, 6.7%; industry, 21.4%; services, 71.9%
Unemployment10.8% (2010 est.)
Facts and Figures
402
COMMUNICATIONS AND TRANSPORTATION
The following table features facts and
gures on Saudi Arabias communications
Economy
Communications and Transportation
Telephone lines4.2 million (2009)
Mobile phones44.9 million (2009)
403
MILITARY
The following table outlines basic statistics about the Saudi Arabian military.
Military
Defense spending 10% of GDP (2005)
Active armed forces233,500 (2010)
t for military service7,560,216 men (2010 est.)
Military serviceVoluntary, age 18 or older
Sources:
ABC-CLIO World Geography database; CIA World Factbook (https://www.cia.
gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook)
EDUCATION
The following table presents basic information about education in Saudi Arabia.
Education
Education expenditures 5.7% of GDP (2008)
Average years spent in school13.5 (2008)
Students per teacher, primary school10.8 (2008)
Students per teacher, secondary school11 (2008)
Enrollment in tertiary education666,662 (2008)
Literacy79.0% (2005)
Sources:
ABC-CLIO World Geography database; CIA World Factbook (https://www.cia.
gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook)
Facts and Figures
Indicator19901995200020052010
Rural population (thousands)3,8073,8934,1934,4924,735
Urban population (thousands)12,44914,35816,61419,12021,681
Percentage urban (%)76.678.779.881.082.1
Indicator19901995199520002000200520052010
0.451.491.381.05
2.852.922.812.51
Urban annual growth rate (percent)
1980
1980
1985
1985
1990
1990
1995
1995
2000
2000
2005
2005
2010
2010
2015
2015
2020
405
Population of capital city (millions)
Capital city1995200520072010
Al-Riyadh (Riyadh) 2.5764.264.4657 (est.)
Populations of other Saudi Arabian cities (thousands)
City19901995200020052010
Al-Dammam409533639766903
Medina5296697959441,105
Jeddah1,7422,2002,5092,8603,239
Mecca8561,0331,1681,3191,486
Urban Population, Agglomerations, and Percentage of Total Urban Population
Size class19901995200020052010
Number of agglomerations23334
Population4,0686,2687,2448,37310,686
Percentage of urban population3344444449
Number of agglomerations22233
Population1,3851,2021,4342,2392,019
Percentage of urban population1189129
Population6,9966,8887,9368,5088,976
Percentage of urban population5648484441
Facts and Figures
Economic Indicators 2004200520062007
GDP (in millions of $)250,338.9315,580356,630.4383,586.7
Growth of GDP (%)5.35.6 3.2 3.4
ation (CPI) 0.30.7 2.2 4.2
Unemployment (%) 6.3 5.6*
Extreme poverty (%) 1.25
6.4**
0.10.1 0.2 2.1
51,926.0 90,060.2 99,066.1 95,080.2
Government consumption 23.622.223.3 22.4

