22195-tkt-young-learners-handbook


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Handbook for teachers
TKT: YL (Young Learners)
CONTENTS
TKT: YL
HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
Contents
TeachingEnglishtoyounglearners–anoverview
Introductionto
TKT
TKTYL
–anoverview
TKTYL
administration
SpecialCircumstances
Knowledgeofyounglearnersandprinciplesofteaching
Englishtoyounglearners
Planningandpreparingyounglearnerlessons
Teachingyounglearners
Assessingyounglearnerlearningthroughclassroom-based
assessment
Preface
This handbook is intended for tutors and candidates and provides information to help prepare for the
TKT: Young Learners (YL)
For further information on any Cambridge English Teaching Qualications and courses, please go to
www.cambridgeenglish.org/teachingqualications
For further copies of this handbook, please email
ABOUT CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH LANGUAGE ASSESSMENT
About Cambridge English
Language Assessment
TKT (Teaching Knowledge Test)
isdeveloped by Cambridge English
Language Assessment, anot-for-prot department of the University
of Cambridge.
We are one of three major exam boards which form the Cambridge
Assessment Group (Cambridge Assessment). More than 8 million
Cambridge Assessment exams are taken in over 170 countries
around the world every year.
To nd out more about Cambridge English exams and the CEFR, go to
www.cambridgeenglish.org/cefr
Cambridge English Teaching Qualications
Our internationally recognised teaching qualications provide
a route into the English language teaching profession for new
teachers and a comprehensive choice of career development for
experienced teachers.
Supporting teachers
Cambridge English Teaching Qualications such as
TKT
form an
important part of our teacher development range. All of our teaching
qualications are mapped onto the Cambridge English Teaching
Framework, which is designed to help teachers identify where
e International
Examinations
Prepares school students for life,
helping them de
v
elop an informed
curiosity and a lasting passion for
learning
e Assessment: the tr
ading name for the
Univ
ersity of Cambridg
e L
ocal Examinations Syndicate (UCLES)
e English Langua
ge

Assessment
Provider of the world’
s most
v
aluable
ng
e of qualications for
learners and teachers of English