2.62.6 2.5
8.48.0 8.3 9.2
Sources:
BTI 2010Saudi Arabia Country Report
Germany: Bertelsmann Stiftung, 2009) and UNDP Saudi Arabia Data.
on the World Banks World Development Indicators 2009; the UNESCO Institute for
Top 10 Oil Producers, 20092010 (by Total Oil
RankCountryBarrels/Day
1Russia 10,120,000
2Saudi Arabia9,764,000
3United States9,056,000
4Iran4,172,000
5China3,991,000
6Canada3,289,000
407
20%
U.S.
Far East
Mediterranean
U.S.
Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Crude Oil Exports (2009)
Refined Product Exports (2009)
Natural Gas Liquids Exports (2009)
Far East
Far East
58%
Other
34%
Top 10 Oil Producers, 20092010 (by Total Oil
RankCountryBarrels/Day
7Mexico3,001,000
8United Arab Emirates2,798,000
9Brazil2,572,000
10Kuwait2,494,000
Source: CIA World Factbook
, https://www.cia.gov/library/
publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2173rank.html
Facts and Figures
408
19601965197019751980198519901995200020052009
(Million Barrels per Day)
Source
: http://www.eia.doe.gov/aer/txt/ptb1105.html
Saudi Arabias Leading Regional Trading Partners in the Years of the Oil Boom
ExportsImports
Rank Country No.
Rank Country No.
1 Jordan 223.5 1 Lebanon 341.2
2 Lebanon203.0 2 Kuwait 304.85
3 Morocco185.0 3 Syria221.8
4 Sudan116.5 4 Jordan110.4
5 Syria112.4 5 Sudan82.57
ects the countries ability to invest in other areas of their economy because
409
Saudi Arabias Leading Regional Trading Partners in the Years of the Oil Boom
ExportsImports
RankCountryNo. RankCountryNo.
6 Tunisia88.0 6 Egypt50.7
7 Egypt79.7 7 Morocco15.5
8 Kuwait 47.28 8 Iraq4.0
9 Libya16.0 9 Libya.85
10 Iraq15.810 Tunisia.85
11 Algeria3.511 Algeria.45
Sources: Quarterly Economic Review
(various country editions, 19821983); Zuhur, A View
of Intraregional Trade in the Middle East, 1986.
cant to its own economic pro
le than any Arab partners.
cance of Saudi Arabias trade with
Exports ImportsTotal Value of Trade
IR total = 9,491 IR total = 9,795IR total = 19,286
World total = 533,425World total = 181,828World total = 715,243
IR portion = 1.77% IR portion = 5.385% IR portion = 2.69%
Industrial Countries Percentage of Total Trade with Saudi Arabia for 1982
Exports = US$ 64.5 millionImports = U
Facts and Figures
410
Saudi Arabias Exports: Highest Percentages
To: United States17.1%
South Korea 10.1%
China 9.3%
India 7.0%
Saudi Arabias Imports: Highest Percentages
From: United States12.2%
Japan 7.7%
Germany 7.4%
South Korea 5.1%
411
JordanSyriaSudanLebanonYemenEgypt
Exports
(% of total)
Imports
(% of total)
Exports
(% of total)
Imports
(% of total)
Imports
(% of total)
Exports
(% of total)
Exports
(% of total)
Imports
(% of total)
10.5617.35.0410.17.227.05.85.53
Facts and Figures
412
Employment
cant percentage of the employed population had a sec-
Educational
Level
Male
(No.)
(%)
Female
(No.)
Female
(%)
Total
(No.)
Total
(%)
Illiterate131,3254.019,9452.06141,2703.76
Literate111,0583.393,7590.78114,8173.06
Primary446,28813.637,6131.58453,90112.08
Intermediate626,78119.1411,7612.44638,54217.00
1,010,10230.8554,55111.311,064,65328.34
Diploma264,1038.0786,32717.90350,4309.33
University633,77719.36298,45461.88932,23124.82
Postgraduate35,1491.074,3230.9039,4721.05
PhD 15,7730.485,5801.1621,3530.57
Total3,274,356100.00482,313100.003,756,669100.00
Source:
United Nations Development Program and Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Ministry of
Economy and Planning,
Millennium Development Goals
2009 G./1430 H., p. 34.
Current GDP per capita US$14,871
Youth proportion of population (ages 1524) 19%
(ages 1529) 28%
413
Current GDP per capita US$ 14, 871
Male (UIS estimate) 70%
Female (UIS estimate) 76%
Percentage of GDP 6.8%
Percentage of total government expenditure 27.6%
Primary (national estimate) 11
Secondary (national estimate) *11
Sources:
Brookings Institute, Taking Stock of the Youth Challenge to the Middle East,
2010, http://www.brookings.edu/articles/2010/06_middle_east_youth.aspx?sc_lang=en.
Country data and UIS, 2009. United Nations (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics (2009).
al-Jandaliyya Mahazat al-Sayd
al-Khunfah Majami al-Hadb
al-Tubayq Nafud al-Urayq
al-Taysiyah Raydah
Farasan Islands Saja Umm al-Rimth
Harrat al-Harrah Umm al-Qamari
Ibex Reserve Uruq Bani Maarid
OFFICIAL HOLIDAYS
O
cial holidays in Saudi Arabia are the Id al-Fitr, the Id al-Adha, and Saudi Na-
nal 10 days of Ramadan. On this night,
rst revealed. However, it is not known exactly when the Night of
The Id al-Fitr and Id al-Adha
The Id al-Fitr ends the fast of Ramadan. This Id is celebrated for several days (up
ce, commemorates
cing of a ram in place of his son Ismail, and occurs on the 10th day
The dates given for 20112013 might vary by a day or two because the beginning
1st day of Ramadan: Predicted for August 1, 2011
Laylat al-Qadr (Night of Power): Estimated August 26, 2011
Id al-Fitr (end of Ramadan): August 30, 2011
Id al-Adha (10th day of Dhu al-Hija): November 6, 2011
Major Saudi Arabian Holidays
416
Saudi National Day
Saudi National Day is held on September 23 of the Western calendar every year to
OTHER HOLIDAYS
417
Isra
BUSINESS AND ECONOMIC RESOURCES
Chambers of commerce and industry exist in all of the main cities of Saudi Arabia
Chambers of Commerce
A point of contact is the Council of Chambers:
http://www.saudichambers.org.sa/index_en.htm
or http://www.saudinf.com/main/p2.htm
EDDAH
HAMBER
OMMERCE
NDUSTRY
King Khalid St., Ghurfa Bldg.
P.O. Box 9549
Jeddah 21423
Tel: (2) 642-3535/647-1100
Fax: (2) 651-7373
Website: http://www.jcci.org.sa/jcci/
Country-Related Organizations
420
IYADH
HAMBER
OMMERCE
NDUSTRY
Dhabab St. , al-Murabba
P.O. Box 596
Riyadh 11421
Tel: 966 (1) 404-0044/404-0300/404-2700
Fax: 966 (1) 401-1103
Website: http://www.riyadhchamber.com/index.php
For other addresses, see http://www.saudia-online.com/chamber.htm.
The chambers are headed by the Council of Saudi Chambers of Commerce and
Kingdom Holding Company
P.O. Box 1
Riyadh 11321
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Tel: +966 1 211 1111
Fax: +966 1 211 1112
E-mail: [email protected]
Website: http://www.kingdom.com.sa/en/
A public holding company controlled by Prince al-Walid ibn Talal ibn Abd
Saudi Arabian Market Information Resources (SAMIRAD)
For directory entry or book advertising,
Postal address: SAMIRAD, Littebrook Estate, Poulner Hill, Ringwood,
Tel: 00 44 (0) 1425 489901
Fax: 00 44 (0) 1425 461200
E-mail: [email protected]
Website: http://www.saudinf.com/
Country-Related Organizations
421
Saudi-U.S. Relations Information Service (SUSRIS)
Patrick Ryan, Editor
Saudi-US Relations Information Service (SUSRIS)
c/o P.O. Box 2931
Cookeville, TN 38502-2931
Tel: (931) 230-5732
Website: http://www.susris.com
Saudi-U.S. Relations Information Service (SUSRIS) is a private-sector informa-
ers a wide array of articles, interviews, and information
Country-Related Organizations
422
Tel: (800) 245-1111
E-mail: [email protected]
Website: http://www.cma.org.sa/
Country-Related Organizations
423
E-mail: [email protected]
Website: http://www.mansoojat.org
And on Facebook
The Mansoojat Foundation is a nonpro
t charity registered in the United King-
erent regions of Saudi Arabia. They mounted
Saudi Arabian Boy Scouts Association (SABSA)
Website: http://www.scouts.org.sa/a
SABSA is the o
cial national scouting organization of Saudi Arabia and had
in Arabic, and the
.
Saudi Arabian Society for Culture and Arts
Country-Related Organizations
424
erences.
EDUCATIONAL/SCHOLARLY
British Society for Middle East Studies (BRISMES)
BRISMES Administrative O
ce
Institute for Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies
University of Durham
Country-Related Organizations
425
Website: http://www.ids.gov.sa/vEnglish/default.asp
or: http://www.ids.gov.sa/en/
The Institute of Diplomatic Studies (IDS) is an educational organization of the
airs headed by a board of directors and re-
airs. It hosts scholars and experts who lecture to the members, pro-
Institute for Gulf Affairs
Country-Related Organizations
426
Abdulaziz Centre for Information and Research), the King Abdulaziz Mosque, the
King Abdulaziz Public Library
Tel: 966 14911300
Fax: 966 14911949
Website: http://www.kapl.org.sa/
The branch of the library in the Murabba area of Riyadh within the historical
Pasha, and the Mirza collection, and also collections of documents, maps, and coins.
King Fahd National Library
Website: http://www.kfupm.edu.sa/library/
This library is located in a modernistic building in Riyadh. It is a research facility
King Faisal Foundation
P.O. Box 352
Riyadh 11411
Fax: 1-465-6524
E-mail: [email protected]
.com
Website: http://www.k
.com/
The King Faisal Foundation is a philanthropic and scholarly organization es-
Country-Related Organizations
427
at National College,
ers a university preparatory pro-
.
Middle East Policy Council
Country-Related Organizations
428
The National Council on U.S. Arab Relations (NCUSAR) is a U.S. nonpro
t
Country-Related Organizations
429
er technical assistance and training facilities for development
Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency (SAMA)
, 2010). In 2009, the council was re-
hammed ibn Nayef ibn Abdulaziz, Dr. Abdulaziz ibn Abdullah Al-Khuwaiter, Dr.
sah, the minister of commerce and industry, the minister
Country-Related Organizations
430
Tadawul (Saudi Stock Exchange)
NCCI Building, North Tower
King Fahd Rd.
P.O. Box 60612
Riyadh 11555
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Tel.: +966 1 218-9999 (main number)
Tel.: +966 1 218-9090 (customer service)
E-mail: [email protected]
Website: http://www.tadawul.com.sa/wps/portal/!ut/p/c0/04_
The Tadawul is the Saudi Arabian Stock Exchange and is supervised by the Saudi
Country-Related Organizations
431
Governmental agencies and ministries are listed on the websites of Saudi Arabias
General Intelligence Directorate (GID)
P.O. Box 2933
Riyadh 11134
Tel: 1-401-1944
Fax: 1-403-1185
Jeddah o
ce Tel: 2-687-232
Saudi Arabias largest intelligence agency is responsible for intelligence collec-
fered a stroke. Prince Muqrin ibn Abd al-Aziz has been director-general of the GIP
Cooperation with the United States on counterterrorism has increased
General Organization for Social Insurance (GOSI)
P.O. Box 2963
Riyadh 11461
Tel: 1-477-7735
Fax: 1- 477-9958
Website: http://www.gosi.gov.sa/index.php
The General Organization for Social Insurance (GOSI) is a governmental agency
ts to Saudi Arabian citizens and noncitizens if they are insured in Saudi Arabia.
HAIA or CPVPV (Committee for the Promotion of Virtue
and the Prevention of Vice)
Tel: 038602687
Fax: 038602688
E-mail: [email protected]
Website: http://www.hisbah.gov.sa/ (*This website was down in early summer
Country-Related Organizations
432
HAIA (the Committee for the Promotion of Virtue and the Prevention of Vice) is a
, or religious po-
, which is the religious command to promote virtue and do
Country-Related Organizations
Riyadh 11165
Tel: 1 478 5900/1 477 7313
Jeddah tel: 2 665 2400
Country-Related Organizations
434
The Royal Saudi Naval Forces (RSNF, or the Royal Saudi Navy) is the naval
Country-Related Organizations
Saudi Arabian Standards Organization (SASO)
P.O. Box 3437
Riyadh 11471
Tel: 1-479-3332
Fax: 1-479-3063
E-mail: [email protected]
Website: http://www.saso.org.sa
The Saudi Arabian Standards Organization (SASO) was established in 1972 and
Saudi Aramco
Media Relations Contact Information
Public Relations Department R-2212
East Administration Building
P.O. Box 5000
Dhahran 31311Saudi Arabia
Fax: 966-3-873-8490
E-mail: [email protected]
General Inquiries
Saudi Aramco New Business Development
North Park 2, Bldg. 3301
Dhahran 31311
Tel: +966 3872 0115
Fax: +966 3874 1737
Website: http://www.saudiaramco.com/irj/portal/anonymous
Saudi Aramco is the national oil company of Saudi Arabia and is the largest oil
The Saudi Geological Survey (SGS)
Saudi Geological Survey
P.O. Box 54141
Jeddah 21514
Saudi Arabia
Tel: +966 261 9 5000
Country-Related Organizations
436
Fax: +966 2 619 6000
E-mail: [email protected]
Website: http://www.sgs.orgs.sa
The Saudi Geological Survey (SGS) is the national geologic survey organiza-
Country-Related Organizations
437
Saudi Telecom Company (STC) was initially the sole provider of telecom services
Country-Related Organizations
438
Ensan (Insan)
Website: http://www.ensan.org.sa/home/
Ensan is a charitable group o
ering aid to orphans in Saudi Arabia.
Gulf Kids Foundation (Atfal al-Khalij)
Website: http://www.gulfkids.com
The Gulf Kids Foundation is a charitable organization to help children of the
Al-Haramayn Islamic Foundation
A charity and