OCR: Oxfo
rd
Cambridg
e and RSA
Examinations
One of the UK’
s leading pr
o
viders
of qualications
ersit
y
(e
xam boards)
ersities in the w
orld
and one of the larg
est in the United Kingdom
A
CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH TEACHING QUALIFICATIONS – AN OVERVIEW
Cambridge English Teaching Qualications – an overview
The following qualications are available to teachers through Cambridge English Teaching Qualications centres:
Delta Module Three
Delta Module Two
Diploma in Teaching English to
Speakers of Other Languages
ICELT
In-service Certicate in English
Language Teaching
CELTA
Certicate in Teaching English to
Speakers of Other Languages
TKT: Young Learners
TKT: CLIL
(Content and Language
Integrated Learning)
Teaching Knowledge Test
Recommended
Required
Recommended
Required
Not required
Not essential
Not essential
Not essential
Teaching
experience
Candidate requirements
Initial teaching
Initial teaching
Initial teaching
Local requirements
for teachers apply
Not required
Not required
Not required
Primary,
secondary or
adults
Primary,
secondary or
adults
Primary,
secondary or
adults
Primary,
secondary or
adults
Adults
Primary,
secondary or
adults
Primary,
secondary or
adults
Teaching age
group
Qualication features
Can be taken
pre-service
required
Assessed teaching
practice
coursework
Paper-based test
Language for Teaching – B2
Language for Teaching – B1
Language for Teaching – A2
N/A
N/A
Required
Teaching
experience
Candidate requirements
Teaching age
group
Course/qualication features
Can be taken
pre-service
required
teaching practice
coursework
Online/blended
learning course
option
CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH TEACHING FRAMEWORK
Cambridge English Teaching Framework – at the heart of professional
development
We developed the Cambridge English Teaching Framework:
to help teachers identify where they are in their professional career
Has a basic understanding of some
language–learning concepts.
Demonstrates a little of this understanding
when planning and teaching.
Is aware of some key terms for describing
language.
Can answer simple learner questions with
the help of reference materials.
Can reect on a lesson with guidance and
learn from feedback.
Requires guidance in self-assessing own
Has a reasonable understanding of many
language–learning concepts.
Demonstrates some of this understanding
when planning and teaching.
Has reasonable knowledge of many key
terms for describing language.
Can answer most learner questions with
the help of reference materials.
Can reect on a lesson without guidance
and respond positively to feedback.
Can self-assess own needs and identify
some areas for improvement.
Has a basic understanding of some
key principles of teaching, learning and
assessment.
Can plan and deliver simple lessons with a
basic awareness of learners’ needs, using
core teaching techniques.
Can use available tests and basic
assessment procedures to support and
promote learning.
Has a reasonable understanding of many
key principles of teaching, learning and
assessment.
Can plan and deliver lessons with some
awareness of learners’ needs, using a
number of dierent teaching techniques.
Can design simple tests and use some
assessment procedures to support and
promote learning.
Provides accurate examples of language
points taught at A1 and A2 levels.
Uses basic classroom language which is
mostly accurate.
Provides accurate examples of language
points taught at A1, A2 and B1 levels.
Uses classroom language which is mostly
accurate.
Learning and the
Learner
Language Knowledge
and Awareness
Professional
Development
and Values
Teaching, Learning
and Assessment
Language Ability
Foundation
Developing
Procient
Expert
CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH TEACHING FRAMEWORK
Has a good understanding of many
language–learning concepts.
Frequently demonstrates this understanding
when planning and teaching.
Has good knowledge of key terms for
describing language.
Can answer most learner questions with
minimal use of reference materials.
Can reect critically and actively seeks
feedback.
Can identify own strengths and weaknesses
as a teacher, and can support other
teachers.
Has a sophisticated understanding of
language–learning concepts.
Consistently demonstrates this
understanding when planning and teaching.
Has a good understanding of key principles
of teaching, learning and assessment.
Has a sophisticated understanding of
key principles of teaching, learning and
assessment.
Provides accurate examples of language
points taught at A1, A2, B1 and B2 levels.
Uses classroom language which is
consistently accurate throughout the
lesson.
Provides accurate examples of language
points taught at A1–C2 levels.
Uses a wide range of classroom language
which is consistently accurate throughout
the lesson.
Has sophisticated knowledge of key terms
for describing language.
Consistently reects critically, observes
other colleagues and is highly committed to
professional development.
Is highly aware of own strengths and
weaknesses, and actively supports the
development of other teachers.
Foundation
Developing
Procient
Expert
Developing
Procient
Expert
TA
TKT
CE
-S
CEL
T-
P
ICEL
T
Delta
Tr
ain the
ainer
EMI Skills
Language for T
eaching
ce-to-face seminars
Continuing development opportunities at every level
Our teaching qualications and range of teacher support are mapped onto the framework, so teachers and
educational institutions can nd the combination of development activities that suits them best.
See page 25 for more information about Cambridge English teaching courses and qualications.
CONTINUING DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES
AT EVERY LEVEL
TEACHING ENGLISH TO YOUNG LEARNERS – AN OVERVIEW
Teaching English to young learners
– an overview
How young is a young learner?
TKT: YL
INTRODUCTION
TKT: YL – an overview
TKT: YL
is a test of knowledge of teaching English to young learners. It
tests knowledge of concepts related to:
the learning and development of young learners
planning lessons for young learners
teaching strategies, practice activities and resources used to
support and challenge language learning in young learners.
It also tests knowledge of informal classroom assessment of young
learners’ work.
Who is TKT: YL suitable for?
TKT: YL
is suitable for teachers of young learners who already teach
other curriculum subjects in their rst language, specialist young
learner teachers who teach only English, or teachers of older learners
or adults who also wish to teach young learners.
It can also be taken by:
pre-service teachers
teachers who wish to refresh their teaching knowledge
teachers who are moving to teaching English after teaching
Entry criteria and language requirements
Candidates are not required to full any specic entry criteria for
TKT: YL
. There are no formal English language requirements; however,
candidates are expected to be familiar with language relating to
the practice of English language teaching. A non-exhaustive list of
teaching terminology and denitions is provided in the
TKT Glossary
which can be downloaded from
www.cambridgeenglish.org/tkt
Test structure
The
TKT: YL
module consists of a timed pencil-and-paper test,
featuring 80 multiple-choice questions.
It tests candidates’ knowledge of concepts related to teaching young
learners, rather than their subject knowledge, prociency in the
English language, or their performance in classroom situations.
Approaches to teaching and learning
A range of approaches to teaching and learning may be covered
in the test. Materials are carefully selected so that they are fair to
candidates from all backgrounds and teaching contexts. Knowledge
of communicative and other approaches to teaching is expected,
as is familiarity with the common terminology of English language
teaching (a non-exhaustive list of teaching terminology and
denitions is provided in the
TKT
Sources and text types for TKT: YL preparation
Extracts, original or adapted, from the following sources may feature
TKT: YL
young learners’ coursebooks, activity books or supplementary
materials, including young learner materials found online
TKT Glossary
articles relating to young learners from journals, magazines and
TKT: YL
INTRODUCTION
TKT: YL administration
Entry procedure
Candidates must enter through an authorised Cambridge English
examination or teaching qualication centre. For a list of centres, go
to
www.cambridgeenglish.org/teachingcentresearch
TKT: YL
is available throughout the year and examination centres
select their own test dates. Entries must be made at least six weeks in
advance of a test date.
Please note that more notice may be necessary if candidates have
special requirements and therefore need special arrangements (see
section on Special Circumstances).
A candidate at this level demonstrates
extensive knowledge of
TKT: YL
content areas
breadth and depth of knowledge of
TKT: YL
content areas
basic, but systematic knowledge of
TKT: YL
content areas
limited knowledge of
TKT: YL
content areas
Notication of results
TKT
results are issued to centres approximately two to four weeks
Special Circumstances
Cambridge English exams are designed to be fair to all test takers.
This commitment to fairness covers:
Special arrangements
These are available for candidates with a permanent or long-
term disability. Consult your Centre Exams Manager (CEM) for
TKT: YL TEST OVERVIEW
Overview
1 hour 20 minutes
NO. OF QUESTIONS
TASK TYPES
Objective tasks, such as matching
andmultiple choice.
ANSWER FORMAT
Candidates indicate their answers by
shading the correct boxes on their
SYLLABUS
Syllabus
TKT: YL
is an examination for teachers and classroom assistants
who teach or will teach English to young learners. It tests knowledge
of concepts related to young learner learning and development,
and knowledge of young learners from a teaching perspective: the
planning, teaching and assessment of young learners’ work.
Areas of teaching
knowledge
Task types and format
Knowledge of
young learners
and principles of
teaching English
to young learners
children’s characteristics as
language learners (theory-
focused)
developing children’s learning
strategies through language
learning
developing children’s
cognitive strategies through
language learning
developing children’s
communication strategies
through language learning
2 tasks consisting of
13 questions.
Tasks include matching and
multiple choice.
preparing young
learner lessons
lesson plans – components/
headings
providing support and
challenge when selecting
and using coursebooks and
supplementary materials
additional resources –
selecting, adapting and
3 tasks consisting of
21 questions.
Tasks include matching and
multiple choice.
Teaching young
learners
scaolding children’s
understanding of language
and use of language through
teacher language and
teaching strategies
using practice activities
to consolidate children’s
language learning
managing young learners
in class
5 tasks consisting of
33 questions.
Tasks include matching and
multiple choice.
young learner
learning through
classroom-based
purposes of dierent
types of classroom-based
focus of dierent types
of classroom-based
acting on classroom-based
assessment evidence
2 tasks consisting of
13 questions.
Tasks include matching and
multiple choice.
Knowledge of young learners and principles of
teaching English to young learners
This part of the
TKT: YL
module tests candidates’ knowledge of
children’s characteristics as language learners and knowledge of
how language learning can help young learners to develop learning
strategies, cognitive strategies and communication strategies.
Syllabus area
Example testing focus
Children’s
characteristics as
language learners
(theory-focused)
capacity for play and fun
capacity for indirect learning: tendency to respond to meaning
and the situation rather than to language
need to feel relaxed/safe
learning from social interaction (with peers and teacher)
using chunks
using limited language at their disposal creatively
some children may already be able or be beginning to
understand abstracts, generalise and systematise
characteristics which vary between children: e.g. learning
styles, previous learning experience, L1 background,
motivation, personality, attention spans (depending on
activity and topic)
Developing children’s
learning strategies
through language
learning
planning learning
setting learning objectives
selecting activities
organising learning
reviewing learning
remembering language or information about language
using reference resources
developing hypotheses about language rules
comparing
contrasting
self-assessment
self-correction
Developing children’s
cognitive strategies
through language
learning
predicting
identifying
matching
categorising
deducing meaning from context
risk-taking
ranking
Developing children’s
communication
strategies through
language learning
asking for an object (Can I have …?)
asking for clarication or help (Can you help me?/
How can I …?)
asking for information (What’s a dragon? / How do you …?)
asking for permission (Can I go/take/use/work with …?)
attracting someone’s attention (Miss!)