organization based in Saudi Arabia that has had branches
Country-Related Organizations
439
activities and was forced to pledge that he would not contact foreign diplomats
or the media and would cease his activities. Authorities have also harassed and
interrogated his son.
National Society for Human Rights (NSHR)
E-mail: [email protected]
Website: http://nshr.org.sa/english/adefault.aspx
Country-Related Organizations
440
Sara Alhumaid: [email protected]
Rasha Alaftan: [email protected]
Fahd Aljuraid: [email protected]
Website: http://www.srcs.org.sa/
The Saudi Red Crescent Authority provides medical services to those in need and
Saudi Society for Labor
Country-Related Organizations
441
Country-Related Organizations
442
Saudi Arabian Chefs Society (SARCA)
E-mail: [email protected]
Website: http://www.sarca.surge8.com/
Country-Related Organizations
443
The Arab Sports Federation was established in 1976 to encourage and develop
The Equestrian Club
P.O. Box 26323
Riyadh 11486
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Tel: +9661 25 40 222
The Equestrian Club is a private equestrian organization that organizes events
Islamic Solidarity Games Federation
The federation includes the 57 nations of the Organization of the Islamic Confer-
Country-Related Organizations
Cordesmann, Anthony.
. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003.
Matthiesen, Toby. The Shia of Saudi Arabia at a Crossroads.
, May 6, 2009. http://www.middleeastdesk.org/article.php?id=2765
Aarts, Paul, and Gerd Nonneman, eds.
Annotated Bibliography
446
Abd al-Wahhab, Muhammad ibn. Kitab al-Jihad. In

:
. Vol. 2. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Jamiat al-Imam
447
Abu Khalid, Fawziyya.
tarikh al-sumt al-

. Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-
Annotated Bibliography
448
Altorki, Soraya. The Concept and Practice of Citizenship in Saudi Arabia. In
, edited by Suad Joseph. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse Univer-
This essay proposes that the universal concept of citizenship is actually Western and does
449
A study of Saudi Arabian women writers of various types of literature and di
ering social
Armstrong, H. C.
. London: Arthur Barker, 1934.
A biography of Ibn Saud, the founder of modern Saudi Arabia, and his career.
Al-Ashban, R. M., M. Aslam, and A. H. Shah. Kohl (Surma): A Toxic Traditional Eye
Annotated Bibliography
450
Bagader, Abu Bakr A., and Ava Molnar Heinrichsdor
, eds. and trans.
. Washington, DC: Three Continents, 1990.
A collection of short stories by well-known Saudi Arabian writers addressing social issues
Bagader, Abu Bakr, Ava M. Heinrichsdor
, and Deborah S. Akers.
. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 1998.
A collection of short stories by noted Saudi Arabian women writers.
Bagader, Abou Baker A., and Deborah S. Akers, eds. and trans.
. Beirut, Lebanon: Centre International pour les Services Culturels, 2007.
A collection of short stories of Saudi Arabia.
Ba Gha
ar, Hind.

-l-Mamlakah al-


[Folk
Explanations of popular lyrics in verse from Saudi Arabia.
Bahgat, Gawdat. Foreign Investment in Saudi Arabias Energy Sector.
47, no. 34 (2004).
Explains Saudi Arabias interest in international investment in its energy sector in the
Baker, Razan. Tales of Old Jeddah.
, January 25, 2007.
Introduces the tradition of storytelling in Jeddah and Lamia Baeshans project to preserve
al-Baz, Rania.
gured: A Saudi Womans Story of Triumph over Violence
. Translated by
The true story of a Saudi Arabian television journalist who was battered by her husband.
BBC Two. The Child Slaves of Saudi Arabia. This World. Directed by Rageh Omaar
.
Investigative report and program looking into the reasons children come illegally into
al-Bedah, Abdullah M. N. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In
, edited by G. Bode-
ker, C. K. Ong, C. Grundy, and K. Shein. Kobe, Japan: World Health Organization,
A review of the traditional healing practices as well as the entry of external alternative
Beling, William A., ed.
. Boulder, CO:
An edited collection on King Faysals rule and many aspects of modernization, develop-
Bell, Gertrude.
. Edited by Rosemary OBrien. Syracuse,
Bell, an archaeologist, and later an important political
gure in Britains Middle East
451
Benoist-Mchin, Jacque.
. Paris, 1975.
An insiders view of King Faysal and his importance to Saudi Arabia.
Annotated Bibliography
al-Bogari, Naima, Geo
Crowther, and Norman Marr. Motivation for Domestic Tourism:
, edited by Arch G. Woodside. Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK:
The motivations for travel in ones own country di
er culturally and are important in
Bogary, Hamza.
. Translated by Olive
An autographical novel about a young student who becomes a teacher; it includes a vi-

Annotated Bibliography
454
Descriptions of traditional, or folkloric (as opposed to pop), recordings of voice and
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and Fundacion par las Relaciones Internacio-
. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and FRIDE, n.d.
Comprehensive information about the Saudi Arabian political system apparently drawn
455
Clark, Arthur. Samphire: From Sea to Shining Seed.
45, no. 6 (November/
This article describes the agricultural project at Ras Zawr to grow samphire, which can be
Clark, Arthur C., ed.
. Rev. ed.
A history and account of Saudi Aramcos origins and role in Saudi Arabia and coverage
Clark, Arthur C., and Muhammad Tahlawy, eds.
Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, and Houston, TX: Aramco
This is a very large volume with encyclopedia-type coverage of many subjects concerning
Cole, Donald P. Pastoral Nomads in a Rapidly Changing Economy: The Case of Saudi
, edited by Tim Niblock.
An analysis of the al-Murrah bedouin as their lifestyle changed after the oil boom.
Cole, Donald P.
. Chi-
A full study of the al-Murrah bedouin based on Coles
eldwork in 1968 and 1969.
Cole, Donald P. Al Murrah Bedouins: The Pure Ones Roam Arabias Sands. In
Annotated Bibliography
456
Cook, Michael. The Expansion of the First Saudi State: The Case of Washm. In
, edited
457
This is a guide to Saudi Arabian manners and customs chie
y for a foreigner doing busi-
al-Dakhil, Khalid.
. Los Angeles: University of
Annotated Bibliography
458
al-Dosary, Adel S., and Syed M. Rahman. SaudizationLocalization: A Critical Review.
8, no. 4 (2005), 495502.
459
, http://www.afropop.org/multi/
Discusses the musical traditions derived from former African slaves in the Gulf region.
Facey, William. Al-Udhaibat: Building on the Past.
50, no. 3 (July/Au-
An illustrated article on the restoration of a home in al-Udhaibat.
Facey, William.
. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Al
Describes the art of building with adobe in local design and the process of restoring an old
Facey, William.
. London: Stacey International, 1997.
An illustrated work on Diriyyah and the al-Saud conquest of the area, as well as the alli-
Facey, William.
. London: Stacey Interna-
Annotated Bibliography
Al-Fassi, Hatoon.
. Oxford, UK: British Archaeological Re-
An original study of women in pre-Islamic Arabia. Original studies are important be-
461
al-Ghadyan, Ahmed A. The Judiciary in Saudi Arabia.
13, no. 3
A review of the role and particular features of the judges in Saudi Arabia.
Ghazanfar, Shahina.
. London: CRC, 1994.
A review of the plants, herbs, and spices used as medicine in the Arabian tradition.
Gibb, HA. R.
. Oxford and London: Oxford University
A classic Orientalist overview of various genres of Arabic literature.
Gordon, Murray.
. New York: New Amsterdam Books, 1989.
A study of slavery in the Arab countries.
al-Gosaibi (or al-Qusaybi), Ghazi. Octopus, When I am With You, and Silence.
Annotated Bibliography
462
al-Hadhdhal, A. I.


. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia:
463
A collection of stories in a modern style.
al-Hashimi, Muhammad Ali.
Annotated Bibliography
464
Helms, Christine M.
. London: Croom Helm, 1981.
A political study of Saudi Arabia.
Henderson, Simon. After King Abdullah: Succession in Saudi Arabia.
.
Washington, DC: Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 2009.
An updated version of the 1994 study.
Henderson, Simon.
. Washington, DC: Wash-
A study of the royal family and the succession process.
Herz, Siba Al.
. Beirut, Lebanon, 2008; New York: Seven Stories, 2009.
A novel, published under a pseudonym, which includes the protagonists amorous relation-
High Commission for the Development of Arriyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

(
). Riyadh: High Commission for the Development of Arriyadh,
Titled in Arabic and English, this is a book of photographs of Riyadh, juxtaposing those
Hilden, Joy [May] Totah.
. London:
eld, CT: David Brown, 2010.
A study of bedouin
at-weave textiles used for dress, tents, rugs, saddlebags, and other
Hilden, Joy May. The Use of Wasm (Animal Brands) in Beduin Weavings. Beduin Weav-
A study of the markers indicating tribal ownership by an expert on Bedouin weaving practices.
Hillenbrand, Robert. Traditional Architecture of the Arabian Peninsula.
465
A very thorough study of the pre-oil dialects of Bahrain and, in some cases, the surround-
Hopper, Mathew S. Pearls, Globalization and the African Diaspora in the Arabian Gulf in
Annotated Bibliography
Hume-Gri
th, M. E.
. London: Seeley,
A Western travelers account of her experiences in parts of Arabia and Persia that high-
Al Hussain, M., and M. Al Bunyan. Consanguineous Marriages in a Saudi Population and
ect of Inbreeding on Perinatal and Postnatal Mortality.
17 (1997), 155160.
Considers how consanguinity, which is prevalent in Saudi Arabia due to the preference for
ects womens maternal death rates.
Ibn Bishr, Uthman.
tarikh Najd
. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Maktabah al-
An account of Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhabs mission and the
rst Saudi state by a
Ibn Ghannam, Husayn,
. Edited by Nassar Al-Din Assad. Riyadh: Abd al-
An alternate edition of the same work as in Ibn Ghannams 1961 work.
Ibn Ghannam, Husayn.

. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 1381h.
Ibn Ghannam (d. 1810) was a scholar and supporter of Abd al-Wahhab and describes his
er from those drawn on by Ibn Bishr.
Ibn Ghannam, Husayn.
. Cairo, 1961.
The history of Najd at the time of Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab and the
rst Saudi
Ibn Hurayyil, S. H.
. Beirut, Lebanon: Matabi al-Wafa, 1374h.
467
Annotated Bibliography
468
This works contains
, Islamic legal rulings, on the form of folk medicine used in
Al-Jeraisy, Khaled Abd al-Rahman.
. Raghbah and Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Khaled
469
Keynoush, Banafsheh. The Iranian-Saudi Arabian Relationship: From Ideological Con-
Annotated Bibliography
470
This chapter concerns the role of tribes, and tribal chieftaincy in the context of the forma-
cant aspect of state formation.
Kurpershoek, P. Marcel.
. London: Al Saqi, 2001.
This title covers the authors travels in central Saudi Arabia in the late 1980s and the per-
Lancaster, William.
. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
Annotated Bibliography
472
Long, David E.
. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2005.
473
Mahy, Lyn. Saudi Aramco World Flavored with Tradition: Food from Saudi Arabia.
, November/December 1975.
Food traditions in Saudi Arabia are presented in this article.
Maisal, Sebastien, and John A. Shoup.
. Westport, CT: Greenwood and ABC-CLIO, 2009.
A reference work on Saudi Arabia and the Gulf states covering many topics from culture
Makky, Abdel Wahed.
.
Annotated Bibliography
474
475
al-Mumayiz, Amin.


The memoirs of a former o
cial.
al-Munajjed (printed AlMunajjed), Mona.
. Basingstoke,
A preliminary study of women in Saudi Arabia and the progress made in education and
Munif, Abdelrahman.
[Cities of salt]. 5 vols. 9th ed. Beirut, Lebanon: al-
A
ctional account of a desert kingdom in moral and spiritual bankruptcy that closely
rst volume of the series, which appeared in translation as
Annotated Bibliography
Nawwab, Nimah Ismail. The Childrens Kingdom.
, November/December
An illustrated article about the annual childrens art contest in Saudi Arabia.
Nawwab, Nimah Ismail.
. Vista, CA: Selwa Press, 2004.
477
Similar to the authors chapter in Ayoob and Kosebalaban, eds., a description of the e
ects
Ochsenwald, William.
Annotated Bibliography
478
479
The
rst travel book by St. John (Jack) Philby, written while on leave at Eastbourne (in
Pierpoli, Paul, and Sherifa Zuhur. Medina. In
, ed-
A brief article about Medina and its history.
Pint, John.
. Riyadh: Saudi Arabia: Saudi Geological Sur-
A book-length treatment of the cave formations in Saudi Arabia based on the authors
Pint, John. Saudi Arabias Desert Caves.
51, no. 2 (March/April 2000), 2738.
A description of these unique caverns,
lled with water due to the geological formations
Poch, Christian. Music in Ancient Arabia from Archaeological and Written Sources. In
, edited by Virginia Danielson, Scott Marcus, and
This essay summarizes what is known about music in ancient Arabia from art history and
Powell, William.
. Secaucus, NJ: Lyle Stuart, 1982.
A study of Saudi Arabia through the late 1970s.
al-Qabesi, Mohyddin, coll. and ed.
. Riyadh:
Annotated Bibliography
Racy, Ali Jihad. The Life History of the Lyre (in the Path of the Lyre): The Tanburah of
,
481
al-Rasheed, Madawi, and Robert Vitalis, eds.
Counternarratives: History, Contemporary
Annotated Bibliography
482
Rihani, Ameen.
. Boston: Houghton Mi
in, 1928.
Account by a Syrian administrator and courtier of King Abd al-Aziz with important
483
Annotated Bibliography
yya al-Khateeb, a
el-Sanabary, Nagat. The Education and Contribution of Women Health Care Profession-
37, no. 11 (1993), 13311343.
An article concerning the role and training of women in nursing in Saudi Arabia. A longer
el-Sanabary, Nagat. The Saudi Arabian Model of Female Education and the Reproduc-
tion of Gender Divisions. Working Paper no. 16, G. E. von Grunebaum Center for
This paper that shows that educators were not interested in challenging the reproduction of
Saqqaf, Khayriyya.
. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Dar al-Ulum, 1982.
A collection of short stories in a dramatic and captivating style.
al-Saud, Norah bint Muhammad, al-Jawhara Muhammad al-Anqari, and Madeha Mu-
Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: By the editors, printed by M. A. Ajroush, 1989.
Materials on the southwestern areas of Saudi Arabia with their unique cultural features
al-Saud, Saud al-Faisal ibn Abd al-Aziz. Saudi-European Relations: Towards a Reliable
In this speech, Prince Saud described Saudi Arabias ongoing reforms and the need for
miss a 1400-year-old culture and civilization by stigmatizing it as merely a hatchery for
al-Saud, Turki al-Faisal ibn Abd al-Aziz. Saudi Arabian Constitutional Evolution.
A public address that speaks to the growth and regularization of political practices that can
485
Sedgwick, Mark. Saudi Su
s: Compromise in the Hijaz 19251940.
This study shows that the Wahhabist conquest did not eradicate other forms of Islam in the
worship was managed and contained via compromise
Al-Semmari, Fahd, ed.
Translated by S. Jayyusi. Lon-
Essays that condense important insights of the contributing authors are included in this
Annotated Bibliography
486
The second section of the larger entry on Arab music considers popular (or folk) genres
Silsby, Jill.
London: Immel, 1980.
A study of the birds of the interior of Saudi Arabia.
Simon, Geo
.
New York: St. Martins,
A description of Saudi Arabias failure to reform that is viciously critical of the royal family
Arabian government.
Simpson, William.
487
Tayash, Fahad. Sameri Tradition and Zar Dance in Saudi Arabia.