clarifying (Yes, a blue one.)
describing routines or states (I go to bed at … / It lives in the
describing a personal experience (We went to the park.)
describing an action (He’s singing.)
describing appearance (It’s green.)
expressing a reason (Because I found it.)
SYLLABUS
Syllabus area
Example testing focus
expressing agreement/disagreement (OK / I don’t
think so ...)
expressing an intention (I’m going to draw a house.)
expressing an opinion (I like cats.)
giving instructions (Open it! Don’t do that!)
narrating (The king said …)
oering something (Do you want some?)
Planning and preparing young learner lessons
This part of the
TKT: YL
module tests candidates’ knowledge of
planning and preparing language lessons for young learners.
Syllabus area
Example testing focus
Lesson plans
(components/
headings)
learning outcomes
personal teaching aim
previous learning
resources needed
interaction patterns (plenary, groups, pairs, individual)
procedure
possible problems and solutions
dierentiation
assessment evidence
syllabus t
follow-up suggestions
Providing support
and challenge when
selecting and using
coursebooks and
materials
Adding to, omitting from and adapting coursebooks and
supplementary materials to support and challenge
children’s learning:
adding visual support
adding word banks
adding possible answers
omitting unnecessary detail
simplifying language
personalising content
changing layout
adapting tasks
Additional resources
– selecting, adapting
and supplementing
Planning and sequencing lessons involving coursebooks and
supplementary materials through the use and adaptation of:
stories
games (e.g. physical response, guessing, memory,
categorisation games)
puppets
realia
ashcards, pictures and drawings
blackboard/whiteboard
art and craft materials and activities (e.g. making and
designing mini-books, origami animals, personal dictionaries,
masks, puppets, weather charts, cards for special occasions)
action rhymes, songs and chants
video clips (both commercial and class-made)
Teaching young learners
This part of the
TKT: YL
module tests candidates’ knowledge of
strategies for teaching language to young learners.
Syllabus area
Example testing focus
Scaolding children’s
understanding of
language and use of
language through
teacher language
using language at children’s level
adjusting language to children’s level: repeating, rephrasing,
allowing wait time after asking a question
asking appropriate questions: closed, open, divergent,
convergent
supporting language with gestures and actions (facial
expressions, making sounds, pointing, nodding)
correcting: reformulating, recasting, ignoring error
using L1 when appropriate
Scaolding through
teaching strategies
(see Moon 2000)*
creating a clear or familiar context for an activity
creating a clear purpose for an activity which makes sense
from a child’s perspective
providing language models or prompts for an activity or topic
(e.g. through puppets, drawings)
reviewing language needed for an activity or topic
demonstrating through a model and/or example how to do
an activity
moving from known to unknown in an activity
focusing on visible objects, actions and information
using practical activities in which language is supported by
action
supporting meaning with visuals and/or objects (e.g. puppets,
mascots)
creating opportunities for learning through dierent senses
relating activities to children’s personal experiences
use of word banks, language frames, substitution tables,
sentence starters, speech bubbles, dierent kinds of charts,
diagrams and grids to support both input and output
* Moon, J (2000) Children Learning English, Oxford: Macmillan Heinemann.
SYLLABUS
Assessing young learner learning through
classroom-based assessment
This part of the
TKT: YL
module tests candidates’ knowledge of
assessing young learner learning in the classroom, and knowledge
of how to respond to the information provided by classroom
assessment.
Syllabus area
Example testing focus
Purposes of assessing
learning
identifying progress in language, learning strategies, use of
identifying achievement in language, learning strategies, use
of skills
diagnosing strengths and weaknesses in language, learning
strategies, use of skills, gaining feedback on learning
objectives of lesson or of syllabus
identifying children’s likes and dislikes
Focuses of assessing
learning
language
learning strategies
cognitive strategies
communication strategies
Acting on assessment
evidence
providing oral and written formative feedback in class
adjusting teaching materials
adjusting task types
adjusting classroom management
Syllabus area
Example testing focus
Using practice
activities to
consolidate children’s
language learning
stirrers and settlers
competitive and co-operative activities
listen-and-do (physical response), listen-and-make, listen-
and-draw, listen-and-say
dictation
visualisation
brainstorming
chants
songs
role-play
stories
surveys
information-gap activities
guessing activities
memory activities
categorisation activities
problem-solving activities
Managing young
learners in class
getting and keeping children’s attention
checking understanding
correction strategies (recasting, reformulating, ignoring errors,
plus a limited focus on direct correction techniques)
using and managing individual, pair, group and whole-
class work
establishing routines to develop responsible behaviour and
help children to feel safe
giving children practical responsibilities
PREPARING FOR TKT: YL
Knowledge of young learners and principles of
teaching English to young learners
Candidates can consider, discuss or read about:
young learners’ characteristics as language learners
how language learning can help young learners to develop
learning strategies, cognitive strategies and communication
strategies.
Planning and preparing young learner lessons
Candidates can consider, discuss or read about:
what needs to be planned before teaching a young learner lesson
or series of lessons
dierent ways of providing support and challenge in young
learner materials
the use of additional classroom resources in young learner
lessons.
Teaching young learners
Candidates can consider, discuss or read about:
scaolding young learners’ understanding and use of language
using practice activities in young learner lessons
managing young learners in class.
Assessing young learner learning through
classroom-based assessment
Candidates can consider, discuss or read about:
purposes of and focuses for assessing young learners’ work
in class
ways of responding to the information classroom assessment
provides.
Preparing for TKT: YL
General
TKT: YL
is concerned with teaching English to young learners.
Teachers may therefore be able to use their own teaching situation as
a means of preparing for the test.
Before a lesson, candidates could:
look at the language demands of the lesson and decide what kind
of support is needed so that learners can understand and produce
the language in spoken and written English
notice any particular diculties and include additional support
for learners who need it
think about providing additional challenge for learners who
provide young learners with an opportunity to reect on what
they have learned at the end of the lesson.
While teaching a lesson, candidates could:
note any common strengths and problems young learners have in
understanding and using key language
monitor and take note of young learners’ ability to work
eectively at dierent stages of the lesson.
After a lesson, candidates could:
consider possible reasons for young learners’ success or diculty
in understanding and using key language
consider possible reasons for the eectiveness or ineectiveness
of dierent lesson stages
consider what changes, if any, they might make in their future
lesson with their young learners class.
Candidates should also become familiar with supplementary
materials for teaching English to young learners. When looking at
these materials it is useful to think about how the learner can access
them by asking questions such as:
Is the topic appropriate for my young learners?
Is the language load manageable and relevant for my young
learners?
What will I need to adapt, omit or add to in the materials?
Candidates will nd it helpful to familiarise themselves with the exam
format and task types by looking at the
TKT: YL
syllabus information
SAMPLE PAPER
2
For questions
, match the teacher’s comments on her approach to learning with the young
learner needs and characteristics listed
.

A – G
There is one extra option which you do not need to use.


Young learners like to have:
routines in the classroom

personalised feedback on their language

opportunities to respond to and use language creatively

chance to have fun as a whole class

E
help with underlying language patterns

physical movement/activity


1
They’re often sleepy in the afternoons so we generally do some group project work where
They worry about their spelling so, each week, we choose a vowel sound and brainstorm
all the words we can think of. Then we look at how they’re spelt and categorise them.
One of the things my pupils like most is to learn a chant and then try to say it faster and
faster but still keep in time. That part’s really hard!
At the start of the lesson, two pupils give out the books and another writes the date on the
We often do visualisations. They close their eyes and I ask them questions about a story:
who’s in it? where are they? what happens? Then they draw a picture and write a few
sentences about it.
3

Turn over

For questions
, match the teachers’ instructions with the main cognitive strategies they are
helping to develop listed
.

A – D

categorising

predicting

ranking

inferring

7

Look at the monsters in these pictures. Which one’s naughty? How do you know?


Cut out the five pictures of food. Stick your favourite one here at the top and write the
name under it. Then put your next favourite one under it, and so on.


Listen to these people’s voices. Which person sounds happy?

On this paper you’ve got two circles. In this circle, draw two things you only wear in winter
and in the other, draw two things you only wear in summer.

On the board there are pictures of Sue, a shoe and a zoo. Listen to this word and tell me
which picture to write it under. Now listen to these words.

Here are pictures of 10 things to take on holiday. In pairs, choose the five most important


PAPER
SAMPLE PAPER
TKT: YOUNG LEARNERS
SAMPLE PAPER
TKT: YOUNG LEARNERS
oruestions
,atchtheteachersnotesonavocaularylessonlanfroaresourceoo
withthelessonlanheaingsliste


onyouranswersheet.
Thereisoneetraotionwhichyouonotneetouse.


ssutions

ssessentevience



nteractionatterns


ersonalteachingai


Memory Game Lesson plan
Teacher
Vocabu
lary focus
ootheyreoinghealthyeatingin
science
kitchen, knife, fork, spoon, plate, cup,
14

Before class
Copy the vocabulary worksheet of
pictures and words, and cut them into
flashcards.

ne
grouofchilrencantreait,sollaea
setofatching
ictures
forthe.
15

reat
hilren
coulaetheirowngaesetsto
eeanractisewith.