9 (1988), 2336.
An article on the
song and performance format and the
, or performance and
al-Tayer, Abdullah ibn Musa.
Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Author, 2005
This title is about the troubled Saudi ArabianAmerican relationship and the idealized
Annotated Bibliography
488
Urkevich, Lisa A. Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of. In
, edited by Stanley Sadie. 2nd ed. New York and London: Macmillan, 2001,
A very useful overview of nonreligious music in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia by a special-
al-Uthaymin, Abd Allah Saleh.
London: I. B. Tauris, 2009.
This book, based on the authors 1972 dissertation for the University of Edinburgh, covers
; and the debates about Abd al-Wahhabs additions to doctrine.
Van der Meulen, Daniel.
New York: Praeger, 1957.
The memoirs of a Dutch diplomat stationed in Jeddah in the 1920s and the 1940s.
Vassiliev, Alexei.
London: Saqi Books, 1998; New York: New
A well-translated thorough history of the kingdom to the late 1990s, with excellent cover-
correspondent to Saudi Arabia.
489
Voll, John. Muhammad Hayya al-Sindi and Muhammad b. Abd al-Wahhab.
Annotated Bibliography
490
Yamani, Mai. The Challenge of Globalization in Saudi Arabia. In
, edited by Fereshteh Norahie-Simone. New York:
According to this chapter, the insular Saudi Arabian government does not know how to
Yamani, Mai.
London:
This book chronicles the growth of premodern regional identity in the Hijaz and how this
Yamani, Mai.
Lon-
airs, 2000.
Based on survey data, the author explores the ideas and worldview of young Saudi
Yamani, Mai. Muslim Women and Human Rights in Saudi Arabia: Aspirations of a
, edited by Eugene Cotran and Mai Yamani. London:
491
General observations that some women in Saudi Arabia rejected the Western truisms about
erent priorities for change.
Yamani, Mai. Fasting and Feasting: Some Social Aspects of the Observance of Ramadan
Annotated Bibliography
492
reformulations of religious principles (on jihad, for example) that are similar to those in
Zuhur, Sherifa. Considerations of Honor Crimes, FGM, Kidnapping/Rape and Early
This Expert Paper covers instances of female genital mutilation , kidnapping/rape, and
Zuhur, Sherifa. Decreasing Violence in Saudi Arabia and Beyond. In
, edited by Thomas M. Pick, Anne Speckhard, and
This title looks at the role of Islamic principles in decreasing violence or convincing radicals
eld notes. Riyadh, Jeddah, Dirriyyah and other
Zuhur, Sherifa. Military Perspectives on the U.S.-Saudi Arabian Relationship and Future
Studies, Ministry of Foreign A airs, 2005.
Addresses the U.S.Saudi Arabian relationship in light of the rise of neoconservative in
u-
Zuhur, Sherifa.
Describes the rise of Islamic and liberal opposition and forces for reform in Saudi Ara-
Zuhur, Sherifa. Arabs and Arab Culture. In
493
The Saudi Arabian female singing star Itab and the male star Talal Maddah, who men-
Recorded by Simon Jargy and Poul Rvs-
GEOGRAPHY
Abqaiq oil
eld, 7, 25, 69, 365
al-Dahna Desert, 3, 4, 7
al-Jafurah Desert, 7
al-Nafud Desert, 7
al-Qasim region, 10, 13 14
al-Uqayr Convention, 1
Arabian Gulf, 9, 10 11, 36, 148, 176
(bedouin/nomads) population, 2,
31 32, 336
climate of Saudi Arabia, 10
divisions of Saudi Arabia, historic and
modern, 12 14
Eastern Province (Sharquiyyah), 3, 7, 9,
emirates/divisions
of
fauna (animals and
sh), 10 11
ag of Saudi Arabia, 2
geography, 1 14
Arabic plant names, 11 12
climate, 10
deserts, 1, 3, 7 9, 48
environment and pollution, 12
fauna (animals and
sh), 10 11
ora (plants), 11 12
historic and modern divisions, 12 14
Thematic Index
496
Najd region plateau, 3
Najran Valley Dam, 13
National Commission for Wildlife
Northern Border (al-Hudud
al- Shamaliyyah) region, 14
497
complaints against Western presence,
family background, 106, 158
loss of Saudi citizenship, 23, 67 68
militants trained by, 361
terrorist actions, 22
Black September (1969), 57
Bolton, John, 71
Bush, George W., 71
California Arabian Standard Oil
Caliphates
Abbasid Caliphate, 18
Rashidun (Rightly Guided) Caliphate,
Ummayyad Caliphate, 17
Camp David Accords (1979), 22, 59
Carter, Jimmy, 59
Central Planning Organization (1968), 57
Christianity
Arab conversions to, 32
beliefs of, 176
establishment in Abyssinia, 30
Qurans beliefs about, 177
ritual practices, 34
Committee for Defense of Legitimate
Committee for the Promotion of Virtue
Consultative Council (Majlis al-Shura),
Continental Shelf Agreement (1968), 55
The Crusades (1107 1291), 18
Dilmun civilization, 17, 29
Ditch, Battle of the (627), 17
Dulles, John Foster, 50
Egypt
Free O
cers revolt, 20, 49
January 25th Revolution, 113
Eisenhower, Dwight D. (Eisenhower Doc-
Facebook, Saudi Revolution page, 27 28
Fahd ibn Abd al-Aziz al-Saud
(1982 2005), 62 64
Faisal ibn Abd al-Aziz al-Saud
(1964 1975), 54
Falluja Brigade (of the al-Qaida), 68 69
Faysal (brother of Saud ibn Abd
assumption of
nancial responsibilities,
call for Islamic leaders unity, 56
establishment of Central Planning
Khartoum agreement with Nasser, 55
military, industrial modernization
orts, 54
reform government proposals of, 52
support for education, 54, 55
Faysal ibn Turki (1843 1865), 20
FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation)
Thematic Index
498
Abdullah Abd al-Aziz al-Saud,
Fahd ibn Abd al-Aziz al-Saud, 62 64
rst Saudi state, 38 41
Gulf Wars, 64 67
Khalid ibn Abd al-Aziz, 58 62
King Faysal, 21, 22, 51, 53 58
Muslim dynasties, 35 38
rise of Islam, 32 35
Saud ibn Abd al-Aziz, 49 53
second Saudi realm (1824 1891),
timeline, 17 28
War on Terrorism/Global War on
Terror, 67 69
Hizballah (terrorist group), 71
Hudaybiyya, truce of, 34
Hussein, Saddam, 22, 65 66
Ikhwan Brotherhood, 19
International Conference for Dialogue
Iran
GCC concerns about, 61
Islamic Revolution (1979), 58, 59
Iran-Iraqi Wars, 61 62
Iraq
attack against Iran, 61 62
Husseins invasion of Kuwait, 22, 66
threats against Kuwait, 21
Treaty of Svres and, 19
Islam
499
Nkrumah, Kwame (Ghana), 50
Nonaligned Movement of Third World
Obama, Barack, visit to Saudi Arabia
oil
discoveries of, 46
loss of revenues under King Fahid, 64
Seven Sisters (oil companies), 52
Trans-Arabian Pipeline, 57
Operation Desert Shield (1991), 107, 359
Operation Desert Storm (1991), 65, 107,
Operation Enduring Freedom (2001), 23
Operation Iraqi Freedom (2003), 24, 118
Thematic Index
500
501
Arab Socialist Action Party, 101
Aramco Oil Company, 114
Bahrain-Saudi relations, 115 116
Basic (Fundamental) Law of Saudi
dynastic right of sons of Abd
Fahds proclamation of, 67, 80
Faysals recommendation for, 52
Thematic Index
502
regional and municipal government,
the Royal Diwan, 80, 89 90
Sudayri Seven, 86
the
(religious leaders), 95 96
Grand Mosque of Meccas terrorist attack,
Green Party of Saudi Arabia, 101
Health and Environmental A
airs Com-
House of al-Shaykh, 82
House of Saud, 82
humanitarian assistance provided by
Saudi Arabia (2010), 127 131
Id al-Adha (feast of the sacri
ce), 80
Institute of Islamic and Arabic Studies
Inter-Parliamentary Union (global asso-
International Compact with Iraq, 108
International Court of Justice (The
Iran-Saudi relations, 108 111
Iraq
International Compact with Iraq, 108
Saudi relations with, 106 108
Treaty of Svres and, 19
Islamic and Judicial A
airs and Human
Islamic law (

legal code), 39, 80,
94, 180 181
Islamic Revolution (Iran) (1979), 58, 59,
108 109, 111
January 25th Revolution (2011), 113
Jordan-Saudi relations, 121 122
judiciary and legal system, 93 94
Kennedy, John F., 117
Khalid ibn Abd al-Aziz (1975 1982),
Grand Mosque takeover during reign
of, 59 60
reconciliation with Sadat, 59
Second Economic Plan implementation,
Taif/Mecca summit participation, 61
King Abdulaziz Library (in Riyadh), 87
King Abdullah University of Science and
King structure of Saudi Arabia, 81 88
Abd al-Aziz ibn Abd al-Rahman
al-Saud, 42, 43 48
Abdullah Abd al-Aziz al-Saud,
as Custodian of the Two Holy
Fahd ibn Abd al-Aziz al-Saud, 62 64
Khalid ibn Abd al-Aziz, 58 62
King Faysal, 21, 22, 51, 53 58
line of succession, 47, 84
Saud ibn Abd al-Aziz, 49 53
Kuwait-Saudi relations, 115
Lebanese Civil War, 123
Lebanon-Saudi relations, 122 124
legal and judiciary system, 93 94
Ministry of Defense, 91
Ministry of Justice, 91, 93 94
Ministry of the Interior, 91
Mishaal ibn Abd al-Aziz (Meccan
Muslim Brotherhood, 101, 113
Muslim dynasties, 35 38