In class
Review the topic of vocabulary.
Explain the game by example, with
yourself as one player, and three
more children.
ortant,ecausethis
gae
ightenewfor
soechilren.

Game rules
Mix the cards, and put the word
cards face down on the table, i
n four
rows of two, and the pictures face
down on the other side of the table,
also in four rows of two.
lainthattheyustayattentiontoreeer
wheretheir
wors
are.

Ask a child to turn over a card from
e picture side and to say the word,
and to do the same for a card on the
word side.
llnowiftheyhavelearnesoethingiftheyuse
nglish
ratherthanforicturecars.

If the picture and word cards are the
same object, th
e child keeps the two
cards. If the picture and word do not
match, the child puts the two cards
face down again.
The next child continues in the same
way.
usttryto
listen
toalltheairsthistie.

e game is over when all the pictures
and words have been matched.


eoryaeessonlan
Teachercoents
ocaularyfocus
itchen,nife,for,soon,late,cu,
ootheyreoinghealthyeatinginscience.

oythevocaularyworsheetof
icturesanwors,ancutthe
intoflashcars.
negrouofchilrencantreait,sollaea
setofatchingicturesforthe.
reathilrencoulae
theirowngaesetsto
eeanractisewith.
eviewthetoicofvocaulary.
ortant,ecausethisgaeightenewfor
soechilren.
lainthegaeyeale,with
yourselfasonelayer,anthree
aerules
lainthattheyustayattentiontoreeer
wheretheirworsare.
ithecars,anutthewor
carsfaceownonthetale,infour
rowsoftwo,antheicturesface
ownontheothersieofthetale,
alsoinfourrowsoftwo.
sachiltoturnoveracarfro
theicturesieantosaythewor,
antoothesaeforacaronthe
llnowiftheyhavelear
nesoethingiftheyuse
nglishratherthanforicturecars.
ftheictureanworcarsarethe
saeoect,thechileesthetwo
cars.ftheictureanworonot
atch,thechilutsthetwocars

Thenetchilcontinuesinthesae
way.
usttrytolistentoalltheairsthistie.
Thegaeisoverwhenalltheictures
eoryaeessonlan
Teachercoents
ocaularyfocus
itchen,nife,for,soon,late,cu,
ootheyreoinghealthyeatinginscience.

oythevocaularyworsheetof
icturesanwors,ancutthe
intoflashcars.
negrouofchilrencantreait,sollaea
setofatchingicturesforthe.
reathilrencoulae
theirowngaesetsto
eeanractisewith.
eviewthetoicofvocaulary.
ortant,ecausethisgaeightenewfor
soechilren.
lainthegaeyeale,with
yourselfasonelayer,anthree
aerules
lainthattheyustayattentiontoreeer
wheretheirworsare.
ithecars,anutthewor
carsfaceownonthetale,infour
rowsoftwo,antheicturesface
ownontheothersieofthetale,
alsoinfourrowsoftwo.
sachiltoturnoveracarfro
theicturesieantosaythewor,
antoothesaeforacaronthe
llnowiftheyhavelear
nesoethingiftheyuse
nglishratherthanforicturecars.
ftheictureanworcarsarethe
saeoect,thechileesthetwo
cars.ftheictureanworonot
atch,thechilutsthetwocars

Thenetchilcontinuesinthesae
way.
usttrytolistentoalltheairsthistie.
Thegaeisoverwhenalltheictures
oruestions
,atchtherolesteachershavewithaterialswiththewaysof


onyouranswersheet.
Thereisoneetraotionwhichyouonotneetouse.

Teachersroles
aysofaatingtheaterials
Therewasatetinthecourseooaoutets.
wasntsureifylearnerswoulnowtheifference
etweenhastersanguineaigsanugiesan
canaries.o
Thechilrenwereeentofinoutoreaoutanew
inanewsaeranalthoughthelanguagewas
aovetheirlevel,newtheywoulfinitallreally
interesting.o
Thecourseoohaarecieforsoethingthatisnt
oularaongchilreninourcountry.thoughtit
wouleoreusefulforthetostuythelanguage
inarecieforsoethingtheylie.o
factoryutwantethechilrentoreaonlyaout
howitisaeannotaoutthehistoryofchocolate
Therecoringfrothecourseooaoutthe
festivalswasreallyinteresting.utwantethe
chilrentoosoethingorecounicativethan
ustlistenananswerthecorehensionuestions.
wanteyclasstorawaenniagraofthe
siilaritiesanifferencesetweencaelsan
giraffes.newtheywoulntthinofenoughthings
toaeaverycoleteiagra.o
Thestoryinthecourseoowaswrittenasonelong
aragrahinverysallrintanwashartorea.
ersonalisethecontent.
aatethetas.
changethelayout.
gavethesoeossileanswers.
aesoevisualsuort.
silifiethelanguage.
7