(Committee for the
Prevention of Vice), 219 220
National Front for the Liberation
503
Thematic Index
504
Water and Public Facilities and Services
Yemen-Saudi relations, 103 106
505
based on, 176
impact on literature, 270
jihad-based revelations, 33
Muhammad ibn Abdullahs revelation,
on racial relations, 205 206
theological importance of, 178 179
religion and law, 175 195
Buddhism, 72, 176
Thematic Index
506
Pasha, Midhat, 200
polygyny practice, 185, 219, 227 228
poverty in Saudi Arabia, 212
(tribal status), 202
Quran, on racial relations, 205 206
racial relations, 205 206
religious minorities, 204
Royal Diwan, 89 90
Royal Family, 212 213
Shia Muslims, social status of, 204
slaves and slavery (
), 204 205
abolishment of (1962), 21
Faysals help in abolition of, 52
historical background, 31, 34
Islam and, 204 205
pearl
shing by, 8, 52
507
United Nations Division for the
United States, female students traveling
virginity, expectations of women, 224 225
women
age and status, 207
education and, 221 222
expectations of virginity, 224 225
female genital mutilation, 225,
gender and social status, 208 209
gender equity issues, 220
harassment of, 218 220
harsh rulings against, 193
(Islamic head covering), 208 209
polygyny and, 185, 219, 227 228
women and marriage, 218 230
abuse of women, 229
divorce, 228
employment, 223 224
expansion of opportunities, 223
gender equity issues, 220
guardianship, 225
guardianship and marriage,
historical role of women,
modesty in dress, 229 230
rape of Girl from Qatif, 26, 71, 94,
restrictions, 222 223
rules and expectations, 224 225
servants, 230
social equivalence and polygyny,
(princess-cut ankle-length dress),
Education
al-Hussah Academy, 239
alternative education, 242 243
American University (in Beirut), 237
boys education, 233 234
British International School, 239
British International School of
data
male illiteracy rates, 239
College of Nursing and Allied Health
College of Nursing at al-Hasa, 369
Communist Party of Saudi Arabia, 239
Dar al-Hadith al-Khayriyya University
(in Mecca), 240 241
education, 232 243
alternative education, 242 243
Aramco and, 239
boys vs. girls education, 233 234
critiques of Islamic education, 241 242
international schools, 239
Islamic education, 240 241
length of school year, 234 235
(Islamic academies), 232
Quranic schools
232
separate gender education, 238 239
Shia higher education and activism,
Thematic Index
508
Institute of Public Administration, 234
international schools in Saudi Arabia,
Islamic University of Medina, 240
Jeddah Preparatory and Grammar, 239
King Abdullah University of Science
509
Thematic Index
novel (Ahmad Rida
Muhammad Hassan Awwad, 272
Muhammad ibn Libun al-Wayali, 271
novels (modern), 274 275
511
movie, 286
young artists, 283 284
Music and Dance
adhan (form of religious music), 299 300
aghani al-ghaws and
jiri (traditional
music), 294 295
al-Dawsario (traditional music), 293
al-Samri (traditional music), 294
arda (traditional music), 293
dance (raqs), 293, 298 299
Dandarawi Su
tradition, 301
dewinih (traditional music), 292 293
inshad of the mawalid (religious music),
(Gulf) music and dance, 288
large-ensemble music, 296 297
liwa (leiwah) (traditional music), 295
(form of music), 291
majrur (form of music), 297
mizmar (form of music), 297 298
music
as celebration, 289
large-ensemble music, 296 297
form, 291
popular music industry, 292
religious forms, 289 290
songs of pilgrimage, 301 302
wedding celebrations, 289,
womens music, 290
music, hijaz and asir style
majrur, 297
mizmar, 297 298
sahba, 298
urban music, 297
yanbuwiyya, 298
zar, 298
music, religious
adhan, 299 300
inshad and madaih, 301
inshad of the mawalid, 301
tajwid and qiraa, 300
music, traditional forms
aghani al-ghaws and
jiri, 294 295
al-Dawsario, 293
al-Samri, 294
arda, 293
dewinih, 292 293
galith (riddiyih), 293
liwa (leiwah), 295
sawt, 295 296
pilgrimage songs, 301 302
religious forms of music, 289 290
sahba (form of music), 298
sawt (traditional music), 295 296
Shia Muslims
religious practices, 300
songs of pilgrimage, 301 302
womens music, 290
Food
(spice mix), 310
(stu
ed onions), 314
breakfast foods, 305
ee preparations, 307 308
Thematic Index
512
food, 305 316
(spice mix), 310
(stu
ed onions), 314
bedouin/sedentary lifestyles, 306 307
breakfast foods, 305
co
ee preparations, 307 308
dessert dishes, 308, 315
ground lamb dish, 313
(allowed/lawful) foods, 306
(spice mix), 310 311
hospitality rules, 307
(cracked wheat,
(chicken dish), 311
alaq
(crushed wheat dish), 311 312
(Arabic co
ee), 308
restaurant foods, 308
rice-based meals, 308
(hot mint drink),
stu
ed lamb dish, 309 310
recipe, 315
wheat breads, 308
(allowed/lawful) foods, 306
(spice mix), 310 311
(cracked wheat, yogurt),
(chicken dish), 311
alaq
(crushed wheat dish), 311 312
(Arabic co
ee),
rice-based meals, 308
(hot mint drink),
stu
ed lamb dish, 309 310
Sports and Leisure
Alltech World Equestrian Games (2010),
Arabian Horses Festival (in Riyadh), 320
Arriyadh Equestrian Club, 320
Asian Football Confederation (AFC), 318
auto racing, 322
karate, 319
media entertainment, 326 327
restrictions, 326
shopping, 326
Thematic Index
514
(guest reception rooms),
medicine, tribal and traditional, 332 333
mens clothing, 338 339
(light-colored head
(highland long dresses), 336
(popular occasions), 334
(black face veil), 338
popular culture, 328 339
329 330
children and mens clothing, 338 339
clothing and historic costume, 334 337
games, 330 331
henna bodily decoration, 337 338
jokes,
short tales, 330
medicine, tribal and traditional,
modern niqab and covering, 338
popular occasions, 334
practical weaving, 339
superstitions, 330
tribal law and mediation, 331 332
(male body shirt), 338
superstitions, 330
(ladies black dress), 336
Ministry of Defense and Aviation
Operation Desert Storm (1991), 65, 107,
Operation Enduring Freedom (2001), 23
Operation Iraqi Freedom (2003), 24, 118
Thematic Index
516
movement
attraction for new recruits, 362
tadhah,
364
Riyadh terrorist attacks, 23, 24, 25, 118
Rumsfeld, Donald, 365
(Islamic awakening preachers),
September 11, 2001 terrorist attack, 23,
al-Qaida
al-Khobar suicide bomber (2001), 24
American embassies (Kenya and
at ABB-Lummus o
ces (2004), 25
beheading of Paul M. Johnson, 68 69,
British Airways, 24
French tourists in Saleh (2007), 26,
Grand Mosque at Mecca, 96, 154, 361
in Riyadh, 23, 24, 25, 118
Khobar Towers (1996), 23, 67
Madain al-Saleh attack, 365
police arrests (2002), 364
rape of Girl from Qatif, 26, 71, 74,
USS
(2000), 23, 67, 104
Vinelli Corporation, 363
517
education, women and, 221 222
employment issues for women, 223 224
Thematic Index
518
ABB-Lummus o
ces terrorist attack
Abbasid Caliphate, 18, 36, 177 178
Abbasid-era cooking, 30
306
Abd al-Aziz ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Saud
1953), 42, 43
48, 79
appointment of Council of Ministers,
formation of consultative council, 44
internal challenges of, 46
joining with Allies in WW II, 46, 48
lineage of, 82
83
Index
520
age status, 207 208
aghani al-ghaws and
jiri (traditional
music), 294 295
agriculture industry

traditional
data, 144
shing and pearl diving, 145
land tenure
146
wheat farming experiments, 146