Turn over

For questions
, look at the statements about using additional resources and choose the option
,
B
or
C
,
B
or
C
28

I often use action rhymes with my class because ____________ help the children to
associate words with meanings.
the words that rhyme
the movements
I find computer games where children put sentences in the right order to make a story can
A
immediate feedback on their answers
B
the chance to invent interesting stories
C
plenty of listening practice


30
Making origami animals in class is particularly useful for practising ____________.
A
the words for different animals
listening for gist
Wordsearch puzzles can be a useful way of ____________.
A
practising reading comprehension
B
C
translate
I like making a video of my classes acting out little stories because they ____________.
A
realise their pronunciation is not very good
B
want to practise until they can do it really well
C
can see whose acting skills are particularly good


34
I find that flashcards are particularly useful for illustrating ____________.
A
lexical chunks
words that are hard to translate

PAPER
SAMPLE PAPER
TKT: YOUNG LEARNERS
SAMPLE PAPER
SAMPLE PAPER
TKT: YOUNG LEARNERS
oruestions
,atchtheteacherclassroolanguageintheealeswiththestrategiesfor
scaffolingchilrensunerstaninganlanguageuseliste


onyouranswersheet.
Thereisoneetraotionwhichyouonotneetouse.




echocorrecting




ignoringerror

asinganoenuestion
hilhatoesanialean
Teacheratsanhorsesareanials.
hilThisartinsen.
Teacher.ellcanyougiveitactohi,lease.
hilastaturayyauntietaeetothecinea.
TeacherTae
hilorry.ontunerstan.
Teacherutyourchairliethis.Thenyoucantseeasicture.
hilThisinosaurisoreig.
Teacher,thisinosaursigger.
hilhatsaninsect
Teachertsananialwithsilegs.
hilcantreeerthenaeofthecolour.
Teacherur
hilurle.
9

Turn over

For questions
, match the examples of what fast finishers do in class with the scaffolding
strategies for challenging them listed
,
B
and
C
.

,
B
or
C

Children check their own work.


Children do an extension activity.
42

Write the name of five objects which are usually red.

Compare their answers to a comprehension task about a story with the answer key at the
back of their coursebook.


Explain in L1 how to do a sequencing task to a group having problems doing the task.


Draw a picture to illustrate the chant they have written.

Proofread their short description of a typical day in their life before they give it to the
teacher.


the teacher keeps in the classroom.

Answer another child’s questions about the meaning of some words in a survey the class

For questions
, match the descriptions of activities with the types of practice activity listed
.
A – G
There is one extra option which you do not need to use.
Types of practice activity

brainstorm

information-gap

visualisation

guessing

E

role-play

drill

49
Children close their eyes while the teacher removes one of the story sentences from the
board. They open their eyes, then say which one is missing.

The teacher says the sentence ‘I gave her a banana’, then shows pictures of, e.g. a little
girl, a man, a mother and father, a cat. Children have to say the sentence with the correct
pronoun for each.


After reading the story, the teacher chooses different children to act it out.

The teacher tells the children they are going to travel in a spaceship to another planet. In
groups, they make a list of things they want to take with them.

Each child has a different version of a picture from their partner. Without looking at each
other’s picture, they take turns to describe w
hat they see in order to find five differences.

The teacher asks the children a series of questions about an imaginary day out such as,




Turn over

For questions
, look at the statements about the uses of classroom practice activities and
choose the option (
,
B
or
C
,
B
or
C
55
Brainstorming vocabulary before a task


A
makes use of children’s own experience and memories of the topic.
B
helps children deduce meaning from context.
C


56
Role-play can provide children with the opportunity to


practise writing skills.
do jigsaw listening.
consolidate language chunks.


57


A
B
calm and focus children after a period of activity.
C


58
Visualisation activities involve children in


A
using mind maps to record vocabulary.
B
closing their eyes and listening to the teacher.
C
looking at pictures in groups.


59
Total Physical Response activities involve mainly


children’s writing skills.
children’s reading skills.
children’s listening skills.
Problem-solving activities consol
idate children’s language learning by


A
activating their cognitive skills.
B
presenting new language.
C
highlighting the importance of accurate pronunciation.