(informal
Ahmad, Thoraya, 373
Ahmad ibn Hanbal al-Shaybani (religious
air travel industry, 157, 167
al-Dahna Desert, 3, 4, 7
al-Dawsario (traditional music), 293
London-based newspaper, 374
al-Hussah Academy, 239
al-Jafurah Desert, 7
521
Index
522
Rashidun (Rightly Guided) Caliphate,
Ummayyad Caliphate, 17
calligraphic arts, 282
camel racing, 322
Camp David Accords (1979), 22, 59, 112,
camping, 323 324
capital punishment, 377 380
523
Dandarawi Su
tradition, 301
Dar al-Hadith al-Khayriyya University
(in Mecca), 240 241
defense, 355 361
deportation and segregation of the sexes,
deserts
al-Dahna Desert, 3, 4, 7
al-Jafurah Desert, 7
al-Nafud Desert, 7
Rub al-Khali Desert (Empty Quarter),
1, 7 8, 23, 40
Syrian Desert, 1, 7, 48
dewinih (traditional music), 292 293
movie, 285
(blood payment), 331
diglossia.
language (Arabic language)
Dilmun civilization, 17, 29
Ditch, Battle of the (627), 17
divisions of Saudi Arabia, historic and
modern, 12 14
divorce
di
culty for women, 228, 267
increasing rates, 372
domestic political issues, 101 102
dress, modesty for women, 229 230
drug abuse, 370, 376
Dulles, John Foster, 50
Eastern Province (Sharquiyyah), 14
architecture, 351 352
Economic A
airs and Energy
economic outreach and aid, 169 171
economy of Saudi Arabia, 137 171
agricultural industry, 144 145
animal husbandry and trading, 146 147
banking/
nancial systems, 168 169
crafts, 159
goals and planning cycles, 140 144
investments, 167 168
labor, 160 164
land tenure, 146
outreach and aid, 169 171
Index
524
environment and pollution, 12
Equestrian Federation, 321
525
Fifth Development Plan (1990 1995),
First Development Plan (1970 1975),
Ninth Development Plan (2010 2014),
Second Development Plan (1975 1980),
Sixth Development Plan (1996 2000),
Third Development Plan (1980 1985),
140 141, 160
ag of Saudi Arabia, 2
folk art, 281 282
Index
526
Arabic plant names, 11 12
climate, 10
deserts, 1, 3, 7 9, 48
environment and pollution, 12
fauna (animals and
sh), 10 11
ora (plants), 11 12
historic and modern divisions, 12 14
527
Hanbali Sunni Muslims, 175
handheld electronic games, 330 331
(prayer hall), 344
Harrat Khaybar volcano, 3
Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (1949), 20
(spice mix), 310 311
Health and Environmental A
airs
health issues, 368 371
henna bodily decoration, 337 338
Higher Education, Ministry of, 234
Hijaz (city) architecture, 346 349
hiking/outdoor recreation, 323 324
Hinduism, 176
history of Saudi Arabia
Abd al-Aziz ibn Abd al-Rahman al-
Saud, 42, 43 48
Abdullah Abd al-Aziz al-Saud,
Fahd ibn Abd al-Aziz al-Saud, 62 64
rst Saudi state, 38 41
Gulf Wars, 64 67
Khalid ibn Abd al-Aziz, 58 62
King Faysal, 21, 22, 51, 53 58
Muslim dynasties, 35 38
rise of Islam, 32 35
Saud ibn Abd al-Aziz, 49 53
second Saudi realm (1824 1891),
timeline, 17 28
War on Terrorism/Global War on
Terror, 67 69
HIV/AIDS, 370
Hizballah (terrorist group), 71, 111, 123
H1N1
u, 370
Holmes, Frank, 155
homelessness, 376
horse racing (equestrian sports), 320 322
House of al-Shaykh, 82
House of Saud, 82
Hudaybiyya, truce of, 34
human rights, 376
Human Rights Watch data
Asian migrant workers, 211
capital punishment, 377 378
foreign worker labor disputes, 145, 162
Islamic law, 182
Sunni Yemeni refugees, 196
torture, 379
womens rights, 225 226
humanitarian assistance provided by
Saudi Arabia (2010), 127 131
hunting and falconry, 324 325
Hussein, Saddam, 22, 65 66, 111
movie, 285
Ibn Saud.
Abd al-Aziz ibn Abd
Id al-Adha (feast of the sacri
ce), 80
Ikhwan Brotherhood, 19
Illumination poem (Abdullah al-Faysal
al Saud), 272 273
Imam Mohammad Bin Saud Islamic
in-group marriage (endogamy), 202
industries of Saudi Arabia
date production, 139
pearl industry, 139
inshad and madaih (religious music), 301
inshad of the mawalid (religious music),
Institute of Islamic and Arabic Studies
Institute of Public Administration, 234
Instruction Concerning the Trade in
Slaves document (1936), 204 205
Inter-Parliamentary Union (global
international aid and loans, 170 171
International Compact with Iraq, 108
International Conference for Dialogue
International Court of Justice (The
International Labor Organization, 376
Index
528
529
Kennedy, John F., 53, 117
(nontribal free men), 202
Khalid ibn Abd al-Aziz (1975 1982),
Grand Mosque takeover during reign
of, 59 60
reconciliation with Sadat, 59
Second Economic Plan implementation,
Taif/Mecca summit participation, 61
(Gulf) music and dance, 288
Khawariji (Kharijite) movement, 35 36
Khobar Towers terrorist attack(1996),
Khomeini, Ayatollah Ruhollah, 59
(sermons), 344
King Abdul Aziz City for Science and
King Abdul Aziz Library (in Riyadh),
King Abdulaziz Arabian Horse Center,
King Abdullah University of Science and
King Fahd Complex for the Printing of
Index
530
novels (modern), 274 275
531
attraction for new recruits, 362
call for jihad by, 60
clerical support for, 96
Index
532
visit to Saudi Arabia (2009), 26
O
ce of Bedouin A
airs, 90
O
ce of the Grand Mufti, 96
Popular Democratic Front, 195
(Abdullah ibn Khamis), 274
poverty in Saudi Arabia, 212
ce
(Damanhouri), 274
Prince Salman Center for Disability
Prince Sultan College for Tourist and
Princess Amira al-Taweel, 372
Princess Moodi bint Abd al-Aziz, 372
Princess Nouf bint Bandar al-Saud, 372
Princess Sarah bint Talal ibn Abd al-
private sector and the state (economy)
2009 Rich List, 158
crafts, 159
pilgrimage income and tourism, 160
Public Administration, Institute of, 234
public health issues, 369
Public Investment Fund (PIF), 167
(tribal status), 202
Qadhdha
, Muammar (of Libya), 57
(Arabic co
ee), 308
Qasim region, 14
Qatar-Saudi relations, 114
Qatif Girl rape case, 26, 71, 94
Qatif oil
eld, 7
(direction of prayer), 344
Quran, 29
as basis of government, 80
beliefs about Christianity, 177
based on, 176
impact on literature, 270
jihad-based revelations, 33
Muhammad ibn Abdullahs revelation,
on racial relations, 205 206
theological importance of, 178 179
Quranic schools
232
Quraysh clan, 35
racial relations, 205 206
Ramadan, 80
Ramadan War (1973), 112
rape of Girl from Qatif, 26, 71, 94, 229
Rashidun (Rightly Guided) Caliphate, 17
Reagan, Ronald, 123
(al-Faraj), 275
Red Sea, 1, 3, 8, 9, 10 11
religion and law, 175 195
Buddhism, 72, 176
Index
534
terrorist attacks, 23, 24, 25, 118
Rogers Plan (of U.S.), 56
Royal Decree No. 91 (March, 1992), 92
Royal Diwan, 89 90
Royal Family, 212 213
Royal Saudi Air Defense, 355
Royal Saudi Land Forces (RSLF), 355,
356, 357 358
Royal Saudi Navy, 355
Rub al-Khali Desert (Empty Quarter), 1,
7 8, 23, 40
rugby, 320
rules and expectations for women,
Rumsfeld, Donald, 24, 365
Russia-Saudi relations, 126
Sabaean civilization, 17
SABIC (Saudi Arabian Basic Industries
Sadat, Anwar, 59, 62
Safniyya-Kha
ji oil
eld, 7
SAGIA (Saudi Arabian General
sahba (form of music), 298
movement, 59 60
yya
(religious purists), 80
Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi (Saladin), 37
Saleh terrorist attacks (2007), 26
Sassanid Empire (Sassanians), 30 31, 35
Saud ibn Abd al-Aziz (1953 1964) (son
of Abd al-Aziz), 49 53
Saudi Arabia Equestrian Federation, 320
Saudi Arabian Airlines Corporation, 167
Saudi Arabian Basic Industries Corpora-
Svres, Treaty of (1920), 19
movie, 285
Shakespear, William Henry Irvine, 45
Shammar tribe, 87, 200
(hot mint drink),

compliant bonds
142

legal code.
Islamic law

legal code
Shayba oil
eld, 7
Shia Muslims, 36, 60, 100
Ashura religious holiday, 36
attacks on, 110
in Bahrain, 115
and higher education, 240
Iran activism and, 109
population data, 175
religious practices, 300
in Saudi Arabia, 193 194
social status of, 204
Zaydi Shia Muslims, 176
(male body shirt), 338
karate, 319
Shura Council of the Hijaz (1927), 92
(Raja al-Alim), 278
Six-Day (June War) War (1967), 56, 112
Sixth Development Plan (1996 2000),
movie, 286
slaves and slavery (
)
abolishment of (1962), 21
Faysals help in abolition of, 52
historical background, 31, 34
Islam and, 204 205
pearl
shing by, 8, 52
(Ibrahim
al-Nasser), 274 275
soccer (football), 318
Social, Family, and Youth A
airs
Index
536
rst Saudi sate, 38 41
second Saudi realm, 41 43
Statute of Principles, Temporary
nement, and Preventive
stock exchange data, 165 166
tra
cking of children, 376
Transitional Ruling Council, 87
Transportation, Communications, and In-
transportation industries, 157
tribalism (tribal a
liation), 202
537
law and mediation, 331 332
traditional medicine and, 332 333
values of, 203
Tripartite (Suez) War (1956), 21, 49 50
Twelver Shia, 175 176
novel (Abd al-Qaddous
Twitchell, Karl, 155
Two Holy Places (Saudi Arabia), 357
Uhud, Battle of (625), 17
(religious leaders), 95 96, 178,
189 190, 203, 222
Ummayyad Caliphate, 17, 36, 177 178
Umm al-Qura University, 240
Umm al-Radhuma mountainous forma-
tion, 4 5
UN Board on Women, 373
UN Special Rapporteur on Violence
(tribal/traditional medicine),
Index
538
Wahhabism, 39, 95, 128, 143, 180, 189,
Wajiha al-Huwaidar, 373 374
Walid I, 36
War College, 243
War on Terrorism, 67 69
al-Qaida terrorist group;
Wars of Ridda, 35
water and desalination issues, 9 10
Water and Public Facilities and Services
water-boarding (torture) at Guantanamo,
water desalinization plants, 157
wedding celebration music, 289, 291

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