PAPER
SAMPLE PAPER
TKT: YOUNG LEARNERS
SAMPLE PAPER
SAMPLE PAPER
TKT: YOUNG LEARNERS
For questions
, match the teacher’s comments with the areas of managing the class to support
children’s language learning listed
.

Mark the correct answer (
Areas of managing a class

checking understanding

correcting language

establishing routines to develop responsible behaviour
61

Very good try Martha, but remember to change the order of the words to make a question.


Ok, thank you everyone. Are you ready to move on to the next task now?

Where should I put
usually
on our list? Is it nearer to
or to

Yes, I can hear a lot of people who know the right answer but if I don’t see any hands up, I
don’t know who to ask.



It’s a lovely sunny day, so tell me which of these clothes I don’t need to wear –
gloves,ascarf,aT-shirt.

.


Turn over

For questions
,
B
and
C
.

NOT
C
NOT
68
To assess their cognitive skills, the teacher would
NOT
ask the children to


A
answer true/false questions about their favourite types of food.
B
put pictures of food into two groups: food they like and food they don’t like.
C
sequence the prices of different foods from the cheapest to the most expensive.


69
To assess their ability to use language creatively, the teacher would
ask the children to


A
listen to and perform a jazz chant in pairs.
B
take part in a role play in pairs.
C
talk about their last holiday in pairs.


70

To assess their listening comprehension skills, the teacher would
NOT
ask the children to
listen and
A
mime the words in a song.
B
follow a text with the words of a song.
C
answer some questions about a song.


71
To assess their spelling, the teacher would
NOT
ask the children to look at pictures and


A
fill in a crossword puzzle using the pictures as clues.
B
use the words in a substitution drill.
C
label the items in the space provided.


72

To assess their ability to review their learning, the teacher would
NOT
ask the children to
think about the lesson and to
A
decide what things they were good at.
B
list the words they understood.
C
say which activities they liked.


73
To assess their ability to remember language, the teacher would
NOT
ask the children to


A
fill in the gaps in a text about different types of clothes.
B
match words relating to clothes to pictures of different clothes.
C
listen to a song about different clothes.
For questions
, match the examples of teacher feedback with the main focus of the feedback
and
,
B
or
C

Main focus of feedback

children’s use of learning strategies

children’s use of language

children’s behaviour

for your sister?


Well done! This group, you gave everyone a chance to speak.

That’s interesting: why did you answer the easier story questions first and the harder ones
last?


It was a really good idea to plan your poster before you started to draw it.


That’s right, it’s a house.


Thanks for tidying up the desks so quickly.


Yes, sure, it’s fine to use the picture dictionary to find words.

SAMPLE PAPER
TKT: YOUNG LEARNERS
ANSWER KEY
TKT: YOUNG LEARNERS
Answer key
0
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Centre No.
Examination
DP777/042
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MORE CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH TEACHING COURSES AND QUALIFICATIONS
More Cambridge English teaching
courses and qualications
We oer a number of practical, exible courses and qualications for
new or experienced English language teachers:
CELTA (Certicate in Teaching English to
Speakers of Other Languages)
CELTA
is an initial qualication for people with little or no previous
teaching experience, or who have experience but no qualication.
The
CELTA
course focuses on the principles of eective teaching
and a range of practical skills for teaching English to adult learners.
The course includes hands-on teaching practice and an alternative
blended learning delivery option.
Delta (Diploma in Teaching English to Speakers
of Other Languages)
Delta
is a exible way for experienced English language teachers to
progress further in their careers.
Delta
can be taken at any stage in a
teacher’s career and is ideal for those wanting to develop/extend their
teaching knowledge and improve their teaching practice. It is made
up of three independent modules which can be taken in any order and
over any time period. Candidates receive a certicate for each module
For more information about Cambridge English Teaching Qualications, visit:
www.cambridgeenglish.org/teachingqualications
www.cambridgeenglish.org/tkt
Cambridge English Language Assessment is part of the University of Cambridge. We develop and produce the
most valuable range of qualifications for learners and teachers of English in the world. Over 5 million people in
130 countries take our exams every year. Around the world over 20,000 universities, employers, government
ministries and other organisations rely on our exams and qualifications as proof of English language ability.
Cambridge English exams are backed by the work of the largest dedicated research team of any English
Cambridge English
Language Assessment
1 Hills Road
Cambridge
United Kingdom
www.cambridgeenglish.org/helpdesk
© UCLES 2016 | CE/
TKT: YL
HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
TKT: YL
HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS

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